The Project Gutenberg eBook of The 2003 CIA World Factbook

This ebook is for the use of anyone anywhere in the United States and most other parts of the world at no cost and with almost no restrictions whatsoever. You may copy it, give it away or re-use it under the terms of the Project Gutenberg License included with this ebook or online at www.gutenberg.org. If you are not located in the United States, you will have to check the laws of the country where you are located before using this eBook.

Title: The 2003 CIA World Factbook

Author: United States. Central Intelligence Agency

Release date: December 18, 2008 [eBook #27558]
Most recently updated: January 4, 2021

Language: English

Credits: Produced by Al Haines

*** START OF THE PROJECT GUTENBERG EBOOK THE 2003 CIA WORLD FACTBOOK ***

Produced by Al Haines

THE CIA WORLD FACTBOOK 2003

CONTENTS

Countries and Locations

Field Listings

Rank Orders

Appendixes

Notes and Definitions

History of The World Factbook

Contributors and Copyright Information

Purchasing Information

Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)

=====================================================================

What's New

- Country information has been updated as of 18 December 2003.

- For Rank Order pages and downloadable, tab-delimited rank-order files, a Rank Order page for Highways has been added.

- Entries for Natural Gas - production, Natural Gas - consumption, Natural Gas - exports, and Natural Gas - imports have been added to the Economy category of each country.

The World Factbook 2003 printed version provides a "snapshot" of the world as of 1 January 2003.

=====================================================================

Country Listing

[Transcriber's note: To search on a country name in this file, prefix the name with "@", e.g. "@Afghanistan". "Afghanistan" will find all occurrences; prefixing it with "@" will find the correct location.]

A

Afghanistan
Albania
Algeria
American Samoa
Andorra
Angola
Anguilla
Antarctica
Antigua and Barbuda
Arctic Ocean
Argentina
Armenia
Aruba
Ashmore and Cartier Islands
Atlantic Ocean
Australia
Austria
Azerbaijan

B

Bahamas, The
Bahrain
Baker Island
Bangladesh
Barbados
Bassas da India
Belarus
Belgium
Belize
Benin
Bermuda
Bhutan
Bolivia
Bosnia and Herzegovina
Botswana
Bouvet Island
Brazil
British Indian Ocean Territory
British Virgin Islands
Brunei
Bulgaria
Burkina Faso
Burma
Burundi

C

Cambodia
Cameroon
Canada
Cape Verde
Cayman Islands
Central African Republic
Chad
Chile
China
Christmas Island
Clipperton Island
Cocos (Keeling) Islands
Colombia
Comoros
Congo, Democratic Republic of the
Congo, Republic of the
Cook Islands
Coral Sea Islands
Costa Rica
Cote d'Ivoire
Croatia
Cuba
Cyprus
Czech Republic

D

Denmark
Djibouti
Dominica
Dominican Republic

E

East Timor
Ecuador
Egypt
El Salvador
Equatorial Guinea
Eritrea
Estonia
Ethiopia
Europa Island

F

Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas)
Faroe Islands
Fiji
Finland
France
French Guiana
French Polynesia
French Southern and Antarctic Lands

G

Gabon
Gambia, The
Gaza Strip
Georgia
Germany
Ghana
Gibraltar
Glorioso Islands
Greece
Greenland
Grenada
Guadeloupe
Guam
Guatemala
Guernsey
Guinea
Guinea-Bissau
Guyana

H

Haiti
Heard Island and McDonald Islands
Holy See (Vatican City)
Honduras
Hong Kong
Howland Island
Hungary

I

Iceland
India
Indian Ocean
Indonesia
Iran
Iraq
Ireland
Israel
Italy

J

Jamaica
Jan Mayen
Japan
Jarvis Island
Jersey
Johnston Atoll
Jordan
Juan de Nova Island

K

Kazakhstan
Kenya
Kingman Reef
Kiribati
Korea, North
Korea, South
Kuwait
Kyrgyzstan

L

Laos
Latvia
Lebanon
Lesotho
Liberia
Libya
Liechtenstein
Lithuania
Luxembourg

M

Macau
Macedonia, The Former Yugoslav Republic of
Madagascar
Malawi
Malaysia
Maldives
Mali
Malta
Man, Isle of
Marshall Islands
Martinique
Mauritania
Mauritius
Mayotte
Mexico
Micronesia, Federated States of
Midway Islands
Moldova
Monaco
Mongolia
Montserrat
Morocco
Mozambique

N

Namibia
Nauru
Navassa Island
Nepal
Netherlands
Netherlands Antilles
New Caledonia
New Zealand
Nicaragua
Niger
Nigeria
Niue
Norfolk Island
Northern Mariana Islands
Norway

O

Oman

P

Pacific Ocean
Pakistan
Palau
Palmyra Atoll
Panama
Papua New Guinea
Paracel Islands
Paraguay
Peru
Philippines
Pitcairn Islands
Poland
Portugal
Puerto Rico

Q

Qatar

R

Reunion
Romania
Russia
Rwanda

S

Saint Helena
Saint Kitts and Nevis
Saint Lucia
Saint Pierre and Miquelon
Saint Vincent and the Grenadines
Samoa
San Marino
Sao Tome and Principe
Saudi Arabia
Senegal
Serbia and Montenegro
Seychelles
Sierra Leone
Singapore
Slovakia
Slovenia
Solomon Islands
Somalia
South Africa
South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands
Southern Ocean
Spain
Spratly Islands
Sri Lanka
Sudan
Suriname
Svalbard
Swaziland
Sweden
Switzerland
Syria

T

Taiwan entry follows Zimbabwe
Tajikistan
Tanzania
Thailand
Togo
Tokelau
Tonga
Trinidad and Tobago
Tromelin Island
Tunisia
Turkey
Turkmenistan
Turks and Caicos Islands
Tuvalu

U

Uganda
Ukraine
United Arab Emirates
United Kingdom
United States
Uruguay
Uzbekistan

V

Vanuatu
Venezuela
Vietnam
Virgin Islands

W

Wake Island
Wallis and Futuna
West Bank
Western Sahara
World

Y

Yemen

Z

Zambia
Zimbabwe

Taiwan

=====================================================================

Field Listings

[Transcriber's note: To search on a field code in this file, prefix the code number with "@", e.g. "@2001". "2001" will find all occurrences; prefixing it with "@" will find the correct location.]

Code Field Description

2001 GDP 2002 Population growth rate (%) 2003 GDP - real growth rate (%) 2004 GDP - per capita 2006 Dependency status 2007 Diplomatic representation from the US 2008 Transportation - note 2010 Age structure (%) 2011 Geographic coordinates 2012 GDP - composition by sector (%) 2013 Radio broadcast stations 2015 Television broadcast stations 2018 Sex ratio (male(s)/female) 2019 Heliports 2020 Elevation extremes (m) 2021 Natural hazards 2022 People - note 2023 Area - comparative 2024 Military manpower - military age (years of age) 2025 Military manpower - fit for military service 2026 Military manpower - reaching military age annually 2028 Background 2030 Airports - with paved runways 2031 Airports - with unpaved runways 2032 Environment - current issues 2033 Environment - international agreements 2034 Military expenditures - percent of GDP (%) 2038 Electricity - production (kWh) 2042 Electricity - consumption (kWh) 2043 Electricity - imports (kWh) 2044 Electricity - exports (kWh) 2045 Electricity - production by source (%) 2046 Population below poverty line (%) 2047 Household income or consumption by percentage share (%) 2048 Labor force - by occupation (%) 2049 Exports - commodities 2050 Exports - partners (%) 2051 Administrative divisions 2052 Agriculture - products 2053 Airports 2054 Birth rate (births/1,000 population) 2055 Military branches 2056 Budget 2057 Capital 2058 Imports - commodities 2059 Climate 2060 Coastline (km) 2061 Imports - partners (%) 2062 Economic aid - donor 2063 Constitution 2064 Economic aid - recipient 2065 Currency 2066 Death rate (deaths/1,000 population) 2067 Military expenditures - dollar figure 2068 Dependent areas 2070 Disputes - international 2075 Ethnic groups (%) 2076 Exchange rates 2077 Executive branch 2078 Exports 2079 Debt - external 2080 Fiscal year 2081 Flag description 2085 Highways (km) 2086 Illicit drugs 2087 Imports 2088 Independence 2089 Industrial production growth rate (%) 2090 Industries 2091 Infant mortality rate (deaths/1,000 live births) 2092 Inflation rate (consumer prices) (%) 2093 Waterways (km) 2094 Judicial branch 2095 Labor force 2096 Land boundaries (km) 2097 Land use (%) 2098 Languages (%) 2100 Legal system 2101 Legislative branch 2102 Life expectancy at birth (years) 2103 Literacy (%) 2105 Military manpower - availability 2106 Maritime claims 2107 International organization participation 2108 Merchant marine 2109 National holiday 2110 Nationality 2111 Natural resources 2112 Net migration rate (migrant(s)/1,000 population) 2113 Geography - note 2115 Political pressure groups and leaders 2116 Economy - overview 2117 Pipelines (km) 2118 Political parties and leaders 2119 Population 2120 Ports and harbors 2121 Railways (km) 2122 Religions (%) 2123 Suffrage 2124 Telephone system 2125 Terrain 2127 Total fertility rate (children born/woman) 2128 Government type 2129 Unemployment rate (%) 2137 Military - note 2138 Communications - note 2140 Government - note 2142 Country name 2144 Location 2145 Map references 2146 Irrigated land (sq km) 2147 Area (sq km) 2149 Diplomatic representation in the US 2150 Telephones - main lines in use 2151 Telephones - mobile cellular 2152 Internet Service Providers (ISPs) 2153 Internet users 2154 Internet country code 2155 HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate (%) 2156 HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS 2157 HIV/AIDS - deaths 2158 Currency code 2172 Distribution of family income - Gini index 2173 Oil - production (bbl/day) 2174 Oil - consumption (bbl/day) 2175 Oil - imports (bbl/day) 2176 Oil - exports (bbl/day) 2177 Median age (years) 2178 Oil - proved reserves (bbl) 2179 Natural gas - proved reserves (cu m) 2180 Natural gas - production (cu m) 2181 Natural gas - consumption (cu m) 2182 Natural gas - imports (cu m) 2183 Natural gas - exports (cu m)

======================================================================

Rank Orders

[Transcriber's note: To search on a rank order in this file, prefix the rank's name with "@", e.g. "@Population". "Population" will find all occurrences; prefixing it with "@" will find the correct location.]

Guide to Rank Order Pages

Rank Order pages are presorted lists of data from selected Factbook data fields. Rank Order pages are generally given in descending order - highest to lowest - such as Population and Area. The two exceptions are Unemployment Rate and Inflation Rate, which are in ascending - lowest to highest - order. Rank Order pages are available for the following 34 fields in six of the nine Factbook categories.

Geography

Area - total

People

Population
Birth rate
Death rate
Infant mortality rate
Life expectancy at birth - total
Total fertility rate
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS
HIV/AIDS - deaths

Economy

GDP
GDP - real growth rate
GDP - per capita
Inflation rate (consumer prices)
Labor force
Unemployment rate
Industrial production growth rate
Electricity - production
Electricity - consumption
Oil - production
Oil - consumption
Oil - exports
Oil - imports
Oil - proved reserves
Natural Gas - proved reserves
Exports
Imports
Debt - external

Communications

Telephones - main lines in use
Telephones - mobile cellular
Internet users

Transportation

Railways - total
Highways - total

Military

Military expenditures - dollar figure
Military expenditures - percent of GDP

Factbook fields with Rank Order pages are easily identified with a small bar chart icon to the right of the data field title.

Not all Rank Order pages include the same number of entries because information for a particular field is not available for all countries. In addition, not all data fields are suitable for displaying as Rank Order pages, such as those containing textual information. Textual information is more readily viewed by clicking on the Field Listing icon next to the Data field title. The other icon next to the data field title provides the definition of the field.

All of the ‘Rank Order’ pages can be downloaded as tab-delimited data files and can be opened in other applications such as spreadsheets and databases. To save a Rank Order page in a spreadsheet, first click on the ‘Download Datafile’ choice above the Rank Order page you selected; then, at the top of your browser window, click on 'File' and 'Save As'. After saving the file, open the spreadsheet, find the saved file, and 'Open' it.

Additional Rank Order pages being considered for future updates of the
Factbook Web site include:

Median age
Literacy
Population below the poverty line
Highways
Waterways
Airports

This page was last updated on 21 October, 2003

=====================================================================

Appendixes

Appendix A - Abbreviations

Appendix B - International Organizations and Groups

Appendix C - Selected International Environmental Agreements

Appendix D - Cross-Reference List of Country Data Codes

Appendix E - Cross-Reference List of Hydrographic Data Codes

Appendix F - Cross-Reference List of Geographic Names

======================================================================

Notes and Definitions

In addition to the updated information, The World Factbook printed version features seven new entries. In the People category, an entry has been added for Median age. In the Economy category, entries have been added for Oil - production, Oil - consumption, Oil - exports, Oil - imports, Oil - proved reserves, and Natural gas - proved reserves. The web site version features four additional entries: Natural gas - production, Natural gas - consumption, Natural gas - exports, and Natural gas - imports. Revision of some individual country maps, first introduced in the 2001 edition, is continued in this edition. The revised maps include elevation extremes and a partial geographic grid. Several regional maps have also been updated to reflect boundary changes and place name spelling changes.

Abbreviations This information is included in Appendix A: Abbreviations, which includes all abbreviations and acronyms used in the Factbook, with their expansions.

Acronyms An acronym is an abbreviation coined from the initial letter of each successive word in a term or phrase. In general, an acronym made up solely from the first letter of the major words in the expanded form is rendered in all capital letters (NATO from North Atlantic Treaty Organization; an exception would be ASEAN for Association of Southeast Asian Nations). In general, an acronym made up of more than the first letter of the major words in the expanded form is rendered with only an initial capital letter (Comsat from Communications Satellite Corporation; an exception would be NAM from Nonaligned Movement). Hybrid forms are sometimes used to distinguish between initially identical terms (WTO: WTrO for World Trade Organization and WToO for World Tourism Organization).

Administrative divisions This entry generally gives the numbers, designatory terms, and first- order administrative divisions as approved by the US Board on Geographic Names (BGN). Changes that have been reported but not yet acted on by BGN are noted.

Age structure This entry provides the distribution of the population according to age. Information is included by sex and age group (0-14 years, 15-64 years, 65 years and over). The age structure of a population affects a nation's key socioeconomic issues. Countries with young populations (high percentage under age 15) need to invest more in schools, while countries with older populations (high percentage ages 65 and over) need to invest more in the health sector. The age structure can also be used to help predict potential political issues. For example, the rapid growth of a young adult population unable to find employment can lead to unrest.

Agriculture - products This entry is a rank ordering of major crops and products starting with the most important.

Airports This entry gives the total number of airports. The runway(s) may be paved (concrete or asphalt surfaces) or unpaved (grass, dirt, sand, or gravel surfaces), but must be usable. Not all airports have facilities for refueling, maintenance, or air traffic control.

Airports - with paved runways This entry gives the total number of airports with paved runways (concrete or asphalt surfaces). For airports with more than one runway, only the longest runway is included according to the following five groups - (1) over 3,047 m, (2) 2,438 to 3,047 m, (3) 1,524 to 2,437 m, (4) 914 to 1,523 m, and (5) under 914 m. Only airports with usable runways are included in this listing. Not all airports have facilities for refueling, maintenance, or air traffic control.

Airports - with unpaved runways This entry gives the total number of airports with unpaved runways (grass, dirt, sand, or gravel surfaces) by length. For airports with more than one runway, only the longest runway is included according to the following five groups - (1) over 3,047 m, (2) 2,438 to 3,047 m, (3) 1,524 to 2,437 m, (4) 914 to 1,523 m, and (5) under 914 m. Only airports with usable runways are included in this listing. Not all airports have facilities for refueling, maintenance, or air traffic control

Appendixes
This section includes Factbook-related material by topic.

Area This entry includes three subfields. Total area is the sum of all land and water areas delimited by international boundaries and/or coastlines. Land area is the aggregate of all surfaces delimited by international boundaries and/or coastlines, excluding inland water bodies (lakes, reservoirs, rivers). Water area is the sum of all water surfaces delimited by international boundaries and/or coastlines, including inland water bodies (lakes, reservoirs, rivers).

Area - comparative This entry provides an area comparison based on total area equivalents. Most entities are compared with the entire US or one of the 50 states based on area measurements (1990 revised) provided by the US Bureau of the Census. The smaller entities are compared with Washington, DC (178 sq km, 69 sq mi) or The Mall in Washington, DC (0.59 sq km, 0.23 sq mi, 146 acres).

Background This entry usually highlights major historic events and current issues and may include a statement about one or two key future trends.

Birth rate This entry gives the average annual number of births during a year per 1,000 persons in the population at midyear; also known as crude birth rate. The birth rate is usually the dominant factor in determining the rate of population growth. It depends on both the level of fertility and the age structure of the population.

Budget This entry includes revenues, total expenditures, and capital expenditures. These figures are calculated on an exchange rate basis, i.e., not in purchasing power parity (PPP) terms

Capital
This entry gives the location of the seat of government.

Climate This entry includes a brief description of typical weather regimes throughout the year.

Coastline This entry gives the total length of the boundary between the land area (including islands) and the sea.

Communications This category deals with the means of exchanging information and includes the telephone, radio, television, and Internet service provider entries.

Communications - note This entry includes miscellaneous communications information of significance not included elsewhere.

Constitution This entry includes the dates of adoption, revisions, and major amendments.

Country data codes see Data codes

Country map Most versions of the Factbook provide a country map in color. The maps were produced from the best information available at the time of preparation. Names and/or boundaries may have changed subsequently.

Country name This entry includes all forms of the country's name approved by the US Board on Geographic Names (Italy is used as an example): conventional long form (Italian Republic), conventional short form (Italy), local long form (Repubblica Italiana), local short form (Italia), former (Kingdom of Italy), as well as the abbreviation. Also see the Terminology note.

Currency This entry identifies the national medium of exchange and its basic subunit.

Crude oil
See "Oil" entries

Currency code
This entry gives the International Organization for Standardization
(ISO) 4217 alphabetic currency code for each country.

Data codes This information is presented in Appendix D: Cross-Reference List of Country Data Codes and Appendix E: Cross-Reference List of Hydrographic Data Codes. This appendix includes the US Government approved Federal Information Processing Standards (FIPS) codes, the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) codes, and Internet codes for land entities. The appendix also includes the International Hydrographic Organization (IHO) codes, Aeronautical Chart and Information Center (ACIC; now a part of the National Imagery and Mapping Agency or NIMA) codes, and Defense Intelligence Agency (DIA) codes for hydrographic entities. The US Government has not yet approved a standard for hydrographic data codes similar to the FIPS 10-4 standard for country data codes.

Date of information In general, information available as of 1 January 2003 was used in the preparation of this edition.

Death rate This entry gives the average annual number of deaths during a year per 1,000 population at midyear; also known as crude death rate. The death rate, while only a rough indicator of the mortality situation in a country, accurately indicates the current mortality impact on population growth. This indicator is significantly affected by age distribution, and most countries will eventually show a rise in the overall death rate, in spite of continued decline in mortality at all ages, as declining fertility results in an aging population.

Debt - external This entry gives the total public and private debt owed to nonresidents repayable in foreign currency, goods, or services.

Dependency status This entry describes the formal relationship between a particular nonindependent entity and an independent state.

Dependent areas This entry contains an alphabetical listing of all nonindependent entities associated in some way with a particular independent state.

Diplomatic representation The US Government has diplomatic relations with 185 independent states, including 183 of the 189 UN members (excluded UN members are Bhutan, Cuba, Iran, Iraq, North Korea, and the US itself). In addition, the US has diplomatic relations with 1 independent state that is not in the UN - Holy See.

Diplomatic representation in the US This entry includes the chief of mission, chancery, telephone, FAX, consulate general locations, and consulate locations.

Diplomatic representation from the US This entry includes the chief of mission, embassy address, mailing address, telephone number, FAX number, branch office locations, consulate general locations, and consulate locations.

Disputes - international This entry includes a wide variety of situations that range from traditional bilateral boundary disputes to unilateral claims of one sort or another. Information regarding disputes over international terrestrial and maritime boundaries has been reviewed by the US Department of State. References to other situations involving borders or frontiers may also be included, such as resource disputes, geopolitical questions, or irredentist issues; however, inclusion does not necessarily constitute official acceptance or recognition by the US Government.

Distribution of family income - Gini index This index measures the degree of inequality in the distribution of family income in a country. The index is calculated from the Lorenz curve, in which cumulative family income is plotted against the number of families arranged from the poorest to the richest. The index is the ratio of (a) the area between a country's Lorenz curve and the 45 degree helping line to (b) the entire triangular area under the 45 degree line. The more nearly equal a country's income distribution, the closer its Lorenz curve to the 45-degree line and the lower its Gini index, e.g., a Scandinavian country with an index of 25. The more unequal a country's income distribution, the farther its Lorenz curve from the 45-degree line and the higher its Gini index, e.g., a Sub- Saharan country with an index of 50. If income were distributed with perfect equality, the Lorenz curve would coincide with the 45 degree line and the index would be zero; if income were distributed with perfect inequality, the Lorenz curve would coincide with the horizontal axis and the right vertical axis and the index would be 100.

Economic aid - donor This entry refers to net official development assistance (ODA) from Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) nations to developing countries and multilateral organizations. ODA is defined as financial assistance that is concessional in character, has the main objective to promote economic development and welfare of the less developed countries (LDCs), and contains a grant element of at least 25%. The entry does not cover other official flows (OOF) or private flows.

Economic aid - recipient This entry, which is subject to major problems of definition and statistical coverage, refers to the net inflow of Official Development Finance (ODF) to recipient countries. The figure includes assistance from the World Bank, the IMF, and other international organizations and from individual nation donors. Formal commitments of aid are included in the data. Omitted from the data are grants by private organizations. Aid comes in various forms including outright grants and loans. The entry thus is the difference between new inflows and repayments.

Economy This category includes the entries dealing with the size, development, and management of productive resources, i.e., land, labor, and capital.

Economy - overview This entry briefly describes the type of economy, including the degree of market orientation, the level of economic development, the most important natural resources, and the unique areas of specialization. It also characterizes major economic events and policy changes in the most recent 12 months and may include a statement about one or two key future macroeconomic trends.

Electricity - consumption This entry consists of total electricity generated annually plus imports and minus exports, expressed in kilowatt-hours. The discrepancy between the amount of electricity generated and/or imported and the amount consumed and/or exported is accounted for as loss in transmission and distribution.

Electricity - exports
This entry is the total exported electricity in kilowatt-hours.

Electricity - imports
This entry is the total imported electricity in kilowatt-hours.

Electricity - production This entry is the annual electricity generated expressed in kilowatt- hours. The discrepancy between the amount of electricity generated and/or imported and the amount consumed and/or exported is accounted for as loss in transmission and distribution.

Electricity - production by source This entry states the percentage share of electricity generated from each energy source. These are fossil fuel, hydro, nuclear, and other (solar, geothermal, and wind).

Elevation extremes
This entry includes both the highest point and the lowest point.

Entities Some of the independent states, dependencies, areas of special sovereignty, and governments included in this publication are not independent, and others are not officially recognized by the US Government. "Independent state" refers to a people politically organized into a sovereign state with a definite territory. "Dependencies" and "areas of special sovereignty" refer to a broad category of political entities that are associated in some way with an independent state. "Country" names used in the table of contents or for page headings are usually the short-form names as approved by the US Board on Geographic Names and may include independent states, dependencies, and areas of special sovereignty, or other geographic entities. There are a total of 268 separate geographic entities in The World Factbook that may be categorized as follows:

INDEPENDENT STATES
   192 Afghanistan, Albania, Algeria, Andorra, Angola, Antigua and
Barbuda, Argentina, Armenia, Australia, Austria, Azerbaijan, The
Bahamas, Bahrain, Bangladesh, Barbados, Belarus, Belgium, Belize,
Benin, Bhutan, Bolivia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Botswana, Brazil,
Brunei, Bulgaria, Burkina Faso, Burma, Burundi, Cambodia, Cameroon,
Canada, Cape Verde, Central African Republic, Chad, Chile, China,
Colombia, Comoros, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Republic of the
Congo, Costa Rica, Cote d'Ivoire, Croatia, Cuba, Cyprus, Czech
Republic, Denmark, Djibouti, Dominica, Dominican Republic, East Timor,
Ecuador, Egypt, El Salvador, Equatorial Guinea, Eritrea, Estonia,
Ethiopia, Fiji, Finland, France, Gabon, The Gambia, Georgia, Germany,
Ghana, Greece, Grenada, Guatemala, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Guyana,
Haiti, Holy See, Honduras, Hungary, Iceland, India, Indonesia, Iran,
Iraq, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Jamaica, Japan, Jordan, Kazakhstan,
Kenya, Kiribati, North Korea, South Korea, Kuwait, Kyrgyzstan, Laos,
Latvia, Lebanon, Lesotho, Liberia, Libya, Liechtenstein, Lithuania,
Luxembourg, The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Madagascar,
Malawi, Malaysia, Maldives, Mali, Malta, Marshall Islands, Mauritania,
Mauritius, Mexico, Federated States of Micronesia, Moldova, Monaco,
Mongolia, Morocco, Mozambique, Namibia, Nauru, Nepal, Netherlands, NZ,
Nicaragua, Niger, Nigeria, Norway, Oman, Pakistan, Palau, Panama, Papua
New Guinea, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Poland, Portugal, Qatar,
Romania, Russia, Rwanda, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint
Vincent and the Grenadines, Samoa, San Marino, Sao Tome and Principe,
Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Singapore, Slovakia,
Slovenia, Solomon Islands, Somalia, South Africa, Spain, Sri Lanka,
Sudan, Suriname, Swaziland, Sweden, Switzerland, Syria, Tajikistan,
Tanzania, Thailand, Togo, Tonga, Trinidad and Tobago, Tunisia, Turkey,
Turkmenistan, Tuvalu, Uganda, Ukraine, UAE, UK, US, Uruguay,
Uzbekistan, Vanuatu, Venezuela, Vietnam, Yemen, Yugoslavia, Zambia,
Zimbabwe

OTHER
     1 Taiwan

DEPENDENCIES AND AREAS OF SPECIAL SOVEREIGNTY 6 Australia - Ashmore and Cartier Islands, Christmas Island, Cocos (Keeling) Islands, Coral Sea Islands, Heard Island and McDonald Islands, Norfolk Island 2 China - Hong Kong, Macau 2 Denmark - Faroe Islands, Greenland 16 France - Bassas da India, Clipperton Island, Europa Island, French Guiana, French Polynesia, French Southern and Antarctic Lands, Glorioso Islands, Guadeloupe, Juan de Nova Island, Martinique, Mayotte, New Caledonia, Reunion, Saint Pierre and Miquelon, Tromelin Island, Wallis and Futuna 2 Netherlands - Aruba, Netherlands Antilles 3 New Zealand - Cook Islands, Niue, Tokelau 3 Norway - Bouvet Island, Jan Mayen, Svalbard 15 UK - Anguilla, Bermuda, British Indian Ocean Territory, British Virgin Islands, Cayman Islands, Falkland Islands, Gibraltar, Guernsey, Jersey, Isle of Man, Montserrat, Pitcairn Islands, Saint Helena, South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands, Turks and Caicos Islands 14 US - American Samoa, Baker Island, Guam, Howland Island, Jarvis Island, Johnston Atoll, Kingman Reef, Midway Islands, Navassa Island, Northern Mariana Islands, Palmyra Atoll, Puerto Rico, Virgin Islands, Wake Island

MISCELLANEOUS 6 Antarctica, Gaza Strip, Paracel Islands, Spratly Islands, West Bank, Western Sahara

OTHER ENTITIES
     5 oceans - Arctic Ocean, Atlantic Ocean, Indian Ocean, Pacific
Ocean, Southern Ocean
     1 World
   268 total

Environment - current issues This entry lists the most pressing and important environmental problems. The following terms and abbreviations are used throughout the entry: acidification - the lowering of soil and water pH due to acid precipitation and deposition usually through precipitation; this process disrupts ecosystem nutrient flows and may kill freshwater fish and plants dependent on more neutral or alkaline conditions (see acid rain). acid rain - characterized as containing harmful levels of sulfur dioxide or nitrogen oxide; acid rain is damaging and potentially deadly to the earth's fragile ecosystems; acidity is measured using the pH scale where 7 is neutral, values greater than 7 are considered alkaline, and values below 5.6 are considered acid precipitation; note - a pH of 2.4 (the acidity of vinegar) has been measured in rainfall in New England. aerosol - a collection of airborne particles dispersed in a gas, smoke, or fog. afforestation - converting a bare or agricultural space by planting trees and plants; reforestation involves replanting trees on areas that have been cut or destroyed by fire. asbestos - a naturally occurring soft fibrous mineral commonly used in fireproofing materials and considered to be highly carcinogenic in particulate form. biodiversity - also biological diversity; the relative number of species, diverse in form and function, at the genetic, organism, community, and ecosystem level; loss of biodiversity reduces an ecosystem's ability to recover from natural or man-induced disruption. bio-indicators - a plant or animal species whose presence, abundance, and health reveal the general condition of its habitat. biomass - the total weight or volume of living matter in a given area or volume. carbon cycle - the term used to describe the exchange of carbon (in various forms, e.g., as carbon dioxide) between the atmosphere, ocean, terrestrial biosphere, and geological deposits. catchments - assemblages used to capture and retain rainwater and runoff; an important water management technique in areas with limited freshwater resources, such as Gibraltar. DDT (dichloro-diphenyl-trichloro-ethane) - a colorless, odorless insecticide that has toxic effects on most animals; the use of DDT was banned in the US in 1972. defoliants - chemicals which cause plants to lose their leaves artificially; often used in agricultural practices for weed control, and may have detrimental impacts on human and ecosystem health. deforestation - the destruction of vast areas of forest (e.g., unsustainable forestry practices, agricultural and range land clearing, and the over exploitation of wood products for use as fuel) without planting new growth. desertification - the spread of desert-like conditions in arid or semi-arid areas, due to overgrazing, loss of agriculturally productive soils, or climate change. dredging - the practice of deepening an existing waterway; also, a technique used for collecting bottom-dwelling marine organisms (e.g., shellfish) or harvesting coral, often causing significant destruction of reef and ocean-floor ecosystems. drift-net fishing - done with a net, miles in extent, that is generally anchored to a boat and left to float with the tide; often results in an over harvesting and waste of large populations of non- commercial marine species (by-catch) by its effect of "sweeping the ocean clean". ecosystems - ecological units comprised of complex communities of organisms and their specific environments. effluents - waste materials, such as smoke, sewage, or industrial waste, which are released into the environment, subsequently polluting it. endangered species - a species that is threatened with extinction either by direct hunting or habitat destruction. freshwater - water with very low soluble mineral content; sources include lakes, streams, rivers, glaciers, and underground aquifers. greenhouse gas - a gas that "traps" infrared radiation in the lower atmosphere causing surface warming; water vapor, carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide, methane, hydrofluorocarbons, and ozone are the primary greenhouse gases in the Earth's atmosphere. groundwater - water sources found below the surface of the earth often in naturally occurring reservoirs in permeable rock strata; the source for wells and natural springs. Highlands Water Project - a series of dams constructed jointly by Lesotho and South Africa to redirect Lesotho's abundant water supply into a rapidly growing area in South Africa; while it is the largest infrastructure project in southern Africa, it is also the most costly and controversial; objections to the project include claims that it forces people from their homes, submerges farmlands, and squanders economic resources. Inuit Circumpolar Conference (ICC) - represents the 125,000 Inuits of Russia, Alaska, Canada, and Greenland in international environmental issues; a panel convenes every three years to determine the focus of the ICC; the most current concerns are long-range transport of pollutants, sustainable development, and climate change. metallurgical plants - industries which specialize in the science, technology, and processing of metals; these plants produce highly concentrated and toxic wastes which can contribute to pollution of ground water and air when not properly disposed. noxious substances - injurious, very harmful to living beings. overgrazing - the grazing of animals on plant material faster than it can naturally regrow leading to the permanent loss of plant cover, a common effect of too many animals grazing limited range land. ozone shield - a layer of the atmosphere composed of ozone gas (O3) that resides approximately 25 miles above the Earth's surface and absorbs solar ultraviolet radiation that can be harmful to living organisms. poaching - the illegal killing of animals or fish, a great concern with respect to endangered or threatened species. pollution - the contamination of a healthy environment by man-made waste. potable water - water that is drinkable, safe to be consumed. salination - the process through which fresh (drinkable) water becomes salt (undrinkable) water; hence, desalination is the reverse process; also involves the accumulation of salts in topsoil caused by evaporation of excessive irrigation water, a process that can eventually render soil incapable of supporting crops. siltation - occurs when water channels and reservoirs become clotted with silt and mud, a side effect of deforestation and soil erosion. slash-and-burn agriculture - a rotating cultivation technique in which trees are cut down and burned in order to clear land for temporary agriculture; the land is used until its productivity declines at which point a new plot is selected and the process repeats; this practice is sustainable while population levels are low and time is permitted for regrowth of natural vegetation; conversely, where these conditions do not exist, the practice can have disastrous consequences for the environment . soil degradation - damage to the land's productive capacity because of poor agricultural practices such as the excessive use of pesticides or fertilizers, soil compaction from heavy equipment, or erosion of topsoil, eventually resulting in reduced ability to produce agricultural products. soil erosion - the removal of soil by the action of water or wind, compounded by poor agricultural practices, deforestation, overgrazing, and desertification. ultraviolet (UV) radiation - a portion of the electromagnetic energy emitted by the sun and naturally filtered in the upper atmosphere by the ozone layer; UV radiation can be harmful to living organisms and has been linked to increasing rates of skin cancer in humans. water-born diseases - those in which the bacteria survive in, and is transmitted through, water; always a serious threat in areas with an untreated water supply.

Environment - international agreements This entry separates country participation in international environmental agreements into two levels - party to and signed but not ratified. Agreements are listed in alphabetical order by the abbreviated form of the full name.

Environmental agreements This information is presented in Appendix C: Selected International Environmental Agreements, which includes the name, abbreviation, date opened for signature, date entered into force, objective, and parties by category.

Ethnic groups This entry provides a rank ordering of ethnic groups starting with the largest and normally includes the percent of total population.

Exchange rates This entry provides the official value of a country's monetary unit at a given date or over a given period of time, as expressed in units of local currency per US dollar and as determined by international market forces or official fiat.

Executive branch This entry includes several subfields. Chief of state includes the name and title of the titular leader of the country who represents the state at official and ceremonial functions but may not be involved with the day-to-day activities of the government. Head of government includes the name and title of the top administrative leader who is designated to manage the day-to-day activities of the government. For example, in the UK, the monarch is the chief of state, and the prime minister is the head of government. In the US, the president is both the chief of state and the head of government. Cabinet includes the official name for this body of high-ranking advisers and the method for selection of members. Elections includes the nature of election process or accession to power, date of the last election, and date of the next election. Election results includes the percent of vote for each candidate in the last election.

Exports This entry provides the total US dollar amount of exports on an f.o.b. (free on board) basis.

Exports - commodities This entry provides a rank ordering of exported products starting with the most important; it sometimes includes the percent of total dollar value.

Exports - partners This entry provides a rank ordering of trading partners starting with the most important; it sometimes includes the percent of total dollar value.

Fiscal year This entry identifies the beginning and ending months for a country's accounting period of 12 months, which often is the calendar year but which may begin in any month. All yearly references are for the calendar year (CY) unless indicated as a noncalendar fiscal year (FY).

Flag description This entry provides a written flag description produced from actual flags or the best information available at the time the entry was written. The flags of independent states are used by their dependencies unless there is an officially recognized local flag. Some disputed and other areas do not have flags.

Flag graphic Most versions of the Factbook include a color flag at the beginning of the country profile. The flag graphics were produced from actual flags or the best information available at the time of preparation. The flags of independent states are used by their dependencies unless there is an officially recognized local flag. Some disputed and other areas do not have flags.

GDP This entry gives the gross domestic product (GDP) or value of all final goods and services produced within a nation in a given year. GDP dollar estimates in the Factbook are derived from purchasing power parity (PPP) calculations. See the note on GDP methodology for more information.

GDP methodology In the Economy section, GDP dollar estimates for all countries are derived from purchasing power parity (PPP) calculations rather than from conversions at official currency exchange rates. The PPP method involves the use of standardized international dollar price weights, which are applied to the quantities of final goods and services produced in a given economy. The data derived from the PPP method provide the best available starting point for comparisons of economic strength and well-being between countries. The division of a GDP estimate in domestic currency by the corresponding PPP estimate in dollars gives the PPP conversion rate. Whereas PPP estimates for OECD countries are quite reliable, PPP estimates for developing countries are often rough approximations. Most of the GDP estimates are based on extrapolation of PPP numbers published by the UN International Comparison Program (UNICP) and by Professors Robert Summers and Alan Heston of the University of Pennsylvania and their colleagues. In contrast, the currency exchange rate method involves a variety of international and domestic financial forces that often have little relation to domestic output. In developing countries with weak currencies the exchange rate estimate of GDP in dollars is typically one-fourth to one-half the PPP estimate. Furthermore, exchange rates may suddenly go up or down by 10% or more because of market forces or official fiat whereas real output has remained unchanged. On 12 January 1994, for example, the 14 countries of the African Financial Community (whose currencies are tied to the French franc) devalued their currencies by 50%. This move, of course, did not cut the real output of these countries by half. One important caution: the proportion of, say, defense expenditures as a percentage of GDP in local currency accounts may differ substantially from the proportion when GDP accounts are expressed in PPP terms, as, for example, when an observer tries to estimate the dollar level of Russian or Japanese military expenditures. Note: the numbers for GDP and other economic data can not be chained together from successive volumes of the Factbook because of changes in the US dollar measuring rod, revisions of data by statistical agencies, use of new or different sources of information, and changes in national statistical methods and practices.

GDP - composition by sector This entry gives the percentage contribution of agriculture, industry, and services to total GDP.

GDP - per capita This entry shows GDP on a purchasing power parity basis divided by population as of 1 July for the same year.

GDP - real growth rate This entry gives GDP growth on an annual basis adjusted for inflation and expressed as a percent.

Geographic coordinates This entry includes rounded latitude and longitude figures for the purpose of finding the approximate geographic center of an entity and is based on the Gazetteer of Conventional Names, Third Edition, August 1988, US Board on Geographic Names and on other sources.

Geographic names This information is presented in Appendix F: Cross-Reference List of Geographic Names. It includes a listing of various alternate names, former names, local names, and regional names referenced to one or more related Factbook entries. Spellings are normally, but not always, those approved by the US Board on Geographic Names (BGN). Alternate names and additional information are included in parentheses.

Geography This category includes the entries dealing with the natural environment and the effects of human activity.

Geography - note This entry includes miscellaneous geographic information of significance not included elsewhere.

GNP Gross national product (GNP) is the value of all final goods and services produced within a nation in a given year, plus income earned by its citizens abroad, minus income earned by foreigners from domestic production. The Factbook, following current practice, uses GDP rather than GNP to measure national production. However, the user must realize that in certain countries net remittances from citizens working abroad may be important to national well-being.

Government This category includes the entries dealing with the system for the adoption and administration of public policy.

Government type This entry gives the basic form of government (e.g., republic, constitutional monarchy, federal republic, parliamentary democracy, military dictatorship).

Government - note This entry includes miscellaneous government information of significance not included elsewhere.

Gross domestic product see GDP

Gross national product see GNP

Gross world product see GWP

GWP This entry gives the gross world product (GWP) or aggregate value of all final goods and services produced worldwide in a given year.

Heliports This entry gives the total number of established helicopter takeoff and landing sites (which may or may not have fuel or other services).

Highways This entry states the total length of the highway system and the length of the paved and unpaved parts.

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate This entry gives an estimate of the percentage of adults (aged 15-49) living with HIV/AIDS. The adult prevalence rate is calculated by dividing the estimated number of adults living with HIV/AIDS at yearend by the total adult population at yearend.

HIV/AIDS - deaths This entry gives an estimate of the number of adults and children who died of AIDS during a given calendar year.

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS This entry gives an estimate of all people (adults and children) alive at yearend with HIV infection, whether or not they have developed symptoms of AIDS.

Household income or consumption by percentage share Data on household income or consumption come from household surveys, the results adjusted for household size. Nations use different standards and procedures in collecting and adjusting the data. Surveys based on income will normally show a more unequal distribution than surveys based on consumption. The quality of surveys is improving with time, yet caution is still necessary in making inter-country comparisons.

Hydrographic data codes see Data codes

Illicit drugs This entry gives information on the five categories of illicit drugs - narcotics, stimulants, depressants (sedatives), hallucinogens, and cannabis. These categories include many drugs legally produced and prescribed by doctors as well as those illegally produced and sold outside of medical channels. Cannabis (Cannabis sativa) is the common hemp plant, which provides hallucinogens with some sedative properties, and includes marijuana (pot, Acapulco gold, grass, reefer), tetrahydrocannabinol (THC, Marinol), hashish (hash), and hashish oil (hash oil). Coca (mostly Erythroxylum coca) is a bush with leaves that contain the stimulant used to make cocaine. Coca is not to be confused with cocoa, which comes from cacao seeds and is used in making chocolate, cocoa, and cocoa butter. Cocaine is a stimulant derived from the leaves of the coca bush. Depressants (sedatives) are drugs that reduce tension and anxiety and include chloral hydrate, barbiturates (Amytal, Nembutal, Seconal, phenobarbital), benzodiazepines (Librium, Valium), methaqualone (Quaalude), glutethimide (Doriden), and others (Equanil, Placidyl, Valmid). Drugs are any chemical substances that effect a physical, mental, emotional, or behavioral change in an individual. Drug abuse is the use of any licit or illicit chemical substance that results in physical, mental, emotional, or behavioral impairment in an individual. Hallucinogens are drugs that affect sensation, thinking, self- awareness, and emotion. Hallucinogens include LSD (acid, microdot), mescaline and peyote (mexc, buttons, cactus), amphetamine variants (PMA, STP, DOB), phencyclidine (PCP, angel dust, hog), phencyclidine analogues (PCE, PCPy, TCP), and others (psilocybin, psilocyn). Hashish is the resinous exudate of the cannabis or hemp plant (Cannabis sativa). Heroin is a semisynthetic derivative of morphine. Mandrax is a trade name for methaqualone, a pharmaceutical depressant. Marijuana is the dried leaf of the cannabis or hemp plant (Cannabis sativa). Methaqualone is a pharmaceutical depressant, referred to as mandrax in Southwest Asia and Africa. Narcotics are drugs that relieve pain, often induce sleep, and refer to opium, opium derivatives, and synthetic substitutes. Natural narcotics include opium (paregoric, parepectolin), morphine (MS-Contin, Roxanol), codeine (Tylenol with codeine, Empirin with codeine, Robitussan AC), and thebaine. Semisynthetic narcotics include heroin (horse, smack), and hydromorphone (Dilaudid). Synthetic narcotics include meperidine or Pethidine (Demerol, Mepergan), methadone (Dolophine, Methadose), and others (Darvon, Lomotil). Opium is the brown, gummy exudate of the incised, unripe seedpod of the opium poppy. Opium poppy (Papaver somniferum) is the source for the natural and semisynthetic narcotics. Poppy straw concentrate is the alkaloid derived from the mature, dried opium poppy. Qat (kat, khat) is a stimulant from the buds or leaves of Catha edulis that is chewed or drunk as tea. Quaaludes is the North American slang term for methaqualone, a pharmaceutical depressant. Stimulants are drugs that relieve mild depression, increase energy and activity, and include cocaine (coke, snow, crack), amphetamines (Desoxyn, Dexedrine), ephedrine, ecstasy (clarity, essence, doctor, Adam), phenmetrazine (Preludin), methylphenidate (Ritalin), and others (Cylert, Sanorex, Tenuate).

Imports This entry provides the total US dollar amount of imports on a c.i.f. (cost, insurance, and freight) or f.o.b. (free on board) basis.

Imports - commodities This entry provides a rank ordering of imported products starting with the most important; it sometimes includes the percent of total dollar value.

Imports - partners This entry provides a rank ordering of trading partners starting with the most important; it sometimes includes the percent of total dollar value.

Independence For most countries, this entry gives the date that sovereignty was achieved and from which nation, empire, or trusteeship. For the other countries, the date given may not represent "independence" in the strict sense, but rather some significant nationhood event such as the traditional founding date or the date of unification, federation, confederation, establishment, fundamental change in the form of government, or state succession. Dependent areas include the notation "none" followed by the nature of their dependency status. Also see the Terminology note.

Industrial production growth rate This entry gives the annual percentage increase in industrial production (includes manufacturing, mining, and construction).

Industries This entry provides a rank ordering of industries starting with the largest by value of annual output.

Infant mortality rate This entry gives the number of deaths of infants under one year old in a given year per 1,000 live births in the same year. This rate is often used as an indicator of the level of health in a country.

Inflation rate (consumer prices) This entry furnishes the annual percent change in consumer prices compared with the previous year's consumer prices.

Internet country code
This entry includes the two-letter codes maintained by the
International Organization for Standardization (ISO) in the ISO 3166
Alpha-2 list and used by the Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA)
to establish country-coded top-level domains (ccTLDs).

Internet Service Providers (ISPs)
This entry supplies the number of Internet Service Providers within a
country. An ISP is defined as a company that provides access to the
Internet.

Internet users This entry gives the number of users within a country that access the Internet. Statistics vary from country to country and may include users who access the Internet at least several times a week to those who access it only once within a period of several months.

International disputes see Disputes - international

International organization participation This entry lists in alphabetical order by abbreviation those international organizations in which the subject country is a member or participates in some other way.

International organizations
This information is presented in Appendix B: International
Organizations and Groups which includes the name, abbreviation, date
established, aim, and members by category.

Introduction
This category includes one entry, Background.

Irrigated land This entry gives the number of square kilometers of land area that is artificially supplied with water.

Judicial branch This entry contains the name(s) of the highest court(s) and a brief description of the selection process for members.

Labor force
This entry contains the total labor force figure.

Labor force - by occupation This entry contains a rank ordering of component parts of the labor force by occupation.

Land boundaries This entry contains the total length of all land boundaries and the individual lengths for each of the contiguous border countries.

Land use This entry contains the percentage shares of total land area for three different types of land use: arable land - land cultivated for crops that are replanted after each harvest like wheat, maize, and rice; permanent crops - land cultivated for crops that are not replanted after each harvest like citrus, coffee, and rubber; includes land under flowering shrubs, fruit trees, nut trees, and vines, but excludes land under trees grown for wood or timber; other - any land not arable or under permanent crops; includes permanent meadows and pastures, forests and woodlands, built-on areas, roads, barren land, etc.

Languages This entry provides a rank ordering of languages starting with the largest and sometimes includes the percent of total population speaking that language.

Legal system
This entry contains a brief description of the legal system's
historical roots, role in government, and acceptance of International
Court of Justice (ICJ) jurisdiction.

Legislative branch This entry contains information on the structure (unicameral, bicameral, tricameral), formal name, number of seats, and term of office. Elections includes the nature of election process or accession to power, date of the last election, and date of the next election. Election results includes the percent of vote and/or number of seats held by each party in the last election.

Life expectancy at birth This entry contains the average number of years to be lived by a group of people born in the same year, if mortality at each age remains constant in the future. The entry includes total population as well as the male and female components. Life expectancy at birth is also a measure of overall quality of life in a country and summarizes the mortality at all ages. It can also be thought of as indicating the potential return on investment in human capital and is necessary for the calculation of various actuarial measures.

Literacy This entry includes a definition of literacy and Census Bureau percentages for the total population, males, and females. There are no universal definitions and standards of literacy. Unless otherwise specified, all rates are based on the most common definition - the ability to read and write at a specified age. Detailing the standards that individual countries use to assess the ability to read and write is beyond the scope of the Factbook. Information on literacy, while not a perfect measure of educational results, is probably the most easily available and valid for international comparisons. Low levels of literacy, and education in general, can impede the economic development of a country in the current rapidly changing, technology-driven world.

Location This entry identifies the country's regional location, neighboring countries, and adjacent bodies of water.

Map references This entry includes the name of the Factbook reference map on which a country may be found. The entry on Geographic coordinates may be helpful in finding some smaller countries.

Maritime claims This entry includes the following claims, the definitions of which are excerpted from the Law of the Sea (LOS) Convention, which alone contains the full and definitive descriptions: contiguous zone - according to the LOS Convention (Article 33), this is a zone contiguous to a coastal State's territorial sea, over which it may exercise the control necessary to: prevent infringement of its customs, fiscal, immigration, or sanitary laws and regulations within its territory or territorial sea; punish infringement of the above laws and regulations committed within its territory or territorial sea; the contiguous zone may not extend beyond 24 nautical miles from the baselines from which the breadth of the territorial sea is measured (e.g. the US has claimed a 12-mile contiguous zone in addition to its 12-mile territorial sea) continental shelf - the LOS Convention (Article 76) defines the continental shelf of a coastal State as comprising the seabed and subsoil of the submarine areas that extend beyond its territorial sea throughout the natural prolongation of its land territory to the outer edge of the continental margin, or to a distance of 200 nautical miles from the baselines from which the breadth of the territorial sea is measured where the outer edge of the continental margin does not extend up to that distance; the continental margin comprises the submerged prolongation of the landmass of the coastal State, and consists of the seabed and subsoil of the shelf, the slope and the rise; it does not include the deep ocean floor with its oceanic ridges or the subsoil thereof exclusive economic zone (EEZ) - the LOS Convention (Part V) defines the EEZ as a zone beyond and adjacent to the territorial sea in which a coastal State has: sovereign rights for the purpose of exploring and exploiting, conserving and managing the natural resources, whether living or non-living, of the waters superjacent to the seabed and of the seabed and its subsoil, and with regard to other activities for the economic exploitation and exploration of the zone, such as the production of energy from the water, currents, and winds; jurisdiction with regard to the establishment and use of artificial islands, installations, and structures; marine scientific research; the protection and preservation of the marine environment; the outer limit of the exclusive economic zone shall not exceed 200 nautical miles from the baselines from which the breadth of the territorial sea is measured exclusive fishing zone - while this term is not used in the LOS Convention, some States (e.g. the United Kingdom) have chosen not to claim an EEZ, but rather to claim jurisdiction over the living resources off their coast; in such cases, the term exclusive fishing zone is often used territorial sea - the sovereignty of a coastal State extends beyond its land territory and internal waters to an adjacent belt of sea, described as the territorial sea in the LOS Convention (Part II); this sovereignty extends to the air space over the territorial sea as well as its underlying seabed and subsoil; every State has the right to establish the breadth of its territorial sea up to a limit not exceeding 12 nautical miles

Median Age This entry is the age that divides a population into two numerically equal groups; that is, half the people are younger than this age and half are older. It is a single index that summarizes the age distribution of a population. Currently, the median age ranges from a low of about 15 in Uganda and Gaza Strip to 40 or more in several European countries and Japan. See the entry for "Age structure" for the importance of a younger versus an older age structure and, by implication, a lower versus a higher median age.

Merchant marine Merchant marine may be defined as all ships engaged in the carriage of goods; or all commercial vessels (as opposed to all nonmilitary ships), which excludes tugs, fishing vessels, offshore oil rigs, etc.; or a grouping of merchant ships by nationality or register. This entry contains information in two subfields - total and ships by type. Total includes the total number of ships (1,000 GRT or over), total DWT for those ships, and total GRT for those ships. DWT or dead weight tonnage is the total weight of cargo, plus bunkers, stores, etc. that a ship can carry when immersed to the appropriate load line. GRT or gross register tonnage is a figure obtained by measuring the entire sheltered volume of the ship available for cargo and passengers and converting it to tons on the basis of 100 cubic feet per ton; there is no stable relationship between GRT and DWT. Ships by type includes a listing of barge carriers, bulk cargo ships, cargo ships, chemical tankers, combination bulk carriers, combination ore/oil carriers, container ships, liquefied gas tankers, livestock carriers, multifunctional large-load carriers, petroleum tankers, passenger ships, passenger/cargo ships, railcar carriers, refrigerated cargo ships, roll-on/roll-off cargo ships, short-sea passenger ships, specialized tankers, and vehicle carriers. A captive register is a register of ships maintained by a territory, possession, or colony primarily or exclusively for the use of ships owned in the parent country; it is also referred to as an offshore register, the offshore equivalent of an internal register. Ships on a captive register will fly the same flag as the parent country, or a local variant of it, but will be subject to the maritime laws and taxation rules of the offshore territory. Although the nature of a captive register makes it especially desirable for ships owned in the parent country, just as in the internal register, the ships may also be owned abroad. The captive register then acts as a flag of convenience register, except that it is not the register of an independent state. A flag of convenience register is a national register offering registration to a merchant ship not owned in the flag state. The major flags of convenience (FOC) attract ships to their registers by virtue of low fees, low or nonexistent taxation of profits, and liberal manning requirements. True FOC registers are characterized by having relatively few of the registered ships actually owned in the flag state. Thus, while virtually any flag can be used for ships under a given set of circumstances, an FOC register is one where the majority of the merchant fleet is owned abroad. It is also referred to as an open register. A flag state is the nation in which a ship is registered and which holds legal jurisdiction over operation of the ship, whether at home or abroad. Maritime legislation of the flag state determines how a ship is crewed and taxed and whether a foreign-owned ship may be placed on the register. An internal register is a register of ships maintained as a subset of a national register. Ships on the internal register fly the national flag and have that nationality but are subject to a separate set of maritime rules from those on the main national register. These differences usually include lower taxation of profits, use of foreign nationals as crewmembers, and, usually, ownership outside the flag state (when it functions as an FOC register). The Norwegian International Ship Register and Danish International Ship Register are the most notable examples of an internal register. Both have been instrumental in stemming flight from the national flag to flags of convenience and in attracting foreign-owned ships to the Norwegian and Danish flags. A merchant ship is a vessel that carries goods against payment of freight; it is commonly used to denote any nonmilitary ship but accurately restricted to commercial vessels only. A register is the record of a ship's ownership and nationality as listed with the maritime authorities of a country; also, it is the compendium of such individual ships' registrations. Registration of a ship provides it with a nationality and makes it subject to the laws of the country in which registered (the flag state) regardless of the nationality of the ship's ultimate owner.

Military This category includes the entries dealing with a country's military structure, manpower, and expenditures.

Military branches This entry lists the names of the ground, naval, air, marine, and other defense or security forces.

Military expenditures - dollar figure This entry gives current military expenditures in US dollars; the figure is calculated by multiplying the estimated defense spending in percentage terms by the gross domestic product (GDP) calculated on an exchange rate basis not purchasing power parity (PPP) terms. Dollar figures for military expenditures should be treated with caution because of different price patterns and accounting methods among nations, as well as wide variations in the strength of their currencies.

Military expenditures - percent of GDP This entry gives current military expenditures as an estimated percent of gross domestic product (GDP).

Military manpower - availability This entry gives the total numbers of males and females age 15-49 and assumes that every individual is fit to serve.

Military manpower - fit for military service This entry gives the number of males and females age 15-49 fit for military service. This is a more refined measure of potential military manpower availability which tries to correct for the health situation in the country and reduces the maximum potential number to a more realistic estimate of the actual number fit to serve.

Military manpower - military age This entry gives the minimum age at which an individual may volunteer for military service or be subject to conscription.

Military manpower - reaching military age annually This entry gives the number of draft-age males and females entering the military manpower pool in any given year and is a measure of the availability of draft-age young adults.

Military - note This entry includes miscellaneous military information of significance not included elsewhere.

Money figures All money figures are expressed in contemporaneous US dollars unless otherwise indicated.

National holiday This entry gives the primary national day of celebration - usually independence day.

Nationality This entry provides the identifying terms for citizens - noun and adjective.

Natural Gas - consumption This entry is the total quantity of natural gas consumed in cubic meters. The discrepancy between the quantity of natural gas produced and/or imported and the quantity consumed and/or exported is due to the omission of stock changes and other complicating factors.

Natural Gas - exports This entry is the total quantity of natural gas exported in cubic meters.

Natural Gas - imports This entry is the total quantity of natural gas imported in cubic meters.

Natural Gas - production This entry is the total quantity of natural gas produced in cubic meters. The discrepancy between the quantity of natural gas produced and/or imported and the quantity consumed and/or exported is due to the omission of stock changes and other complicating factors.

Natural Gas - proved reserves This entry is the stock of proved reserves of natural gas in cubic meters (cu. m.). Proved reserves are those quantities of natural gas, which, by analysis of geological and engineering data, can be estimated with a high degree of confidence to be commercially recoverable from a given date forward, from known reservoirs and under current economic conditions.

Natural hazards
This entry lists potential natural disasters.

Natural resources This entry lists a country's mineral, petroleum, hydropower, and other resources of commercial importance.

Net migration rate This entry includes the figure for the difference between the number of persons entering and leaving a country during the year per 1,000 persons (based on midyear population). An excess of persons entering the country is referred to as net immigration (e.g., 3.56 migrants/1,000 population); an excess of persons leaving the country as net emigration (e.g., -9.26 migrants/1,000 population). The net migration rate indicates the contribution of migration to the overall level of population change. High levels of migration can cause problems such as increasing unemployment and potential ethnic strife (if people are coming in) or a reduction in the labor force, perhaps in certain key sectors (if people are leaving).

Oil - consumption This entry is the total oil consumed in barrels per day (bbl/day). The discrepancy between the amount of oil produced and/or imported and the amount consumed and/or exported is due to the omission of stock changes, refinery gains, and other complicating factors.

Oil - exports This entry is the total oil exported in barrels per day (bbl/day), including both crude oil and oil products.

Oil - imports This entry is the total oil imported in barrels per day (bbl/day), including both crude oil and oil products.

Oil - production This entry is the total oil produced in barrels per day (bbl/day). The discrepancy between the amount of oil produced and/or imported and the amount consumed and/or exported is due to the omission of stock changes, refinery gains, and other complicating factors.

Oil - proved reserves This entry is the stock of proved reserves of crude oil in barrels (bbl). Proved reserves are those quantities of petroleum which, by analysis of geological and engineering data, can be estimated with a high degree of confidence to be commercially recoverable from a given date forward, from known reservoirs and under current economic conditions.

People This category includes the entries dealing with the characteristics of the people and their society.

People - note This entry includes miscellaneous demographic information of significance not included elsewhere.

Personal Names - Capitalization The Factbook uses all uppercase letters for personal names by which the subject is usually referred to in various media. An example is President Vicente FOX Quesada of Mexico. Members of royal families are usually referred by other than their family name (King and Prime Minister FAHD bin Abd al-Aziz Al Saud of Saudi Arabia, Queen BEATRIX of the Netherlands, or King PHUMIPHON Adunyadet of Thailand). Some Asians are referred to by the first element of their name - also their surname, such as President NO Muh-hyun of South Korea.

Personal Names - Spelling The romanization of personal names in the Factbook normally follows the same transliteration system used by the US Board on Geographic Names for spelling place names. At times, however, a foreign leader expressly indicates a preference for, or the media or official documents regularly use, a romanized spelling that differs from the transliteration derived from the US Government standard. In such cases, the Factbook uses the alternative spelling.

Personal Names - Titles The Factbook capitalizes any valid title (or short form of it) immediately preceding a person's name. A title standing alone is lowercased. Examples: President PUTIN and President BUSH are chiefs of state. In Russia, the president is chief of state and the premier is the head of the government, while in the US, the president is both chief of state and head of government.

Petroleum
See "Oil" entries

Petroleum products
See "Oil" entries

Pipelines This entry gives the lengths and types of pipelines for transporting products like natural gas, crude oil, or petroleum products.

Political parties and leaders This entry includes a listing of significant political organizations and their leaders.

Political pressure groups and leaders This entry includes a listing of organizations with leaders involved in politics, but not standing for legislative election.

Population This entry gives an estimate from the US Bureau of the Census based on statistics from population censuses, vital statistics registration systems, or sample surveys pertaining to the recent past and on assumptions about future trends. The total population presents one overall measure of the potential impact of the country on the world and within its region. Note: starting with the 1993 Factbook, demographic estimates for some countries (mostly African) have explicitly taken into account the effects of the growing impact of the HIV/AIDS epidemic. These countries are currently: The Bahamas, Benin, Botswana, Brazil, Burkina Faso, Burma, Burundi, Cambodia, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Republic of the Congo, Cote d'Ivoire, Ethiopia, Gabon, Ghana, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Kenya, Lesotho, Malawi, Mozambique, Namibia, Nigeria, Rwanda, South Africa, Swaziland, Tanzania, Thailand, Togo, Uganda, Zambia, and Zimbabwe.

Population below poverty line National estimates of the percentage of the population lying below the poverty line are based on surveys of sub-groups, with the results weighted by the number of people in each group. Definitions of poverty vary considerably among nations. For example, rich nations generally employ more generous standards of poverty than poor nations.

Population growth rate The average annual percent change in the population, resulting from a surplus (or deficit) of births over deaths and the balance of migrants entering and leaving a country. The rate may be positive or negative. The growth rate is a factor in determining how great a burden would be imposed on a country by the changing needs of its people for infrastructure (e.g., schools, hospitals, housing, roads), resources (e.g., food, water, electricity), and jobs. Rapid population growth can be seen as threatening by neighboring countries.

Ports and harbors This entry lists the major ports and harbors selected on the basis of overall importance to each country. This is determined by evaluating a number of factors (e.g., dollar value of goods handled, gross tonnage, facilities, military significance).

Radio broadcast stations This entry includes the total number of AM, FM, and shortwave broadcast stations.

Railways This entry states the total route length of the railway network and of its component parts by gauge: broad, dual, narrow, standard, and other.

Reference maps
This section includes world and regional maps.

Religions This entry includes a rank ordering of religions by adherents starting with the largest group and sometimes includes the percent of total population.

Sex ratio This entry includes the number of males for each female in five age groups - at birth, under 15 years, 15-64 years, 65 years and over, and for the total population. Sex ratio at birth has recently emerged as an indicator of certain kinds of sex discrimination in some countries. For instance, high sex ratios at birth in some Asian countries are now attributed to sex-selective abortion and infanticide due to a strong preference for sons. This will affect future marriage patterns and fertility patterns. Eventually it could cause unrest among young adult males who are unable to find partners.

Suffrage This entry gives the age at enfranchisement and whether the right to vote is universal or restricted.

Telephone numbers All telephone numbers in the Factbook consist of the country code in brackets, the city or area code (where required) in parentheses, and the local number. The one component that is not presented is the international access code, which varies from country to country. For example, an international direct dial telephone call placed from the US to Madrid, Spain, would be as follows:

     011 [34] (1) 577-xxxx, where
     011 is the international access code for station-to-station calls;
01 is for calls other than station-to-station calls,
     [34] is the country code for Spain,
     (1) is the city code for Madrid,
     577 is the local exchange, and
     xxxx is the local telephone number.

An international direct dial telephone call placed from another country
to the US would be as follows:
     international access code + [1] (202) 939-xxxx, where
     [1] is the country code for the US,
     (202) is the area code for Washington, DC,
     939 is the local exchange, and
     xxxx is the local telephone number.

Telephone system This entry includes a brief characterization of the system with details on the domestic and international components. The following terms and abbreviations are used throughout the entry:

Africa ONE - a fiber-optic submarine cable link encircling the continent of Africa. Arabsat - Arab Satellite Communications Organization (Riyadh, Saudi Arabia). Autodin - Automatic Digital Network (US Department of Defense). CB - citizen's band mobile radio communications. cellular telephone system - the telephones in this system are radio transceivers, with each instrument having its own private radio frequency and sufficient radiated power to reach the booster station in its area (cell), from which the telephone signal is fed to a telephone exchange. Central American Microwave System - a trunk microwave radio relay system that links the countries of Central America and Mexico with each other. coaxial cable - a multichannel communication cable consisting of a central conducting wire, surrounded by and insulated from a cylindrical conducting shell; a large number of telephone channels can be made available within the insulated space by the use of a large number of carrier frequencies. Comsat - Communications Satellite Corporation (US). DSN - Defense Switched Network (formerly Automatic Voice Network or Autovon); basic general-purpose, switched voice network of the Defense Communications System (US Department of Defense). Eutelsat - European Telecommunications Satellite Organization (Paris). fiber-optic cable - a multichannel communications cable using a thread of optical glass fibers as a transmission medium in which the signal (voice, video, etc.) is in the form of a coded pulse of light. GSM - a global system for mobile (cellular) communications devised by the Groupe Special Mobile of the pan-European standardization organization, Conference Europeanne des Posts et Telecommunications (CEPT) in 1982. HF - high frequency; any radio frequency in the 3,000- to 30,000- kHz range. Inmarsat - International Mobile Satellite Organization (London); provider of global mobile satellite communications for commercial, distress, and safety applications at sea, in the air, and on land. Intelsat - International Telecommunications Satellite Organization (Washington, DC). Intersputnik - International Organization of Space Communications (Moscow); first established in the former Soviet Union and the East European countries, it is now marketing its services worldwide with earth stations in North America, Africa, and East Asia. landline - communication wire or cable of any sort that is installed on poles or buried in the ground. Marecs - Maritime European Communications Satellite used in the Inmarsat system on lease from the European Space Agency. Marisat - satellites of the Comsat Corporation that participate in the Inmarsat system. Medarabtel - the Middle East Telecommunications Project of the International Telecommunications Union (ITU) providing a modern telecommunications network, primarily by microwave radio relay, linking Algeria, Djibouti, Egypt, Jordan, Libya, Morocco, Saudi Arabia, Somalia, Sudan, Syria, Tunisia, and Yemen; it was initially started in Morocco in 1970 by the Arab Telecommunications Union (ATU) and was known at that time as the Middle East Mediterranean Telecommunications Network. microwave radio relay - transmission of long distance telephone calls and television programs by highly directional radio microwaves that are received and sent on from one booster station to another on an optical path. NMT - Nordic Mobile Telephone; an analog cellular telephone system that was developed jointly by the national telecommunications authorities of the Nordic countries (Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden). Orbita - a Russian television service; also the trade name of a packet-switched digital telephone network. radiotelephone communications - the two-way transmission and reception of sounds by broadcast radio on authorized frequencies using telephone handsets. PanAmSat - PanAmSat Corporation (Greenwich, CT). satellite communication system - a communication system consisting of two or more earth stations and at least one satellite that provide long distance transmission of voice, data, and television; the system usually serves as a trunk connection between telephone exchanges; if the earth stations are in the same country, it is a domestic system. satellite earth station - a communications facility with a microwave radio transmitting and receiving antenna and required receiving and transmitting equipment for communicating with satellites. satellite link - a radio connection between a satellite and an earth station permitting communication between them, either one-way (down link from satellite to earth station - television receive-only transmission) or two-way (telephone channels). SHF - super high frequency; any radio frequency in the 3,000- to 30,000-MHz range. shortwave - radio frequencies (from 1.605 to 30 MHz) that fall above the commercial broadcast band and are used for communication over long distances. Solidaridad - geosynchronous satellites in Mexico's system of international telecommunications in the Western Hemisphere. Statsionar - Russia's geostationary system for satellite telecommunications. submarine cable - a cable designed for service under water. TAT - Trans-Atlantic Telephone; any of a number of high-capacity submarine coaxial telephone cables linking Europe with North America. telefax - facsimile service between subscriber stations via the public switched telephone network or the international Datel network. telegraph - a telecommunications system designed for unmodulated electric impulse transmission. telex - a communication service involving teletypewriters connected by wire through automatic exchanges. tropospheric scatter - a form of microwave radio transmission in which the troposphere is used to scatter and reflect a fraction of the incident radio waves back to earth; powerful, highly directional antennas are used to transmit and receive the microwave signals; reliable over-the-horizon communications are realized for distances up to 600 miles in a single hop; additional hops can extend the range of this system for very long distances. trunk network - a network of switching centers, connected by multichannel trunk lines. UHF - ultra high frequency; any radio frequency in the 300- to 3,000-MHz range. VHF - very high frequency; any radio frequency in the 30- to 300- MHz range.

Telephones - main lines in use
This entry gives the total number of main telephone lines in use.

Telephones - mobile cellular
This entry gives the total number of mobile cellular telephones in use.

Television - broadcast stations This entry gives the total number of separate broadcast stations plus any repeater stations.

Terminology Due to the highly structured nature of the Factbook database, some collective generic terms have to be used. For example, the word Country in the Country name entry refers to a wide variety of dependencies, areas of special sovereignty, uninhabited islands, and other entities in addition to the traditional countries or independent states. Military is also used as an umbrella term for various civil defense, security, and defense activities in many entries. The Independence entry includes the usual colonial independence dates and former ruling states as well as other significant nationhood dates such as the traditional founding date or the date of unification, federation, confederation, establishment, or state succession that are not strictly independence dates. Dependent areas have the nature of their dependency status noted in this same entry.

Terrain
This entry contains a brief description of the topography.

Total fertility rate This entry gives a figure for the average number of children that would be born per woman if all women lived to the end of their childbearing years and bore children according to a given fertility rate at each age. The total fertility rate is a more direct measure of the level of fertility than the crude birth rate, since it refers to births per woman. This indicator shows the potential for population growth in the country. High rates will also place some limits on the labor force participation rates for women. Large numbers of children born to women indicate large family sizes that might limit the ability of the families to feed and educate their children.

Transnational Issues This category includes only two entries at the present time - Disputes - international and Illicit drugs - that deal with current issues going beyond national boundaries.

Transportation This category includes the entries dealing with the means for movement of people and goods.

Transportation - note This entry includes miscellaneous transportation information of significance not included elsewhere.

Unemployment rate This entry contains the percent of the labor force that is without jobs. Substantial underemployment might be noted.

Waterways This entry gives the total length and individual names of navigable rivers, canals, and other inland bodies of water.

Years All year references are for the calendar year (CY) unless indicated as fiscal year (FY). The calendar year is an accounting period of 12 months from 1 January to 31 December. The fiscal year is an accounting period of 12 months other than 1 January to 31 December.

Note: Information for the US and US dependencies was compiled from material in the public domain and does not represent Intelligence Community estimates.

This page was last updated on 23 October, 2003

=====================================================================

A Brief History of Basic Intelligence and The World Factbook

The Intelligence Cycle is the process by which information is acquired, converted into intelligence, and made available to policymakers. Information is raw data from any source, data that may be fragmentary, contradictory, unreliable, ambiguous, deceptive, or wrong. Intelligence is information that has been collected, integrated, evaluated, analyzed, and interpreted. Finished intelligence is the final product of the Intelligence Cycle ready to be delivered to the policymaker.

The three types of finished intelligence are: basic, current, and estimative. Basic intelligence provides the fundamental and factual reference material on a country or issue. Current intelligence reports on new developments. Estimative intelligence judges probable outcomes. The three are mutually supportive: basic intelligence is the foundation on which the other two are constructed; current intelligence continually updates the inventory of knowledge; and estimative intelligence revises overall interpretations of country and issue prospects for guidance of basic and current intelligence. The World Factbook, The President's Daily Brief, and the National Intelligence Estimates are examples of the three types of finished intelligence.

The United States has carried on foreign intelligence activities since the days of George Washington but only since World War II have they been coordinated on a government-wide basis. Three programs have highlighted the development of coordinated basic intelligence since that time: (1) the Joint Army Navy Intelligence Studies (JANIS), (2) the National Intelligence Survey (NIS), and (3) The World Factbook.

During World War II, intelligence consumers realized that the production of basic intelligence by different components of the US Government resulted in a great duplication of effort and conflicting information. The Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor in 1941 brought home to leaders in Congress and the executive branch the need for integrating departmental reports to national policymakers. Detailed and coordinated information was needed not only on such major powers as Germany and Japan, but also on places of little previous interest. In the Pacific Theater, for example, the Navy and Marines had to launch amphibious operations against many islands about which information was unconfirmed or nonexistent. Intelligence authorities resolved that the United States should never again be caught unprepared.

In 1943, Gen. George B. Strong (G-2), Adm. H. C. Train (Office of Naval Intelligence - ONI), and Gen. William J. Donovan (Director of the Office of Strategic Services - OSS) decided that a joint effort should be initiated. A steering committee was appointed on 27 April 1943 that recommended the formation of a Joint Intelligence Study Publishing Board to assemble, edit, coordinate, and publish the Joint Army Navy Intelligence Studies (JANIS). JANIS was the first interdepartmental basic intelligence program to fulfill the needs of the US Government for an authoritative and coordinated appraisal of strategic basic intelligence. Between April 1943 and July 1947, the board published 34 JANIS studies. JANIS performed well in the war effort, and numerous letters of commendation were received, including a statement from Adm. Forrest Sherman, Chief of Staff, Pacific Ocean Areas, which said, "JANIS has become the indispensable reference work for the shore-based planners."

The need for more comprehensive basic intelligence in the postwar world was well expressed in 1946 by George S. Pettee, a noted author on national security. He wrote in The Future of American Secret Intelligence (Infantry Journal Press, 1946, page 46) that world leadership in peace requires even more elaborate intelligence than in war. "The conduct of peace involves all countries, all human activities - not just the enemy and his war production."

The Central Intelligence Agency was established on 26 July 1947 and officially began operating on 18 September 1947. Effective 1 October 1947, the Director of Central Intelligence assumed operational responsibility for JANIS. On 13 January 1948, the National Security Council issued Intelligence Directive (NSCID) No. 3, which authorized the National Intelligence Survey (NIS) program as a peacetime replacement for the wartime JANIS program. Before adequate NIS country sections could be produced, government agencies had to develop more comprehensive gazetteers and better maps. The US Board on Geographic Names (BGN) compiled the names; the Department of the Interior produced the gazetteers; and CIA produced the maps.

The Hoover Commission's Clark Committee, set up in 1954 to study the structure and administration of the CIA, reported to Congress in 1955 that: "The National Intelligence Survey is an invaluable publication which provides the essential elements of basic intelligence on all areas of the world. There will always be a continuing requirement for keeping the Survey up-to-date." The Factbook was created as an annual summary and update to the encyclopedic NIS studies. The first classified Factbook was published in August 1962, and the first unclassified version was published in June 1971. The NIS program was terminated in 1973 except for the Factbook, map, and gazetteer components. The 1975 Factbook was the first to be made available to the public with sales through the US Government Printing Office (GPO). The Factbook was first made available on the Internet in June 1997. The year 2003 marks the 56th anniversary of the establishment of the Central Intelligence Agency and the 60th year of continuous basic intelligence support to the US Government by The World Factbook and its two predecessor programs.

This page was last updated on 23 October, 2003

=====================================================================

Contributors and Copyright Information

In general, information available as of 1 January 2003 was used in the preparation of this edition.

The World Factbook is prepared by the Central Intelligence Agency for the use of US Government officials, and the style, format, coverage, and content are designed to meet their specific requirements. Information is provided by Antarctic Information Program (National Science Foundation), Bureau of the Census (Department of Commerce), Bureau of Labor Statistics (Department of Labor), Central Intelligence Agency, Council of Managers of National Antarctic Programs, Defense Intelligence Agency (Department of Defense), Department of State, Fish and Wildlife Service (Department of the Interior), Maritime Administration (Department of Transportation), National Imagery and Mapping Agency (Department of Defense), Naval Facilities Engineering Command (Department of Defense), Office of Insular Affairs (Department of the Interior), Office of Naval Intelligence (Department of Defense), US Board on Geographic Names (Department of the Interior), US Transportation Command (Department of Defense), and other public and private sources.

The Factbook is in the public domain. Accordingly, it may be copied freely without permission of the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA). The official seal of the CIA, however, may NOT be copied without permission as required by the CIA Act of 1949 (50 U.S.C. section 403m). Misuse of the official seal of the CIA could result in civil and criminal penalties.

Comments and queries are welcome and may be addressed to:

Central Intelligence Agency
Attn.: Office of Public Affairs
Washington, DC 20505
Telephone: [1] (703) 482-0623
FAX: [1] (703) 482-1739

This page was last updated on 1 August, 2003

=====================================================================

Purchasing Information

The Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) publishes The World Factbook in printed and Internet versions. US Government officials may obtain information about availability of the Factbook from their organizations or through liaison channels to the CIA. Other users may obtain sales information about printed copies from the following:

Superintendent of Documents
P. O. Box 371954
Pittsburgh, PA 15250-7954
Telephone: [1] (202) 512-1800; toll free: [1] (866) 512-1800
FAX: [1] (202) 512-2250
http://bookstore.gpo.gov/

National Technical Information Service 5285 Port Royal Road Springfield, VA 22161 Telephone: [1] (800) 553-6847 (only in the US); [1] (703) 605-6000 (for outside US) FAX: [1] (703) 605-6900 http://www.ntis.gov/

The World Factbook can be accessed on the Internet at: http://www.cia.gov/cia/publications/factbook/index.html

This page was last updated on 11 August, 2003

=====================================================================

Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)

The World Factbook staff thanks you for your comments, suggestions, updates, kudos, and corrections over the past years. The willingness of readers from around the world to share their observations and specialized knowledge is very helpful as we try to produce the best possible publications. Please feel free to continue to write and e-mail us. At least two Factbook staffers review every item. The sheer volume of correspondence precludes detailed personal replies, but we sincerely appreciate your time and interest in the Factbook. If you include your e-mail address we will at least acknowledge your note. Thank you again.

Answers to many frequently asked questions (FAQs) are explained in the Notes and Definitions section in The World Factbook. Please review this section to see if your question is already answered there. In addition, we have compiled the following list of FAQs to answer other common questions. Select from the following categories to narrow your search:

General
Geography
Spelling and Pronunciation
Policies and Procedures
Technical

General

Can you provide additional information for a specific country?

The staff cannot provide data beyond what appears in The World Factbook. The format and information in the Factbook are tailored to the specific requirements of US Government officials and content is focused on their current and anticipated needs. The staff welcomes suggestions for new entries.

How often is The World Factbook updated?

Formerly our Web site (and the published Factbook) were only updated annually. Beginning in November 2001 we instituted a new system of more frequent online updates.

The annual printed version of the Factbook is usually released about midyear. US Government officials may obtain information about Factbook availability from their own organizations or through liaison channels to the CIA. Other users may obtain sales information through the following channels:

Superintendent of Documents
P. O. Box 371954 Pittsburgh, PA 15250-7954
Telephone: [1] (202) 512-1800
FAX: [1] (202) 512-2250
http://www.bookstore.gpo.gov

National Technical Information Service 5285 Port Royal Road Springfield, VA 22161 Telephone: [1] (800) 553-6847 (only in the US); [1] (703) 605-6000 (for outside US) FAX: [1] (703) 605-6900 http://www.ntis.gov

Can I use some or all of The World Factbook for my Web site (book, research project, homework, etc.)?

The World Factbook is in the public domain and may be used freely by anyone at anytime without seeking permission. However, US Code prohibits use of the CIA seal in a manner which implies that the CIA approved, endorsed, or authorized such use. If you have any questions about your intended use, you should consult with legal counsel. Further information on The World Factbook's use is described on the Contributors and Copyright Information page. As a courtesy, please cite The World Factbook when used.

Why doesn't The World Factbook include information on states, departments, provinces, the European Union, etc., in the country format?

The World Factbook provides national-level information on countries, territories, and dependencies, but not on subnational administrative units within a country or supranational entities like the European Union. A good encyclopedia should provide state/province-level information.

Is it possible to access older editions of The World Factbook to do comparative research and trend analysis?

Only the current version is available for browsing on the CIA Web site. The year 2000 and 2001 editions are available for download. In the future, the staff hopes to post electronic versions of The World Factbook as far back as 1986. Hardcopy editions for earlier years are available from libraries.

Would it be possible to set up a partnership or collaboration between the producers of The World Factbook and other organizations or individuals?

The World Factbook does not partner with other organizations or individuals, but we do welcome comments and suggestions that such groups or persons choose to provide.

Geography

I can't find a geographic name for a particular country. Why not?

The World Factbook is not a gazetteer (a dictionary or index of places, usually with descriptive or statistical information) and cannot provide more than the names of the administrative divisions (in the Government category) and major cities/towns (on the country maps). Our expanded Cross-Reference List of Geographic Names, however, includes many of the world's major geographic features as well as historic (former) names of countries and cities mentioned in The World Factbook.

Why is Taiwan listed out of alphabetical order at the end of the
Factbook entries?

Taiwan is listed after the regular entries because even though the mainland People's Republic of China claims Taiwan, elected Taiwanese authorities de facto administer the island and reject mainland sovereignty claims. With the establishment of diplomatic relations with China on January 1, 1979, the US Government recognized the People's Republic of China as the sole legal government of China, acknowledging the Chinese position that there is only one China and that Taiwan is part of China.

Since we have an ambassador who represents the US at the Vatican, why is this entity not listed in the Factbook?

Vatican City is found under Holy See. The term "Holy See" refers to the authority, jurisdiction, and sovereignty vested in the Pope and his advisors to direct the worldwide Catholic Church. The Holy See has a legal personality that allows it to enter into treaties as the juridical equal of a state and to send and receive diplomatic representatives. Vatican City, created in 1929 to administer properties belonging to the Holy See in Rome, is recognized under international law as a sovereign state, but it does not send or receive diplomatic representatives. Consequently, Holy See is included as a Factbook entry, with Vatican City cross-referenced in the Geographic Names appendix.

Why are the Golan Heights not shown as part of Israel or Northern
Cyprus with Turkey?

Territorial occupations/annexations not recognized by the United States
Government are not shown on US Government maps.

Why don't you include information on entities such as Tibet, Kashmir, or Kosovo?

The World Factbook provides information on the administrative divisions of a country as recommended by the United States Board on Geographic Names (BGN). The BGN is a component of the US Government that develops policies, principles, and procedures governing the spelling, use, and application of geographic names—domestic, foreign, Antarctic, and undersea. Its decisions enable all departments and agencies of the US Government to have access to uniform names of geographic features.

Also included in the Factbook are entries on parts of the world whose status has not yet been resolved (e.g., West Bank, Spratly Islands). Specific regions within a country or areas in dispute among countries are not covered.

Spelling and Pronunciation

Why is the spelling of proper names such as rulers, presidents, and prime ministers in The World Factbook different than their spelling in my country?

The Factbook staff applies the names and spellings from the Chiefs of State link on the CIA Web site. The World Factbook is prepared using the standard American English computer keyboard and does not use any special characters, symbols, or most diacritical markings in its spellings. Surnames are always spelled with capital letters; they may appear first in some cultures.

The spelling of geographic names, features, cities, administrative divisions, etc. in the Factbook differs from those used in my country. Why is this?

The United States Board on Geographic Names (BGN) recommends and approves names and spellings. The BGN is the component of the United States Government that develops policies, principles, and procedures governing the spelling, use, and application of geographic names— domestic, foreign, Antarctic, and undersea. Its decisions enable all departments and agencies of the US Government to use uniform names of geographic features. (A note is usually included where changes may have occurred but have not yet been approved by the BGN). The World Factbook is prepared using the standard American English computer keyboard and does not use any special characters, symbols, or most diacritical markings in its spellings.

Why doesn't The World Factbook include pronunciations of country or leader names?

There are too many variations in pronunciation among English-speaking countries, not to mention English renditions of non-English names, for pronunciations to be included. American English pronunciations are included for some countries like Qatar and Kiribati.

Why is the name of the Labour party misspelled?
When American and British spellings of common English words differ, The
World Factbook always uses the American spelling, even when these
common words form part of a proper name in British English.

Policies and Procedures

What is The World Factbook's source for a specific subject field?

The Factbook staff uses many different sources to publish what we judge are the most reliable and consistent data for any particular category. Space considerations preclude a listing of these various sources.

The names of some geographic features provided in the Factbook differ from those used in other publications. For example, in Asia the Factbook has Burma as the country name, but in other publications Myanmar is used; also, the Factbook uses Sea of Japan whereas other publications label it East Sea. What is you policy on naming geographic features?

The Factbook staff follows the guidance of the United States Board on Geographic Names (BGN). The BGN is the component of the United States Government that develops policies, principles, and procedures governing the spelling, use, and application of geographic names—domestic, foreign, Antarctic, and undersea. Its decisions enable all departments and agencies of the US Government to have access to uniform names of geographic features. The position of the BGN is that the names Burma and Sea of Japan be used in official US Government maps and publications.

Why is most of the statistical information in the Factbook given in metric units, rather than the units standard to US measure?

US Federal agencies are required by the Metric Conversion Act of 1975 (Public Law 94-168) and by Executive Order 12770 of July 1991 to use the International System of Units, commonly referred to as the metric system or SI. In addition, the metric system is used by over 95 percent of the world's population.

Why don't you include information on minimum and maximum temperature extremes?

The Factbook staff judges that this information would only be useful for some (generally smaller) countries. Larger countries can have large temperature extremes that do not represent the landmass as a whole. In the future, such a category may be adopted listing the extremes, but also adding a normal temperature range found throughout most of a country's territory.

What information sources are used for the country flags?

Flag designs used in The World Factbook are those recognized by the protocol office of the US Department of State.

Why do your GDP (Gross Domestic Product) statistics differ from other sources?

GDP dollar estimates in The World Factbook are derived from purchasing power parity (PPP) calculations. See the Notes and Definitions section on GDP methodology for more information.

On the CIA Web site, Chiefs of State is updated weekly, but the last update for the Factbook was an earlier date. Why the discrepancy?

Although Chiefs of State and The World Factbook both appear on the CIA Web site, they are produced and updated by separate staffs. Chiefs of State includes fewer countries but more leaders, and is updated more frequently than The World Factbook, which has a much larger database, and includes all countries.

Some percentage distributions do not add to 100. Why not?

Because of rounding, percentage distributions do not always add precisely to 100%. Rounding of numbers always results in a loss of precision—i.e., error. This error becomes apparent when percentage data are totaled, as the following two examples show:

Original Data Rounded to whole integer

  Example 1 43.2 43
                  30.4 30
                  26.4 26
                  —— —
                 100.0 99

  Example 2 42.8 43
                  31.6 32
                  25.6 26
                  —— —
                 100.0 101

When this occurs, we do not force the numbers to add exactly to 100, because doing so would introduce additional error into the distribution.

What rounding convention does The World Factbook use?

In deciding on the number of digits to present, the Factbook staff assesses the accuracy of the original data and the needs of US Government officials. All of the economic data are processed by computer—either at the source or by the Factbook staff. The economic data presented in The Factbook, therefore, follow the rounding convention used by virtually all numerical software applications, namely, any digit followed by a "5" is rounded up to the next higher digit, no matter whether the original digit is even or odd. Thus, for example, when rounded to the nearest integer, 2.5 becomes 3, rather than 2, as occurred in some pre-computer rounding systems.

Technical

Does The World Factbook comply with Section 508 of the Rehabilitation
Act regarding accessibility of Web pages?

The World Factbook home page has a link entitled "Text/Low Bandwidth Version." The country data in the text version is fully accessible. We believe The World Factbook is compliant with the Section 508 law in both fact and spirit. If you are experiencing difficulty, please use our comment form to provide us details of the specific problem you are experiencing and the assistive software and/or hardware that you are using so that we can work with our technical support staff to find and implement a solution. We welcome visitors' suggestions to improve accessibility of The World Factbook and the CIA Web site.

I am using the Factbook online and it is not working. What is wrong?

Hundreds of "Factbook" look-alikes exist on the Internet. The Factbook site at: www.cia.gov is the only official site.

When I attempt to download a PDF (Portable Document Format) map file (or some other map) the file has no image. Can you fix this?

Some of the files on The World Factbook Web site are large and could take several minutes to download on a dial-up connection. The screen might be blank during the download process.

When I open a map on The World Factbook site, it is fuzzy or granular, or too big or too small. Why?

Adjusting the resolution setting on your monitor should correct this problem.

Is The World Factbook country data available in machine-readable format? All I can find is HTML, but I'm looking for simple tabular data.

The Factbook Web site now features "Rank Order" pages for selected Factbook entries. "Rank Order" pages are available for those data fields identified with a small bar chart icon located next to the title of the data entry. In addition, all of the "Rank Order" pages can be downloaded as tab-delimited data files that can be opened in other applications such as spreadsheets and databases.

This page was last updated on 21 October, 2003

=====================================================================

@Afghanistan

Introduction Afghanistan

Background:
  Afghanistan's recent history is characterized by war and civil
  unrest. The Soviet Union invaded in 1979, but was forced to withdraw
  10 years later by anti-Communist mujahidin forces supplied and
  trained by the US, Saudi Arabia, Pakistan, and others. Fighting
  subsequently continued among the various mujahidin factions, giving
  rise to a state of warlordism that eventually spawned the Taliban.
  Backed by foreign sponsors, the Taliban developed as a political
  force and eventually seized power. The Taliban were able to capture
  most of the country, aside from Northern Alliance strongholds
  primarily in the northeast, until US and allied military action in
  support of the opposition following the 11 September 2001 terrorist
  attacks forced the group's downfall. In late 2001, major leaders
  from the Afghan opposition groups and diaspora met in Bonn, Germany,
  and agreed on a plan for the formulation of a new government
  structure that resulted in the inauguration of Hamid KARZAI as
  Chairman of the Afghan Interim Authority (AIA) on 22 December 2001.
  The AIA held a nationwide Loya Jirga (Grand Assembly) in June 2002,
  and KARZAI was elected President by secret ballot of the
  Transitional Islamic State of Afghanistan (TISA). The Transitional
  Authority has an 18-month mandate to hold a nationwide Loya Jirga to
  adopt a constitution and a 24-month mandate to hold nationwide
  elections. In December 2002, the TISA marked the one-year
  anniversary of the fall of the Taliban. In addition to occasionally
  violent political jockeying and ongoing military action to root out
  remaining terrorists and Taliban elements, the country suffers from
  enormous poverty, a crumbling infrastructure, and widespread land
  mines.

Geography Afghanistan

Location:
  Southern Asia, north and west of Pakistan, east of Iran

Geographic coordinates:
  33 00 N, 65 00 E

Map references:
  Asia

Area:
  total: 647,500 sq km
  water: 0 sq km
  land: 647,500 sq km

Area - comparative:
  slightly smaller than Texas

Land boundaries:
  total: 5,529 km
  border countries: China 76 km, Iran 936 km, Pakistan 2,430 km,
  Tajikistan 1,206 km, Turkmenistan 744 km, Uzbekistan 137 km

Coastline:
  0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims:
  none (landlocked)

Climate:
  arid to semiarid; cold winters and hot summers

Terrain:
  mostly rugged mountains; plains in north and southwest

Elevation extremes:
  lowest point: Amu Darya 258 m
  highest point: Nowshak 7,485 m

Natural resources:
  natural gas, petroleum, coal, copper, chromite, talc, barites,
  sulfur, lead, zinc, iron ore, salt, precious and semiprecious stones

Land use: arable land: 12.13% permanent crops: 0.22% other: 87.65% (1998 est.)

Irrigated land:
  23,860 sq km (1998 est.)

Natural hazards:
  damaging earthquakes occur in Hindu Kush mountains; flooding;
  droughts

Environment - current issues:
  limited natural fresh water resources; inadequate supplies of
  potable water; soil degradation; overgrazing; deforestation (much of
  the remaining forests are being cut down for fuel and building
  materials); desertification; air and water pollution

Environment - international agreements:
  party to: Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental
  Modification, Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban
  signed, but not ratified: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Hazardous
  Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Life Conservation

Geography - note:
  landlocked; the Hindu Kush mountains that run northeast to
  southwest divide the northern provinces from the rest of the
  country; the highest peaks are in the northern Vakhan (Wakhan
  Corridor)

People Afghanistan

Population:
  28,717,213 (July 2003 est.)

Age structure:
  0-14 years: 41.8% (male 6,123,971; female 5,868,013)
  15-64 years: 55.4% (male 8,240,743; female 7,671,242)
  65 years and over: 2.8% (male 427,710; female 385,534) (2003 est.)

Median age:
  total: 18.9 years
  male: 19.1 years
  female: 18.7 years (2002)

Population growth rate:
  3.38%
  note: this rate does not take into consideration the recent war and
  its continuing impact (2003 est.)

Birth rate:
  40.63 births/1,000 population (2003 est.)

Death rate:
  17.15 deaths/1,000 population (2003 est.)

Net migration rate:
  10.32 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2003 est.)

Sex ratio:
  at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
  under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
  15-64 years: 1.07 male(s)/female
  65 years and over: 1.11 male(s)/female
  total population: 1.06 male(s)/female (2003 est.)

Infant mortality rate:
  total: 142.48 deaths/1,000 live births
  female: 138.8 deaths/1,000 live births (2003 est.)
  male: 145.99 deaths/1,000 live births

Life expectancy at birth:
  total population: 46.97 years
  male: 47.67 years
  female: 46.23 years (2003 est.)

Total fertility rate:
  5.64 children born/woman (2003 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
  0.01% (2001 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
  NA

HIV/AIDS - deaths:
  NA

Nationality:
  noun: Afghan(s)
  adjective: Afghan

Ethnic groups:
  Pashtun 44%, Tajik 25%, Hazara 10%, minor ethnic groups (Aimaks,
  Turkmen, Baloch, and others) 13%, Uzbek 8%

Religions:
  Sunni Muslim 84%, Shi'a Muslim 15%, other 1%

Languages:
  Pashtu 35%, Afghan Persian (Dari) 50%, Turkic languages (primarily
  Uzbek and Turkmen) 11%, 30 minor languages (primarily Balochi and
  Pashai) 4%, much bilingualism

Literacy:
  definition: age 15 and over can read and write
  female: 21% (1999 est.)
  total population: 36%
  male: 51%

People - note:
  large numbers of Afghan refugees create burdens on neighboring
  states

Government Afghanistan

Country name:
  conventional long form: Transitional Islamic State of Afghanistan
  conventional short form: Afghanistan
  local short form: Afghanestan
  former: Republic of Afghanistan
  local long form: Dowlat-e Eslami-ye Afghanestan

Government type:
  transitional

Capital:
  Kabul

Administrative divisions:
  32 provinces (velayat, singular - velayat); Badakhshan, Badghis,
  Baghlan, Balkh, Bamian, Farah, Faryab, Ghazni, Ghowr, Helmand,
  Herat, Jowzjan, Kabol, Kandahar, Kapisa, Khowst, Konar, Kondoz,
  Laghman, Lowgar, Nangarhar, Nimruz, Nurestan, Oruzgan, Paktia,
  Paktika, Parvan, Samangan, Sar-e Pol, Takhar, Vardak, and Zabol

Independence:
  19 August 1919 (from UK control over Afghan foreign affairs)

National holiday:
  Independence Day, 19 August (1919)

Constitution:
  the Bonn Agreement called for a Loya Jirga (Grand Council) to be
  convened within 18 months of the establishment of the Transitional
  Authority to draft a new constitution for the country; the basis for
  the next constitution is the 1964 Constitution, according to the
  Bonn Agreement

Legal system:
  the Bonn Agreement calls for a judicial commission to rebuild the
  justice system in accordance with Islamic principles, international
  standards, the rule of law, and Afghan legal traditions

Suffrage:
  NA; previously males 15-50 years of age

Executive branch:
  note: following the Taliban's refusal to hand over Usama bin LADIN
  to the US for his suspected involvement in the 11 September 2001
  terrorist attacks in the US, a US-led international coalition was
  formed; after several weeks of aerial bombardment by coalition
  forces and military action on the ground, including Afghan
  opposition forces, the Taliban was ousted from power on 17 November
  2001; in December 2001, a number of prominent Afghans met under UN
  auspices in Bonn, Germany, to decide on a plan for governing the
  country; as a result, the Afghan Interim Authority (AIA) - made up
  of 30 members, headed by a chairman - was inaugurated on 22 December
  2001 with a six-month mandate to be followed by a two-year
  Transitional Authority (TA), after which elections are to be held;
  the structure of the follow-on TA was announced on 10 June 2002,
  when the Loya Jirga (Grand Assembly) convened establishing the
  Transitional Islamic State of Afghanistan (TISA), which has 18
  months to hold a Loya Jirga to adopt a constitution and 24 months to
  hold nationwide elections
  chief of state: President of the TISA, Hamid KARZAI (since 10 June
  2002); note - presently the president and head of government
  head of government: President of the TISA, Hamid KARZAI (since 10
  June 2002); note - presently the president and head of government
  cabinet: the 30-member TISA
  elections: nationwide elections are to be held by June 2004,
  according to the Bonn Agreement

Legislative branch:
  nonfunctioning as of June 1993

Judicial branch:
  the Bonn Agreement called for the establishment of a Supreme Court;
  there is also a Minister of Justice

Political parties and leaders:
  NA; note - political parties in Afghanistan are in flux and many
  prominent players have plans to create new parties; the Transitional
  Islamic State of Afghanistan (TISA) is headed by President Hamid
  KARZAI; the TISA is a coalition government formed of leaders from
  across the Afghan political spectrum; there are also several
  political factions not holding positions in the Transitional
  government that are forming new groups and parties in the hopes of
  participating in 2004 elections

Political pressure groups and leaders:
  NA; note - ministries formed under the Transitional Islamic State
  of Afghanistan (TISA) include former influential Afghans, diaspora
  members, and former political leaders

International organization participation:
  AsDB, CP, ECO, ESCAP, FAO, G-77, GUUAM, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt,
  ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, Interpol, IOM
  (observer), ITU, NAM, OIC, OPCW (signatory), UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO,
  UNIDO, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WMO, WToO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
  chief of mission: ambassador Seyyed Tayeb JAWAD
  chancery: 2341 Wyoming Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
  FAX: 202-483-6487
  consulate(s) general: New York
  telephone: 202-483-6410

Diplomatic representation from the US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador Robert Patrick John FINN; note -
  embassy in Kabul reopened 16 December 2001, following closure in
  January 1989
  embassy: Great Masood Road, Kabul
  mailing address: 6180 Kabul Place, Dulles, VA 20189-6180
  telephone: [93] (2) 290002, 290005, 290154
  FAX: 00932290153

Flag description:
  three equal vertical bands of black (hoist), red, and green, with a
  gold emblem centered on the red band; the emblem features a
  temple-like structure encircled by a wreath on the left and right
  and by a bold Islamic inscription above

Economy Afghanistan

Economy - overview:
  Afghanistan is an extremely poor, landlocked country, highly
  dependent on foreign aid, farming and livestock raising (sheep and
  goats), and trade with neighboring countries. Economic
  considerations have played second fiddle to political and military
  upheavals during more than two decades of war, including the nearly
  10-year Soviet military occupation (which ended 15 February 1989).
  During that conflict, one-third of the population fled the country,
  with Pakistan and Iran sheltering a combined peak of 4 to 6 million
  refugees. Gross domestic product has fallen substantially over the
  past 20 years because of the loss of labor and capital and the
  disruption of trade and transport; severe drought added to the
  nation's difficulties in 1998-2002. The majority of the population
  continues to suffer from insufficient food, clothing, housing, and
  medical care, and a dearth of jobs, problems exacerbated by
  political uncertainties and the general level of lawlessness.
  International efforts to rebuild Afghanistan were addressed at the
  Tokyo Donors Conference for Afghan Reconstruction in January 2002,
  when $4.5 billion was pledged, $1.7 billion for 2002. Of that
  approximately $900 million was directed to humanitarian aid - food,
  clothing, and shelter - and another $90 million for the Afghan
  Transitional Authority. Further World Bank and other aid came in
  2003. Priority areas for reconstruction include upgrading education,
  health, and sanitation facilities; providing income generating
  opportunities; enhancing administrative and security arrangements,
  especially in regional areas; developing the agricultural sector;
  rebuilding transportation, energy, and telecommunication
  infrastructure; and reabsorbing 2 million returning refugees. The
  replacement of the opium trade - which may account for one-third of
  GDP - and the search for oil and gas resources in the northern
  region are two major long-term issues.

GDP:
  purchasing power parity - $19 billion (2002 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:
  NA%

GDP - per capita:
  purchasing power parity - $700 (2002 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
  agriculture: 60%
  industry: 20%
  services: 20% (1990 est.)

Population below poverty line:
  NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
  lowest 10%: NA%
  highest 10%: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices):
  NA%

Labor force:
  10 million (2000 est.)

Labor force - by occupation:
  agriculture 80%, industry 10%, services 10% (1990 est.)

Unemployment rate:
  NA%

Budget:
  revenues: $200 million
  expenditures: $550 million, including capital expenditures of $NA
  (2003 plan est.)

Industries:
  small-scale production of textiles, soap, furniture, shoes,
  fertilizer, cement; handwoven carpets; natural gas, coal, copper

Industrial production growth rate:
  NA%

Electricity - production:
  334.8 million kWh (2001)

Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel: 36.3% hydro: 63.7% other: 0% (2001) nuclear: 0%

Electricity - consumption:
  511.4 million kWh (2001)

Electricity - exports:
  0 kWh (2001)

Electricity - imports:
  200 million kWh (2001)

Oil - production:
  0 bbl/day (2001 est.)

Oil - consumption:
  3,500 bbl/day (2001 est.)

Oil - exports:
  NA (2001)

Oil - imports:
  NA (2001)

Oil - proved reserves:
  0 bbl (37257)

Natural gas - production:
  220 million cu m (2001 est.)

Natural gas - consumption:
  220 million cu m (2001 est.)

Natural gas - exports:
  0 cu m (2001 est.)

Natural gas - imports:
  0 cu m (2001 est.)

Natural gas - proved reserves:
  49.98 billion cu m (37257)

Agriculture - products:
  opium, wheat, fruits, nuts, wool, mutton, sheepskins, lambskins

Exports:
  $1.2 billion (not including illicit exports) (2001 est.)

Exports - commodities:
  opium, fruits and nuts, handwoven carpets, wool, cotton, hides and
  pelts, precious and semi-precious gems

Exports - partners:
  Pakistan 26.8%, India 26.5%, Finland 5.8%, Germany 5.1%, UAE 4.4%,
  Belgium 4.3%, Russia 4.2%, US 4.2% (2002)

Imports:
  $1.3 billion (2001 est.)

Imports - commodities:
  capital goods, food, textiles, petroleum products

Imports - partners:
  Pakistan 25.1%, South Korea 14.4%, Japan 9.4%, US 9%, Kenya 5.8%,
  Germany 5.4% (2002)

Debt - external:
  NA (1996 est.)

Economic aid - recipient:
  international pledges made by more than 60 countries and
  international financial institutions at the Tokyo Donors Conference
  for Afghan reconstruction in January 2002 reached $4.5 billion
  through 2006, with $1.8 billion allocated for 2002; another $1.7
  billion was pledged for 2003.

Currency:
  afghani (AFA)

Currency code:
  AFA

Exchange rates:
  afghanis per US dollar - 3,000 (October-December 2002), 3,000
  (2001), 3,000 (2000), 3,000 (1999), 3,000 (1998), note: before 2002
  the market rate varied widely from the official rate; in 2002 the
  afghani was revalued and the currency stabilized

Fiscal year:
  21 March - 20 March

Communications Afghanistan

Telephones - main lines in use:
  29,000 (1998)

Telephones - mobile cellular:
  NA

Telephone system:
  general assessment: very limited telephone and telegraph service
  domestic: in 1997, telecommunications links were established between
  Mazar-e Sharif, Herat, Kandahar, Jalalabad, and Kabul through
  satellite and microwave systems
  international: satellite earth stations - 1 Intelsat (Indian Ocean)
  linked only to Iran and 1 Intersputnik (Atlantic Ocean region);
  commercial satellite telephone center in Ghazni

Radio broadcast stations:
  AM 7 (6 are inactive; the active station is in Kabul), FM 1,
  shortwave 1 (broadcasts in Pashtu, Afghan Persian (Dari), Urdu, and
  English) (1999)

Radios:
  167,000 (1999)

Television broadcast stations: at least 10 (one government-run central television station in Kabul and regional stations in nine of the 32 provinces; the regional stations operate on a reduced schedule; also, in 1997, there was a station in Mazar-e Sharif reaching four northern Afghanistan provinces) (1998)

Televisions:
  100,000 (1999)

Internet country code:
  .af

Internet Service Providers (ISPs):
  1 (2000)

Internet users:
  NA

Transportation Afghanistan

Railways:
  total: 24.6 km
  broad gauge: 9.6 km 1.524-m gauge from Gushgy (Turkmenistan) to
  Towraghondi; 15 km 1.524-m gauge from Termiz (Uzbekistan) to
  Kheyrabad transshipment point on south bank of Amu Darya (2001)

Highways: total: 21,000 km paved: 2,793 km unpaved: 18,207 km (1999 est.)

Waterways: 1,200 km note: chiefly Amu Darya, which handles vessels up to 500 DWT (2001)

Pipelines:
  gas 651 km (2003)

Ports and harbors:
  Kheyrabad, Shir Khan

Airports:
  47 (2002)

Airports - with paved runways: total: 10 over 3,047 m: 3 2,438 to 3,047 m: 4 under 914 m: 1 (2002) 1,524 to 2,437 m: 2

Airports - with unpaved runways: total: 37 under 914 m: 11 (2002) 914 to 1,523 m: 4 over 3,047 m: 1 2,438 to 3,047 m: 7 1,524 to 2,437 m: 14

Heliports: 5 (2002)

Military Afghanistan

Military branches:
  NA; note - the December 2001 Bonn Agreement called for all militia
  forces to come under the authority of the central government, but
  regional leaders have continued to retain their militias and the
  formation of a nation army will be a gradual process; Afghanistan's
  forces continue to be factionalized, largely along ethnic lines

Military manpower - military age:
  22 years of age (2003 est.)

Military manpower - availability:
  males age 15-49: 7,160,603 (2003 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:
  males age 15-49: 3,837,646 (2003 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
  males: 275,223 (2003 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure:
  $525.2 million (FY02)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP:
  7.7% (FY02)

Transnational Issues Afghanistan

Disputes - international:
  thousands of Afghan refugees still reside in Iran and Pakistan;
  isolating terrain and close ties among Pashtuns in Pakistan make
  cross-border activities difficult to control; prolonged regional
  drought strains water-sharing arrangements for Amu Darya and Helmand
  River states

Illicit drugs:
  world's largest producer of opium; cultivation of opium poppy -
  used to make heroin - expanded to 30,750 hectares in 2002, despite
  eradication; potential opium production of 1,278 metric tons; source
  of hashish; many narcotics-processing labs throughout the country;
  drug trade source of instability and some government groups profit
  from the trade; 80-90% of the heroin consumed in Europe comes from
  Afghan opium; vulnerable to narcotics money laundering through the
  hawala system

This page was last updated on 18 December, 2003

======================================================================

@Albania

Introduction Albania

Background:
  Between 1990 and 1992 Albania ended 46 years of xenophobic
  Communist rule and established a multiparty democracy. The
  transition has proven difficult as corrupt governments have tried to
  deal with high unemployment, a dilapidated infrastructure,
  widespread gangsterism, and disruptive political opponents.
  International observers judged legislative elections in 2001 to be
  acceptable and a step toward democratic development, but identified
  serious deficiencies that should be addressed through reforms in the
  Albanian electoral code.

Geography Albania

Location:
  Southeastern Europe, bordering the Adriatic Sea and Ionian Sea,
  between Greece and Serbia and Montenegro

Geographic coordinates:
  41 00 N, 20 00 E

Map references:
  Europe

Area:
  total: 28,748 sq km
  water: 1,350 sq km
  land: 27,398 sq km

Area - comparative:
  slightly smaller than Maryland

Land boundaries:
  total: 720 km
  border countries: Greece 282 km, The Former Yugoslav Republic of
  Macedonia 151 km, Serbia and Montenegro 287 km

Coastline:
  362 km

Maritime claims:
  continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation
  territorial sea: 12 NM

Climate:
  mild temperate; cool, cloudy, wet winters; hot, clear, dry summers;
  interior is cooler and wetter

Terrain:
  mostly mountains and hills; small plains along coast

Elevation extremes:
  lowest point: Adriatic Sea 0 m
  highest point: Maja e Korabit (Golem Korab) 2,753 m

Natural resources:
  petroleum, natural gas, coal, chromium, copper, timber, nickel,
  hydropower

Land use: arable land: 21.09% permanent crops: 4.45% other: 74.46% (1998 est.)

Irrigated land:
  3,400 sq km (1998 est.)

Natural hazards:
  destructive earthquakes; tsunamis occur along southwestern coast;
  floods; drought

Environment - current issues:
  deforestation; soil erosion; water pollution from industrial and
  domestic effluents

Environment - international agreements:
  party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Hazardous
  Wastes, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands
  signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - note:
  strategic location along Strait of Otranto (links Adriatic Sea to
  Ionian Sea and Mediterranean Sea)

People Albania

Population:
  3,582,205 (July 2003 est.)

Age structure:
  0-14 years: 28.1% (male 520,714; female 486,911)
  15-64 years: 64.6% (male 1,115,887; female 1,196,477)
  65 years and over: 7.3% (male 115,754; female 146,462) (2003 est.)

Median age:
  total: 26.5 years
  male: 24.8 years
  female: 28.1 years (2002)

Population growth rate:
  1.03% (2003 est.)

Birth rate:
  18.2 births/1,000 population (2003 est.)

Death rate:
  6.48 deaths/1,000 population (2003 est.)

Net migration rate:
  -1.39 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2003 est.)

Sex ratio:
  at birth: 1.08 male(s)/female
  under 15 years: 1.07 male(s)/female
  15-64 years: 0.93 male(s)/female
  65 years and over: 0.79 male(s)/female
  total population: 0.96 male(s)/female (2003 est.)

Infant mortality rate:
  total: 37.28 deaths/1,000 live births
  female: 34.71 deaths/1,000 live births (2003 est.)
  male: 39.68 deaths/1,000 live births

Life expectancy at birth:
  total population: 72.37 years
  male: 69.53 years
  female: 75.42 years (2003 est.)

Total fertility rate:
  2.22 children born/woman (2003 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
  NA

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
  NA

HIV/AIDS - deaths:
  NA

Nationality:
  noun: Albanian(s)
  adjective: Albanian

Ethnic groups:
  Albanian 95%, Greek 3%, other 2% (Vlach, Gypsy, Serb, and
  Bulgarian) (1989 est.)
  note: in 1989, other estimates of the Greek population ranged from
  1% (official Albanian statistics) to 12% (from a Greek organization)

Religions:
  Muslim 70%, Albanian Orthodox 20%, Roman Catholic 10%
  note: all mosques and churches were closed in 1967 and religious
  observances prohibited; in November 1990, Albania began allowing
  private religious practice

Languages:
  Albanian (Tosk is the official dialect), Greek

Literacy:
  definition: age 9 and over can read and write
  total population: 86.5%
  male: 93.3%
  female: 79.5% (2003 est.)

Government Albania

Country name:
  conventional long form: Republic of Albania
  conventional short form: Albania
  local short form: Shqiperia
  former: People's Socialist Republic of Albania
  local long form: Republika e Shqiperise

Government type:
  emerging democracy

Capital:
  Tirana

Administrative divisions:
  12 counties (qarqe, singular - qark); Qarku i Beratit, Qarku i
  Dibres, Qarku i Durresit, Qarku i Elbasanit, Qarku i Fierit, Qarku i
  Gjirokastres, Qarku i Korces, Qarku i Kukesit, Qarku i Lezhes, Qarku
  i Shkodres, Qarku i Tiranes, Qarku i Vlores

Independence:
  28 November 1912 (from Ottoman Empire)

National holiday:
  Independence Day, 28 November (1912)

Constitution:
  a constitution was adopted by popular referendum on 28 November
  1998; note - the opposition Democratic Party boycotted the vote

Legal system:
  has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage:
  18 years of age; universal and compulsory

Executive branch:
  chief of state: President of the Republic Alfred MOISIU (since 24
  July 2002)
  head of government: Prime Minister Fatos NANO (since 31 July 2002)
  cabinet: Council of Ministers nominated by the prime minister and
  approved by the president
  elections: president elected by the People's Assembly for a
  five-year term; election last held 24 June 2002 (next to be held NA
  June 2007); prime minister appointed by the president
  election results: Alfred MOISIU elected president; People's Assembly
  vote by number - total votes 116, for 97, against 19

Legislative branch:
  unicameral People's Assembly or Kuvendi Popullor (140 seats; 100
  are elected by direct popular vote and 40 by proportional vote for
  four-year terms)
  elections: last held 24 June 2001 with subsequent rounds on 8 July,
  22 July, 29 July, 19 August 2001 (next to be held NA June 2005)
  election results: percent of vote by party - PS 41.5%, PD and
  coalition allies 36.8%, NDP 5.2%, PSD 3.6%, PBDNJ 2.6%, PASH 2.6%,
  PAD 2.5%; seats by party - PS 73, PD and coalition allies 46, NDP 6,
  PSD 4, PBDNJ 3, PASH 3, PAD 3, independents 2

Judicial branch:
  Supreme Court (chairman is elected by the People's Assembly for a
  four-year term)

Political parties and leaders:
  Agrarian Party of Albania or PASH [Lufter XHUVELI]; Christian
  Democratic Party or PDK [Zef BUSHATI]; Communist Party of Albania or
  PKSH [Hysni MILLOSHI]; Democratic Alliance or PAD [Nerltan CEKA];
  Democratic Party or PD [Sali BERISHA]; Legality Movement Party or
  PLL [Guri DUROLLARI]; National Front Party (Balli Kombetar) or PBK
  [Abaz ERMENJI]; Party of National Unity or PUK [Idajet BEQUIRI];
  Republican Party or PR [Fatmir MEDIU]; Social Democracy or DS
  [Paskal MILO]; Social Democratic Party or PSD [Skender GJINUSHI];
  Socialist Party or PS (formerly the Albanian Party of Labor) [Fatos
  NANO]; Union for Human Rights Party or PBDNJ [Vasil MELO]

Political pressure groups and leaders:
  Omonia [Vangjel DULES]

International organization participation:
  ACCT, BSEC, CE, CEI, EAPC, EBRD, ECE, FAO, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt,
  ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol,
  IOC, IOM, ISO (correspondent), ITU, OIC, OPCW, OSCE, PFP, UN,
  UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNOMIG, UPU, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO,
  WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Dr. Fatos TARIFA FAX: [1] (202) 628-7342 telephone: [1] (202) 223-4942 chancery: 2100 S Street NW, Washington, DC 20008

Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador James F. JEFFREY embassy: Rruga Elbasanit, Labinoti #103, Tirana mailing address: U. S. Department of State, 9510 Tirana Place, Washington, DC 20521-9510 telephone: [355] (4) 247285 FAX: [355] (4) 232222

Flag description: red with a black two-headed eagle in the center

Economy Albania

Economy - overview:
  Poor and backward by European standards, Albania is making the
  difficult transition to a more modern open-market economy. The
  government has taken measures to curb violent crime and to spur
  economic activity and trade. The economy is bolstered by remittances
  from abroad of $400-$600 million annually, mostly from Greece and
  Italy; this helps offset the sizable trade deficit. Agriculture,
  which accounts for half of GDP, is held back because of frequent
  drought and the need to modernize equipment and consolidate small
  plots of land. Severe energy shortages are forcing small firms out
  of business, increasing unemployment, scaring off foreign investors,
  and spurring inflation. The government plans to boost energy imports
  to relieve the shortages. In addition, the government is moving to
  improve the poor national road network, a long-standing barrier to
  sustained economic growth.

GDP:
  purchasing power parity - $15.69 billion (2002 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:
  7.3% (2002 est.)

GDP - per capita:
  purchasing power parity - $4,400 (2002 est.)

GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 49% industry: 27% services: 24% (2002 est.)

Population below poverty line:
  30% (2001 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
  lowest 10%: NA%
  highest 10%: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices):
  6% (2002 est.)

Labor force:
  1.283 million (not including 352,000 emigrant workers and 261,000
  domestically unemployed) (2000 est.)

Labor force - by occupation:
  agriculture 50%, industry and services 50%

Unemployment rate:
  17% officially; may be as high as 30% (2001 est.)

Budget:
  revenues: $697 million
  expenditures: $1.5 billion, including capital expenditures of $368
  million (2002 est.)

Industries:
  food processing, textiles and clothing; lumber, oil, cement,
  chemicals, mining, basic metals, hydropower

Industrial production growth rate:
  9% (2000 est.)

Electricity - production:
  5.289 billion kWh (2001)

Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel: 2.9% hydro: 97.1% other: 0% (2001) nuclear: 0%

Electricity - consumption:
  5.898 billion kWh (2001)

Electricity - exports:
  221 million kWh (2001)

Electricity - imports:
  1.2 billion kWh (2001)

Oil - production:
  5,952 bbl/day (2001 est.)

Oil - consumption:
  22,400 bbl/day (2001 est.)

Oil - exports:
  NA (2001)

Oil - imports:
  NA (2001)

Oil - proved reserves:
  185.5 million bbl (37257)

Natural gas - production:
  30 million cu m (2001 est.)

Natural gas - consumption:
  30 million cu m (2001 est.)

Natural gas - exports:
  0 cu m (2001 est.)

Natural gas - imports:
  0 cu m (2001 est.)

Natural gas - proved reserves:
  3.316 billion cu m (37257)

Agriculture - products: wheat, corn, potatoes, vegetables, fruits, sugar beets, grapes; meat, dairy products

Exports: $340 million f.o.b. (2002 est.)

Exports - commodities: textiles and footwear; asphalt, metals and metallic ores, crude oil; vegetables, fruits, tobacco

Exports - partners:
  Italy 76.6%, Germany 5.6%, Greece 2.7% (2002)

Imports:
  $1.5 billion f.o.b. (2002 est.)

Imports - commodities:
  machinery and equipment, foodstuffs, textiles, chemicals

Imports - partners:
  Italy 39.4%, Greece 24.5%, Turkey 6%, Germany 5% (2002)

Debt - external:
  $784 million (2000)

Economic aid - recipient:
  ODA: $315 million (top donors were Italy, EU, Germany) (2000 est.)

Currency:
  lek (ALL)

Currency code:
  ALL

Exchange rates:
  leke per US dollar - NA (2002), 143.49 (2001), 143.71 (2000),
  137.69 (1999), 150.63 (1998)

Fiscal year:
  calendar year

Communications Albania

Telephones - main lines in use:
  120,000 (2001)

Telephones - mobile cellular:
  250,000 (2001)

Telephone system:
  general assessment: Albania has the poorest telephone service in
  Europe with fewer than two telephones per 100 inhabitants; it is
  doubtful that every village has telephone service
  domestic: obsolete wire system; no longer provides a telephone for
  every village; in 1992, following the fall of the Communist
  government, peasants cut the wire to about 1,000 villages and used
  it to build fences
  international: inadequate; international traffic carried by
  microwave radio relay from the Tirana exchange to Italy and Greece

Radio broadcast stations:
  AM 13, FM 4, shortwave 2 (2001)

Radios:
  1 million (2001)

Television broadcast stations:
  3 (plus 58 repeaters) (2001)

Televisions:
  700,000 (2001)

Internet country code:
  .al

Internet Service Providers (ISPs):
  10 (2001)

Internet users:
  12,000 (2001)

Transportation Albania

Railways: total: 447 km standard gauge: 447 km 1.435-m gauge (2002)

Highways:
  total: 18,000 km
  paved: 5,400 km
  unpaved: 12,600 km (2000)

Waterways:
  43 km
  note: includes Albanian sections of Lake Scutari, Lake Ohrid, and
  Lake Prespa (1990)

Pipelines:
  gas 339 km; oil 207 km (2003)

Ports and harbors:
  Durres, Sarande, Shengjin, Vlore

Merchant marine:
  total: 13 ships (1,000 GRT or over) 21,954 GRT/34,412 DWT
  ships by type: bulk 1, cargo 11, roll on/roll off 1, includes some
  foreign-owned ships registered here as a flag of convenience:
  Croatia 1, Honduras 1 (2002 est.)

Airports:
  12 (2002)

Airports - with paved runways:
  total: 4
  2,438 to 3,047 m: 3
  1,524 to 2,437 m: 1 (2002)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
  total: 8
  914 to 1,523 m: 2
  under 914 m: 4 (2002)
  1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
  over 3,047 m: 1

Heliports:
  1 (2002)

Military Albania

Military branches:
  Army, Navy, Air and Air Defense Forces, Interior Ministry Troops,
  Border Guards

Military manpower - military age:
  19 years of age (2003 est.)

Military manpower - availability:
  males age 15-49: 906,168 (2003 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:
  males age 15-49: 742,837 (2003 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
  males: 36,985 (2003 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure:
  $56.5 million (FY02)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP:
  1.49% (FY02)

Transnational Issues Albania

Disputes - international:
  the Albanian Government calls for the protection of the rights of
  ethnic Albanians outside its borders in the Kosovo region of Serbia
  and Montenegro, and in the northern Former Yugoslav Republic of
  Macedonia, while continuing to seek regional cooperation; some
  outside ethnic Albanian groups voice union with Albania

Illicit drugs:
  increasingly active transshipment point for Southwest Asian
  opiates, hashish, and cannabis transiting the Balkan route and - to
  a far lesser extent - cocaine from South America destined for
  Western Europe; limited opium and growing cannabis production;
  ethnic Albanian narcotrafficking organizations active and rapidly
  expanding in Europe; vulnerable to money laundering associated with
  regional trafficking in narcotics, arms, contraband, and illegal
  aliens

This page was last updated on 18 December, 2003

======================================================================

@Algeria

Introduction Algeria

Background:
  After a century of rule by France, Algeria became independent in
  1962. The surprising first round success of the fundamentalist FIS
  (Islamic Salvation Front) party in the December 1991 balloting
  caused the army to intervene, crack down on the FIS, and postpone
  the subsequent elections. The fundamentalist response has resulted
  in a continuous low-grade civil conflict with the secular state
  apparatus, which nonetheless has allowed elections featuring
  pro-government and moderate religious-based parties. The FIS's armed
  wing, the Islamic Salvation Army, disbanded in January 2000 and many
  armed militants of other groups surrendered under an amnesty program
  designed to promote national reconciliation. Nevertheless, small
  numbers of armed militants persist in confronting government forces
  and carrying out isolated attacks on villages and other types of
  terrorist attacks. Other concerns include Berber unrest, large-scale
  unemployment, a shortage of housing, and the need to diversify the
  petroleum-based economy.

Geography Algeria

Location:
  Northern Africa, bordering the Mediterranean Sea, between Morocco
  and Tunisia

Geographic coordinates:
  28 00 N, 3 00 E

Map references:
  Africa

Area:
  total: 2,381,740 sq km
  water: 0 sq km
  land: 2,381,740 sq km

Area - comparative:
  slightly less than 3.5 times the size of Texas

Land boundaries:
  total: 6,343 km
  border countries: Libya 982 km, Mali 1,376 km, Mauritania 463 km,
  Morocco 1,559 km, Niger 956 km, Tunisia 965 km, Western Sahara 42 km

Coastline:
  998 km

Maritime claims:
  exclusive fishing zone: 32-52 NM
  territorial sea: 12 NM

Climate:
  arid to semiarid; mild, wet winters with hot, dry summers along
  coast; drier with cold winters and hot summers on high plateau;
  sirocco is a hot, dust/sand-laden wind especially common in summer

Terrain:
  mostly high plateau and desert; some mountains; narrow,
  discontinuous coastal plain

Elevation extremes:
  lowest point: Chott Melrhir -40 m
  highest point: Tahat 3,003 m

Natural resources:
  petroleum, natural gas, iron ore, phosphates, uranium, lead, zinc

Land use: arable land: 3.21% permanent crops: 0.21% other: 96.58% (1998 est.)

Irrigated land:
  5,600 sq km (1998 est.)

Natural hazards:
  mountainous areas subject to severe earthquakes; mudslides and
  floods in rainy season

Environment - current issues:
  soil erosion from overgrazing and other poor farming practices;
  desertification; dumping of raw sewage, petroleum refining wastes,
  and other industrial effluents is leading to the pollution of rivers
  and coastal waters; Mediterranean Sea, in particular, becoming
  polluted from oil wastes, soil erosion, and fertilizer runoff;
  inadequate supplies of potable water

Environment - international agreements: party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands signed, but not ratified: Nuclear Test Ban

Geography - note: second-largest country in Africa (after Sudan)

People Algeria

Population:
  32,818,500 (July 2003 est.)

Age structure:
  0-14 years: 32.8% (male 5,485,197; female 5,285,434)
  15-64 years: 63% (male 10,460,475; female 10,224,389)
  65 years and over: 4.2% (male 624,839; female 738,166) (2003 est.)

Median age:
  total: 22.5 years
  male: 22.3 years
  female: 22.6 years (2002)

Population growth rate:
  1.65% (2003 est.)

Birth rate:
  21.94 births/1,000 population (2003 est.)

Death rate:
  5.09 deaths/1,000 population (2003 est.)

Net migration rate:
  -0.4 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2003 est.)

Sex ratio:
  at birth: 1.04 male(s)/female
  under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
  15-64 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
  65 years and over: 0.85 male(s)/female
  total population: 1.02 male(s)/female (2003 est.)

Infant mortality rate:
  total: 37.74 deaths/1,000 live births
  female: 35.02 deaths/1,000 live births (2003 est.)
  male: 40.34 deaths/1,000 live births

Life expectancy at birth:
  total population: 70.54 years
  male: 69.14 years
  female: 72.01 years (2003 est.)

Total fertility rate:
  2.55 children born/woman (2003 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
  0.1% - note: no country specific models provided (2001 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
  NA

HIV/AIDS - deaths:
  NA

Nationality:
  noun: Algerian(s)
  adjective: Algerian

Ethnic groups:
  Arab-Berber 99%, European less than 1%

Religions:
  Sunni Muslim (state religion) 99%, Christian and Jewish 1%

Languages:
  Arabic (official), French, Berber dialects

Literacy:
  definition: age 15 and over can read and write
  total population: 70%
  male: 78.8%
  female: 61% (2003 est.)

Government Algeria

Country name:
  conventional long form: People's Democratic Republic of Algeria
  conventional short form: Algeria
  local short form: Al Jaza'ir
  local long form: Al Jumhuriyah al Jaza'iriyah ad Dimuqratiyah ash
  Sha'biyah

Government type:
  republic

Capital:
  Algiers

Administrative divisions:
  48 provinces (wilayas, singular - wilaya); Adrar, Ain Defla, Ain
  Temouchent, Alger, Annaba, Batna, Bechar, Bejaia, Biskra, Blida,
  Bordj Bou Arreridj, Bouira, Boumerdes, Chlef, Constantine, Djelfa,
  El Bayadh, El Oued, El Tarf, Ghardaia, Guelma, Illizi, Jijel,
  Khenchela, Laghouat, Mascara, Medea, Mila, Mostaganem, M'Sila,
  Naama, Oran, Ouargla, Oum el Bouaghi, Relizane, Saida, Setif, Sidi
  Bel Abbes, Skikda, Souk Ahras, Tamanghasset, Tebessa, Tiaret,
  Tindouf, Tipaza, Tissemsilt, Tizi Ouzou, Tlemcen

Independence:
  5 July 1962 (from France)

National holiday:
  Revolution Day, 1 November (1954)

Constitution:
  19 November 1976, effective 22 November 1976; revised 3 November
  1988, 23 February 1989, and 28 November 1996

Legal system:
  socialist, based on French and Islamic law; judicial review of
  legislative acts in ad hoc Constitutional Council composed of
  various public officials, including several Supreme Court justices;
  has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage:
  18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
  chief of state: President Abdelaziz BOUTEFLIKA (since 28 April 1999)
  head of government: Prime Minister Ahmed OUYAHIA (since 9 May 2003)
  cabinet: Cabinet of Ministers appointed by the president
  elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term;
  election last held 15 April 1999 (next to be held NA April 2004);
  prime minister appointed by the president
  election results: Abdelaziz BOUTEFLIKA elected president; percent of
  vote - Abdelaziz BOUTEFLIKA over 70%; note - his six opposing
  candidates withdrew on the eve of the election citing electoral fraud

Legislative branch:
  bicameral Parliament consists of the National People's Assembly or
  Al-Majlis Ech-Chaabi Al-Watani (389 seats - changed from 380 seats
  in the 2002 elections; members elected by popular vote to serve
  five-year terms) and the Council of Nations (144 seats; one-third of
  the members appointed by the president, two-thirds elected by
  indirect vote; members serve six-year terms; the constitution
  requires half the council to be renewed every three years)
  elections: National People's Assembly - last held 30 May 2002 (next
  to be held NA 2007); Council of Nations - last held 30 December 2000
  (next to be held NA 2003)
  election results: National People's Assembly - percent of vote by
  party - NA%; seats by party - FLN 199, RND 48, MRN 43, MSP 38, PT
  21, FNA 8, Nahda 1, PRA 1, MEN 1, independents 29; Council of
  Nations - percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - RND 79,
  FLN 12, FFS 4, MSP 1 (remaining 48 seats appointed by the president,
  party breakdown NA)

Judicial branch:
  Supreme Court or Cour Supreme

Political parties and leaders:
  Algerian National Front or FNA [Moussa TOUATI]; Democratic National
  Rally or RND [Ahmed OUYAHIA, chairman]; Islamic Salvation Front or
  FIS (outlawed April 1992) [Ali BELHADJ and Dr. Abassi MADANI, Rabeh
  KEBIR (self-exile in Germany)]; Society of Peace Movement or MSP
  [Boujerra SOLTANI]; National Entente Movement or MEN [Ali
  BOUKHAZNA]; National Liberation Front or FLN [Ali BENFLIS, secretary
  general]; National Reform Movement or MRN [Abdellah DJABALLAH];
  National Renewal Party or PRA [leader NA]; Progressive Republican
  Party [Khadir DRISS]; Rally for Culture and Democracy or RCD [Said
  SAADI, secretary general]; Renaissance Movement or EnNahda Movement
  [Lahbib ADAMI]; Social Liberal Party or PSL [Ahmed KHELIL];
  Socialist Forces Front or FFS [Hocine Ait AHMED, secretary general
  (self-exile in Switzerland)]; Union for Democracy and Liberty
  [Mouley BOUKHALAFA]; Workers Party or PT [Louisa HANOUN]
  note: a law banning political parties based on religion was enacted
  in March 1997

Political pressure groups and leaders:
  NA

International organization participation:
  ABEDA, AfDB, AFESD, AL, AMF, AMU, ECA, FAO, G-15, G-19, G-24, G-77,
  IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICCt (signatory), ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IDB,
  IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU,
  MONUC, NAM, OAPEC, OAS (observer), OAU, OIC, OPCW, OPEC, OSCE
  (partner), UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNMEE, UPU, WCO, WHO,
  WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO (observer)

Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Idriss JAZAIRY chancery: 2137 Wyoming Ave NW, Washington, DC 20008 FAX: [1] (202) 667-2174 telephone: [1] (202) 265-2800

Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Richard W. ERDMAN (as of 10 July 2003) embassy: 4 Chemin Cheikh Bachir El-Ibrahimi, Algiers mailing address: B. P. Box 549, Alger-Gare, 16000 Algiers telephone: [213] (21) 691-425/255/186 FAX: [213] (21) 69-39-79

Flag description:
  two equal vertical bands of green (hoist side) and white; a red,
  five-pointed star within a red crescent centered over the two-color
  boundary; the crescent, star, and color green are traditional
  symbols of Islam (the state religion)

Economy Algeria

Economy - overview:
  The hydrocarbons sector is the backbone of the economy, accounting
  for roughly 60% of budget revenues, 30% of GDP, and over 95% of
  export earnings. Algeria has the fifth-largest reserves of natural
  gas in the world and is the second-largest gas exporter; it ranks
  14th in oil reserves. Algeria's financial and economic indicators
  improved during the mid-1990s, in part because of policy reforms
  supported by the IMF and debt rescheduling from the Paris Club.
  Algeria's finances in 2000-03 benefited from substantial trade
  surpluses, record foreign exchange reserves, and reductions in
  foreign debt. Real GDP has risen due to higher oil output and
  increased government spending. The government's continued efforts to
  diversify the economy by attracting foreign and domestic investment
  outside the energy sector, however, has had little success in
  reducing high unemployment and improving living standards.

GDP:
  purchasing power parity - $173.8 billion (2002 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:
  3.3% (2002 est.)

GDP - per capita:
  purchasing power parity - $5,400 (2002 est.)

GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 8% industry: 60% services: 32% (2002 est.)

Population below poverty line: 23% (1999 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: 2.8% highest 10%: 26.8% (1995)

Distribution of family income - Gini index:
  35.3 (1995)

Inflation rate (consumer prices):
  3% (2002 est.)

Labor force:
  9.4 million (2001 est.)

Labor force - by occupation: government 29%, agriculture 25%, construction and public works 15%, industry 11%, other 20% (1996 est.)

Unemployment rate:
  31% (2002 est.)

Budget:
  revenues: $20.3 billion
  expenditures: $18.8 billion, including capital expenditures of $5.8
  billion (2001 est.)

Industries:
  petroleum, natural gas, light industries, mining, electrical,
  petrochemical, food processing

Industrial production growth rate:
  6% (2001 est.)

Electricity - production:
  24.69 billion kWh (2001)

Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel: 99.7% hydro: 0.3% other: 0% (2001) nuclear: 0%

Electricity - consumption:
  22.9 billion kWh (2001)

Electricity - exports:
  340 million kWh (2001)

Electricity - imports:
  275 million kWh (2001)

Oil - production:
  1.52 million bbl/day (2001 est.)

Oil - consumption:
  209,000 bbl/day (2001 est.)

Oil - exports:
  NA (2001)

Oil - imports:
  NA (2001)

Oil - proved reserves:
  13.1 billion bbl (37257)

Natural gas - production:
  80.3 billion cu m (2001 est.)

Natural gas - consumption:
  22.32 billion cu m (2001 est.)

Natural gas - exports:
  57.98 billion cu m (2001 est.)

Natural gas - imports:
  0 cu m (2001 est.)

Natural gas - proved reserves:
  4.739 trillion cu m (37257)

Agriculture - products:
  wheat, barley, oats, grapes, olives, citrus, fruits; sheep, cattle

Exports:
  $19.5 billion f.o.b. (2002 est.)

Exports - commodities:
  petroleum, natural gas, and petroleum products 97%

Exports - partners:
  Italy 18.9%, Spain 13.1%, France 13%, US 12.1%, Netherlands 6%,
  Brazil 5.9%, Canada 5.7%, Turkey 5.3%, Belgium 5.1% (2002)

Imports:
  $10.6 billion f.o.b. (2002 est.)

Imports - commodities:
  capital goods, foodstuffs, consumer goods

Imports - partners:
  France 31%, Italy 10%, US 8.3%, Germany 6.6%, Spain 5.9%, Turkey
  4.2% (2002)

Debt - external:
  $21.6 billion (2002 est.)

Economic aid - recipient:
  $162 million (2000 est.)

Currency:
  Algerian dinar (DZD)

Currency code:
  DZD

Exchange rates:
  Algerian dinars per US dollar - 79.68 (2002), 77.22 (2001), 75.26
  (2000), 66.57 (1999), 58.74 (1998)

Fiscal year:
  calendar year

Communications Algeria

Telephones - main lines in use:
  2.3 million (1998)

Telephones - mobile cellular:
  33,500 (1999)

Telephone system:
  general assessment: telephone density in Algeria is very low, not
  exceeding five telephones per 100 persons; the number of fixed main
  lines increased in the last few years to a little more than
  2,000,000, but only about two-thirds of these have subscribers; much
  of the infrastructure is outdated and inefficient
  domestic: good service in north but sparse in south; domestic
  satellite system with 12 earth stations (20 additional domestic
  earth stations are planned)
  international: 5 submarine cables; microwave radio relay to Italy,
  France, Spain, Morocco, and Tunisia; coaxial cable to Morocco and
  Tunisia; participant in Medarabtel; satellite earth stations - 2
  Intelsat (1 Atlantic Ocean and 1 Indian Ocean), 1 Intersputnik, and
  1 Arabsat (1998)

Radio broadcast stations:
  AM 25, FM 1, shortwave 8 (1999)

Radios:
  7.1 million (1997)

Television broadcast stations:
  46 (plus 216 repeaters) (1995)

Televisions:
  3.1 million (1997)

Internet country code:
  .dz

Internet Service Providers (ISPs):
  2 (2000)

Internet users:
  180,000 (2001)

Transportation Algeria

Railways:
  total: 3,973 km
  standard gauge: 2,888 km 1.435-m gauge (283 km electrified)
  narrow gauge: 1,085 km 1.055-m gauge (2002)

Highways:
  total: 104,000 km
  paved: 71,656 km (including 640 km of expressways)
  unpaved: 32,344 km (1999)

Waterways:
  none

Pipelines:
  condensate 1,344 km; gas 87,347 km; liquid petroleum gas 2,213 km;
  oil 6,496 km (2003)

Ports and harbors:
  Algiers, Annaba, Arzew, Bejaia, Beni Saf, Dellys, Djendjene,
  Ghazaouet, Jijel, Mostaganem, Oran, Skikda, Tenes

Merchant marine:
  total: 69 ships (1,000 GRT or over) 884,032 GRT/1,010,777 DWT
  ships by type: bulk 9, cargo 23, chemical tanker 6, liquefied gas
  10, petroleum tanker 4, roll on/roll off 12, short-sea passenger 4,
  specialized tanker 1, includes some foreign-owned ships registered
  here as a flag of convenience: United Arab Emirates 2 (2002 est.)

Airports:
  136 (2002)

Airports - with paved runways: total: 54 over 3,047 m: 9 2,438 to 3,047 m: 27 914 to 1,523 m: 5 under 914 m: 1 (2002) 1,524 to 2,437 m: 12

Airports - with unpaved runways: total: 82 2,438 to 3,047 m: 2 1,524 to 2,437 m: 23 under 914 m: 19 (2002) 914 to 1,523 m: 38

Heliports: 1 (2002)

Military Algeria

Military branches:
  People's National Army (ANP), Algerian National Navy (ANN), Air
  Force, Territorial Air Defense, National Gendarmerie

Military manpower - military age:
  19 years of age (2003 est.)

Military manpower - availability:
  males age 15-49: 9,243,884 (2003 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:
  males age 15-49: 5,646,418 (2003 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
  males: 412,545 (2003 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure:
  $1.87 billion (FY99)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP:
  4.1% (FY99)

Transnational Issues Algeria

Disputes - international:
  Libya claims about 32,000 sq km in a dormant dispute still
  reflected on its maps in southeastern Algeria; armed bandits based
  in Mali attack southern Algerian towns; border with Morocco remains
  closed over mutual claims of harboring militants, arms smuggling;
  Algeria supports the exiled Sahrawi Polisario Front and rejects
  Moroccan administration of Western Sahara

This page was last updated on 18 December, 2003

======================================================================

@American Samoa

Introduction American Samoa

Background:
  Settled as early as 1000 B.C., Samoa was "discovered" by European
  explorers in the 18th century. International rivalries in the latter
  half of the 19th century were settled by an 1899 treaty in which
  Germany and the US divided the Samoan archipelago. The US formally
  occupied its portion - a smaller group of eastern islands with the
  excellent harbor of Pago Pago - the following year.

Geography American Samoa

Location:
  Oceania, group of islands in the South Pacific Ocean, about half
  way between Hawaii and New Zealand

Geographic coordinates:
  14 20 S, 170 00 W

Map references:
  Oceania

Area:
  total: 199 sq km
  note: includes Rose Island and Swains Island
  water: 0 sq km
  land: 199 sq km

Area - comparative:
  slightly larger than Washington, DC

Land boundaries:
  0 km

Coastline:
  116 km

Maritime claims:
  exclusive economic zone: 200 NM
  territorial sea: 12 NM

Climate:
  tropical marine, moderated by southeast trade winds; annual
  rainfall averages about 3 m; rainy season from November to April,
  dry season from May to October; little seasonal temperature variation

Terrain:
  five volcanic islands with rugged peaks and limited coastal plains,
  two coral atolls (Rose Island, Swains Island)

Elevation extremes:
  lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m
  highest point: Lata 966 m

Natural resources:
  pumice, pumicite

Land use:
  arable land: 5%
  permanent crops: 10%
  other: 85% (1998 est.)

Irrigated land:
  NA sq km

Natural hazards:
  typhoons common from December to March

Environment - current issues:
  limited natural fresh water resources; the water division of the
  government has spent substantial funds in the past few years to
  improve water catchments and pipelines

Geography - note:
  Pago Pago has one of the best natural deepwater harbors in the
  South Pacific Ocean, sheltered by shape from rough seas and
  protected by peripheral mountains from high winds; strategic
  location in the South Pacific Ocean

People American Samoa

Population:
  70,260 (July 2003 est.)

Age structure:
  0-14 years: 37.5% (male 13,557; female 12,818)
  15-64 years: 57% (male 19,712; female 20,346)
  65 years and over: 5.4% (male 2,081; female 1,746) (2003 est.)

Median age:
  total: 21.6 years
  male: 21.1 years
  female: 22.2 years (2002)

Population growth rate:
  2.22% (2003 est.)

Birth rate:
  23.26 births/1,000 population (2003 est.)

Death rate:
  4.38 deaths/1,000 population (2003 est.)

Net migration rate:
  3.29 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2003 est.)

Sex ratio:
  at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female
  under 15 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
  15-64 years: 0.97 male(s)/female
  65 years and over: 1.19 male(s)/female
  total population: 1.01 male(s)/female (2003 est.)

Infant mortality rate:
  total: 9.82 deaths/1,000 live births
  female: 7.93 deaths/1,000 live births (2003 est.)
  male: 11.61 deaths/1,000 live births

Life expectancy at birth:
  total population: 75.75 years
  male: 71.35 years
  female: 80.41 years (2003 est.)

Total fertility rate:
  3.3 children born/woman (2003 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
  NA%

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
  NA

HIV/AIDS - deaths:
  NA

Nationality:
  noun: American Samoan(s)
  adjective: American Samoan

Ethnic groups:
  Samoan (Polynesian) 89%, Caucasian 2%, Tongan 4%, other 5%

Religions:
  Christian Congregationalist 50%, Roman Catholic 20%, Protestant and
  other 30%

Languages:
  Samoan (closely related to Hawaiian and other Polynesian
  languages), English
  note: most people are bilingual

Literacy:
  definition: age 15 and over can read and write
  total population: 97%
  male: 98%
  female: 97% (1980 est.)

Government American Samoa

Country name:
  conventional long form: Territory of American Samoa
  conventional short form: American Samoa
  abbreviation: AS

Dependency status:
  unincorporated and unorganized territory of the US; administered by
  the Office of Insular Affairs, US Department of the Interior

Government type:
  NA

Capital:
  Pago Pago

Administrative divisions:
  none (territory of the US); there are no first-order administrative
  divisions as defined by the US Government, but there are three
  districts and two islands* at the second order; Eastern, Manu'a,
  Rose Island*, Swains Island*, Western

Independence:
  none (territory of the US)

National holiday:
  Flag Day, 17 April (1900)

Constitution:
  ratified 1966, in effect 1967

Legal system:
  NA

Suffrage:
  18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
  chief of state: President George W. BUSH of the US (since 20
  January 2001) and Vice President Richard B. CHENEY (since 20 January
  2001)
  election results: Tauese P. SUNIA reelected governor; percent of
  vote - Tauese P. SUNIA (Democrat) 50.7%, Lealaifuaneva Peter REID
  (independent) 47.8%
  note: Togiola TULAFONO became acting governor 26 March 2003 upon the
  death of Governor Tauese P. SUNIA
  elections: US president and vice president elected on the same
  ticket for four-year terms; governor and lieutenant governor elected
  on the same ticket by popular vote for four-year terms; election
  last held 7 November 2000 (next to be held NA November 2004)
  head of government: Governor Togiola TULAFONO (since 7 April 2003)
  following the death of Governor Tauese P. SUNIA on 26 March 2003;
  TULAFONO had been the Lieutenant Governor
  cabinet: NA

Legislative branch:
  bicameral Fono or Legislative Assembly consists of the House of
  Representatives (21 seats - 20 of which are elected by popular vote
  and 1 is an appointed, nonvoting delegate from Swains Island;
  members serve two-year terms) and the Senate (18 seats; members are
  elected from local chiefs and serve four-year terms)
  election results: House of Representatives - percent of vote by
  party - NA%; seats by party - NA; Senate - percent of vote by party
  - NA%; seats by party - independents 18
  note: American Samoa elects one nonvoting representative to the US
  House of Representatives; election last held 7 November 2002 (next
  to be held NA November 2004); results - Eni F. H. FALEOMAVAEGA
  (Democrat) reelected as delegate
  elections: House of Representatives - last held 7 November 2002
  (next to be held NA November 2004); Senate - last held 7 November
  2000 (next to be held NA November 2004)

Judicial branch:
  High Court (chief justice and associate justices are appointed by
  the US Secretary of the Interior)

Political parties and leaders:
  Democratic Party [leader NA]; Republican Party [leader NA]

Political pressure groups and leaders:
  NA

International organization participation:
  ESCAP (associate), Interpol (subbureau), IOC, SPC

Diplomatic representation in the US:
  none (territory of the US)

Diplomatic representation from the US:
  none (territory of the US)

Flag description:
  blue, with a white triangle edged in red that is based on the outer
  side and extends to the hoist side; a brown and white American bald
  eagle flying toward the hoist side is carrying two traditional
  Samoan symbols of authority, a staff and a war club

Economy American Samoa

Economy - overview:
  This is a traditional Polynesian economy in which more than 90% of
  the land is communally owned. Economic activity is strongly linked
  to the US, with which American Samoa conducts most of its foreign
  trade. Tuna fishing and tuna processing plants are the backbone of
  the private sector, with canned tuna the primary export. Transfers
  from the US Government add substantially to American Samoa's
  economic well-being. Attempts by the government to develop a larger
  and broader economy are restrained by Samoa's remote location, its
  limited transportation, and its devastating hurricanes. Tourism, a
  developing sector, has been held back by the recurring financial
  difficulties in East Asia.

GDP:
  purchasing power parity - $500 million (2000 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:
  NA%

GDP - per capita:
  purchasing power parity - $8,000 (2000 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
  agriculture: NA%
  industry: NA%
  services: NA%

Population below poverty line:
  NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
  lowest 10%: NA%
  highest 10%: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices):
  NA%

Labor force:
  14,000 (1996)

Labor force - by occupation:
  government 33%, tuna canneries 34%, other 33% (1990)

Unemployment rate:
  6% (2000)

Budget:
  revenues: $121 million (37% in local revenue and 63% in US grants)
  expenditures: $127 million, including capital expenditures of $NA
  (FY96/97)

Industries:
  tuna canneries (largely supplied by foreign fishing vessels),
  handicrafts

Industrial production growth rate:
  NA%

Electricity - production:
  130 million kWh (2001)

Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel: 100% hydro: 0% other: 0% (2001) nuclear: 0%

Electricity - consumption:
  120.9 million kWh (2001)

Electricity - exports:
  0 kWh (2001)

Electricity - imports:
  0 kWh (2001)

Oil - production:
  0 bbl/day (2001 est.)

Oil - consumption:
  3,800 bbl/day (2001 est.)

Oil - exports:
  NA (2001)

Oil - imports:
  NA (2001)

Agriculture - products: bananas, coconuts, vegetables, taro, breadfruit, yams, copra, pineapples, papayas; dairy products, livestock

Exports:
  $345 million (1999)

Exports - commodities:
  canned tuna 93%

Exports - partners:
  Indonesia 71.1%, Japan 7.7%, Samoa 7.7%, Australia 6.7% (2002)

Imports:
  $452 million (1999)

Imports - commodities:
  materials for canneries 56%, food 8%, petroleum products 7%,
  machinery and parts 6%

Imports - partners:
  Australia 41%, New Zealand 23%, South Korea 18% (2002)

Debt - external:
  $NA

Economic aid - recipient:
  important financial support from the US, more than $40 million in
  1994

Currency:
  US dollar (USD)

Currency code:
  USD

Exchange rates:
  the US dollar is used

Fiscal year:
  1 October - 30 September

Communications American Samoa

Telephones - main lines in use:
  13,000 (1997)

Telephones - mobile cellular:
  2,550 (1997)

Telephone system:
  general assessment: NA
  domestic: good telex, telegraph, facsimile and cellular telephone
  services; domestic satellite system with 1 Comsat earth station
  international: satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Pacific Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations:
  AM 1, FM 1, shortwave 0 (1998)

Radios:
  57,000 (1997)

Television broadcast stations:
  1 (1997)

Televisions:
  14,000 (1997)

Internet country code:
  .as

Internet Service Providers (ISPs):
  1 (2000)

Internet users:
  NA

Transportation American Samoa

Railways: 0 km

Highways: total: 350 km paved: 150 km unpaved: 200 km

Waterways:
  none

Ports and harbors:
  Aunu'u (new construction), Auasi, Faleosao, Ofu, Pago Pago, Ta'u

Merchant marine:
  none (2002 est.)

Airports:
  3 (2002)

Airports - with paved runways:
  total: 2
  2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
  under 914 m: 1 (2002)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
  total: 1
  under 914 m: 1 (2002)

Military American Samoa

Military - note: defense is the responsibility of the US

Transnational Issues American Samoa

Disputes - international: none

This page was last updated on 18 December, 2003

======================================================================

@Andorra

Introduction Andorra

Background:
  For 715 years, from 1278 to 1993, Andorrans lived under a unique
  co-principality, ruled by the French chief of state and the Spanish
  bishop of Urgel. In 1993, this feudal system was modified with the
  titular heads of state retained, but the government transformed into
  a parliamentary democracy. Long isolated and impoverished,
  mountainous Andorra achieved considerable prosperity since World War
  II through its tourist industry. Many immigrants (legal and illegal)
  are attracted to the thriving economy with its lack of income taxes.

Geography Andorra

Location:
  Southwestern Europe, between France and Spain

Geographic coordinates:
  42 30 N, 1 30 E

Map references:
  Europe

Area:
  total: 468 sq km
  water: 0 sq km
  land: 468 sq km

Area - comparative:
  2.5 times the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries: total: 120.3 km border countries: France 56.6 km, Spain 63.7 km

Coastline:
  0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims:
  none (landlocked)

Climate:
  temperate; snowy, cold winters and warm, dry summers

Terrain:
  rugged mountains dissected by narrow valleys

Elevation extremes: lowest point: Riu Runer 840 m highest point: Coma Pedrosa 2,946 m

Natural resources: hydropower, mineral water, timber, iron ore, lead

Land use: arable land: 2.22% permanent crops: 0% other: 97.78% (1998 est.)

Irrigated land:
  NA sq km

Natural hazards:
  avalanches

Environment - current issues:
  deforestation; overgrazing of mountain meadows contributes to soil
  erosion; air pollution; wastewater treatment and solid waste disposal

Environment - international agreements:
  party to: Hazardous Wastes
  signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - note:
  landlocked; straddles a number of important crossroads in the
  Pyrenees

People Andorra

Population:
  69,150 (July 2003 est.)

Age structure:
  0-14 years: 15.1% (male 5,473; female 4,974)
  15-64 years: 71.7% (male 26,063; female 23,542)
  65 years and over: 13.2% (male 4,543; female 4,555) (2003 est.)

Median age:
  total: 39.1 years
  male: 39.4 years
  female: 38.8 years (2002)

Population growth rate:
  1.06% (2003 est.)

Birth rate:
  9.65 births/1,000 population (2003 est.)

Death rate:
  5.74 deaths/1,000 population (2003 est.)

Net migration rate:
  6.67 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2003 est.)

Sex ratio:
  at birth: 1.07 male(s)/female
  under 15 years: 1.1 male(s)/female
  15-64 years: 1.11 male(s)/female
  65 years and over: 1 male(s)/female
  total population: 1.09 male(s)/female (2003 est.)

Infant mortality rate:
  total: 4.06 deaths/1,000 live births
  female: 3.7 deaths/1,000 live births (2003 est.)
  male: 4.4 deaths/1,000 live births

Life expectancy at birth:
  total population: 83.49 years
  male: 80.58 years
  female: 86.58 years (2003 est.)

Total fertility rate:
  1.27 children born/woman (2003 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
  NA%

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
  NA

HIV/AIDS - deaths:
  NA

Nationality:
  noun: Andorran(s)
  adjective: Andorran

Ethnic groups:
  Spanish 43%, Andorran 33%, Portuguese 11%, French 7%, other 6%
  (1998)

Religions:
  Roman Catholic (predominant)

Languages:
  Catalan (official), French, Castilian, Portuguese

Literacy: definition: NA total population: 100% male: NA% female: NA%

Government Andorra

Country name:
  conventional long form: Principality of Andorra
  conventional short form: Andorra
  local short form: Andorra
  local long form: Principat d'Andorra

Government type:
  parliamentary democracy (since March 1993) that retains as its
  heads of state a coprincipality; the two princes are the president
  of France and bishop of Seo de Urgel, Spain, who are represented
  locally by coprinces' representatives

Capital:
  Andorra la Vella

Administrative divisions:
  7 parishes (parroquies, singular - parroquia); Andorra la Vella,
  Canillo, Encamp, La Massana, Escaldes-Engordany, Ordino, Sant Julia
  de Loria

Independence:
  1278 (was formed under the joint suzerainty of the French count of
  Foix and the Spanish bishop of Urgel)

National holiday:
  Our Lady of Meritxell Day, 8 September (1278)

Constitution:
  Andorra's first written constitution was drafted in 1991; approved
  by referendum 14 March 1993; came into force 4 May 1993

Legal system:
  based on French and Spanish civil codes; no judicial review of
  legislative acts; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage:
  18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
  chief of state: French Coprince Jacques CHIRAC (since 17 May 1995),
  represented by Philippe MASSONI (since 26 July 2002); Spanish
  Coprince Episcopal Monsignor Joan Enric VIVES SICILIA (since 12 May
  2003), represented by Nemesi MARQUES OSTE (since NA)
  elections: Executive Council president elected by the General
  Council and formally appointed by the coprinces for a four-year
  term; election last held 4 March 2001 (next to be held NA 2005)
  election results: Marc FORNE Molne elected executive council
  president; percent of General Council vote - NA%
  cabinet: Executive Council or Govern designated by the Executive
  Council president
  head of government: Executive Council President Marc FORNE MOLNE
  (since 21 December 1994)

Legislative branch:
  unicameral General Council of the Valleys or Consell General de las
  Valls (28 seats; members are elected by direct popular vote, 14 from
  a single national constituency and 14 to represent each of the 7
  parishes; members serve four-year terms)
  elections: last held 4 March 2001 (next to be held NA March 2005)
  election results: percent of vote by party - PLA 46.1%, PSD 30%, PD
  23.8%, other 0.1%; seats by party - PLA 15, PSD 6, PD 5,
  independents 2

Judicial branch:
  Tribunal of Judges or Tribunal de Batlles; Tribunal of the Courts
  or Tribunal de Corts; Supreme Court of Justice of Andorra or
  Tribunal Superior de Justicia d'Andorra; Supreme Council of Justice
  or Consell Superior de la Justicia; Fiscal Ministry or Ministeri
  Fiscal; Constitutional Tribunal or Tribunal Constitucional

Political parties and leaders:
  Democratic Party or PD (formerly part of National Democratic Group
  or AND) [Ladislau BARO SOLO]; Liberal Party of Andorra or PLA [Marc
  FORNE MOLNE] (used to be Liberal Union or UL); Liberal Union or UL
  [Francesc CERQUEDA]; National Democratic Group or AND [Ladislau BARO
  SOLO]; National Democratic Initiative or IDN [Vicenc MATEU ZAMORA];
  New Democracy or ND [Jaume BARTOMEU CASSANY]; Social Democratic
  Party or PSD (formerly part of National Democratic Group of AND)
  [leader NA]; Union of the People of Ordino (Unio Parroquial
  d'Ordino) or UPO [Simo DURO COMA]
  note: there are two other small parties

Political pressure groups and leaders:
  NA

International organization participation:
  CE, ECE, ICAO, ICCt, ICRM, IFRCS, Interpol, IOC, ITU, OSCE, UN,
  UNESCO, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WToO, WTrO (observer)

Diplomatic representation in the US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires Jelena V.
  PIA-COMELLA
  chancery: 2 United Nations Plaza, 25th Floor, New York, NY 10017
  FAX: [1] (212) 750-6630
  telephone: [1] (212) 750-8064

Diplomatic representation from the US:
  the US does not have an embassy in Andorra; the US Ambassador to
  Spain is accredited to Andorra; US interests in Andorra are
  represented by the Consulate General's office in Barcelona (Spain);
  mailing address: Paseo Reina Elisenda, 23, 08034 Barcelona, Spain;
  telephone: (3493) 280-2227; FAX: (3493) 205-7705

Flag description:
  three equal vertical bands of blue (hoist side), yellow, and red
  with the national coat of arms centered in the yellow band; the coat
  of arms features a quartered shield; similar to the flags of Chad
  and Romania, which do not have a national coat of arms in the
  center, and the flag of Moldova, which does bear a national emblem

Economy Andorra

Economy - overview:
  Tourism, the mainstay of Andorra's tiny, well-to-do economy,
  accounts for roughly 80% of GDP. An estimated 9 million tourists
  visit annually, attracted by Andorra's duty-free status and by its
  summer and winter resorts. Andorra's comparative advantage has
  recently eroded as the economies of neighboring France and Spain
  have been opened up, providing broader availability of goods and
  lower tariffs. The banking sector, with its "tax haven" status, also
  contributes substantially to the economy. Agricultural production is
  limited - only 2% of the land is arable - and most food has to be
  imported. The principal livestock activity is sheep raising.
  Manufacturing output consists mainly of cigarettes, cigars, and
  furniture. Andorra is a member of the EU Customs Union and is
  treated as an EU member for trade in manufactured goods (no tariffs)
  and as a non-EU member for agricultural products.

GDP:
  purchasing power parity - $1.3 billion (2000 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:
  3.8% (2000 est.)

GDP - per capita:
  purchasing power parity - $19,000 (2000 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
  agriculture: NA%
  industry: NA%
  services: NA%

Population below poverty line:
  NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
  lowest 10%: NA%
  highest 10%: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices):
  4.3% (2000)

Labor force:
  33,000 (2001 est.)

Labor force - by occupation:
  agriculture 1%, industry 21%, services 78% (2000 est.)

Unemployment rate:
  0%

Budget:
  revenues: $385 million
  expenditures: $342 million, including capital expenditures of $NA
  (1997)

Industries:
  tourism (particularly skiing), cattle raising, timber, banking

Industrial production growth rate:
  NA%

Electricity - production:
  NA kWh

Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel: 0% hydro: 0% other: 0% nuclear: 0%

Electricity - consumption:
  NA kWh

Electricity - exports:
  0 kWh (2002)

Electricity - imports:
  NA kWh; note - most electricity supplied by Spain and France;
  Andorra generates a small amount of hydropower

Agriculture - products:
  small quantities of rye, wheat, barley, oats, vegetables; sheep

Exports:
  $58 million f.o.b. (1998)

Exports - commodities:
  tobacco products, furniture

Exports - partners:
  Spain 58%, France 34% (2000)

Imports:
  $1.077 billion (1998)

Imports - commodities:
  consumer goods, food, electricity

Imports - partners:
  Spain 48%, France 35%, US 2.3% (2000)

Debt - external:
  $NA

Economic aid - recipient:
  none

Currency:
  euro (EUR)

Currency code:
  EUR

Exchange rates:
  euros per US dollar - 1.06 (2002), 1.12 (2001), 1.09 (2000), 0.94
  (1999)

Fiscal year:
  calendar year

Communications Andorra

Telephones - main lines in use:
  32,946 (December 1998)

Telephones - mobile cellular:
  14,117 (December 1998)

Telephone system: general assessment: NA domestic: modern system with microwave radio relay connections between exchanges international: landline circuits to France and Spain

Radio broadcast stations:
  AM 0, FM 15, shortwave 0 (1998)

Radios:
  16,000 (1997)

Television broadcast stations:
  0 (1997)

Televisions:
  27,000 (1997)

Internet country code:
  .ad

Internet Service Providers (ISPs):
  1 (2000)

Internet users:
  24,500 (2001)

Transportation Andorra

Railways: 0 km

Highways: total: 269 km paved: 198 km unpaved: 71 km (1994)

Waterways:
  none

Ports and harbors:
  none

Airports:
  none (2002)

Military Andorra

Military branches:
  no regular military forces, but there is a police force

Military - note:
  defense is the responsibility of France and Spain

Transnational Issues Andorra

Disputes - international:
  none; border is undemarcated in sections but is not in dispute (a
  few French farmers still remain upset about the transfer of 35
  hectares of land to Andorra)

This page was last updated on 18 December, 2003

======================================================================

@Angola

Introduction Angola

Background:
  Civil war has been the norm in Angola since independence from
  Portugal in 1975. A 1994 peace accord between the government and the
  National Union for the Total Independence of Angola (UNITA) provided
  for the integration of former UNITA insurgents into the government
  and armed forces. A national unity government was installed in April
  of 1997, but serious fighting resumed in late 1998, rendering
  hundreds of thousands of people homeless. Up to 1.5 million lives
  may have been lost in fighting over the past quarter century. The
  death of insurgent leader Jonas SAVIMBI in 2002 and a subsequent
  cease-fire with UNITA may bode well for the country.

Geography Angola

Location:
  Southern Africa, bordering the South Atlantic Ocean, between
  Namibia and Democratic Republic of the Congo

Geographic coordinates:
  12 30 S, 18 30 E

Map references:
  Africa

Area:
  total: 1,246,700 sq km
  water: 0 sq km
  land: 1,246,700 sq km

Area - comparative:
  slightly less than twice the size of Texas

Land boundaries:
  total: 5,198 km
  border countries: Democratic Republic of the Congo 2,511 km (of
  which 225 km is the boundary of discontiguous Cabinda Province),
  Republic of the Congo 201 km, Namibia 1,376 km, Zambia 1,110 km

Coastline:
  1,600 km

Maritime claims:
  contiguous zone: 24 NM
  exclusive economic zone: 200 NM
  territorial sea: 12 NM

Climate:
  semiarid in south and along coast to Luanda; north has cool, dry
  season (May to October) and hot, rainy season (November to April)

Terrain:
  narrow coastal plain rises abruptly to vast interior plateau

Elevation extremes:
  lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m
  highest point: Morro de Moco 2,620 m

Natural resources:
  petroleum, diamonds, iron ore, phosphates, copper, feldspar, gold,
  bauxite, uranium

Land use: arable land: 2.41% permanent crops: 0.4% other: 97.19% (1998 est.)

Irrigated land:
  750 sq km (1998 est.)

Natural hazards:
  locally heavy rainfall causes periodic flooding on the plateau

Environment - current issues:
  overuse of pastures and subsequent soil erosion attributable to
  population pressures; desertification; deforestation of tropical
  rain forest, in response to both international demand for tropical
  timber and to domestic use as fuel, resulting in loss of
  biodiversity; soil erosion contributing to water pollution and
  siltation of rivers and dams; inadequate supplies of potable water

Environment - international agreements:
  party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Law of the
  Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution
  signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - note:
  the province of Cabinda is an exclave, separated from the rest of
  the country by the Democratic Republic of the Congo

People Angola

Population:
  10,766,471 (July 2003 est.)

Age structure:
  0-14 years: 43.5% (male 2,363,829; female 2,317,610)
  15-64 years: 53.7% (male 2,941,999; female 2,842,923)
  65 years and over: 2.8% (male 134,330; female 165,780) (2003 est.)

Median age:
  total: 18.2 years
  male: 18.2 years
  female: 18.2 years (2002)

Population growth rate:
  1.97% (2003 est.)

Birth rate:
  45.57 births/1,000 population (2003 est.)

Death rate:
  25.83 deaths/1,000 population (2003 est.)

Net migration rate:
  0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2003 est.)

Sex ratio:
  at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
  under 15 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
  15-64 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
  65 years and over: 0.81 male(s)/female
  total population: 1.02 male(s)/female (2003 est.)

Infant mortality rate:
  total: 193.82 deaths/1,000 live births
  female: 180.76 deaths/1,000 live births (2003 est.)
  male: 206.26 deaths/1,000 live births

Life expectancy at birth:
  total population: 36.96 years
  male: 36.13 years
  female: 37.83 years (2003 est.)

Total fertility rate:
  6.38 children born/woman (2003 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
  5.5% (2001 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
  350,000 (2001 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths:
  24,000 (2001 est.)

Nationality:
  noun: Angolan(s)
  adjective: Angolan

Ethnic groups:
  Ovimbundu 37%, Kimbundu 25%, Bakongo 13%, mestico (mixed European
  and Native African) 2%, European 1%, other 22%

Religions:
  indigenous beliefs 47%, Roman Catholic 38%, Protestant 15% (1998
  est.)

Languages:
  Portuguese (official), Bantu and other African languages

Literacy:
  definition: age 15 and over can read and write
  total population: 42%
  male: 56%
  female: 28% (1998 est.)

Government Angola

Country name:
  conventional long form: Republic of Angola
  conventional short form: Angola
  local short form: Angola
  former: People's Republic of Angola
  local long form: Republica de Angola

Government type:
  republic, nominally a multiparty democracy with a strong
  presidential system

Capital:
  Luanda

Administrative divisions:
  18 provinces (provincias, singular - provincia); Bengo, Benguela,
  Bie, Cabinda, Cuando Cubango, Cuanza Norte, Cuanza Sul, Cunene,
  Huambo, Huila, Luanda, Lunda Norte, Lunda Sul, Malanje, Moxico,
  Namibe, Uige, Zaire

Independence:
  11 November 1975 (from Portugal)

National holiday:
  Independence Day, 11 November (1975)

Constitution:
  11 November 1975; revised 7 January 1978, 11 August 1980, 6 March
  1991, and 26 August 1992

Legal system:
  based on Portuguese civil law system and customary law; recently
  modified to accommodate political pluralism and increased use of
  free markets

Suffrage:
  18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
  chief of state: President Jose Eduardo DOS SANTOS (since 21
  September 1979); note - the president is both chief of state and
  head of government
  head of government: President Jose Eduardo DOS SANTOS (since 21
  September 1979); note - the president is both chief of state and
  head of government; Fernando de Piedade Dias DOS SANTOS was
  appointed Prime Minister on 6 December 2002, but this is not a
  position of real power
  cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president
  elections: president elected by universal ballot for a NA-year term;
  President DOS SANTOS originally elected (in 1979) without opposition
  under a one-party system and stood for reelection in Angola's first
  multiparty elections 29-30 September 1992 (next to be held NA)
  election results: DOS SANTOS 49.6%, Jonas SAVIMBI 40.1%, making a
  run-off election necessary; the run-off was not held and SAVIMBI's
  National Union for the Total Independence of Angola (UNITA)
  repudiated the results of the first election; the civil war resumed

Legislative branch:
  unicameral National Assembly or Assembleia Nacional (220 seats;
  members elected by proportional vote to serve four-year terms)
  elections: last held 29-30 September 1992 (next to be held NA)
  election results: percent of vote by party - MPLA 54%, UNITA 34%,
  others 12%; seats by party - MPLA 129, UNITA 70, PRS 6, FNLA 5, PLD
  3, others 7

Judicial branch:
  Supreme Court or Tribunal da Relacao (judges are appointed by the
  president)

Political parties and leaders:
  Liberal Democratic Party or PLD [Analia de Victoria PEREIRA];
  National Front for the Liberation of Angola or FNLA [disputed
  leadership: Lucas NGONDA, Holden ROBERTO]; National Union for the
  Total Independence of Angola or UNITA [interim leader: PAULO Lukamba
  "Gato"], largest opposition party has engaged in years of armed
  resistance; Popular Movement for the Liberation of Angola or MPLA
  [Jose Eduardo DOS SANTOS], ruling party in power since 1975; Social
  Renewal Party or PRS [disputed leadership: Eduardo KUANGANA, Antonio
  MUACHICUNGO]
  note: about a dozen minor parties participated in the 1992 elections
  but only won a few seats and have little influence in the National
  Assembly

Political pressure groups and leaders:
  Front for the Liberation of the Enclave of Cabinda or FLEC [N'zita
  Henriques TIAGO; Antonio Bento BEMBE]
  note: FLEC is waging a small-scale, highly factionalized, armed
  struggle for the independence of Cabinda Province

International organization participation:
  ACP, AfDB, CEEAC, ECA, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt
  (signatory), ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO,
  Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO (correspondent), ITU, NAM, OAS (observer),
  OAU, SADC, UN, UN Security Council (temporary), UNCTAD, UNESCO,
  UNIDO, UPU, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador Josefina Perpetua Pitra DIAKIDI
  FAX: [1] (202) 785-1258
  consulate(s) general: Houston and New York
  telephone: [1] (202) 785-1156
  chancery: 2108 16th Street NW, Washington, DC 20009

Diplomatic representation from the US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador Christopher William DELL
  embassy: number 32 Rua Houari Boumedienne (in the Miramar area of
  Luanda), Luanda
  mailing address: international mail: Caixa Postal 6468, Luanda;
  pouch: American Embassy Luanda, Department of State, Washington, DC
  20521-2550
  telephone: [244] (2) 445-481, 447-028, 446-224
  FAX: [244] (2) 446-924

Flag description:
  two equal horizontal bands of red (top) and black with a centered
  yellow emblem consisting of a five-pointed star within half a
  cogwheel crossed by a machete (in the style of a hammer and sickle)

Economy Angola

Economy - overview:
  Angola has been an economy in disarray because of a quarter century
  of nearly continuous warfare. An apparently durable peace was
  established after the death of rebel leader Jonas SAVIMBI on
  February 22, 2002, but consequences from the conflict continue
  including the impact of wide-spread land mines. Subsistence
  agriculture provides the main livelihood for 85% of the population.
  Oil production and the supporting activities are vital to the
  economy, contributing about 45% to GDP and more than half of
  exports. Much of the country's food must still be imported. To fully
  take advantage of its rich natural resources - gold, diamonds,
  extensive forests, Atlantic fisheries, and large oil deposits -
  Angola will need to continue reforming government policies. While
  Angola made progress in bringing inflation down further, from 325%
  in 2000 to about 106% in 2002, the government has failed to make
  sufficient progress on reforms recommended by the IMF such as
  increasing foreign exchange reserves and promoting greater
  transparency in government spending. Increased oil production should
  bring about 6% GDP growth in 2003.

GDP:
  purchasing power parity - $18.36 billion (2002 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:
  9.4% (2002 est.)

GDP - per capita:
  purchasing power parity - $1,700 (2002 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
  agriculture: 8%
  industry: 67%
  services: 25% (2001 est.)

Population below poverty line:
  NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
  lowest 10%: NA%
  highest 10%: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices):
  106% (2002 est.)

Labor force:
  5 million (1997 est.)

Labor force - by occupation:
  agriculture 85%, industry and services 15% (1997 est.)

Unemployment rate:
  extensive unemployment and underemployment affecting more than half
  the population (2001 est.)

Budget:
  revenues: $928 million
  expenditures: $2.5 billion, including capital expenditures of $963
  million (1992 est.)

Industries:
  petroleum; diamonds, iron ore, phosphates, feldspar, bauxite,
  uranium, and gold; cement; basic metal products; fish processing;
  food processing; brewing; tobacco products; sugar; textiles

Industrial production growth rate:
  1%

Electricity - production:
  1.45 billion kWh (2001)

Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel: 36.4% hydro: 63.6% other: 0% (2001) nuclear: 0%

Electricity - consumption:
  1.348 billion kWh (2001)

Electricity - exports:
  0 kWh (2001)

Electricity - imports:
  0 kWh (2001)

Oil - production:
  742,400 bbl/day (2001 est.)

Oil - consumption:
  31,000 bbl/day (2001 est.)

Oil - exports:
  NA (2001)

Oil - imports:
  NA (2001)

Oil - proved reserves:
  5.691 billion bbl (37257)

Natural gas - production:
  530 million cu m (2001 est.)

Natural gas - consumption:
  530 million cu m (2001 est.)

Natural gas - exports:
  0 cu m (2001 est.)

Natural gas - imports:
  0 cu m (2001 est.)

Natural gas - proved reserves:
  79.57 billion cu m (37257)

Agriculture - products: bananas, sugarcane, coffee, sisal, corn, cotton, manioc (tapioca), tobacco, vegetables, plantains; livestock; forest products; fish

Exports: $8.6 billion f.o.b. (2002 est.)

Exports - commodities:
  crude oil, diamonds, refined petroleum products, gas, coffee,
  sisal, fish and fish products, timber, cotton

Exports - partners:
  US 41.2%, China 13.7%, France 8%, Belgium 6.3%, Taiwan 6.3%, Japan
  4.9%, Spain 4.3% (2002)

Imports:
  $4.1 billion f.o.b. (2002 est.)

Imports - commodities:
  machinery and electrical equipment, vehicles and spare parts;
  medicines, food, textiles, military goods

Imports - partners:
  Portugal 20.2%, US 13.9%, South Africa 12.4%, France 6.7%, Brazil
  5.8%, Belgium 5.3%, Netherlands 4% (2002)

Debt - external:
  $9.9 billion (2002 est.)

Economic aid - recipient:
  $383.5 million (1999)

Currency:
  kwanza (AOA)

Currency code:
  AOA

Exchange rates:
  kwanza per US dollar - 43.53 (2002), 22.06 (2001), 10.04 (2000),
  2.79 (1999), 0.39 (1998); note - in December 1999 the kwanza was
  revalued with six zeroes dropped off the old value

Fiscal year:
  calendar year

Communications Angola

Telephones - main lines in use:
  72,000 (1998)

Telephones - mobile cellular:
  25,800 (2000)

Telephone system:
  general assessment: telephone service limited mostly to government
  and business use; HF radiotelephone used extensively for military
  links
  domestic: limited system of wire, microwave radio relay, and
  tropospheric scatter
  international: satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations:
  AM 21, FM 6, shortwave 7 (2000)

Radios:
  815,000 (2000)

Television broadcast stations:
  6 (2000)

Televisions:
  196,000 (2000)

Internet country code:
  .ao

Internet Service Providers (ISPs):
  1 (2000)

Internet users:
  60,000 (2002)

Transportation Angola

Railways: total: 2,761 km narrow gauge: 2,638 km 1.067-m gauge; 123 km 0.600-m gauge (2002)

Highways: total: 51,429 km paved: 5,349 km unpaved: 46,080 km (1999)

Waterways:
  1,295 km

Pipelines:
  gas 214 km; liquid natural gas 14 km; liquid petroleum gas 30 km;
  oil 845 km; refined products 56 km (2003)

Ports and harbors:
  Ambriz, Cabinda, Lobito, Luanda, Malongo, Mocamedes, Namibe, Porto
  Amboim, Soyo

Merchant marine:
  total: 8 ships (1,000 GRT or over) 30,311 GRT/48,924 DWT
  ships by type: cargo 7, petroleum tanker 1 (2002 est.)

Airports:
  243 (2002)

Airports - with paved runways:
  total: 32
  over 3,047 m: 4
  2,438 to 3,047 m: 8
  1,524 to 2,437 m: 14
  914 to 1,523 m: 5
  under 914 m: 1 (2002)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
  total: 211
  over 3,047 m: 2
  2,438 to 3,047 m: 4
  1,524 to 2,437 m: 30
  914 to 1,523 m: 95
  under 914 m: 80 (2002)

Military Angola

Military branches:
  Army, Navy, Air and Air Defense Forces, National Police Force

Military manpower - military age:
  18 years of age (2003 est.)

Military manpower - availability:
  males age 15-49: 2,568,082 (2003 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:
  males age 15-49: 1,290,884 (2003 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
  males: 109,752 (2003 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure:
  $222.7 million (FY02)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP:
  5.4% (FY02)

Transnational Issues Angola

Disputes - international:
  gives shelter to thousands of refugees from the Democratic Republic
  of the Congo while thousands of Angolan refugees still remain in
  neighboring states as a consequence of the protracted civil wars in
  both states

Illicit drugs:
  used as a transshipment point for cocaine destined for Western
  Europe and other African states

This page was last updated on 18 December, 2003

======================================================================

@Anguilla

Introduction Anguilla

Background:
  Colonized by English settlers from Saint Kitts in 1650, Anguilla
  was administered by Great Britain until the early 19th century, when
  the island - against the wishes of the inhabitants - was
  incorporated into a single British dependency, along with Saint
  Kitts and Nevis. Several attempts at separation failed. In 1971, two
  years after a revolt, Anguilla was finally allowed to secede; this
  arrangement was formally recognized in 1980, with Anguilla becoming
  a separate British dependency.

Geography Anguilla

Location:
  Caribbean, islands between the Caribbean Sea and North Atlantic
  Ocean, east of Puerto Rico

Geographic coordinates:
  18 15 N, 63 10 W

Map references:
  Central America and the Caribbean

Area:
  total: 102 sq km
  water: 0 sq km
  land: 102 sq km

Area - comparative:
  about half the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries:
  0 km

Coastline:
  61 km

Maritime claims: exclusive fishing zone: 200 NM territorial sea: 3 NM

Climate:
  tropical; moderated by northeast trade winds

Terrain:
  flat and low-lying island of coral and limestone

Elevation extremes: lowest point: Caribbean Sea 0 m highest point: Crocus Hill 65 m

Natural resources:
  salt, fish, lobster

Land use:
  arable land: 0%
  permanent crops: 0%
  other: 100% (mostly rock with sparse scrub oak, few trees, some
  commercial salt ponds) (1998 est.)

Irrigated land:
  NA sq km

Natural hazards:
  frequent hurricanes and other tropical storms (July to October)

Environment - current issues: supplies of potable water sometimes cannot meet increasing demand largely because of poor distribution system

Geography - note: the most northerly of the Leeward Islands in the Lesser Antilles

People Anguilla

Population:
  12,738 (July 2003 est.)

Age structure:
  0-14 years: 24.3% (male 1,575; female 1,526)
  15-64 years: 68.8% (male 4,504; female 4,262)
  65 years and over: 6.8% (male 387; female 484) (2003 est.)

Median age:
  total: 30 years
  male: 30 years
  female: 29.9 years (2002)

Population growth rate:
  2.21% (2003 est.)

Birth rate:
  14.68 births/1,000 population (2003 est.)

Death rate:
  5.42 deaths/1,000 population (2003 est.)

Net migration rate:
  12.8 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2003 est.)

Sex ratio:
  at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
  under 15 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
  15-64 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
  65 years and over: 0.8 male(s)/female
  total population: 1.03 male(s)/female (2003 est.)

Infant mortality rate:
  total: 22.8 deaths/1,000 live births
  female: 15.55 deaths/1,000 live births (2003 est.)
  male: 29.84 deaths/1,000 live births

Life expectancy at birth:
  total population: 76.7 years
  male: 73.79 years
  female: 79.7 years (2003 est.)

Total fertility rate:
  1.76 children born/woman (2003 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
  NA%

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
  NA

HIV/AIDS - deaths:
  NA

Nationality: noun: Anguillan(s) adjective: Anguillan

Ethnic groups:
  black (predominant), mulatto, white

Religions:
  Anglican 40%, Methodist 33%, Seventh-Day Adventist 7%, Baptist 5%,
  Roman Catholic 3%, other 12%

Languages:
  English (official)

Literacy:
  definition: age 12 and over can read and write
  total population: 95%
  male: 95%
  female: 95% (1984 est.)

Government Anguilla

Country name: conventional long form: none conventional short form: Anguilla

Dependency status:
  overseas territory of the UK

Government type:
  NA

Capital:
  The Valley

Administrative divisions:
  none (overseas territory of the UK)

Independence:
  none (overseas territory of the UK)

National holiday:
  Anguilla Day, 30 May

Constitution:
  Anguilla Constitutional Order 1 April 1982; amended 1990

Legal system:
  based on English common law

Suffrage:
  18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
  chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952);
  represented by Governor Peter JOHNSTONE (since NA February 2000)
  elections: none; the monarch is hereditary; governor appointed by
  the monarch; following legislative elections, the leader of the
  majority party or the leader of the majority coalition is usually
  appointed chief minister by the governor
  head of government: Chief Minister Osbourne FLEMING (since 3 March
  2000)
  cabinet: Executive Council appointed by the governor from among the
  elected members of the House of Assembly

Legislative branch:
  unicameral House of Assembly (11 seats total, 7 elected by direct
  popular vote, 2 ex officio members, and 2 appointed; members serve
  five-year terms)
  elections: last held 3 March 2000 (next to be held NA June 2005)
  election results: percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party -
  ANA 3, AUP 2, ADP 1, independent 1

Judicial branch:
  High Court (judge provided by Eastern Caribbean Supreme Court)

Political parties and leaders:
  Anguilla United Party or AUP [Hubert HUGHES]; The United Front or
  UF [Osbourne FLEMING, Victor BANKS], a coalition of the Anguilla
  Democratic Party or ADP and the Anguilla National Alliance or ANA

Political pressure groups and leaders:
  NA

International organization participation:
  Caricom (associate), CDB, Interpol (subbureau), OECS (associate),
  ECLAC (associate)

Diplomatic representation in the US:
  none (overseas territory of the UK)

Diplomatic representation from the US:
  none (overseas territory of the UK)

Flag description:
  blue, with the flag of the UK in the upper hoist-side quadrant and
  the Anguillan coat of arms centered in the outer half of the flag;
  the coat of arms depicts three orange dolphins in an interlocking
  circular design on a white background with blue wavy water below

Economy Anguilla

Economy - overview:
  Anguilla has few natural resources, and the economy depends heavily
  on luxury tourism, offshore banking, lobster fishing, and
  remittances from emigrants. Increased activity in the tourism
  industry, which has spurred the growth of the construction sector,
  has contributed to economic growth. Anguillan officials have put
  substantial effort into developing the offshore financial sector,
  which is small, but growing. In the medium term, prospects for the
  economy will depend largely on the tourism sector and, therefore, on
  revived income growth in the industrialized nations as well as on
  favorable weather conditions.

GDP:
  purchasing power parity - $104 million (2001 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:
  2.8% (2001 est.)

GDP - per capita:
  purchasing power parity - $8,600 (2001 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
  agriculture: 4%
  industry: 18%
  services: 78% (1997 est.)

Population below poverty line:
  NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
  lowest 10%: NA%
  highest 10%: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices):
  2.3%

Labor force:
  6,049 (2001)

Labor force - by occupation: commerce 36%, services 29%, construction 18%, transportation and utilities 10%, manufacturing 3%, agriculture/fishing/forestry/mining 4% (2000 est,)

Unemployment rate:
  6.7% (2001)

Budget:
  revenues: $22.8 million
  expenditures: $22.5 million, including capital expenditures of NA
  (2000 est.)

Industries:
  tourism, boat building, offshore financial services

Industrial production growth rate:
  3.1% (1997 est.)

Electricity - production:
  NA (2000)

Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel: NA% hydro: NA% other: NA% nuclear: NA%

Electricity - consumption:
  42.6 million kWh

Agriculture - products:
  small quantities of tobacco, vegetables; cattle raising

Exports:
  $2.6 million (1999)

Exports - commodities:
  lobster, fish, livestock, salt, concrete blocks, rum

Exports - partners:
  UK, US, Puerto Rico, Saint-Martin (2000)

Imports:
  $80.9 million (1999)

Imports - commodities:
  fuels, foodstuffs, manufactures, chemicals, trucks, textiles

Imports - partners:
  US, Puerto Rico, UK (2000)

Debt - external:
  $8.8 million (1998)

Economic aid - recipient:
  $3.5 million (1995)

Currency:
  East Caribbean dollar (XCD)

Currency code:
  XCD

Exchange rates:
  East Caribbean dollars per US dollar - 2.7000 (fixed rate since
  1976)

Fiscal year:
  1 April - 31 March

Communications Anguilla

Telephones - main lines in use:
  4,974 (2000)

Telephones - mobile cellular:
  1,629 (2000)

Telephone system:
  general assessment: NA
  domestic: modern internal telephone system
  international: microwave radio relay to island of Saint Martin
  (Guadeloupe and Netherlands Antilles)

Radio broadcast stations:
  AM 5, FM 6, shortwave 1 (1998)

Radios:
  3,000 (1997)

Television broadcast stations:
  1 (1997)

Televisions:
  1,000 (1997)

Internet country code:
  .ai

Internet Service Providers (ISPs):
  16 (2000)

Internet users:
  919 (2000)

Transportation Anguilla

Railways: 0 km

Highways: total: 105 km paved: 65 km unpaved: 40 km (1997)

Waterways:
  none

Ports and harbors:
  Blowing Point, Road Bay

Merchant marine:
  none (2002 est.)

Airports:
  3 (2002)

Airports - with paved runways:
  total: 1
  914 to 1,523 m: 1 (2002)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
  total: 2
  under 914 m: 2 (2002)

Military Anguilla

Military - note: defense is the responsibility of the UK

Transnational Issues Anguilla

Disputes - international:
  none

Illicit drugs:
  transshipment point for South American narcotics destined for the
  US and Europe

This page was last updated on 18 December, 2003

======================================================================

@Antarctica

Introduction Antarctica

Background:
  Speculation over the existence of a "southern land" was not
  confirmed until the early 1820s when British and American commercial
  operators and British and Russian national expeditions began
  exploring the Antarctic Peninsula region and other areas south of
  the Antarctic Circle. Not until 1840 was it established that
  Antarctica was indeed a continent and not just a group of islands.
  Several exploration "firsts" were achieved in the early 20th
  century. Following World War II, there was an upsurge in scientific
  research on the continent. A number of countries have set up
  year-round research stations on Antarctica. Seven have made
  territorial claims, but no other country recognizes these claims. In
  order to form a legal framework for the activities of nations on the
  continent, an Antarctic Treaty was negotiated that neither denies
  nor gives recognition to existing territorial claims; signed in
  1959, it entered into force in 1961.

Geography Antarctica

Location:
  continent mostly south of the Antarctic Circle

Geographic coordinates:
  90 00 S, 0 00 E

Map references:
  Antarctic Region

Area:
  total: 14 million sq km
  note: fifth-largest continent, following Asia, Africa, North
  America, and South America, but larger than Australia and the
  subcontinent of Europe
  land: 14 million sq km (280,000 sq km ice-free, 13.72 million sq km
  ice-covered) (est.)

Area - comparative:
  slightly less than 1.5 times the size of the US

Land boundaries: 0 km note: see entry on International disputes

Coastline:
  17,968 km

Maritime claims:
  none; 20 of 27 Antarctic consultative nations have made no claims
  to Antarctic territory (although Russia and the US have reserved the
  right to do so) and do not recognize the claims of the other
  nations; also see the Disputes - international entry

Climate:
  severe low temperatures vary with latitude, elevation, and distance
  from the ocean; East Antarctica is colder than West Antarctica
  because of its higher elevation; Antarctic Peninsula has the most
  moderate climate; higher temperatures occur in January along the
  coast and average slightly below freezing

Terrain:
  about 98% thick continental ice sheet and 2% barren rock, with
  average elevations between 2,000 and 4,000 meters; mountain ranges
  up to nearly 5,000 meters; ice-free coastal areas include parts of
  southern Victoria Land, Wilkes Land, the Antarctic Peninsula area,
  and parts of Ross Island on McMurdo Sound; glaciers form ice shelves
  along about half of the coastline, and floating ice shelves
  constitute 11% of the area of the continent

Elevation extremes:
  lowest point: Bentley Subglacial Trench -2,555 m
  highest point: Vinson Massif 4,897 m
  note: the lowest known land point in Antarctica is hidden in the
  Bentley Subglacial Trench; at its surface is the deepest ice yet
  discovered and the world's lowest elevation not under seawater

Natural resources:
  iron ore, chromium, copper, gold, nickel, platinum and other
  minerals, and coal and hydrocarbons have been found in small
  uncommercial quantities; none presently exploited; krill, finfish,
  and crab have been taken by commercial fisheries

Land use: arable land: 0% permanent crops: 0% other: 100% (ice 98%, barren rock 2%) (1998 est.)

Irrigated land:
  0 sq km (1998 est.)

Natural hazards:
  katabatic (gravity-driven) winds blow coastward from the high
  interior; frequent blizzards form near the foot of the plateau;
  cyclonic storms form over the ocean and move clockwise along the
  coast; volcanism on Deception Island and isolated areas of West
  Antarctica; other seismic activity rare and weak; large icebergs may
  calve from ice shelf

Environment - current issues:
  in 1998, NASA satellite data showed that the antarctic ozone hole
  was the largest on record, covering 27 million square kilometers;
  researchers in 1997 found that increased ultraviolet light coming
  through the hole damages the DNA of icefish, an antarctic fish
  lacking hemoglobin; ozone depletion earlier was shown to harm
  one-celled antarctic marine plants; in 2002, significant areas of
  ice shelves disintegrated in response to regional warming

Geography - note:
  the coldest, windiest, highest (on average), and driest continent;
  during summer, more solar radiation reaches the surface at the South
  Pole than is received at the Equator in an equivalent period; mostly
  uninhabitable

People Antarctica

Population:
  no indigenous inhabitants, but there are seasonally staffed
  research stations
  note: approximately 27 nations, all signatory to the Antarctic
  Treaty, send personnel to perform seasonal (summer) and year-round
  research on the continent and in its surrounding oceans; the
  population of persons doing and supporting science on the continent
  and its nearby islands south of 60 degrees south latitude (the
  region covered by the Antarctic Treaty) varies from approximately
  4,000 in summer to 1,000 in winter; in addition, approximately 1,000
  personnel including ship's crew and scientists doing onboard
  research are present in the waters of the treaty region; summer
  (January) population - 3,687 total; Argentina 302, Australia 201,
  Belgium 13, Brazil 80, Bulgaria 16, Chile 352, China 70, Finland 11,
  France 100, Germany 51, India 60, Italy 106, Japan 136, South Korea
  14, Netherlands 10, NZ 60, Norway 40, Peru 28, Poland 70, Russia
  254, South Africa 80, Spain 43, Sweden 20, UK 192, US 1,378
  (1998-99); winter (July) population - 964 total; Argentina 165,
  Australia 75, Brazil 12, Chile 129, China 33, France 33, Germany 9,
  India 25, Japan 40, South Korea 14, NZ 10, Poland 20, Russia 102,
  South Africa 10, UK 39, US 248 (1998-99); year-round stations - 42
  total; Argentina 6, Australia 4, Brazil 1, Chile 4, China 2, Finland
  1, France 1, Germany 1, India 1, Italy 1, Japan 1, South Korea 1, NZ
  1, Norway 1, Poland 1, Russia 6, South Africa 1, Spain 1, Ukraine 1,
  UK 2, US 3, Uruguay 1 (1998-99); summer-only stations - 32 total;
  Argentina 3, Australia 4, Bulgaria 1, Chile 7, Germany 1, India 1,
  Japan 3, NZ 1, Peru 1, Russia 3, Sweden 2, UK 5 (1998-99); in
  addition, during the austral summer some nations have numerous
  occupied locations such as tent camps, summer-long temporary
  facilities, and mobile traverses in support of research (July 2003
  est.)

Government Antarctica

Country name: conventional long form: none conventional short form: Antarctica

Government type: Antarctic Treaty Summary - the Antarctic Treaty, signed on 1 December 1959 and entered into force on 23 June 1961, establishes the legal framework for the management of Antarctica. The 24th Antarctic Treaty Consultative Meeting was held in Russia in July 2001. At the end of 2001, there were 45 treaty member nations: 27 consultative and 18 non-consultative. Consultative (voting) members include the seven nations that claim portions of Antarctica as national territory (some claims overlap) and 20 nonclaimant nations. The US and Russia have reserved the right to make claims. The US does not recognize the claims of others. Antarctica is administered through meetings of the consultative member nations. Decisions from these meetings are carried out by these member nations (within their areas) in accordance with their own national laws. The year in parentheses indicates when an acceding nation was voted to full consultative (voting) status, while no date indicates the country was an original 1959 treaty signatory. Claimant nations are - Argentina, Australia, Chile, France, New Zealand, Norway, and the UK. Nonclaimant consultative nations are - Belgium, Brazil (1983), Bulgaria (1998) China (1985), Ecuador (1990), Finland (1989), Germany (1981), India (1983), Italy (1987), Japan, South Korea (1989), Netherlands (1990), Peru (1989), Poland (1977), Russia, South Africa, Spain (1988), Sweden (1988), Uruguay (1985), and the US. Non-consultative (nonvoting) members, with year of accession in parentheses, are - Austria (1987), Canada (1988), Colombia (1989), Cuba (1984), Czech Republic (1993), Denmark (1965), Estonia (2001), Greece (1987), Guatemala (1991), Hungary (1984), North Korea (1987), Papua New Guinea (1981), Romania (1971), Slovakia (1993), Switzerland (1990), Turkey (1995), Ukraine (1992), and Venezuela (1999). Article 1 - area to be used for peaceful purposes only; military activity, such as weapons testing, is prohibited, but military personnel and equipment may be used for scientific research or any other peaceful purpose; Article 2 - freedom of scientific investigation and cooperation shall continue; Article 3 - free exchange of information and personnel, cooperation with the UN and other international agencies; Article 4 - does not recognize, dispute, or establish territorial claims and no new claims shall be asserted while the treaty is in force; Article 5 - prohibits nuclear explosions or disposal of radioactive wastes; Article 6 - includes under the treaty all land and ice shelves south of 60 degrees 00 minutes south and reserves high seas rights; Article 7 - treaty-state observers have free access, including aerial observation, to any area and may inspect all stations, installations, and equipment; advance notice of all expeditions and of the introduction of military personnel must be given; Article 8 - allows for jurisdiction over observers and scientists by their own states; Article 9 - frequent consultative meetings take place among member nations; Article 10 - treaty states will discourage activities by any country in Antarctica that are contrary to the treaty; Article 11 - disputes to be settled peacefully by the parties concerned or, ultimately, by the ICJ; Articles 12, 13, 14 - deal with upholding, interpreting, and amending the treaty among involved nations. Other agreements - some 200 recommendations adopted at treaty consultative meetings and ratified by governments include - Agreed Measures for Fauna and Flora (1964) which were later incorporated into the Environmental Protocol; Convention for the Conservation of Antarctic Seals (1972); Convention on the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources (1980); a mineral resources agreement was signed in 1988 but remains unratified; the Protocol on Environmental Protection to the Antarctic Treaty was signed 4 October 1991 and entered into force 14 January 1998; this agreement provides for the protection of the Antarctic environment through five specific annexes: 1) marine pollution, 2) fauna and flora, 3) environmental impact assessments, 4) waste management, and 5) protected area management; it prohibits all activities relating to mineral resources except scientific research.

Legal system:
  Antarctica is administered through meetings of the consultative
  member nations. Decisions from these meetings are carried out by
  these member nations (within their areas) in accordance with their
  own national laws. US law, including certain criminal offenses by or
  against US nationals, such as murder, may apply extra-territorially.
  Some US laws directly apply to Antarctica. For example, the
  Antarctic Conservation Act, 16 U.S.C. section 2401 et seq., provides
  civil and criminal penalties for the following activities, unless
  authorized by regulation of statute: the taking of native mammals or
  birds; the introduction of nonindigenous plants and animals; entry
  into specially protected areas; the discharge or disposal of
  pollutants; and the importation into the US of certain items from
  Antarctica. Violation of the Antarctic Conservation Act carries
  penalties of up to $10,000 in fines and one year in prison. The
  National Science Foundation and Department of Justice share
  enforcement responsibilities. Public Law 95-541, the US Antarctic
  Conservation Act of 1978, as amended in 1996, requires expeditions
  from the US to Antarctica to notify, in advance, the Office of
  Oceans, Room 5805, Department of State, Washington, DC 20520, which
  reports such plans to other nations as required by the Antarctic
  Treaty. For more information, contact Permit Office, Office of Polar
  Programs, National Science Foundation, Arlington, Virginia 22230;
  telephone: (703) 292-8030, or visit their website at www.nsf.gov.

Economy Antarctica

Economy - overview:
  Fishing off the coast and tourism, both based abroad, account for
  the limited economic activity. Antarctic fisheries in 2000-01 (1
  July-30 June) reported landing 112,934 metric tons. Unregulated
  fishing, particularly of tooth fish, is a serious problem. Allegedly
  illegal fishing in antarctic waters in 1998 resulted in the seizure
  (by France and Australia) of at least eight fishing ships. The
  Convention on the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources
  determines the recommended catch limits for marine species. A total
  of 12,248 tourists visited in the 2000-01 antarctic summer, down
  from the 14,762 who visited the previous year. Nearly all of them
  were passengers on 21 commercial (nongovernmental) ships and several
  yachts that made trips during the summer. Most tourist trips lasted
  approximately two weeks.

Communications Antarctica

Telephones - main lines in use:
  0
  note: information for US bases only (2001)

Telephones - mobile cellular:
  NA; Iridium system in use

Telephone system:
  general assessment: local systems at some research stations
  domestic: NA
  international: via satellite from some research stations

Radio broadcast stations:
  AM NA, FM 2, shortwave 1
  note: information for US bases only (2002)

Radios:
  NA

Television broadcast stations:
  1 (cable system with six channels; American Forces Antarctic
  Network-McMurdo)
  note: information for US bases only (2002)

Televisions:
  several hundred at McMurdo Station (US)
  note: information for US bases only (2001)

Internet country code:
  .aq

Internet Service Providers (ISPs):
  NA

Transportation Antarctica

Ports and harbors:
  there are no developed ports and harbors in Antarctica; most
  coastal stations have offshore anchorages, and supplies are
  transferred from ship to shore by small boats, barges, and
  helicopters; a few stations have a basic wharf facility; US coastal
  stations include McMurdo (77 51 S, 166 40 E), Palmer (64 43 S, 64 03
  W); government use only except by permit (see Permit Office under
  "Legal System"); all ships at port are subject to inspection in
  accordance with Article 7, Antarctic Treaty; offshore anchorage is
  sparse and intermittent

Airports:
  30
  note: 30 stations, operated by 16 national governments party to the
  Antarctic Treaty, have aircraft landing facilities for either
  helicopters and/or fixed-wing aircraft; commercial enterprises
  operate two additional aircraft landing facilities; helicopter pads
  are available at 27 stations; runways at 15 locations are gravel,
  sea-ice, blue-ice, or compacted snow suitable for landing wheeled,
  fixed-wing aircraft; of these, 1 is greater than 3 km in length, 6
  are between 2 km and 3 km in length, 3 are between 1 km and 2 km in
  length, 3 are less than 1 km in length, and 2 are of unknown length;
  snow surface skiways, limited to use by ski-equipped, fixed-wing
  aircraft, are available at another 15 locations; of these, 4 are
  greater than 3 km in length, 3 are between 2 km and 3 km in length,
  2 are between 1 km and 2 km in length, 2 are less than 1 km in
  length, and 4 are of unknown length; aircraft landing facilities
  generally subject to severe restrictions and limitations resulting
  from extreme seasonal and geographic conditions; aircraft landing
  facilities do not meet ICAO standards; advance approval from the
  respective governmental or nongovernmental operating organization
  required for landing; landed aircraft are subject to inspection in
  accordance with Article 7, Antarctic Treaty (2002)

Airports - with unpaved runways: total: 19 over 3,047 m: 6 2,438 to 3,047 m: 3 914 to 1,523 m: 4 under 914 m: 5 (2002) 1,524 to 2,437 m: 1

Heliports: 27 stations have helicopter landing facilities (helipads) (2002)

Military Antarctica

Military - note:
  the Antarctic Treaty prohibits any measures of a military nature,
  such as the establishment of military bases and fortifications, the
  carrying out of military maneuvers, or the testing of any type of
  weapon; it permits the use of military personnel or equipment for
  scientific research or for any other peaceful purposes

Transnational Issues Antarctica

Disputes - international:
  Antarctic Treaty freezes claims (see Antarctic Treaty Summary in
  Government type entry); sections (some overlapping) claimed by
  Argentina, Australia, Chile, France, NZ, Norway, and UK; the US and
  most other states do not recognize the territorial claims of other
  states and have made no claims themselves (the US and Russia reserve
  the right to do so); no claims have been made in the sector between
  90 degrees west and 150 degrees west; several states with land
  claims in Antarctica have expressed their intention to submit data
  to the UN Commission on the Limits of the Continental Shelf to
  extend their continental shelf claims to adjoining undersea ridges

This page was last updated on 18 December, 2003

======================================================================

@Antigua and Barbuda

Introduction Antigua and Barbuda

Background:
  The Siboney were the first to inhabit the islands of Antigua and
  Barbuda in 2400 B.C., but Arawak and Carib Indians populated the
  islands when Columbus landed on his second voyage in 1493. Early
  settlements by the Spanish and French were succeeded by the English
  who formed a colony in 1667. Slavery, established to run the sugar
  plantations on Antigua, was abolished in 1834. The islands became an
  independent state within the British Commonwealth of Nations in 1981.

Geography Antigua and Barbuda

Location:
  Caribbean, islands between the Caribbean Sea and the North Atlantic
  Ocean, east-southeast of Puerto Rico

Geographic coordinates:
  17 03 N, 61 48 W

Map references:
  Central America and the Caribbean

Area:
  total: 443 sq km (Antigua 280 sq km; Barbuda 161 sq km)
  water: 0 sq km
  note: includes Redonda, 1.6 sq km
  land: 443 sq km

Area - comparative:
  2.5 times the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries:
  0 km

Coastline:
  153 km

Maritime claims: contiguous zone: 24 NM territorial sea: 12 NM exclusive economic zone: 200 NM continental shelf: 200 NM or to the edge of the continental margin

Climate:
  tropical marine; little seasonal temperature variation

Terrain:
  mostly low-lying limestone and coral islands, with some higher
  volcanic areas

Elevation extremes:
  lowest point: Caribbean Sea 0 m
  highest point: Boggy Peak 402 m

Natural resources:
  NEGL; pleasant climate fosters tourism

Land use:
  arable land: 18.18%
  permanent crops: 0%
  other: 81.82% (1998 est.)

Irrigated land:
  NA sq km

Natural hazards:
  hurricanes and tropical storms (July to October); periodic droughts

Environment - current issues: water management - a major concern because of limited natural fresh water resources - is further hampered by the clearing of trees to increase crop production, causing rainfall to run off quickly

Environment - international agreements: party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Whaling signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - note:
  Antigua has a deeply indented shoreline with many natural harbors
  and beaches; Barbuda has a very large western harbor

People Antigua and Barbuda

Population:
  67,897 (July 2003 est.)

Age structure:
  0-14 years: 28.1% (male 9,706; female 9,371)
  15-64 years: 67.4% (male 22,929; female 22,845)
  65 years and over: 4.5% (male 1,218; female 1,828) (2003 est.)

Median age:
  total: 29.1 years
  male: 28.6 years
  female: 29.6 years (2002)

Population growth rate:
  0.64% (2003 est.)

Birth rate:
  18.23 births/1,000 population (2003 est.)

Death rate:
  5.64 deaths/1,000 population (2003 est.)

Net migration rate:
  -6.19 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2003 est.)

Sex ratio:
  at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
  under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
  15-64 years: 1 male(s)/female
  65 years and over: 0.67 male(s)/female
  total population: 0.99 male(s)/female (2003 est.)

Infant mortality rate:
  total: 20.9 deaths/1,000 live births
  female: 16.44 deaths/1,000 live births (2003 est.)
  male: 25.14 deaths/1,000 live births

Life expectancy at birth:
  total population: 71.31 years
  male: 68.99 years
  female: 73.75 years (2003 est.)

Total fertility rate:
  2.28 children born/woman (2003 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
  NA%

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
  NA

HIV/AIDS - deaths:
  NA

Nationality: noun: Antiguan(s), Barbudan(s) adjective: Antiguan, Barbudan

Ethnic groups:
  black, British, Portuguese, Lebanese, Syrian

Religions:
  Christian, (predominantly Anglican with other Protestant, and some
  Roman Catholic)

Languages:
  English (official), local dialects

Literacy:
  definition: age 15 and over has completed five or more years of
  schooling
  total population: 89%
  male: 90%
  female: 88% (1960 est.)

Government Antigua and Barbuda

Country name: conventional long form: none conventional short form: Antigua and Barbuda

Government type:
  constitutional monarchy with UK-style parliament

Capital:
  Saint John's

Administrative divisions:
  6 parishes and 2 dependencies*; Barbuda*, Redonda*, Saint George,
  Saint John, Saint Mary, Saint Paul, Saint Peter, Saint Philip

Independence:
  1 November 1981 (from UK)

National holiday:
  Independence Day (National Day), 1 November (1981)

Constitution:
  1 November 1981

Legal system:
  based on English common law

Suffrage:
  18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
  chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952),
  represented by Governor General James B. CARLISLE (since NA 1993)
  elections: none; the monarch is hereditary; governor general chosen
  by the monarch on the advice of the prime minister; following
  legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or the
  leader of the majority coalition is usually appointed prime minister
  by the governor general
  cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the governor general on
  the advice of the prime minister
  head of government: Prime Minister Lester Bryant BIRD (since 8 March
  1994); Deputy Prime Minister Robin YEARWOOD

Legislative branch:
  bicameral Parliament consists of the Senate (17-member body
  appointed by the governor general) and the House of Representatives
  (17 seats; members are elected by proportional representation to
  serve five-year terms)
  election results: percent of vote by party - ALP 53.2%, UPP 45.5%,
  independent 1.3%; seats by party - ALP 12, UPP 4, independent 1
  elections: House of Representatives - last held 9 March 1999 (next
  to be held prior to March 2004)

Judicial branch:
  Eastern Caribbean Supreme Court (based in Saint Lucia; one judge of
  the Supreme Court is a resident of the islands and presides over the
  Court of Summary Jurisdiction)

Political parties and leaders:
  Antigua Labor Party or ALP [Lester Bryant BIRD]; Barbuda People's
  Movement or BPM [Thomas H. FRANK]; United Progressive Party or UPP
  [Baldwin SPENCER] (a coalition of three opposition parties - United
  National Democratic Party or UNDP, Antigua Caribbean Liberation
  Movement or ACLM, and Progressive Labor Movement or PLM)

Political pressure groups and leaders:
  Antigua Trades and Labor Union or ATLU [William ROBINSON]; People's
  Democratic Movement or PDM [Hugh MARSHALL]

International organization participation:
  ACP, C, Caricom, CDB, ECLAC, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt, ICFTU,
  ICRM, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, ISO
  (subscriber), ITU, OAS, OECS, OPANAL, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UPU, WCL,
  WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant) chancery: 3216 New Mexico Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20016 telephone: [1] (202) 362-5211 FAX: [1] (202) 362-5225 consulate(s) general: Miami

Diplomatic representation from the US: the US does not have an embassy in Antigua and Barbuda (embassy closed 30 June 1994); the US Ambassador to Barbados is accredited to Antigua and Barbuda

Flag description:
  red, with an inverted isosceles triangle based on the top edge of
  the flag; the triangle contains three horizontal bands of black
  (top), light blue, and white, with a yellow rising sun in the black
  band

Economy Antigua and Barbuda

Economy - overview:
  Tourism continues to dominate the economy, accounting for more than
  half of GDP. Weak tourist arrival numbers since early 2000 have
  slowed the economy, however, and pressed the government into a tight
  fiscal corner. The dual-island nation's agricultural production is
  focused on the domestic market and constrained by a limited water
  supply and a labor shortage stemming from the lure of higher wages
  in tourism and construction. Manufacturing comprises enclave-type
  assembly for export with major products being bedding, handicrafts,
  and electronic components. Prospects for economic growth in the
  medium term will continue to depend on income growth in the
  industrialized world, especially in the US, which accounts for
  slightly more than one-third of tourist arrivals.

GDP:
  purchasing power parity - $750 million (2002 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:
  3% (2002 est.)

GDP - per capita:
  purchasing power parity - $11,000 (2002 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
  agriculture: 3.9%
  industry: 19.2%
  services: 76.8% (2002)

Population below poverty line:
  NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
  lowest 10%: NA%
  highest 10%: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices):
  0.4% (2000 est.)

Labor force:
  30,000

Labor force - by occupation:
  commerce and services 82%, agriculture 11%, industry 7% (1983)

Unemployment rate:
  11% (2001 est.)

Budget:
  revenues: $123.7 million
  expenditures: $145.9 million, including capital expenditures of $NA
  (2000 est.)

Industries:
  tourism, construction, light manufacturing (clothing, alcohol,
  household appliances)

Industrial production growth rate:
  6% (1997 est.)

Electricity - production:
  105.3 million kWh (2001)

Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel: 100% hydro: 0% other: 0% (2001) nuclear: 0%

Electricity - consumption:
  97.89 million kWh (2001)

Electricity - exports:
  0 kWh (2001)

Electricity - imports:
  0 kWh (2001)

Oil - production:
  0 bbl/day (2001 est.)

Oil - consumption:
  3,600 bbl/day (2001 est.)

Oil - exports:
  NA (2001)

Oil - imports:
  NA (2001)

Agriculture - products: cotton, fruits, vegetables, bananas, coconuts, cucumbers, mangoes, sugarcane; livestock

Exports:
  $40 million

Exports - commodities:
  petroleum products 48%, manufactures 23%, machinery and transport
  equipment 17%, food and live animals 4%, other 8%

Exports - partners:
  France 68.5%, Germany 26.4%, Italy 1.2% (2002)

Imports:
  $357 million (2000 est.)

Imports - commodities:
  food and live animals, machinery and transport equipment,
  manufactures, chemicals, oil

Imports - partners:
  France 23.4%, Germany 14.2%, US 13.2%, Poland 9.8%, South Korea
  8.3%, Singapore 5%, UK 4.4% (2002)

Debt - external:
  $231 million (1999)

Economic aid - recipient:
  $2.3 million (1995)

Currency:
  East Caribbean dollar (XCD)

Currency code:
  XCD

Exchange rates:
  East Caribbean dollars per US dollar - 2.7 (2002), 2.7 (2001), 2.7
  (2000), 2.7 (1999), 2.7 (1998) (fixed rate since 1976)

Fiscal year:
  1 April - 31 March

Communications Antigua and Barbuda

Telephones - main lines in use:
  28,000 (1996)

Telephones - mobile cellular:
  1,300 (1996)

Telephone system:
  general assessment: NA
  domestic: good automatic telephone system
  international: 1 coaxial submarine cable; satellite earth station -
  1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean); tropospheric scatter to Saba
  (Netherlands Antilles) and Guadeloupe

Radio broadcast stations:
  AM 4, FM 2, shortwave 0 (1998)

Radios:
  36,000 (1997)

Television broadcast stations:
  2 (1997)

Televisions:
  31,000 (1997)

Internet country code:
  .ag

Internet Service Providers (ISPs):
  16 (2000)

Internet users:
  5,000 (2001)

Transportation Antigua and Barbuda

Railways:
  total: 77 km
  narrow gauge: 64 km 0.760-m gauge; 13 km 0.610-m gauge (used almost
  exclusively for handling sugarcane) (2001 est.)

Highways:
  total: 250 km (1999 est.)

Waterways:
  none

Ports and harbors:
  Saint John's

Merchant marine:
  total: 816 ships (1,000 GRT or over) 5,135,866 GRT/6,648,143 DWT
  note: includes some foreign-owned ships registered here as a flag of
  convenience: Australia 1, Bangladesh 2, Belgium 3, Colombia 1, Cuba
  1, Estonia 1, Germany 747, Greece 1, Iceland 8, Latvia 1, Lebanon 2,
  Lithuania 1, Netherlands 22, New Zealand 2, Portugal 1, Slovenia 6,
  South Africa 1, Sweden 2, United Kingdom 1, United States 7 (2002
  est.)
  ships by type: bulk 16, cargo 474, chemical tanker 8, combination
  bulk 3, container 255, liquefied gas 10, multi-functional large-load
  carrier 6, petroleum tanker 1, refrigerated cargo 8, roll on/roll
  off 35

Airports:
  3 (2002)

Airports - with paved runways:
  total: 2
  2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
  under 914 m: 1 (2002)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
  total: 1
  under 914 m: 1 (2002)

Military Antigua and Barbuda

Military branches:
  Royal Antigua and Barbuda Defense Force, Royal Antigua and Barbuda
  Police Force (including the Coast Guard)

Military expenditures - dollar figure:
  $NA

Military expenditures - percent of GDP:
  NA%

Transnational Issues Antigua and Barbuda

Disputes - international:
  none

Illicit drugs:
  considered a minor transshipment point for narcotics bound for the
  US and Europe; more significant as an offshore financial center

This page was last updated on 18 December, 2003

======================================================================

@Arctic Ocean

Introduction Arctic Ocean

Background:
  The Arctic Ocean is the smallest of the world's five oceans (after
  the Pacific Ocean, Atlantic Ocean, Indian Ocean, and the recently
  delimited Southern Ocean). The Northwest Passage (US and Canada) and
  Northern Sea Route (Norway and Russia) are two important seasonal
  waterways. A sparse network of air, ocean, river, and land routes
  circumscribes the Arctic Ocean.

Geography Arctic Ocean

Location:
  body of water between Europe, Asia, and North America, mostly north
  of the Arctic Circle

Geographic coordinates:
  90 00 N, 0 00 E

Map references:
  Arctic Region

Area:
  total: 14.056 million sq km
  note: includes Baffin Bay, Barents Sea, Beaufort Sea, Chukchi Sea,
  East Siberian Sea, Greenland Sea, Hudson Bay, Hudson Strait, Kara
  Sea, Laptev Sea, Northwest Passage, and other tributary water bodies

Area - comparative:
  slightly less than 1.5 times the size of the US

Coastline:
  45,389 km

Climate:
  polar climate characterized by persistent cold and relatively
  narrow annual temperature ranges; winters characterized by
  continuous darkness, cold and stable weather conditions, and clear
  skies; summers characterized by continuous daylight, damp and foggy
  weather, and weak cyclones with rain or snow

Terrain:
  central surface covered by a perennial drifting polar icepack that
  averages about 3 meters in thickness, although pressure ridges may
  be three times that size; clockwise drift pattern in the Beaufort
  Gyral Stream, but nearly straight-line movement from the New
  Siberian Islands (Russia) to Denmark Strait (between Greenland and
  Iceland); the icepack is surrounded by open seas during the summer,
  but more than doubles in size during the winter and extends to the
  encircling landmasses; the ocean floor is about 50% continental
  shelf (highest percentage of any ocean) with the remainder a central
  basin interrupted by three submarine ridges (Alpha Cordillera,
  Nansen Cordillera, and Lomonosov Ridge)

Elevation extremes:
  lowest point: Fram Basin -4,665 m
  highest point: sea level 0 m

Natural resources:
  sand and gravel aggregates, placer deposits, polymetallic nodules,
  oil and gas fields, fish, marine mammals (seals and whales)

Natural hazards:
  ice islands occasionally break away from northern Ellesmere Island;
  icebergs calved from glaciers in western Greenland and extreme
  northeastern Canada; permafrost in islands; virtually ice locked
  from October to June; ships subject to superstructure icing from
  October to May

Environment - current issues:
  endangered marine species include walruses and whales; fragile
  ecosystem slow to change and slow to recover from disruptions or
  damage; thinning polar icepack

Geography - note:
  major chokepoint is the southern Chukchi Sea (northern access to
  the Pacific Ocean via the Bering Strait); strategic location between
  North America and Russia; shortest marine link between the extremes
  of eastern and western Russia; floating research stations operated
  by the US and Russia; maximum snow cover in March or April about 20
  to 50 centimeters over the frozen ocean; snow cover lasts about 10
  months

Economy Arctic Ocean

Economy - overview:
  Economic activity is limited to the exploitation of natural
  resources, including petroleum, natural gas, fish, and seals.

Transportation Arctic Ocean

Ports and harbors:
  Churchill (Canada), Murmansk (Russia), Prudhoe Bay (US)

Transportation - note:
  sparse network of air, ocean, river, and land routes; the Northwest
  Passage (North America) and Northern Sea Route (Eurasia) are
  important seasonal waterways

Transnational Issues Arctic Ocean

Disputes - international: some maritime disputes (see littoral states)

This page was last updated on 18 December, 2003

======================================================================

@Argentina

Introduction Argentina

Background:
  Following independence from Spain in 1816, Argentina experienced
  periods of internal political conflict between conservatives and
  liberals and between civilian and military factions. After World War
  II, a long period of Peronist authoritarian rule and interference in
  subsequent governments was followed by a military junta that took
  power in 1976. Democracy returned in 1983, and numerous elections
  since then have underscored Argentina's progress in democratic
  consolidation.

Geography Argentina

Location:
  Southern South America, bordering the South Atlantic Ocean, between
  Chile and Uruguay

Geographic coordinates:
  34 00 S, 64 00 W

Map references:
  South America

Area:
  total: 2,766,890 sq km
  land: 2,736,690 sq km
  water: 30,200 sq km

Area - comparative:
  slightly less than three-tenths the size of the US

Land boundaries:
  total: 9,665 km
  border countries: Bolivia 832 km, Brazil 1,224 km, Chile 5,150 km,
  Paraguay 1,880 km, Uruguay 579 km

Coastline:
  4,989 km

Maritime claims: contiguous zone: 24 NM territorial sea: 12 NM exclusive economic zone: 200 NM continental shelf: 200 NM or to the edge of the continental margin

Climate:
  mostly temperate; arid in southeast; subantarctic in southwest

Terrain:
  rich plains of the Pampas in northern half, flat to rolling plateau
  of Patagonia in south, rugged Andes along western border

Elevation extremes:
  lowest point: Salinas Chicas -40 m (located on Peninsula Valdes)
  highest point: Cerro Aconcagua 6,960 m

Natural resources:
  fertile plains of the Pampas, lead, zinc, tin, copper, iron ore,
  manganese, petroleum, uranium

Land use: arable land: 9.14% permanent crops: 0.8% other: 90.06% (1998 est.)

Irrigated land:
  15,610 sq km (1998 est.)

Natural hazards:
  San Miguel de Tucuman and Mendoza areas in the Andes subject to
  earthquakes; pamperos are violent windstorms that can strike the
  Pampas and northeast; heavy flooding

Environment - current issues: environmental problems (urban and rural) typical of an industrializing economy such as deforestation, soil degradation, desertification, air pollution, and water pollution note: Argentina is a world leader in setting voluntary greenhouse gas targets

Environment - international agreements:
  party to: Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living
  Resources, Antarctic Seals, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate
  Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered
  Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the
  Sea, Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship
  Pollution, Wetlands, Whaling
  signed, but not ratified: Marine Life Conservation

Geography - note:
  second-largest country in South America (after Brazil); strategic
  location relative to sea lanes between the South Atlantic and the
  South Pacific Oceans (Strait of Magellan, Beagle Channel, Drake
  Passage); Cerro Aconcagua is South America's tallest mountain, while
  the Valdes Peninsula is the lowest point on the continent

People Argentina

Population:
  38,740,807 (July 2003 est.)

Age structure:
  0-14 years: 26.2% (male 5,185,548; female 4,955,551)
  15-64 years: 63.4% (male 12,274,625; female 12,282,772)
  65 years and over: 10.4% (male 1,659,641; female 2,382,670) (2003
  est.)

Median age: total: 29 years male: 28 years female: 29.9 years (2002)

Population growth rate:
  1.05% (2003 est.)

Birth rate:
  17.47 births/1,000 population (2003 est.)

Death rate:
  7.58 deaths/1,000 population (2003 est.)

Net migration rate:
  0.62 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2003 est.)

Sex ratio:
  at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
  under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
  15-64 years: 1 male(s)/female
  65 years and over: 0.7 male(s)/female
  total population: 0.97 male(s)/female (2003 est.)

Infant mortality rate:
  total: 16.16 deaths/1,000 live births
  female: 14.08 deaths/1,000 live births (2003 est.)
  male: 18.14 deaths/1,000 live births

Life expectancy at birth:
  total population: 75.48 years
  male: 71.72 years
  female: 79.44 years (2003 est.)

Total fertility rate:
  2.28 children born/woman (2003 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
  0.7% (2001 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
  130,000 (2001 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths:
  1,800 (2001 est.)

Nationality:
  noun: Argentine(s)
  adjective: Argentine

Ethnic groups:
  white (mostly Spanish and Italian) 97%, mestizo, Amerindian, or
  other nonwhite groups 3%

Religions:
  nominally Roman Catholic 92% (less than 20% practicing), Protestant
  2%, Jewish 2%, other 4%

Languages:
  Spanish (official), English, Italian, German, French

Literacy:
  definition: age 15 and over can read and write
  total population: 97.1%
  male: 97.1%
  female: 97.1% (2003 est.)

Government Argentina

Country name:
  conventional long form: Argentine Republic
  conventional short form: Argentina
  local short form: Argentina
  local long form: Republica Argentina

Government type:
  republic

Capital:
  Buenos Aires

Administrative divisions:
  23 provinces (provincias, singular - provincia), and 1 autonomous
  city* (distrito federal); Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires Capital
  Federal*, Catamarca, Chaco, Chubut, Cordoba, Corrientes, Entre Rios,
  Formosa, Jujuy, La Pampa, La Rioja, Mendoza, Misiones, Neuquen, Rio
  Negro, Salta, San Juan, San Luis, Santa Cruz, Santa Fe, Santiago del
  Estero, Tierra del Fuego - Antartida e Islas del Atlantico Sur,
  Tucuman
  note: the US does not recognize any claims to Antarctica

Independence:
  9 July 1816 (from Spain)

National holiday:
  Revolution Day, 25 May (1810)

Constitution:
  1 May 1853; revised August 1994

Legal system:
  mixture of US and West European legal systems; has not accepted
  compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage:
  18 years of age; universal and mandatory

Executive branch:
  chief of state: President Nestor KIRCHNER (since 25 May 2003); note
  - declared winner of a runoff election by default after Carlos Saul
  MENEM withdrew his candidacy on the eve of the election; Vice
  President Daniel SCIOLI (since 25 May 2003); note - the president is
  both the chief of state and head of government
  head of government: President Nestor KIRCHNER (since 25 May 2003);
  note - declared winner of a runoff election by default after Carlos
  Saul MENEM withdrew his candidacy on the eve of the election; Vice
  President Daniel SCIOLI (since 25 May 2003); note - the president is
  both the chief of state and head of government
  cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president
  election results: results of the presidential primary of 27 April
  2003: Carlos Saul MENEM 24.3%, Nestor KIRCHNER 22%, Ricardo Lopez
  MURPHY 16.4%, Adolfo Rodriguez SAA 14.4%, Elisa CARRIO 14.2%, other
  8.7%; the subsequent runoff election slated for 25 May 2003 was
  awarded to KIRCHNER by default after MENEM withdrew his candidacy on
  the eve of the election
  elections: president and vice president elected on the same ticket
  by popular vote for four-year terms; the last election held was the
  presidential primary election of 27 April 2003 (next election to be
  held NA 2007); a runoff election slated for 25 May 2003 between the
  two candidates receiving the highest votes in the primary was
  awarded to KIRCHNER by default after MENEM withdrew his candidacy on
  the eve of the election

Legislative branch:
  bicameral National Congress or Congreso Nacional consists of the
  Senate (72 seats; members are elected by direct vote; presently
  one-third of the members being elected every two years to a six-year
  term) and the Chamber of Deputies (257 seats; members are elected by
  direct vote; one-half of the members elected every two years to a
  four-year term)
  election results: Senate - percent of vote by bloc or party - NA%;
  seats by bloc or party - PJ 40, UCR 24, provincial parties 6,
  Frepaso 1, ARI 1; Chamber of Deputies - percent of vote by bloc or
  party - NA%; seats by bloc or party - PJ 113, UCR 74, provincial
  parties 27, Frepaso 17, ARI 17, AR 9
  elections: Senate - last held 14 October 2001 (next to be held
  intermittently by province before December 2003); Chamber of
  Deputies - last held 14 October 2001 (next to be held intermittently
  by province before December 2003)

Judicial branch:
  Supreme Court or Corte Suprema (the nine Supreme Court judges are
  appointed by the president with approval by the Senate)

Political parties and leaders:
  Action for the Republic or AR [Domingo CAVALLO]; Alternative for a
  Republic of Equals or ARI [Elisa CARRIO]; Front for a Country in
  Solidarity or Frepaso (a four-party coalition) [Dario Pedro
  ALESSANDRO]; Justicialist Party or PJ [Carlos Saul MENEM] (Peronist
  umbrella political organization); Radical Civic Union or UCR [Angel
  ROZAS]; Federal Recreate Movement [Ricardo LOPEZ MURPHY]; several
  provincial parties

Political pressure groups and leaders:
  Argentine Association of Pharmaceutical Labs (CILFA); Argentine
  Industrial Union (manufacturers' association); Argentine Rural
  Society (large landowners' association); business organizations;
  General Confederation of Labor or CGT (Peronist-leaning umbrella
  labor organization); Peronist-dominated labor movement; Roman
  Catholic Church; students

International organization participation:
  AfDB, Australia Group, BCIE, BIS, ECLAC, FAO, G-6, G-15, G-19,
  G-24, G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICCt, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA,
  IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU,
  LAES, LAIA, Mercosur, MINURSO, MIPONUH, MONUC, MTCR, NSG, OAS,
  OPANAL, OPCW, PCA, RG, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNFICYP, UNHCR, UNIDO,
  UNIKOM, UNMEE, UNMIBH, UNMIK, UNMOP, UNMOVIC, UNTSO, UNU, UPU, WCL,
  WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO, ZC

Diplomatic representation in the US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador Jose Octavio BORDON
  chancery: 1600 New Hampshire Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20009
  consulate(s) general: Atlanta, Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, Miami,
  New York
  FAX: [1] (202) 332-3171
  telephone: [1] (202) 238-6400

Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador James D. WALSH; note - Lino GUTIERREZ is designated to replace Ambassador WALSH embassy: Avenida Colombia 4300, C1425GMN Buenos Aires mailing address: international mail: use street address; APO address: Unit 4334, APO AA 34034 telephone: [54] (11) 5777-4533 FAX: [54] (11) 5777-4240

Flag description:
  three equal horizontal bands of light blue (top), white, and light
  blue; centered in the white band is a radiant yellow sun with a
  human face known as the Sun of May

Economy Argentina

Economy - overview:
  Argentina benefits from rich natural resources, a highly literate
  population, an export-oriented agricultural sector, and a
  diversified industrial base. Over the past decade, however, the
  country has suffered recurring economic problems of inflation,
  external debt, capital flight, and budget deficits. Growth in 2000
  was a negative 0.8%, as both domestic and foreign investors remained
  skeptical of the government's ability to pay debts and maintain the
  peso's fixed exchange rate with the US dollar. The economic
  situation worsened in 2001 with the widening of spreads on Argentine
  bonds, massive withdrawals from the banks, and a further decline in
  consumer and investor confidence. Government efforts to achieve a
  "zero deficit," to stabilize the banking system, and to restore
  economic growth proved inadequate in the face of the mounting
  economic problems. The peso's peg to the dollar was abandoned in
  January 2002, and the peso was floated in February; the exchange
  rate plunged and inflation picked up rapidly, but by mid-2002 the
  economy had stabilized, albeit at a lower level. Strong demand for
  the peso compelled the Central Bank to intervene in foreign exchange
  markets to curb its appreciation in early 2003. Led by record
  exports, the economy began to recover with output up 5.5% in 2003,
  unemployment falling, and inflation sliced to 4.2% at year-end.

GDP:
  purchasing power parity - $403.8 billion (2002 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:
  -10.9% (2002 est.)

GDP - per capita:
  purchasing power parity - $10,500 (2002 est.)

GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 5% industry: 28% services: 66% (2000 est.)

Population below poverty line:
  37% (2001 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
  lowest 10%: NA%
  highest 10%: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices):
  41% (2002, yearend)

Labor force:
  15 million (1999)

Labor force - by occupation:
  agriculture NA%, industry NA%, services NA%

Unemployment rate:
  21.5% (37377)

Budget:
  revenues: $44 billion
  expenditures: $48 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA
  (2000 est.)

Industries:
  food processing, motor vehicles, consumer durables, textiles,
  chemicals and petrochemicals, printing, metallurgy, steel

Industrial production growth rate:
  1% (2000 est.)

Electricity - production:
  97.17 billion kWh (2001)

Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel: 52.2% hydro: 40.8% other: 0.2% (2001) nuclear: 6.7%

Electricity - consumption:
  92.12 billion kWh (2001)

Electricity - exports:
  5.662 billion kWh (2001)

Electricity - imports:
  7.417 billion kWh (2001)

Oil - production:
  828,600 bbl/day (2001 est.)

Oil - consumption:
  486,000 bbl/day (2001 est.)

Oil - exports:
  NA (2001)

Oil - imports:
  NA (2001)

Oil - proved reserves:
  2.927 billion bbl (37257)

Natural gas - production:
  37.15 billion cu m (2001 est.)

Natural gas - consumption:
  31.1 billion cu m (2001 est.)

Natural gas - exports:
  6.05 billion cu m (2001 est.)

Natural gas - imports:
  0 cu m (2001 est.)

Natural gas - proved reserves:
  768 billion cu m (37257)

Agriculture - products: sunflower seeds, lemons, soybeans, grapes, corn, tobacco, peanuts, tea, wheat; livestock

Exports:
  $25.3 billion f.o.b. (2002)

Exports - commodities:
  edible oils, fuels and energy, cereals, feed, motor vehicles

Exports - partners:
  Brazil 23.6%, US 10.9%, Chile 9.7%, Spain 4.3% (2002)

Imports:
  $9 billion f.o.b. (2002)

Imports - commodities:
  machinery and equipment, motor vehicles, chemicals, metal
  manufactures, plastics

Imports - partners:
  Brazil 42%, US 12.8%, Germany 4.4% (2002)

Debt - external:
  $155 billion (2001 est.)

Economic aid - recipient:
  $10 billion (2001 est.)

Currency:
  Argentine peso (ARS)

Currency code:
  ARS

Exchange rates:
  Argentine pesos per US dollar - 3.06 (2002), 1 (2001), 1 (2000), 1
  (1999), 1 (1998)

Fiscal year:
  calendar year

Communications Argentina

Telephones - main lines in use:
  7.5 million (1998)

Telephones - mobile cellular:
  3 million (December 1999)

Telephone system:
  general assessment: by opening the telecommunications market to
  competition and foreign investment with the "Telecommunications
  Liberalization Plan of 1998," Argentina encouraged the growth of
  modern telecommunication technology; fiber-optic cable trunk lines
  are being installed between all major cities; the major networks are
  entirely digital and the availability of telephone service is being
  improved; however, telephone density is presently minimal, and
  making telephone service universally available will take time
  domestic: microwave radio relay, fiber-optic cable, and a domestic
  satellite system with 40 earth stations serve the trunk network;
  more than 110,000 pay telephones are installed and mobile telephone
  use is rapidly expanding
  international: satellite earth stations - 8 Intelsat (Atlantic
  Ocean); Atlantis II and Unisur submarine cables; two international
  gateways near Buenos Aires (1999)

Radio broadcast stations:
  AM 260 (including 10 inactive stations), FM NA (probably more than
  1,000, mostly unlicensed), shortwave 6 (1998)

Radios:
  24.3 million (1997)

Television broadcast stations:
  42 (plus 444 repeaters) (1997)

Televisions:
  7.95 million (1997)

Internet country code:
  .ar

Internet Service Providers (ISPs):
  33 (2000)

Internet users:
  3.88 million (2001)

Transportation Argentina

Railways:
  total: 34,463 km (168 km electrified)
  broad gauge: 20,736 km 1.676-m gauge (142 km electrified)
  standard gauge: 3,115 km 1.435-m gauge (26 km electrified)
  narrow gauge: 10,375 km 1.000-m gauge; 237 km 0.750-m gauge (2002)

Highways:
  total: 215,471 km
  paved: 63,348 km (including 734 km of expressways)
  unpaved: 152,123 km (1999)

Waterways:
  10,950 km

Pipelines:
  gas 26,797 km; liquid petroleum gas 41 km; oil 3,668 km; refined
  products 2,945 km; unknown (oil/water) 13 km (2003)

Ports and harbors:
  Bahia Blanca, Buenos Aires, Comodoro Rivadavia, Concepcion del
  Uruguay, La Plata, Mar del Plata, Necochea, Rio Gallegos, Rosario,
  Santa Fe, Ushuaia

Merchant marine:
  total: 23 ships (1,000 GRT or over) 141,851 GRT/208,821 DWT
  ships by type: cargo 9, petroleum tanker 8, railcar carrier 1,
  refrigerated cargo 2, roll on/roll off 1, short-sea passenger 1,
  specialized tanker 1, includes some foreign-owned ships registered
  here as a flag of convenience: United Arab Emirates 1, Uruguay 1
  (2002 est.)

Airports:
  1,342 (2002)

Airports - with paved runways:
  total: 145
  over 3,047 m: 4
  2,438 to 3,047 m: 26
  1,524 to 2,437 m: 62
  914 to 1,523 m: 44
  under 914 m: 9 (2002)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
  total: 1,197
  over 3,047 m: 2
  2,438 to 3,047 m: 2
  1,524 to 2,437 m: 50
  914 to 1,523 m: 572
  under 914 m: 571 (2002)

Military Argentina

Military branches:
  Argentine Army, Navy of the Argentine Republic (includes naval
  aviation and Marines), Coast Guard, Argentine Air Force, National
  Gendarmerie, National Aeronautical Police Force

Military manpower - military age:
  20 years of age (2003 est.)

Military manpower - availability:
  males age 15-49: 9,780,063 (2003 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:
  males age 15-49: 7,942,837 (2003 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
  males: 331,011 (2003 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure:
  $4.3 billion (FY99)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP:
  1.3% (FY00)

Transnational Issues Argentina

Disputes - international:
  claims UK-administered Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas) and South
  Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands in its constitution, but in
  1995 ceded the right to settle the dispute by force; Beagle Channel
  islands dispute resolved through Papal mediation in 1984, but armed
  incidents persist since 1992 oil discovery; territorial claim in
  Antarctica partially overlaps UK and Chilean claims (see Antarctic
  disputes); unruly region at convergence of Argentina-Brazil-Paraguay
  borders is locus of money laundering, smuggling, arms and drug
  trafficking, and harbors Islamist militants; uncontested dispute
  between Brazil and Uruguay over Braziliera Island in the
  Quarai/Cuareim leaves the tripoint with Argentina in question

Illicit drugs:
  used as a transshipment country for cocaine headed for Europe and
  the US; some money-laundering activity, especially in the Tri-Border
  Area; domestic consumption of drugs in urban centers is increasing

This page was last updated on 18 December, 2003

======================================================================

@Armenia

Introduction Armenia

Background:
  Armenia prides itself on being the first nation to formally adopt
  Christianity (early 4th century). Despite periods of autonomy, over
  the centuries Armenia came under the sway of various empires
  including the Roman, Byzantine, Arab, Persian, and Ottoman. It was
  incorporated into Russia in 1828 and the USSR in 1920. Armenian
  leaders remain preoccupied by the long conflict with Muslim
  Azerbaijan over Nagorno-Karabakh, a primarily Armenian-populated
  region, assigned to Soviet Azerbaijan in the 1920s by Moscow.
  Armenia and Azerbaijan began fighting over the area in 1988; the
  struggle escalated after both countries attained independence from
  the Soviet Union in 1991. By May 1994, when a cease-fire took hold,
  Armenian forces held not only Nagorno-Karabakh but also a
  significant portion of Azerbaijan proper. The economies of both
  sides have been hurt by their inability to make substantial progress
  toward a peaceful resolution.

Geography Armenia

Location:
  Southwestern Asia, east of Turkey

Geographic coordinates:
  40 00 N, 45 00 E

Map references:
  Asia

Area:
  total: 29,800 sq km
  water: 1,400 sq km
  land: 28,400 sq km

Area - comparative:
  slightly smaller than Maryland

Land boundaries:
  total: 1,254 km
  border countries: Azerbaijan-proper 566 km, Azerbaijan-Naxcivan
  exclave 221 km, Georgia 164 km, Iran 35 km, Turkey 268 km

Coastline:
  0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims:
  none (landlocked)

Climate:
  highland continental, hot summers, cold winters

Terrain:
  Armenian Highland with mountains; little forest land; fast flowing
  rivers; good soil in Aras River valley

Elevation extremes:
  lowest point: Debed River 400 m
  highest point: Aragats Lerrnagagat' 4,090 m

Natural resources:
  small deposits of gold, copper, molybdenum, zinc, alumina

Land use: arable land: 17.52% permanent crops: 2.3% other: 80.18% (1998 est.)

Irrigated land:
  2,870 sq km (1998 est.)

Natural hazards:
  occasionally severe earthquakes; droughts

Environment - current issues:
  soil pollution from toxic chemicals such as DDT; the energy crisis
  of the 1990s led to deforestation when citizens scavenged for
  firewood; pollution of Hrazdan (Razdan) and Aras Rivers; the
  draining of Sevana Lich (Lake Sevan), a result of its use as a
  source for hydropower, threatens drinking water supplies; restart of
  Metsamor nuclear power plant in spite of its location in a
  seismically active zone

Environment - international agreements:
  party to: Air Pollution, Biodiversity, Climate Change,
  Desertification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Nuclear Test Ban,
  Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands
  signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants

Geography - note:
  landlocked in the Lesser Caucasus Mountains; Sevana Lich (Lake
  Sevan) is the largest lake in this mountain range

People Armenia

Population:
  3,326,448
  note: Armenia's first census since independence was conducted in
  October 2001; official results are not expected until late 2003
  (July 2003 est.)

Age structure:
  0-14 years: 21.1% (male 356,587; female 346,648)
  15-64 years: 68.3% (male 1,113,241; female 1,158,245)
  65 years and over: 10.6% (male 147,156; female 204,571) (2003 est.)

Median age:
  total: 32.3 years
  male: 30.6 years
  female: 34.1 years (2002)

Population growth rate:
  -0.07% (2003 est.)

Birth rate:
  12.57 births/1,000 population (2003 est.)

Death rate:
  10.16 deaths/1,000 population (2003 est.)

Net migration rate:
  -3.15 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2003 est.)

Sex ratio:
  at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
  under 15 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
  15-64 years: 0.96 male(s)/female
  65 years and over: 0.72 male(s)/female
  total population: 0.95 male(s)/female (2003 est.)

Infant mortality rate:
  total: 40.86 deaths/1,000 live births
  female: 36.24 deaths/1,000 live births (2003 est.)
  male: 45.27 deaths/1,000 live births

Life expectancy at birth:
  total population: 66.68 years
  male: 62.41 years
  female: 71.17 years (2003 est.)

Total fertility rate:
  1.56 children born/woman (2003 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
  0.2% (2001 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
  less than 2,400 (2001 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths:
  less than 100 (2001 est.)

Nationality:
  noun: Armenian(s)
  adjective: Armenian

Ethnic groups:
  Armenian 93%, Azeri 1%, Russian 2%, other (mostly Yezidi Kurds) 4%
  (2002)
  note: as of the end of 1993, virtually all Azeris had emigrated from
  Armenia

Religions:
  Armenian Apostolic 94%, other Christian 4%, Yezidi
  (Zoroastrian/animist) 2%

Languages:
  Armenian 96%, Russian 2%, other 2%

Literacy:
  definition: age 15 and over can read and write
  total population: 98.6%
  male: 99.4%
  female: 98% (2003 est.)

Government Armenia

Country name:
  conventional long form: Republic of Armenia
  conventional short form: Armenia
  local short form: Hayastan
  former: Armenian Soviet Socialist Republic; Armenian Republic
  local long form: Hayastani Hanrapetut'yun

Government type:
  republic

Capital:
  Yerevan

Administrative divisions:
  11 provinces (marzer, singular - marz); Aragatsotn, Ararat,
  Armavir, Geghark'unik', Kotayk', Lorri, Shirak, Syunik', Tavush,
  Vayots' Dzor, Yerevan

Independence:
  21 September 1991 (from Soviet Union)

National holiday:
  Independence Day, 21 September (1991)

Constitution:
  adopted by nationwide referendum 5 July 1995

Legal system:
  based on civil law system

Suffrage:
  18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
  chief of state: President Robert KOCHARIAN (since 30 March 1998)
  head of government: Prime Minister Andranik MARKARYAN (since 12 May
  2000)
  cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the prime minister
  elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term;
  election last held 19 February and 5 March 2003 (next to be held NA
  2008); prime minister appointed by the president; the prime minister
  and Council of Ministers must resign if the National Assembly
  refuses to accept their program
  election results: Robert KOCHARIAN reelected president; percent of
  vote - Robert KOCHARIAN 67.5%, Stepan DEMIRCHYAN 32.5%

Legislative branch:
  unicameral National Assembly (Parliament) or Azgayin Zhoghov (131
  seats; members elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms; 75
  members selected by direct vote, 56 by party list)
  elections: last held 25 May 2003 (next to be held in the spring of
  2007)
  election results: percent of vote by party - Republican Party 23.5%,
  Justice Bloc 13.6%, Rule of Law 12.3%, ARF (Dashnak) 11.4%, National
  Unity Party 8.8%, United Labor Party 5.7%; seats by party -
  Republican Party 23, Justice Bloc 14, Rule of Law 12, ARF (Dashnak)
  11, National Unity 9, United Labor 6; note - seats by party change
  frequently as deputies switch parties or announce themselves
  independent
  note: electoral law was changed in 2002 so ratio in next elections
  will be 75 deputies elected by party list, 56 by direct election

Judicial branch:
  Constitutional Court; Court of Cassation (Appeals Court)

Political parties and leaders:
  Agro-Industrial Party [Vladimir BADALIAN]; Armenia Party [Myasnik
  MALKHASYAN]; Armenian National Movement or ANM [Alex ARZUMANYAN,
  chairman]; Armenian Ramkavar Liberal Party or HRAK [Ruben
  MIRZAKHANYAN, chairman]; Armenian Revolutionary Federation
  ("Dashnak" Party) or ARF [Vahan HOVHANISSIAN]; Democratic Party
  [Aram SARKISYAN]; Justice Bloc (comprised of the Democratic Party,
  National Democratic Party, National Democratic Union, and the
  People's Party); National Democratic Party [Shavarsh KOCHARIAN];
  National Democratic Union or NDU [Vazgen MANUKIAN]; National Unity
  Party [Artashes GEGAMIAN, chairman]; People's Party of Armenia
  [Stepan DEMIRCHYAN]; Republic Party [Albert BAZEYAN and Aram
  SARKISYAN, chairmen]; Republican Party or RPA [Andranik MARKARYAN];
  Rule of Law Party [Artur BAGDASARIAN, chairman]; Union of
  Constitutional Rights [Hrant KHACHATURYAN]; United Labor Party
  [Gurgen ARSENIAN]

Political pressure groups and leaders:
  Yerkrapah Union [Manvel GRIGORIAN]

International organization participation:
  BSEC, CE, CIS, COE, EAPC, EBRD, ECE, ESCAP, FAO, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO,
  ICCt (signatory), ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, Interpol,
  IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, NAM (observer), OAS (observer), OPCW, OSCE, PFP,
  UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Arman KIRAKOSSIAN chancery: 2225 R Street NW, Washington, DC 20008 consulate(s) general: Los Angeles FAX: [1] (202) 319-2982 telephone: [1] (202) 319-1976

Diplomatic representation from the US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador John M. ORDWAY
  embassy: 18 Baghramyan Ave., Yerevan 375019
  mailing address: American Embassy Yerevan, Department of State, 7020
  Yerevan Place, Washington, DC 20521-7020
  telephone: [374](1) 521-611, 520-791, 542-177, 542-132, 524-661,
  527-001, 524-840
  FAX: [374](1) 520-800

Flag description:
  three equal horizontal bands of red (top), blue, and orange

Economy Armenia

Economy - overview:
  Under the old Soviet central planning system, Armenia had developed
  a modern industrial sector, supplying machine tools, textiles, and
  other manufactured goods to sister republics in exchange for raw
  materials and energy. Since the implosion of the USSR in December
  1991, Armenia has switched to small-scale agriculture away from the
  large agroindustrial complexes of the Soviet era. The agricultural
  sector has long-term needs for more investment and updated
  technology. The privatization of industry has been at a slower pace,
  but has been given renewed emphasis by the current administration.
  Armenia is a food importer, and its mineral deposits (copper, gold,
  bauxite) are small. The ongoing conflict with Azerbaijan over the
  ethnic Armenian-dominated region of Nagorno-Karabakh and the breakup
  of the centrally directed economic system of the former Soviet Union
  contributed to a severe economic decline in the early 1990s. By
  1994, however, the Armenian Government had launched an ambitious
  IMF-sponsored economic program that has resulted in positive growth
  rates in 1995-2003. Armenia also has managed to slash inflation,
  stabilize the local currency (the dram), and privatize most small-
  and medium-sized enterprises. The chronic energy shortages Armenia
  suffered in the early and mid-1990s have been offset by the energy
  supplied by one of its nuclear power plants at Metsamor. Armenia is
  now a net energy exporter, although it does not have sufficient
  generating capacity to replace Metsamor, which is under
  international pressure to close. The electricity distribution system
  was privatized in 2002. Armenia's severe trade imbalance has been
  offset somewhat by international aid, domestic restructuring of the
  economy, and foreign direct investment. Economic ties with Russia
  remain close, especially in the energy sector.

GDP:
  purchasing power parity - $12.13 billion (2002 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:
  12.9% (2002 est.)

GDP - per capita:
  purchasing power parity - $3,600 (2002 est.)

GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 30% industry: 26% services: 44% (2001 est.)

Population below poverty line: 50% (2002 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: 2.3% highest 10%: 46.2% (1999)

Distribution of family income - Gini index:
  44.4 (1996)

Inflation rate (consumer prices):
  1.1% (2002 est.)

Labor force:
  1.4 million (2001)

Labor force - by occupation:
  agriculture 45%, services 30%, industry 25% (2002 est.)

Unemployment rate:
  20% (2001 est.)

Budget:
  revenues: $402 million
  expenditures: $482 million, including capital expenditures of $NA
  (2001 est.)

Industries:
  metal-cutting machine tools, forging-pressing machines, electric
  motors, tires, knitted wear, hosiery, shoes, silk fabric, chemicals,
  trucks, instruments, microelectronics, gem cutting, jewelry
  manufacturing, software development, food processing, brandy

Industrial production growth rate:
  15% (2002 est.)

Electricity - production:
  6.479 billion kWh (2001)

Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel: 42.3% hydro: 27% other: 0% (2001) nuclear: 30.7%

Electricity - consumption: 5.784 billion kWh (2001)

Electricity - exports: 704 million kWh; note - exports an unknown quantity to Georgia; includes exports to Nagorno-Karabakh region in Azerbaijan (2001)

Electricity - imports:
  463 million kWh; note - imports an unknown quantity from Iran (2001)

Oil - production:
  0 bbl/day (2001 est.)

Oil - consumption:
  5,700 bbl/day (2001 est.)

Oil - exports:
  NA (2001)

Oil - imports:
  NA (2001)

Natural gas - production:
  0 cu m (2001 est.)

Natural gas - consumption:
  1.4 billion cu m (2001 est.)

Natural gas - exports:
  0 cu m (2001 est.)

Natural gas - imports:
  1.4 billion cu m (2001 est.)

Agriculture - products:
  fruit (especially grapes), vegetables; livestock

Exports:
  $525 million f.o.b. (2001 est.)

Exports - commodities:
  diamonds, mineral products, foodstuffs, energy

Exports - partners:
  Belgium 21.5%, Russia 14.6%, Israel 10.3%, Iran 9.4%, US 8.2%,
  Switzerland 6.8%, Germany 6.2% (2002)

Imports:
  $991 million f.o.b. (2001 est.)

Imports - commodities:
  natural gas, petroleum, tobacco products, foodstuffs, diamonds

Imports - partners:
  US 15.3%, Russia 12.9%, Belgium 12.3%, Iran 10.3%, UAE 6.3%,
  Germany 5.5%, Italy 4.9% (2002)

Debt - external:
  $905 million (June 2001)

Economic aid - recipient:
  ODA $170 million (2000)

Currency:
  dram (AMD)

Currency code:
  AMD

Exchange rates:
  drams per US dollar - NA (2002), 555.08 (2001), 539.53 (2000),
  535.06 (1999), 504.92 (1998)

Fiscal year:
  calendar year

Communications Armenia

Telephones - main lines in use:
  600,000 (2002)

Telephones - mobile cellular:
  50,000 (2002)

Telephone system:
  general assessment: system inadequate; now 90% privately owned and
  undergoing modernization and expansion
  domestic: the majority of subscribers and the most modern equipment
  are in Yerevan (this includes paging and mobile cellular service)
  international: Yerevan is connected to the Trans-Asia-Europe
  fiber-optic cable through Iran; additional international service is
  available by microwave radio relay and landline connections to the
  other countries of the Commonwealth of Independent States and
  through the Moscow international switch and by satellite to the rest
  of the world; satellite earth stations - 1 Intelsat (2000)

Radio broadcast stations:
  AM 9, FM 6, shortwave 1 (1998)

Radios:
  850,000 (1997)

Television broadcast stations:
  3 (plus an unknown number of repeaters); (1998)

Televisions:
  825,000 (1997)

Internet country code:
  .am

Internet Service Providers (ISPs):
  9 (2001)

Internet users:
  30,000 (2001)

Transportation Armenia

Railways:
  total: 852 km in common carrier service; does not include
  industrial lines
  broad gauge: 852 km 1.520-m gauge (779 km electrified) (2002)

Highways:
  total: 15,918 km
  paved: 15,329 km (includes 7,527 km of expressways)
  unpaved: 589 km (2000)

Waterways:
  NA km

Pipelines:
  gas 2,031 km (2003)

Ports and harbors:
  none

Airports:
  15 (2002)

Airports - with paved runways:
  total: 8
  over 3,047 m: 2
  2,438 to 3,047: 1
  1,524 to 2,437 m: 4
  914 to 1,523 m: 1 (2002)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
  total: 7
  over 3,047 m: 1
  1,524 to 2,437 m: 2
  914 to 1,523 m: 3
  under 914 m: 1 (2002)

Military Armenia

Military branches:
  Army, Air and Air Defense Forces, Border Guards

Military manpower - military age:
  18 years of age (2003 est.)

Military manpower - availability:
  males age 15-49: 919,582 (2003 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:
  males age 15-49: 727,770 (2003 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
  males: 37,209 (2003 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure:
  $135 million (FY01)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP:
  6.5% (FY01)

Transnational Issues Armenia

Disputes - international:
  Armenia supports ethnic Armenian secessionists in Nagorno-Karabakh
  and militarily occupies 16% of Azerbaijan - Organization for
  Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE) continues to mediate
  dispute; border with Turkey remains closed over Nagorno-Karabakh
  dispute; traditional demands regarding former Armenian lands in
  Turkey have subsided; ethnic Armenian groups in Javakheti region of
  Georgia seek greater autonomy, closer ties with Armenia

Illicit drugs:
  illicit cultivation of small amount of cannabis for domestic
  consumption; used as a transit point for illicit drugs - mostly
  opium and hashish - moving from Southwest Asia to Russia and to a
  lesser extent the rest of Europe

This page was last updated on 18 December, 2003

======================================================================

@Aruba

Introduction Aruba

Background:
  Discovered and claimed for Spain in 1499, Aruba was acquired by the
  Dutch in 1636. The island's economy has been dominated by three main
  industries. A 19th century gold rush was followed by prosperity
  brought on by the opening in 1924 of an oil refinery. The last
  decades of the 20th century saw a boom in the tourism industry.
  Aruba seceded from the Netherlands Antilles in 1986 and became a
  separate, autonomous member of the Kingdom of the Netherlands.
  Movement toward full independence was halted at Aruba's request in
  1990.

Geography Aruba

Location:
  Caribbean, island in the Caribbean Sea, north of Venezuela

Geographic coordinates:
  12 30 N, 69 58 W

Map references:
  Central America and the Caribbean

Area:
  total: 193 sq km
  water: 0 sq km
  land: 193 sq km

Area - comparative:
  slightly larger than Washington, DC

Land boundaries:
  0 km

Coastline:
  68.5 km

Maritime claims:
  territorial sea: 12 NM

Climate:
  tropical marine; little seasonal temperature variation

Terrain:
  flat with a few hills; scant vegetation

Elevation extremes:
  lowest point: Caribbean Sea 0 m
  highest point: Mount Jamanota 188 m

Natural resources:
  NEGL; white sandy beaches

Land use:
  arable land: 10.53% (including aloe 0.01%)
  permanent crops: 0%
  other: 89.47% (1998 est.)

Irrigated land:
  0.01 sq km (1998 est.)

Natural hazards:
  lies outside the Caribbean hurricane belt

Environment - current issues:
  NA

Geography - note:
  a flat, riverless island renowned for its white sand beaches; its
  tropical climate is moderated by constant trade winds from the
  Atlantic Ocean; the temperature is almost constant at about 27
  degrees Celsius (81 degrees Fahrenheit)

People Aruba

Population:
  70,844 (July 2003 est.)

Age structure:
  0-14 years: 20.7% (male 7,540; female 7,121)
  15-64 years: 68.3% (male 23,427; female 24,955)
  65 years and over: 11% (male 3,215; female 4,586) (2003 est.)

Median age:
  total: 37.1 years
  male: 35.3 years
  female: 38.5 years (2002)

Population growth rate:
  0.55% (2003 est.)

Birth rate:
  11.86 births/1,000 population (2003 est.)

Death rate:
  6.38 deaths/1,000 population (2003 est.)

Net migration rate:
  0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2003 est.)

Sex ratio:
  at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
  under 15 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
  15-64 years: 0.94 male(s)/female
  65 years and over: 0.7 male(s)/female
  total population: 0.93 male(s)/female (2003 est.)

Infant mortality rate:
  total: 6.14 deaths/1,000 live births
  female: 5.25 deaths/1,000 live births (2003 est.)
  male: 6.99 deaths/1,000 live births

Life expectancy at birth:
  total population: 78.83 years
  male: 75.48 years
  female: 82.34 years (2003 est.)

Total fertility rate:
  1.79 children born/woman (2003 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
  NA%

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
  NA

HIV/AIDS - deaths:
  NA

Nationality: noun: Aruban(s) adjective: Aruban; Dutch

Ethnic groups:
  mixed white/Caribbean Amerindian 80%

Religions:
  Roman Catholic 82%, Protestant 8%, Hindu, Muslim, Confucian, Jewish

Languages:
  Dutch (official), Papiamento (a Spanish, Portuguese, Dutch, English
  dialect), English (widely spoken), Spanish

Literacy: definition: total population: 97% male: NA% female: NA%

Government Aruba

Country name: conventional long form: none conventional short form: Aruba

Dependency status:
  part of the Kingdom of the Netherlands; full autonomy in internal
  affairs obtained in 1986 upon separation from the Netherlands
  Antilles; Dutch Government responsible for defense and foreign
  affairs

Government type:
  parliamentary democracy

Capital:
  Oranjestad

Administrative divisions:
  none (part of the Kingdom of the Netherlands)

Independence:
  none (part of the Kingdom of the Netherlands)

National holiday:
  Flag Day, 18 March

Constitution:
  1 January 1986

Legal system:
  based on Dutch civil law system, with some English common law
  influence

Suffrage:
  18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
  chief of state: Queen BEATRIX of the Netherlands (since 30 April
  1980), represented by Governor General Olindo KOOLMAN (since 1
  January 1992)
  election results: Nelson O. ODUBER elected prime minister; percent
  of legislative vote - NA%
  elections: the monarch is hereditary; governor general appointed for
  a six-year term by the monarch; prime minister and deputy prime
  minister elected by the Staten for four-year terms; election last
  held 28 September 2001 (next to be held by December 2005)
  head of government: Prime Minister Nelson O. ODUBER (since 30
  October 2001); Deputy Prime Minister Fredis REFUNJOL
  cabinet: Council of Ministers (elected by the Staten)

Legislative branch:
  unicameral Legislature or Staten (21 seats; members elected by
  direct, popular vote to serve four-year terms)
  elections: last held 28 September 2001 (next to be held by NA 2005)
  election results: percent of vote by party - MEP 52.4%, AVP 26.7%,
  PPA 9.6%, OLA 5.7%, Aliansa 3.5%, other 2.1%; seats by party - MEP
  12, AVP 6, PPA 2, OLA 1

Judicial branch:
  Joint High Court of Justice (judges are appointed by the monarch)

Political parties and leaders:
  Aruba Solidarity Movement or MAS [leader NA]; Aruban Democratic
  Alliance or Aliansa [leader NA]; Aruban Democratic Party or PDA [Leo
  BERLINSKI]; Aruban Liberal Party or OLA [Glenbert CROES]; Aruban
  Patriotic Party or PPA [Benny NISBET]; Aruban People's Party or AVP
  [Jan (Henny) H. EMAN]; Concentration for the Liberation of Aruba or
  CLA [leader NA]; People's Electoral Movement Party or MEP [Nelson O.
  ODUBER]; For a Restructured Aruba Now or PARA [Urbana LOPEZ];
  National Democratic Action or ADN [Pedro Charro KELLY]

Political pressure groups and leaders:
  NA

International organization participation:
  Caricom (observer), ECLAC (associate), Interpol, IOC, UNESCO
  (associate), WCL, WToO (associate)

Diplomatic representation in the US:
  none (represented by the Kingdom of the Netherlands)

Diplomatic representation from the US:
  the US does not have an embassy in Aruba; the Consul General to
  Netherlands Antilles is accredited to Aruba

Flag description:
  blue, with two narrow, horizontal, yellow stripes across the lower
  portion and a red, four-pointed star outlined in white in the upper
  hoist-side corner

Economy Aruba

Economy - overview:
  Tourism is the mainstay of the small, open Aruban economy, with
  offshore banking and oil refining and storage also important. The
  rapid growth of the tourism sector over the last decade has resulted
  in a substantial expansion of other activities. Construction has
  boomed, with hotel capacity five times the 1985 level. In addition,
  the reopening of the country's oil refinery in 1993, a major source
  of employment and foreign exchange earnings, has further spurred
  growth. Aruba's small labor force and low unemployment rate have led
  to a large number of unfilled job vacancies, despite sharp rises in
  wage rates in recent years. Tourist arrivals have declined in the
  aftermath of the 11 September 2001 terrorist attacks on the US. The
  government now must deal with a budget deficit and a negative trade
  balance.

GDP:
  purchasing power parity - $1.94 billion (2002 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:
  -1.5% (2002 est.)

GDP - per capita:
  purchasing power parity - $28,000 (2002 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
  agriculture: NA%
  industry: NA%
  services: NA%

Population below poverty line:
  NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
  lowest 10%: NA%
  highest 10%: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices):
  3.2% (2002 est.)

Labor force:
  41,501 (1997 est.)

Labor force - by occupation: most employment is in wholesale and retail trade and repair, followed by hotels and restaurants; oil refining

Unemployment rate:
  0.6%

Budget:
  revenues: $135.81 million
  expenditures: $147 million, including capital expenditures of $NA
  (2000)

Industries:
  tourism, transshipment facilities, oil refining

Industrial production growth rate:
  NA

Electricity - production:
  531.9 million kWh (2001)

Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel: 100% hydro: 0% other: 0% (2001) nuclear: 0%

Electricity - consumption:
  494.7 million kWh (2001)

Electricity - exports:
  0 kWh (2001)

Electricity - imports:
  0 kWh (2001)

Oil - production:
  0 bbl/day (2001 est.)

Oil - consumption:
  6,500 bbl/day (2001 est.)

Oil - exports:
  NA (2001)

Oil - imports:
  NA (2001)

Agriculture - products:
  aloes; livestock; fish

Exports:
  $1.88 billion f.o.b. (including oil reexports) (2002 est.)

Exports - commodities:
  live animals and animal products, art and collectibles, machinery
  and electrical equipment, transport equipment

Exports - partners:
  Netherlands 28.6%, Colombia 21.7%, Panama 16.8%, US 12.1%,
  Netherlands Antilles 8.3%, Venezuela 7.6% (2002)

Imports:
  $2.21 billion f.o.b. (2002 est.)

Imports - commodities:
  machinery and electrical equipment, crude oil for refining and
  reexport, chemicals; foodstuffs

Imports - partners:
  US 54.7%, Netherlands 12.7%, UK 5.7% (2002)

Debt - external:
  $285 million (1996)

Economic aid - recipient:
  $26 million (1995); note - the Netherlands provided a $127 million
  aid package to Aruba and Suriname in 1996

Currency:
  Aruban guilder/florin (AWG)

Currency code:
  AWG

Exchange rates:
  Aruban guilders/florins per US dollar - 1.79 (2002), 1.79 (2001),
  1.79 (2000), 1.79 (1999), 1.79 (1998)

Fiscal year:
  calendar year

Communications Aruba

Telephones - main lines in use:
  33,000 (1997)

Telephones - mobile cellular:
  3,402 (1997)

Telephone system:
  general assessment: NA
  domestic: more than adequate
  international: 1 submarine cable to Sint Maarten (Netherlands
  Antilles); extensive interisland microwave radio relay links

Radio broadcast stations:
  AM 4, FM 6, shortwave 0 (1998)

Radios:
  50,000 (1997)

Television broadcast stations:
  1 (1997)

Televisions:
  20,000 (1997)

Internet country code:
  .aw

Internet Service Providers (ISPs):
  NA

Internet users:
  24,000 (2002)

Transportation Aruba

Railways:
  0 km

Highways:
  total: 800 km
  paved: 513 km
  note: most coastal roads are paved, while unpaved roads serve large
  tracts of the interior (1995)
  unpaved: 287 km

Waterways:
  none

Ports and harbors:
  Barcadera, Oranjestad, Sint Nicolaas

Merchant marine:
  total: 3
  note: there is one foreign-owned ship registered here as a flag of
  convenience: Monaco 1 (2002 est.)
  ships by type: bulk 1, cargo 1, petroleum tanker 1

Airports:
  1 (2002)

Airports - with paved runways: total: 1 2,438 to 3,047 m: 1 (2002)

Military Aruba

Military branches:
  no regular indigenous military forces; Royal Dutch Navy and
  Marines, Coast Guard

Military - note:
  defense is the responsibility of the Kingdom of the Netherlands

Transnational Issues Aruba

Disputes - international:
  none

Illicit drugs:
  transit point for US- and Europe-bound narcotics with some
  accompanying money-laundering activity

This page was last updated on 18 December, 2003

======================================================================

@Ashmore and Cartier Islands

Introduction Ashmore and Cartier Islands

Background:
  These uninhabited islands came under Australian authority in 1931;
  formal administration began two years later. Ashmore Reef supports a
  rich and diverse avian and marine habitat; in 1983, it became a
  National Nature Reserve. Cartier Island, a former bombing range, is
  now a marine reserve.

Geography Ashmore and Cartier Islands

Location:
  Southeastern Asia, islands in the Indian Ocean, northwest of
  Australia, south of the Indonesian half of Timor island

Geographic coordinates:
  12 14 S, 123 05 E

Map references:
  Southeast Asia

Area:
  total: 5 sq km
  note: includes Ashmore Reef (West, Middle, and East Islets) and
  Cartier Island
  water: 0 sq km
  land: 5 sq km

Area - comparative:
  about eight times the size of The Mall in Washington, DC

Land boundaries:
  0 km

Coastline:
  74.1 km

Maritime claims: contiguous zone: 12 NM continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation territorial sea: 12 NM exclusive fishing zone: 200 NM

Climate:
  tropical

Terrain:
  low with sand and coral

Elevation extremes: lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m highest point: unnamed location 3 m

Natural resources: fish

Land use: arable land: 0% permanent crops: 0% other: 100% (all grass and sand) (1998 est.)

Irrigated land:
  0 sq km (1998 est.)

Natural hazards:
  surrounded by shoals and reefs that can pose maritime hazards

Environment - current issues:
  NA

Geography - note:
  Ashmore Reef National Nature Reserve established in August 1983

People Ashmore and Cartier Islands

Population:
  no indigenous inhabitants
  note: Indonesian fishermen are allowed access to the lagoon and
  fresh water at Ashmore Reef's West Island (July 2003 est.)

People - note:
  the landing of illegal immigrants from Indonesia's Rote Island has
  become an ongoing problem

Government Ashmore and Cartier Islands

Country name:
  conventional long form: Territory of Ashmore and Cartier Islands
  conventional short form: Ashmore and Cartier Islands

Dependency status:
  territory of Australia; administered by the Australian Department
  of Transport and Regional Services

Legal system:
  the laws of the Commonwealth of Australia and the laws of the
  Northern Territory of Australia, where applicable, apply

Diplomatic representation in the US:
  none (territory of Australia)

Diplomatic representation from the US:
  none (territory of Australia)

Flag description:
  the flag of Australia is used

Economy Ashmore and Cartier Islands

Economy - overview: no economic activity

Transportation Ashmore and Cartier Islands

Waterways:
  none

Ports and harbors:
  none; offshore anchorage only

Military Ashmore and Cartier Islands

Military - note:
  defense is the responsibility of Australia; periodic visits by the
  Royal Australian Navy and Royal Australian Air Force

Transnational Issues Ashmore and Cartier Islands

Disputes - international:
  nationalist group in Indonesia reportedly seeks to populate reefs
  to assert claims; Australia has moved to close reefs to Indonesian
  traditional fishing and to create a national park while prospecting
  for hydrocarbons in the vicinity

This page was last updated on 18 December, 2003

======================================================================

@Atlantic Ocean

Introduction Atlantic Ocean

Background:
  The Atlantic Ocean is the second largest of the world's five oceans
  (after the Pacific Ocean, but larger than the Indian Ocean, Southern
  Ocean, and Arctic Ocean). The Kiel Canal (Germany), Oresund
  (Denmark-Sweden), Bosporus (Turkey), Strait of Gibraltar
  (Morocco-Spain), and the Saint Lawrence Seaway (Canada-US) are
  important strategic access waterways.

Geography Atlantic Ocean

Location:
  body of water between Africa, Europe, the Southern Ocean, and the
  Western Hemisphere

Geographic coordinates:
  0 00 N, 25 00 W

Map references:
  Political Map of the World

Area:
  total: 76.762 million sq km
  note: includes Baltic Sea, Black Sea, Caribbean Sea, Davis Strait,
  Denmark Strait, part of the Drake Passage, Gulf of Mexico, Labrador
  Sea, Mediterranean Sea, North Sea, Norwegian Sea, almost all of the
  Scotia Sea, and other tributary water bodies

Area - comparative:
  slightly less than 6.5 times the size of the US

Coastline:
  111,866 km

Climate:
  tropical cyclones (hurricanes) develop off the coast of Africa near
  Cape Verde and move westward into the Caribbean Sea; hurricanes can
  occur from May to December, but are most frequent from August to
  November

Terrain:
  surface usually covered with sea ice in Labrador Sea, Denmark
  Strait, and coastal portions of the Baltic Sea from October to June;
  clockwise warm-water gyre (broad, circular system of currents) in
  the northern Atlantic, counterclockwise warm-water gyre in the
  southern Atlantic; the ocean floor is dominated by the Mid-Atlantic
  Ridge, a rugged north-south centerline for the entire Atlantic basin

Elevation extremes:
  lowest point: Milwaukee Deep in the Puerto Rico Trench -8,605 m
  highest point: sea level 0 m

Natural resources:
  oil and gas fields, fish, marine mammals (seals and whales), sand
  and gravel aggregates, placer deposits, polymetallic nodules,
  precious stones

Natural hazards:
  icebergs common in Davis Strait, Denmark Strait, and the
  northwestern Atlantic Ocean from February to August and have been
  spotted as far south as Bermuda and the Madeira Islands; ships
  subject to superstructure icing in extreme northern Atlantic from
  October to May; persistent fog can be a maritime hazard from May to
  September; hurricanes (May to December)

Environment - current issues:
  endangered marine species include the manatee, seals, sea lions,
  turtles, and whales; drift net fishing is hastening the decline of
  fish stocks and contributing to international disputes; municipal
  sludge pollution off eastern US, southern Brazil, and eastern
  Argentina; oil pollution in Caribbean Sea, Gulf of Mexico, Lake
  Maracaibo, Mediterranean Sea, and North Sea; industrial waste and
  municipal sewage pollution in Baltic Sea, North Sea, and
  Mediterranean Sea

Geography - note:
  major chokepoints include the Dardanelles, Strait of Gibraltar,
  access to the Panama and Suez Canals; strategic straits include the
  Strait of Dover, Straits of Florida, Mona Passage, The Sound
  (Oresund), and Windward Passage; the Equator divides the Atlantic
  Ocean into the North Atlantic Ocean and South Atlantic Ocean

Economy Atlantic Ocean

Economy - overview:
  The Atlantic Ocean provides some of the world's most heavily
  trafficked sea routes, between and within the Eastern and Western
  Hemispheres. Other economic activity includes the exploitation of
  natural resources, e.g., fishing, the dredging of aragonite sands
  (The Bahamas), and production of crude oil and natural gas
  (Caribbean Sea, Gulf of Mexico, and North Sea).

Transportation Atlantic Ocean

Ports and harbors:
  Alexandria (Egypt), Algiers (Algeria), Antwerp (Belgium), Barcelona
  (Spain), Buenos Aires (Argentina), Casablanca (Morocco), Colon
  (Panama), Copenhagen (Denmark), Dakar (Senegal), Gdansk (Poland),
  Hamburg (Germany), Helsinki (Finland), Las Palmas (Canary Islands,
  Spain), Le Havre (France), Lisbon (Portugal), London (UK), Marseille
  (France), Montevideo (Uruguay), Montreal (Canada), Naples (Italy),
  New Orleans (US), New York (US), Oran (Algeria), Oslo (Norway),
  Peiraiefs or Piraeus (Greece), Rio de Janeiro (Brazil), Rotterdam
  (Netherlands), Saint Petersburg (Russia), Stockholm (Sweden)

Transportation - note:
  Kiel Canal and Saint Lawrence Seaway are two important waterways;
  significant domestic commercial and recreational use of Intracoastal
  Waterway on central and south Atlantic seaboard and Gulf of Mexico
  coast of US

Transnational Issues Atlantic Ocean

Disputes - international: some maritime disputes (see littoral states)

This page was last updated on 18 December, 2003

======================================================================

@Australia

Introduction Australia

Background:
  Australia became a commonwealth of the British Empire in 1901. It
  was able to take advantage of its natural resources to rapidly
  develop its agricultural and manufacturing industries and to make a
  major contribution to the British effort in World Wars I and II.
  Long-term concerns include pollution, particularly depletion of the
  ozone layer, and management and conservation of coastal areas,
  especially the Great Barrier Reef. A referendum to change
  Australia's status, from a commonwealth headed by the British
  monarch to a republic, was defeated in 1999.

Geography Australia

Location:
  Oceania, continent between the Indian Ocean and the South Pacific
  Ocean

Geographic coordinates:
  27 00 S, 133 00 E

Map references:
  Oceania

Area:
  total: 7,686,850 sq km
  water: 68,920 sq km
  note: includes Lord Howe Island and Macquarie Island
  land: 7,617,930 sq km

Area - comparative:
  slightly smaller than the US contiguous 48 states

Land boundaries:
  0 km

Coastline:
  25,760 km

Maritime claims: contiguous zone: 24 NM territorial sea: 12 NM exclusive economic zone: 200 NM continental shelf: 200 NM or to the edge of the continental margin

Climate:
  generally arid to semiarid; temperate in south and east; tropical
  in north

Terrain:
  mostly low plateau with deserts; fertile plain in southeast

Elevation extremes:
  lowest point: Lake Eyre -15 m
  highest point: Mount Kosciuszko 2,229 m

Natural resources:
  bauxite, coal, iron ore, copper, tin, gold, silver, uranium,
  nickel, tungsten, mineral sands, lead, zinc, diamonds, natural gas,
  petroleum

Land use:
  arable land: 6.88%
  permanent crops: 0.03%
  other: 93.09% (1998 est.)

Irrigated land:
  24,000 sq km (1998 est.)

Natural hazards:
  cyclones along the coast; severe droughts; forest fires

Environment - current issues:
  soil erosion from overgrazing, industrial development,
  urbanization, and poor farming practices; soil salinity rising due
  to the use of poor quality water; desertification; clearing for
  agricultural purposes threatens the natural habitat of many unique
  animal and plant species; the Great Barrier Reef off the northeast
  coast, the largest coral reef in the world, is threatened by
  increased shipping and its popularity as a tourist site; limited
  natural fresh water resources

Environment - international agreements:
  party to: Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living
  Resources, Antarctic Seals, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate
  Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental
  Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping,
  Marine Life Conservation, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection,
  Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands,
  Whaling
  signed, but not ratified: Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol

Geography - note:
  world's smallest continent but sixth-largest country; population
  concentrated along the eastern and southeastern coasts; regular,
  tropical, invigorating, sea breeze known as "the Doctor" occurs
  along the west coast in the summer

People Australia

Population:
  19,731,984 (July 2003 est.)

Age structure:
  0-14 years: 20.2% (male 2,045,783; female 1,949,864)
  15-64 years: 67.1% (male 6,680,531; female 6,553,141)
  65 years and over: 12.7% (male 1,099,275; female 1,403,390) (2003
  est.)

Median age: total: 36 years male: 35.2 years female: 36.8 years (2002)

Population growth rate:
  0.93% (2003 est.)

Birth rate:
  12.55 births/1,000 population (2003 est.)

Death rate:
  7.31 deaths/1,000 population (2003 est.)

Net migration rate:
  4.05 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2003 est.)

Sex ratio:
  at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
  under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
  15-64 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
  65 years and over: 0.78 male(s)/female
  total population: 0.99 male(s)/female (2003 est.)

Infant mortality rate:
  total: 4.83 deaths/1,000 live births
  female: 4.4 deaths/1,000 live births (2003 est.)
  male: 5.23 deaths/1,000 live births

Life expectancy at birth:
  total population: 80.13 years
  male: 77.27 years
  female: 83.13 years (2003 est.)

Total fertility rate:
  1.76 children born/woman (2003 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
  0.1% (2001 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
  12,000 (2001 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths:
  less than 100 (2001 est.)

Nationality:
  noun: Australian(s)
  adjective: Australian

Ethnic groups:
  Caucasian 92%, Asian 7%, aboriginal and other 1%

Religions:
  Anglican 26.1%, Roman Catholic 26%, other Christian 24.3%,
  non-Christian 11%, other 12.6%

Languages:
  English, native languages

Literacy:
  definition: age 15 and over can read and write
  total population: 100%
  male: 100%
  female: 100% (1980 est.)

Government Australia

Country name:
  conventional long form: Commonwealth of Australia
  conventional short form: Australia

Government type:
  democratic, federal-state system recognizing the British monarch as
  sovereign

Capital:
  Canberra

Administrative divisions:
  6 states and 2 territories*; Australian Capital Territory*, New
  South Wales, Northern Territory*, Queensland, South Australia,
  Tasmania, Victoria, Western Australia

Dependent areas:
  Ashmore and Cartier Islands, Christmas Island, Cocos (Keeling)
  Islands, Coral Sea Islands, Heard Island and McDonald Islands,
  Norfolk Island

Independence:
  1 January 1901 (federation of UK colonies)

National holiday:
  Australia Day, 26 January (1788)

Constitution:
  9 July 1900, effective 1 January 1901

Legal system:
  based on English common law; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction,
  with reservations

Suffrage:
  18 years of age; universal and compulsory

Executive branch:
  chief of state: Queen of Australia ELIZABETH II (since 6 February
  1952), represented by Governor General Maj. Gen. (Ret.) Michael
  JEFFREY (since 11 August 2003)
  head of government: Prime Minister John Winston HOWARD (since 11
  March 1996); Deputy Prime Minister John ANDERSON Deputy Prime
  Minister John ANDERSON (since 20 July 1999)
  cabinet: Parliament nominates and selects, from among its members, a
  list of candidates to serve as government ministers; from this list,
  the governor general swears in the final selections for the Cabinet
  elections: none; the monarch is hereditary; governor general
  appointed by the monarch on the recommendation of the prime
  minister; following legislative elections, the leader of the
  majority party or leader of a majority coalition is sworn in as
  prime minister by the governor general
  note: government coalition - Liberal Party and National Party

Legislative branch:
  bicameral Federal Parliament consists of the Senate (76 seats - 12
  from each of the six states and two from each of the two mainland
  territories; one-half of the members elected every three years by
  popular vote to serve six-year terms) and the House of
  Representatives (150 seats - this is up from 148 seats in 2001
  election; members elected by popular vote on the basis of
  preferential representation to serve three-year terms; no state can
  have fewer than five representatives)
  elections: Senate - last held 10 November 2001 (next to be held by
  February 2005); House of Representatives - last held 10 November
  2001 (next to be held by February 2005)
  election results: Senate - percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by
  party - Liberal Party-National Party coalition 35, Australian Labor
  Party 28, Australian Democrats 8, Green Party 2, One Nation Party 1,
  Country Labor Party 1, independent 1; House of Representatives -
  percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - Liberal
  Party-National Party coalition 82, Australian Labor Party 65,
  independent and other 3

Judicial branch:
  High Court (the chief justice and six other justices are appointed
  by the governor general)

Political parties and leaders:
  Australian Democrats [Andrew BARTLETT]; Australian Labor Party
  [Mark LATHAM]; Australian Progressive Alliance [Meg LEES]; Country
  Labor Party [leader NA]; Australian Greens [Bob BROWN]; Liberal
  Party [John Winston HOWARD]; The Nationals [John ANDERSON]; One
  Nation Party [Len HARRIS]

Political pressure groups and leaders:
  Australian Monarchist League [leader NA]; Australian Republican
  Movement [leader NA]

International organization participation:
  ANZUS, APEC, ARF (dialogue partner), AsDB, ASEAN (dialogue
  partner), Australia Group, BIS, C, CP, EBRD, ESCAP, FAO, IAEA, IBRD,
  ICAO, ICC, ICCt, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO,
  IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, NAM (guest), NEA, NSG, OECD,
  OPCW, PCA, Sparteca, SPC, SPF, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNMEE,
  UNTSO, UNU, UPU, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTrO, ZC

Diplomatic representation in the US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador Michael J. THAWLEY
  consulate(s) general: Atlanta, Chicago, Honolulu, Los Angeles, New
  York, and San Francisco
  FAX: [1] (202) 797-3168
  telephone: [1] (202) 797-3000
  chancery: 1601 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20036

Diplomatic representation from the US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador J. Thomas SCHIEFFER
  embassy: Moonah Place, Yarralumla, Canberra, Australian Capital
  Territory 2600
  mailing address: APO AP 96549
  telephone: [61] (02) 6214-5600
  FAX: [61] (02) 6214-5970
  consulate(s) general: Melbourne, Perth, Sydney

Flag description:
  blue with the flag of the UK in the upper hoist-side quadrant and a
  large seven-pointed star in the lower hoist-side quadrant known as
  the Commonwealth Star, representing the federation of the colonies
  of Australia in 1901; the star depicts one point for each of the six
  original states and one representing all of Australia's internal and
  external territories; the remaining half is a representation of the
  Southern Cross constellation in white with one small five-pointed
  star and four larger, seven-pointed stars

Economy Australia

Economy - overview:
  Australia has a prosperous Western-style capitalist economy, with a
  per capita GDP on par with the four dominant West European
  economies. Rising output in the domestic economy has been offsetting
  the global slump, and business and consumer confidence remains
  robust. Australia's emphasis on reforms is another key factor behind
  the economy's strength. The stagnant economic conditions in major
  export partners and the impact of the worst drought in 100 years
  cast a shadow over prospects for 2003.

GDP:
  purchasing power parity - $525.5 billion (2002 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:
  3.6% (2002 est.)

GDP - per capita:
  purchasing power parity - $26,900 (2002 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
  agriculture: 3%
  industry: 26%
  services: 71% (2001 est.)

Population below poverty line:
  NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
  lowest 10%: 2%
  highest 10%: 25.4% (1994)

Distribution of family income - Gini index:
  35.2 (1994)

Inflation rate (consumer prices):
  2.8% (2002 est.)

Labor force:
  9.2 million (37256)

Labor force - by occupation:
  services 73%, industry 22%, agriculture 5% (1997 est.)

Unemployment rate:
  6.3% (2002)

Budget:
  revenues: $86.8 billion
  expenditures: $84.1 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA
  (FY 00/01 est.)

Industries:
  mining, industrial and transportation equipment, food processing,
  chemicals, steel

Industrial production growth rate:
  4.3% (2002 est.)

Electricity - production:
  198.2 billion kWh (2001)

Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel: 90.8% hydro: 8.3% other: 0.9% (2001) nuclear: 0%

Electricity - consumption:
  184.4 billion kWh (2001)

Electricity - exports:
  0 kWh (2001)

Electricity - imports:
  0 kWh (2001)

Oil - production:
  731,000 bbl/day (2001 est.)

Oil - consumption:
  796,500 bbl/day (2001 est.)

Oil - exports:
  523,400 bbl/day (2001)

Oil - imports:
  530,800 bbl/day (2001)

Oil - proved reserves:
  3.664 billion bbl (37257)

Natural gas - production:
  33.08 billion cu m (2001 est.)

Natural gas - consumption:
  23.33 billion cu m (2001 est.)

Natural gas - exports:
  9.744 billion cu m (2001 est.)

Natural gas - imports:
  0 cu m (2001 est.)

Natural gas - proved reserves:
  2.407 trillion cu m (37257)

Agriculture - products:
  wheat, barley, sugarcane, fruits; cattle, sheep, poultry

Exports:
  $66.3 billion (2002 est.)

Exports - commodities:
  coal, gold, meat, wool, alumina, iron ore, wheat, machinery and
  transport equipment

Exports - partners:
  Japan 18.5%, US 9.6%, South Korea 8.3%, China 6.9%, New Zealand
  6.5%, UK 4.7%, Singapore 4.1%, Taiwan 4% (2002)

Imports:
  $68 billion (2002 est.)

Imports - commodities:
  machinery and transport equipment, computers and office machines,
  telecommunication equipment and parts; crude oil and petroleum
  products

Imports - partners:
  US 18.3%, Japan 12.3%, China 10.1%, Germany 5.7%, UK 4.6% (2002)

Debt - external:
  $176.8 billion (yearend 2002 est.)

Economic aid - donor:
  ODA, $894 million (FY 99/00)

Currency:
  Australian dollar (AUD)

Currency code:
  AUD

Exchange rates:
  Australian dollars per US dollar - 1.84 (2002), 1.93 (2001), 1.72
  (2000), 1.55 (1999), 1.59 (1998)

Fiscal year:
  1 July - 30 June

Communications Australia

Telephones - main lines in use:
  10.05 million (2000)

Telephones - mobile cellular:
  8.6 million (2000)

Telephone system:
  general assessment: excellent domestic and international service
  domestic: domestic satellite system; much use of radiotelephone in
  areas of low population density; rapid growth of mobile cellular
  telephones
  international: submarine cables to New Zealand, Papua New Guinea,
  and Indonesia; satellite earth stations - 10 Intelsat (4 Indian
  Ocean and 6 Pacific Ocean), 2 Inmarsat (Indian and Pacific Ocean
  regions) (1998)

Radio broadcast stations:
  AM 262, FM 345, shortwave 1 (1998)

Radios:
  25.5 million (1997)

Television broadcast stations:
  104 (1997)

Televisions:
  10.15 million (1997)

Internet country code:
  .au

Internet Service Providers (ISPs):
  571 (2002)

Internet users:
  10.63 million (2002)

Transportation Australia

Railways:
  total: 41,588 km (4,612 km electrified)
  broad gauge: 2,193 km 1.600-m gauge
  narrow gauge: 15,456 km 1.067-m gauge
  dual gauge: 291 km dual gauge (2002)
  standard gauge: 23,648 km 1.435-m gauge

Highways:
  total: 811,603 km
  paved: 314,090 km (including 18,619 km of expressways)
  unpaved: 497,513 km (1999 est.)

Waterways:
  8,368 km (mainly used by small, shallow-draft craft)

Pipelines:
  condensate 36 km; condensate/gas 243 km; gas 27,321 km; liquid
  petroleum gas 240 km; oil 4,779 km; oil/gas/water 104 km; water 40
  km (2003)

Ports and harbors:
  Adelaide, Brisbane, Cairns, Darwin, Devonport (Tasmania),
  Fremantle, Geelong, Hobart (Tasmania), Launceston (Tasmania),
  Mackay, Melbourne, Sydney, Townsville

Merchant marine:
  total: 51 ships (1,000 GRT or over) 1,415,810 GRT/1,806,554 DWT
  note: includes some foreign-owned ships registered here as a flag of
  convenience: France 2, UK 2, US 14 (2002 est.)
  ships by type: bulk 20, cargo 6, chemical tanker 3, combination bulk
  1, container 2, liquefied gas 4, passenger 2, petroleum tanker 7,
  roll on/roll off 6

Airports:
  444 (2002)

Airports - with paved runways: total: 294 over 3,047 m: 10 2,438 to 3,047 m: 11 1,524 to 2,437 m: 126 914 to 1,523 m: 134 under 914 m: 13 (2002)

Airports - with unpaved runways: total: 150 1,524 to 2,437 m: 20 914 to 1,523 m: 116 under 914 m: 14 (2002)

Military Australia

Military branches:
  Australian Army, Royal Australian Navy, Royal Australian Air Force

Military manpower - military age:
  17 years of age (2003 est.)

Military manpower - availability:
  males age 15-49: 5,037,538 (2003 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:
  males age 15-49: 4,339,011 (2003 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
  males: 142,377 (2003 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure:
  $11.39 billion (FY02)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP:
  2.9% (FY02)

Transnational Issues Australia

Disputes - international:
  maritime delimitation and resource sharing agreements signed with
  East Timor resolve dispute over "Timor Gap" hydrocarbon reserves; no
  agreement reached on dividing Timor Sea with Indonesia (see Ashmore
  and Cartier Islands disputes); Australia asserts a territorial claim
  to Antarctica and to its continental shelf (see Antarctica)

Illicit drugs:
  Tasmania is one of the world's major suppliers of licit opiate
  products; government maintains strict controls over areas of opium
  poppy cultivation and output of poppy straw concentrate

This page was last updated on 18 December, 2003

======================================================================

@Austria

Introduction Austria

Background:
  Once the center of power for the large Austro-Hungarian Empire,
  Austria was reduced to a small republic after its defeat in World
  War I. Following annexation by Nazi Germany in 1938 and subsequent
  occupation by the victorious Allies in 1945, Austria's status
  remained unclear for a decade. A State Treaty signed in 1955 ended
  the occupation, recognized Austria's independence, and forbade
  unification with Germany. A constitutional law that same year
  declared the country's "perpetual neutrality" as a condition for
  Soviet military withdrawal. This neutrality, once ingrained as part
  of the Austrian cultural identity, has been called into question
  since the Soviet collapse of 1991 and Austria's entry into the
  European Union in 1995. A prosperous country, Austria entered the
  European Monetary Union in 1999.

Geography Austria

Location:
  Central Europe, north of Italy and Slovenia

Geographic coordinates:
  47 20 N, 13 20 E

Map references:
  Europe

Area:
  total: 83,858 sq km
  water: 1,120 sq km
  land: 82,738 sq km

Area - comparative:
  slightly smaller than Maine

Land boundaries:
  total: 2,562 km
  border countries: Czech Republic 362 km, Germany 784 km, Hungary 366
  km, Italy 430 km, Liechtenstein 35 km, Slovakia 91 km, Slovenia 330
  km, Switzerland 164 km

Coastline:
  0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims:
  none (landlocked)

Climate:
  temperate; continental, cloudy; cold winters with frequent rain in
  lowlands and snow in mountains; cool summers with occasional showers

Terrain:
  in the west and south mostly mountains (Alps); along the eastern
  and northern margins mostly flat or gently sloping

Elevation extremes:
  lowest point: Neusiedler See 115 m
  highest point: Grossglockner 3,798 m

Natural resources:
  iron ore, oil, timber, magnesite, lead, coal, lignite, copper,
  hydropower

Land use: arable land: 16.89% permanent crops: 0.99% other: 82.12% (1998 est.)

Irrigated land:
  457 sq km (2000 est.)

Natural hazards:
  landslides; avalanches; earthquakes

Environment - current issues: some forest degradation caused by air and soil pollution; soil pollution results from the use of agricultural chemicals; air pollution results from emissions by coal- and oil-fired power stations and industrial plants and from trucks transiting Austria between northern and southern Europe

Environment - international agreements:
  party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air
  Pollution-Sulphur 85, Air Pollution-Sulphur 94, Air
  Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Antarctic Treaty,
  Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species,
  Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea,
  Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical
  Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling
  signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution-Persistent Organic
  Pollutants, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Climate Change-Kyoto
  Protocol

Geography - note:
  landlocked; strategic location at the crossroads of central Europe
  with many easily traversable Alpine passes and valleys; major river
  is the Danube; population is concentrated on eastern lowlands
  because of steep slopes, poor soils, and low temperatures elsewhere

People Austria

Population:
  8,188,207 (July 2003 est.)

Age structure:
  0-14 years: 16.2% (male 678,944; female 646,390)
  15-64 years: 68.3% (male 2,827,736; female 2,768,480)
  65 years and over: 15.5% (male 490,979; female 775,678) (2003 est.)

Median age:
  total: 39.4 years
  male: 38.2 years
  female: 40.7 years (2002)

Population growth rate:
  0.22% (2003 est.)

Birth rate:
  9.43 births/1,000 population (2003 est.)

Death rate:
  9.69 deaths/1,000 population (2003 est.)

Net migration rate:
  2.44 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2003 est.)

Sex ratio:
  at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
  under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
  15-64 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
  65 years and over: 0.63 male(s)/female
  total population: 0.95 male(s)/female (2003 est.)

Infant mortality rate:
  total: 4.33 deaths/1,000 live births
  female: 4.29 deaths/1,000 live births (2003 est.)
  male: 4.38 deaths/1,000 live births

Life expectancy at birth:
  total population: 78.17 years
  male: 75.02 years
  female: 81.48 years (2003 est.)

Total fertility rate:
  1.41 children born/woman (2003 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
  0.2% (2001 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
  9,900 (2001 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths:
  less than 100 (2001 est.)

Nationality:
  noun: Austrian(s)
  adjective: Austrian

Ethnic groups:
  German 88%, non-nationals 9.3% (includes Croatians, Slovenes,
  Hungarians, Czechs, Slovaks, Roma), naturalized 2% (includes those
  who have lived in Austria at least three generations)

Religions:
  Roman Catholic 78%, Protestant 5%, Muslim and other 17%

Languages:
  German

Literacy:
  definition: age 15 and over can read and write
  total population: 98%
  male: NA%
  female: NA%

Government Austria

Country name:
  conventional long form: Republic of Austria
  conventional short form: Austria
  local short form: Oesterreich
  local long form: Republik Oesterreich

Government type:
  federal republic

Capital:
  Vienna

Administrative divisions:
  9 states (Bundeslaender, singular - Bundesland); Burgenland,
  Kaernten, Niederoesterreich, Oberoesterreich, Salzburg, Steiermark,
  Tirol, Vorarlberg, Wien

Independence:
  1156 (from Bavaria)

National holiday:
  National Day, 26 October (1955); note - commemorates the State
  Treaty restoring national sovereignty and the end of occupation and
  the passage of the law on permanent neutrality

Constitution:
  1920; revised 1929 (reinstated 1 May 1945)

Legal system:
  civil law system with Roman law origin; judicial review of
  legislative acts by the Constitutional Court; separate
  administrative and civil/penal supreme courts; accepts compulsory
  ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage:
  18 years of age; universal; compulsory for presidential elections

Executive branch:
  chief of state: President Thomas KLESTIL (since 8 July 1992)
  head of government: Chancellor Wolfgang SCHUESSEL (OeVP)(since 4
  February 2000); Vice Chancellor Hubert GORBACH (since 21 October
  2003)
  cabinet: Council of Ministers chosen by the president on the advice
  of the chancellor
  elections: president elected by direct popular vote for a six-year
  term; presidential election last held 19 April 1998 (next to be held
  in the spring of 2004); chancellor traditionally chosen by the
  president from the plurality party in the National Council; vice
  chancellor chosen by the president on the advice of the chancellor
  note: government coalition - OeVP and FPOe
  election results: Thomas KLESTIL reelected president; percent of
  vote - Thomas KLESTIL 63%, Gertraud KNOLL 14%, Heide SCHMIDT 11%,
  Richard LUGNER 10%, Karl NOWAK 2%

Legislative branch:
  bicameral Federal Assembly or Bundesversammlung consists of Federal
  Council or Bundesrat (64 members; members represent each of the
  states on the basis of population, but with each state having at
  least three representatives; members serve a four- or six-year term)
  and the National Council or Nationalrat (183 seats; members elected
  by direct popular vote to serve four-year terms)
  election results: National Council - percent of vote by party - OeVP
  42.3%, SPOe 36.9%, FPOe 10.2%, Greens 9%; seats by party - OeVP 79,
  SPOe 69, FPOe 19, Greens 16
  elections: National Council - last held 24 November 2002 (next to be
  held in the fall of 2006)

Judicial branch:
  Supreme Judicial Court or Oberster Gerichtshof; Administrative
  Court or Verwaltungsgerichtshof; Constitutional Court or
  Verfassungsgerichtshof

Political parties and leaders:
  Austrian People's Party or OeVP [Wolfgang SCHUESSEL]; Freedom Party
  of Austria or FPOe [Herbert HAUPT]; Social Democratic Party of
  Austria or SPOe [Alfred GUSENBAUER]; The Greens Alternative or GA
  [Alexander VAN DER BELLEN]

Political pressure groups and leaders:
  Austrian Trade Union Federation (primarily Socialist) or OeGB;
  Federal Economic Chamber; OeVP-oriented League of Austrian
  Industrialists or VOeI; Roman Catholic Church, including its chief
  lay organization, Catholic Action; three composite leagues of the
  Austrian People's Party or OeVP representing business, labor, and
  farmers

International organization participation:
  AfDB, AsDB, Australia Group, BIS, BSEC (observer), CE, CEI, CERN,
  EAPC, EBRD, ECE, EIB, EMU, ESA, EU, FAO, G- 9, IADB, IAEA, IBRD,
  ICAO, ICC, ICCt, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF,
  IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, MINURSO, NAM (guest), NEA, NSG,
  OAS (observer), OECD, OPCW, OSCE, PCA, PFP, UN, UNCTAD, UNDOF,
  UNESCO, UNFICYP, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIKOM, UNITAR, UNMIBH, UNMIK,
  UNMISET, UNMOGIP, UNMOT, UNOMIG, UNTSO, UPU, WCL, WCO, WEU
  (observer), WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO, ZC

Diplomatic representation in the US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador Eva NOWOTNY
  chancery: 3524 International Court NW, Washington, DC 20008-3035
  consulate(s) general: Chicago, Los Angeles, and New York
  FAX: [1] (202) 895-6750
  telephone: [1] (202) 895-6700

Diplomatic representation from the US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador William Lee LYONS BROWN, Jr.
  embassy: Boltzmanngasse 16, A-1090, Vienna
  mailing address: use embassy street address
  telephone: [43] (1) 31339, 31375, 31335
  FAX: [43] (1) 5125835

Flag description:
  three equal horizontal bands of red (top), white, and red

Economy Austria

Economy - overview:
  Austria, with its well-developed market economy and high standard
  of living, is closely tied to other EU economies, especially
  Germany's. Membership in the EU has drawn an influx of foreign
  investors attracted by Austria's access to the single European
  market and proximity to EU aspirant economies. Slowing growth in
  Germany and elsewhere in the world held the economy to only 1.2%
  growth in 2001, 0.6% in 2002, and 0.8% in 2003.. To meet increased
  competition from both EU and Central European countries, Austria
  will need to emphasize knowledge-based sectors of the economy,
  continue to deregulate the service sector, and lower its tax burden.
  A key issue is the encouragement of much greater participation in
  the labor market by its ageing population.

GDP:
  purchasing power parity - $227.7 billion (2002 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:
  1.1% (2002 est.)

GDP - per capita:
  purchasing power parity - $27,900 (2002 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
  agriculture: 2%
  industry: 33%
  services: 65% (2002 est.)

Population below poverty line:
  NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: 2.5% highest 10%: 22.5% (1995)

Distribution of family income - Gini index:
  31 (1995)

Inflation rate (consumer prices):
  1.8% (2002 est.)

Labor force:
  4.3 million (2001)

Labor force - by occupation: services 67%, industry and crafts 29%, agriculture and forestry 4% (2001 est.)

Unemployment rate:
  4.8% (2002 est.)

Budget:
  revenues: $53 billion
  expenditures: $54 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA
  (2001 est.)

Industries:
  construction, machinery, vehicles and parts, food, chemicals,
  lumber and wood processing, paper and paperboard, communications
  equipment, tourism

Industrial production growth rate:
  3.8% (2001 est.)

Electricity - production:
  58.75 billion kWh (2001)

Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel: 29.3% hydro: 67.2% other: 3.5% (2001) nuclear: 0%

Electricity - consumption:
  54.85 billion kWh (2001)

Electricity - exports:
  14.25 billion kWh (2001)

Electricity - imports:
  14.47 billion kWh (2001)

Oil - production:
  20,670 bbl/day (2001 est.)

Oil - consumption:
  262,400 bbl/day (2001 est.)

Oil - exports:
  35,470 bbl/day (2001)

Oil - imports:
  262,000 bbl/day (2001)

Oil - proved reserves:
  85.69 million bbl (37257)

Natural gas - production:
  1.731 billion cu m (2001 est.)

Natural gas - consumption:
  7.81 billion cu m (2001 est.)

Natural gas - exports:
  403 million cu m (2001 est.)

Natural gas - imports:
  6.033 billion cu m (2001 est.)

Natural gas - proved reserves:
  24.9 billion cu m (37257)

Agriculture - products: grains, potatoes, sugar beets, wine, fruit; dairy products, cattle, pigs, poultry; lumber

Exports:
  $70 billion f.o.b. (2001)

Exports - commodities:
  machinery and equipment, motor vehicles and parts, paper and
  paperboard, metal goods, chemicals, iron and steel; textiles,
  foodstuffs

Exports - partners:
  Germany 31.5%, Italy 9.3%, Switzerland 5.4%, US 4.9%, UK 4.9%,
  France 4.7%, Hungary 4.3% (2002)

Imports:
  $74 billion c.i.f. (2001)

Imports - commodities:
  machinery and equipment, motor vehicles, chemicals, metal goods,
  oil and oil products; foodstuffs

Imports - partners:
  Germany 42.6%, Italy 6.6%, Hungary 5.1%, Switzerland 4.8%,
  Netherlands 4.4% (2002)

Debt - external:
  $12.1 billion (2001 est.)

Economic aid - donor:
  ODA, $410 million (2000)

Currency:
  euro (EUR)
  note: on 1 January 1999, the European Monetary Union introduced the
  euro as a common currency to be used by the financial institutions
  of member countries; on 1 January 2002, the euro became the sole
  currency for everyday transactions within the member countries

Currency code:
  EUR

Exchange rates:
  euros per US dollar - 1.06 (2002), 1.12 (2001), 1.09 (2000), 0.94
  (1999), 12.38 (1998)

Fiscal year:
  calendar year

Communications Austria

Telephones - main lines in use: 4 million (consisting of 3,600,000 analog main lines plus 400,000 Integrated Services Digital Network connections); in addition, there are 100,000 Asymmetric Digital Services lines (2001)

Telephones - mobile cellular:
  6 million (2001)

Telephone system:
  general assessment: highly developed and efficient
  domestic: there are 48 main lines for every 100 persons; the fiber
  optic net is very extensive; all telephone applications and Internet
  services are available
  international: satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Atlantic
  Ocean and 1 Indian Ocean) and 1 Eutelsat; in addition, there are
  about 600 VSAT (very small aperture terminals) (2002)

Radio broadcast stations:
  AM 2, FM 160 (plus several hundred repeaters), shortwave 1 (2001)

Radios:
  6.08 million (1997)

Television broadcast stations:
  45 (plus more than 1,000 repeaters) (2001)

Televisions:
  4.25 million (1997)

Internet country code:
  .at

Internet Service Providers (ISPs):
  37 (2000)

Internet users:
  3.7 million (2002)

Transportation Austria

Railways:
  total: 6,024 km (3,641 km electrified)
  standard gauge: 5,566 km 1.435-m gauge (3,524 km electrified)
  narrow gauge: 34 km 1.000-m gauge (28 km electrified); 424 km
  0.760-m gauge (89 km electrified) (2002)

Highways:
  total: 200,000 km
  paved: 200,000 km (including 1,633 km of expressways)
  unpaved: 0 km (2000)

Waterways:
  358 km (1999)

Pipelines:
  gas 2,722 km; oil 687 km; refined products 149 km (2003)

Ports and harbors:
  Enns, Krems, Linz, Vienna

Merchant marine:
  total: 5 ships (1,000 GRT or over) 27,551 GRT/34,225 DWT
  ships by type: cargo 4, container 1 (2002 est.)

Airports:
  55 (2002)

Airports - with paved runways: total: 24 over 3,047 m: 1 2,438 to 3,047 m: 5 914 to 1,523 m: 3 under 914 m: 14 (2002) 1,524 to 2,437 m: 1

Airports - with unpaved runways: total: 31 1,524 to 2,437 m: 1 914 to 1,523 m: 3 under 914 m: 27 (2002)

Heliports: 1 (2002)

Military Austria

Military branches:
  Land Forces (KdoLdSK), Air Forces (KdoLuSK)

Military manpower - military age:
  19 years of age (2003 est.)

Military manpower - availability:
  males age 15-49: 2,093,821 (2003 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:
  males age 15-49: 1,725,123 (2003 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
  males: 49,090 (2003 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure:
  $1.497 billion (FY01/02)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP:
  0.8% (FY01/02)

Transnational Issues Austria

Disputes - international: minor disputes with Czech Republic and Slovenia continue over nuclear power plants and post-World War II treatment of German-speaking minorities

Illicit drugs:
  transshipment point for Southwest Asian heroin and South American
  cocaine destined for Western Europe

This page was last updated on 18 December, 2003

======================================================================

@Azerbaijan

Introduction Azerbaijan

Background:
  Azerbaijan - a nation with a Turkic and majority-Muslim population
  - regained its independence after the collapse of the Soviet Union
  in 1991. Despite a 1994 cease-fire, Azerbaijan has yet to resolve
  its conflict with Armenia over the Azerbaijani Nagorno-Karabakh
  enclave (largely Armenian populated). Azerbaijan has lost 16% of its
  territory and must support some 800,000 refugees and internally
  displaced persons as a result of the conflict. Corruption is
  ubiquitous and the promise of widespread wealth from Azerbaijan's
  undeveloped petroleum resources remains largely unfulfilled.

Geography Azerbaijan

Location:
  Southwestern Asia, bordering the Caspian Sea, between Iran and
  Russia, with a small European portion north of the Caucasus range

Geographic coordinates:
  40 30 N, 47 30 E

Map references:
  Asia

Area:
  total: 86,600 sq km
  note: includes the exclave of Naxcivan Autonomous Republic and the
  Nagorno-Karabakh region; the region's autonomy was abolished by
  Azerbaijani Supreme Soviet on 26 November 1991
  water: 500 sq km
  land: 86,100 sq km

Area - comparative:
  slightly smaller than Maine

Land boundaries:
  total: 2,013 km
  border countries: Armenia (with Azerbaijan-proper) 566 km, Armenia
  (with Azerbaijan-Naxcivan exclave) 221 km, Georgia 322 km, Iran
  (with Azerbaijan-proper) 432 km, Iran (with Azerbaijan-Naxcivan
  exclave) 179 km, Russia 284 km, Turkey 9 km

Coastline:
  0 km (landlocked); note - Azerbaijan borders the Caspian Sea (800
  km, est.)

Maritime claims:
  none (landlocked)

Climate:
  dry, semiarid steppe

Terrain:
  large, flat Kur-Araz Ovaligi (Kura-Araks Lowland) (much of it below
  sea level) with Great Caucasus Mountains to the north, Qarabag
  Yaylasi (Karabakh Upland) in west; Baku lies on Abseron Yasaqligi
  (Apsheron Peninsula) that juts into Caspian Sea

Elevation extremes: lowest point: Caspian Sea -28 m highest point: Bazarduzu Dagi 4,485 m

Natural resources: petroleum, natural gas, iron ore, nonferrous metals, alumina

Land use: arable land: 19.31% permanent crops: 3.04% other: 77.65% (1998 est.)

Irrigated land:
  14,550 sq km (1998 est.)

Natural hazards:
  droughts

Environment - current issues:
  local scientists consider the Abseron Yasaqligi (Apsheron
  Peninsula) (including Baku and Sumqayit) and the Caspian Sea to be
  the ecologically most devastated area in the world because of severe
  air, soil, and water pollution; soil pollution results from oil
  spills, from the use of DDT as a pesticide, and from toxic
  defoliants used in the production of cotton

Environment - international agreements:
  party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto
  Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes,
  Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands
  signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - note:
  both the main area of the country and the Naxcivan exclave are
  landlocked

People Azerbaijan

Population:
  7,830,764 (July 2003 est.)

Age structure:
  0-14 years: 27.7% (male 1,101,320; female 1,064,214)
  15-64 years: 64.7% (male 2,468,772; female 2,601,312)
  65 years and over: 7.6% (male 236,683; female 358,463) (2003 est.)

Median age:
  total: 27.1 years
  male: 25.7 years
  female: 28.6 years (2002)

Population growth rate:
  0.44% (2003 est.)

Birth rate:
  19.28 births/1,000 population (2003 est.)

Death rate:
  9.68 deaths/1,000 population (2003 est.)

Net migration rate:
  -5.16 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2003 est.)

Sex ratio:
  at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
  under 15 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
  15-64 years: 0.95 male(s)/female
  65 years and over: 0.66 male(s)/female
  total population: 0.95 male(s)/female (2003 est.)

Infant mortality rate:
  total: 82.41 deaths/1,000 live births
  female: 80.32 deaths/1,000 live births (2003 est.)
  male: 84.4 deaths/1,000 live births

Life expectancy at birth:
  total population: 63.16 years
  male: 58.95 years
  female: 67.58 years (2003 est.)

Total fertility rate:
  2.34 children born/woman (2003 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
  less than 0.1% (2001 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
  less than 1,400 (2001 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths:
  less than 100 (2001 est.)

Nationality:
  noun: Azerbaijani(s)
  adjective: Azerbaijani

Ethnic groups:
  Azeri 90%, Dagestani 3.2%, Russian 2.5%, Armenian 2%, other 2.3%
  (1998 est.)
  note: almost all Armenians live in the separatist Nagorno-Karabakh
  region

Religions:
  Muslim 93.4%, Russian Orthodox 2.5%, Armenian Orthodox 2.3%, other
  1.8% (1995 est.)
  note: religious affiliation is still nominal in Azerbaijan;
  percentages for actual practicing adherents are much lower

Languages:
  Azerbaijani (Azeri) 89%, Russian 3%, Armenian 2%, other 6% (1995
  est.)

Literacy:
  definition: age 15 and over can read and write
  total population: 97%
  male: 99%
  female: 96% (1989 est.)

Government Azerbaijan

Country name:
  conventional long form: Republic of Azerbaijan
  conventional short form: Azerbaijan
  local short form: none
  former: Azerbaijan Soviet Socialist Republic
  local long form: Azarbaycan Respublikasi

Government type:
  republic

Capital:
  Baku (Baki)

Administrative divisions:
  59 rayons (rayonlar; rayon - singular), 11 cities* (saharlar; sahar
  - singular), 1 autonomous republic** (muxtar respublika); Abseron
  Rayonu, Agcabadi Rayonu, Agdam Rayonu, Agdas Rayonu, Agstafa Rayonu,
  Agsu Rayonu, Ali Bayramli Sahari*, Astara Rayonu, Baki Sahari*,
  Balakan Rayonu, Barda Rayonu, Beylaqan Rayonu, Bilasuvar Rayonu,
  Cabrayil Rayonu, Calilabad Rayonu, Daskasan Rayonu, Davaci Rayonu,
  Fuzuli Rayonu, Gadabay Rayonu, Ganca Sahari*, Goranboy Rayonu,
  Goycay Rayonu, Haciqabul Rayonu, Imisli Rayonu, Ismayilli Rayonu,
  Kalbacar Rayonu, Kurdamir Rayonu, Lacin Rayonu, Lankaran Rayonu,
  Lankaran Sahari*, Lerik Rayonu, Masalli Rayonu, Mingacevir Sahari*,
  Naftalan Sahari*, Naxcivan Muxtar Respublikasi**, Neftcala Rayonu,
  Oguz Rayonu, Qabala Rayonu, Qax Rayonu, Qazax Rayonu, Qobustan
  Rayonu, Quba Rayonu, Qubadli Rayonu, Qusar Rayonu, Saatli Rayonu,
  Sabirabad Rayonu, Saki Rayonu, Saki Sahari*, Salyan Rayonu, Samaxi
  Rayonu, Samkir Rayonu, Samux Rayonu, Siyazan Rayonu, Sumqayit
  Sahari*, Susa Rayonu, Susa Sahari*, Tartar Rayonu, Tovuz Rayonu,
  Ucar Rayonu, Xacmaz Rayonu, Xankandi Sahari*, Xanlar Rayonu, Xizi
  Rayonu, Xocali Rayonu, Xocavand Rayonu, Yardimli Rayonu, Yevlax
  Rayonu, Yevlax Sahari*, Zangilan Rayonu, Zaqatala Rayonu, Zardab
  Rayonu

Independence:
  30 August 1991 (from Soviet Union)

National holiday:
  Founding of the Democratic Republic of Azerbaidzhan, 28 May (1918)

Constitution:
  adopted 12 November 1995

Legal system:
  based on civil law system

Suffrage:
  18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
  chief of state: President Ilham ALIYEV (since 31 October 2003)
  head of government: Prime Minister Artur RASIZADE (since 4 November
  2003); First Deputy Prime Minister Abbas ABBASOV (since 10 November
  2003)
  cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president and
  confirmed by the National Assembly
  elections: president elected by popular vote to a five-year term;
  election last held 15 October 2003 (next to be held NA October
  2008); prime minister and first deputy prime ministers appointed by
  the president and confirmed by the National Assembly
  election results: Ilham ALIYEV elected president; percent of vote -
  Ilham ALIYEV 76.8%, Isa GAMBAROV 14%

Legislative branch:
  unicameral National Assembly or Milli Mejlis (125 seats; members
  elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms)
  elections: last held 4 November 2000 (next to be held NA November
  2005)
  election results: percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party -
  NAP and allies 108, APF "Reform" 6, CSP 3, PNIA 2, Musavat Party 2,
  CPA 2, APF "Classic" 1, Compatriot Party 1
  note: PNIA, Musavat, and APF "Classic" parties refused to take their
  seats
  note: 100 members of the current parliament were elected on the
  basis of single mandate constituencies, while 25 were elected based
  on proportional balloting; as a result of a 24 August 2002 national
  referendum on changes to the constitution, all 125 members of the
  next parliament will be elected from single mandate constituencies

Judicial branch:
  Supreme Court

Political parties and leaders:
  Azerbaijan Popular Front or APF [Ali KARIMLI, leader of "Reform"
  faction; Mirmahmud MIRALI-OGLU, leader of "Classic" faction]; Civic
  Solidarity Party or CSP [Sabir RUSTAMKHANLY]; Civic Union Party
  [Ayaz MUTALIBOV]; Communist Party of Azerbaijan or CPA [Ramiz
  AHMADOV]; Compatriot Party [Mais SAFARLI]; Democratic Party for
  Azerbaijan or DPA [Rasul QULIYEV, chairman]; Justice Party [Ilyas
  ISMAILOV]; Liberal Party of Azerbaijan [Lala Shvkat HACIYEVA];
  Musavat [Isa GAMBAR, chairman]; New Azerbaijan Party or NAP [Heydar
  ALIYEV, chairman]; Party for National Independence of Azerbaijan or
  PNIA [Etibar MAMMADLI, chairman]; Social Democratic Party of
  Azerbaijan or SDP [Zardust ALIZADE]
  note: opposition parties regularly factionalize and form new parties

Political pressure groups and leaders:
  Sadval, Lezgin movement; self-proclaimed Armenian Nagorno-Karabakh
  Republic; Talysh independence movement; Union of Pro-Azerbaijani
  Forces (UPAF)

International organization participation:
  AsDB, BSEC, CE, CIS, EAPC, EBRD, ECE, ECO, ESCAP, FAO, GUUAM, IAEA,
  IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO,
  Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO (correspondent), ITU, OAS (observer), OIC,
  OPCW, OSCE, PFP, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCO, WFTU, WHO,
  WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO (observer)

Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Hafiz PASHAYEV FAX: [1] (202) 337-5911 telephone: [1] (202) 337-3500 chancery: 2741 34th Street NW, Washington, DC 20008

Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Ross L. WILSON embassy: 83 Azadliq Prospekt, Baku 370007 mailing address: American Embassy Baku, Department of State, 7050 Baku Place, Washington, DC 20521-7050 telephone: [9] (9412) 98-03-35, 36, 37 FAX: [9] (9412) 90-66-71

Flag description:
  three equal horizontal bands of blue (top), red, and green; a
  crescent and eight-pointed star in white are centered in red band

Economy Azerbaijan

Economy - overview:
  Azerbaijan's number one export is oil. Azerbaijan's oil production
  declined through 1997 but has registered an increase every year
  since. Negotiation of production-sharing arrangements (PSAs) with
  foreign firms, which have thus far committed $60 billion to
  long-term oilfield development, should generate the funds needed to
  spur future industrial development. Oil production under the first
  of these PSAs, with the Azerbaijan International Operating Company,
  began in November 1997. Azerbaijan shares all the formidable
  problems of the former Soviet republics in making the transition
  from a command to a market economy, but its considerable energy
  resources brighten its long-term prospects. Baku has only recently
  begun making progress on economic reform, and old economic ties and
  structures are slowly being replaced. One obstacle to economic
  progress is the need for stepped up foreign investment in the
  non-energy sector. A second obstacle is the continuing conflict with
  Armenia over the Nagorno-Karabakh region. Trade with Russia and the
  other former Soviet republics is declining in importance while trade
  is building with Turkey and the nations of Europe. Long-term
  prospects will depend on world oil prices, the location of new
  pipelines in the region, and Azerbaijan's ability to manage its oil
  wealth.

GDP:
  purchasing power parity - $28.61 billion (2002 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:
  10.6% (2002 est.)

GDP - per capita:
  purchasing power parity - $3,700 (2002 est.)

GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 20% industry: 33% services: 47% (2001 est.)

Population below poverty line: 49% (2002 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: 2.8% highest 10%: 27.8% (1995)

Distribution of family income - Gini index:
  36 (1995)

Inflation rate (consumer prices):
  2.6% (2002 est.)

Labor force:
  3.7 million (2001)

Labor force - by occupation:
  agriculture and forestry 41%, industry 7%, services 52% (2001)

Unemployment rate:
  16% (official rate is 1.2%) (2003 est.)

Budget:
  revenues: $786 million
  expenditures: $807 million, including capital expenditures of $NA
  (2001 est.)

Industries:
  petroleum and natural gas, petroleum products, oilfield equipment;
  steel, iron ore, cement; chemicals and petrochemicals; textiles

Industrial production growth rate:
  6% (2002 est.)

Electricity - production:
  18.23 billion kWh (2001)

Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel: 89.7% hydro: 10.3% other: 0% (2001) nuclear: 0%

Electricity - consumption:
  16.65 billion kWh (2001)

Electricity - exports:
  700 million kWh (2001)

Electricity - imports:
  400 million kWh (2001)

Oil - production:
  307,200 bbl/day (2001 est.)

Oil - consumption:
  140,000 bbl/day (2001 est.)

Oil - exports:
  NA (2001)

Oil - imports:
  NA (2001)

Oil - proved reserves:
  589 million bbl (37257)

Natural gas - production:
  5.72 billion cu m (2001 est.)

Natural gas - consumption:
  6.72 billion cu m (2001 est.)

Natural gas - exports:
  0 cu m (2001 est.)

Natural gas - imports:
  1 billion cu m (2001 est.)

Natural gas - proved reserves:
  62.3 billion cu m (37257)

Agriculture - products: cotton, grain, rice, grapes, fruit, vegetables, tea, tobacco; cattle, pigs, sheep, goats

Exports:
  $2 billion f.o.b. (2002)

Exports - commodities:
  oil and gas 90%, machinery, cotton, foodstuffs

Exports - partners:
  Italy 28.7%, Germany 17.7%, Israel 10.6%, France 8.4%, Georgia
  6.7%, Russia 4.7% (2002)

Imports:
  $1.8 billion f.o.b. (2002)

Imports - commodities:
  machinery and equipment, oil products, foodstuffs, metals, chemicals

Imports - partners:
  Russia 17.8%, Turkey 11.9%, Germany 10.7%, France 7%, Kazakhstan
  6.3%, China 6%, UK 5.5%, US 4.5% (2002)

Debt - external:
  $1.4 billion (2002)

Economic aid - recipient:
  ODA, $140 million (2000 est.)

Currency:
  Azerbaijani manat (AZM)

Currency code:
  AZM

Exchange rates:
  Azerbaijani manats per US dollar - 4,860.82 (2002), 4,656.58
  (2001), 4,474.15 (2000), 4,120.17 (1999), 3,869 (1998)

Fiscal year:
  calendar year

Communications Azerbaijan

Telephones - main lines in use:
  865,000 (2002)

Telephones - mobile cellular:
  800,000 (2002)

Telephone system:
  general assessment: inadequate; requires considerable expansion and
  modernization; teledensity of 10 main lines per 100 persons is low
  (2002)
  domestic: the majority of telephones are in Baku and other
  industrial centers - about 700 villages still without public
  telephone service; satellite service connects Baku to a modern
  switch in its exclave of Naxcivan
  international: the old Soviet system of cable and microwave is still
  serviceable; a satellite connection to Turkey enables Baku to reach
  about 200 additional countries, some of which are directly connected
  to Baku by satellite providers other than Turkey (1997)

Radio broadcast stations:
  AM 10, FM 17, shortwave 1 (1998)

Radios:
  175,000 (1997)

Television broadcast stations:
  2 (1997)

Televisions:
  170,000 (1997)

Internet country code:
  .az

Internet Service Providers (ISPs):
  2 (2000)

Internet users:
  25,000 (2002)

Transportation Azerbaijan

Railways: total: 2,122 km broad gauge: 2,122 km 1.520-m gauge (1,278 km electrified) (2002)

Highways: total: 24,981 km paved: 23,057 km unpaved: 1,924 km (2000)

Waterways:
  none

Pipelines:
  gas 5,001 km; oil 1,631 km (2003)

Ports and harbors:
  Baku (Baki)

Merchant marine:
  total: 55 ships (1,000 GRT or over) 251,004 GRT/313,193 DWT
  ships by type: cargo 13, petroleum tanker 40, roll on/roll off 2
  (2002 est.)

Airports:
  71 (2002)

Airports - with paved runways: total: 27 over 3.047 m: 2 2,438 to 3,047 m: 6 1,524 to 2,437 m: 14 914 to 1,523 m: 4 under 914 m: 1 (2002)

Airports - with unpaved runways: total: 44 2,438 to 3,047 m: 1 1,524 to 2,437 m: 7 914 to 1,523 m: 9 under 914 m: 27 (2002)

Military Azerbaijan

Military branches:
  Army, Navy, Air and Air Defense Forces

Military manpower - military age:
  18 years of age (2003 est.)

Military manpower - availability:
  males age 15-49: 2,159,450 (2003 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:
  males age 15-49: 1,727,340 (2003 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
  males: 82,925 (2003 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure:
  $121 million (FY99)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP:
  2.6% (FY99)

Transnational Issues Azerbaijan

Disputes - international:
  Armenia supports ethnic Armenian secessionists in Nagorno-Karabakh
  and militarily occupies about one-sixth of Azerbaijan - Organization
  for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE) continues to mediate
  dispute; Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, and Russia ratify Caspian seabed
  delimitation treaties based on equidistance, while Iran continues to
  insist on an even one-fifth allocation and challenges Azerbaijan's
  hydrocarbon exploration in disputed waters; ICJ decision expected to
  resolve dispute with Turkmenistan over sovereignty of certain
  Caspian oilfields

Illicit drugs:
  limited illicit cultivation of cannabis and opium poppy, mostly for
  CIS consumption; small government eradication program; transit point
  for Southwest Asian opiates bound for Russia and to a lesser extent
  the rest of Europe

This page was last updated on 18 December, 2003

======================================================================

@Bahamas, The

Introduction Bahamas, The

Background:
  Arawak Indians inhabited the islands when Christopher Columbus
  first set foot in the New World on San Salvador in 1492. British
  settlement of the islands began in 1647; the islands became a colony
  in 1783. Since attaining independence from the UK in 1973, The
  Bahamas have prospered through tourism and international banking and
  investment management. Because of its geography, the country is a
  major transshipment point for illegal drugs, particularly shipments
  to the US, and its territory is used for smuggling illegal migrants
  into the US.

Geography Bahamas, The

Location:
  Caribbean, chain of islands in the North Atlantic Ocean, southeast
  of Florida, northeast of Cuba

Geographic coordinates:
  24 15 N, 76 00 W

Map references:
  Central America and the Caribbean

Area:
  total: 13,940 sq km
  water: 3,870 sq km
  land: 10,070 sq km

Area - comparative:
  slightly smaller than Connecticut

Land boundaries:
  0 km

Coastline:
  3,542 km

Maritime claims: exclusive economic zone: 200 NM territorial sea: 12 NM

Climate:
  tropical marine; moderated by warm waters of Gulf Stream

Terrain:
  long, flat coral formations with some low rounded hills

Elevation extremes: lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m highest point: Mount Alvernia, on Cat Island 63 m

Natural resources: salt, aragonite, timber, arable land

Land use: arable land: 0.6% permanent crops: 0.4% other: 99% (1998 est.)

Irrigated land:
  NA sq km

Natural hazards:
  hurricanes and other tropical storms cause extensive flood and wind
  damage

Environment - current issues:
  coral reef decay; solid waste disposal

Environment - international agreements:
  party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto
  Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law
  of the Sea, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship
  Pollution, Wetlands
  signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - note:
  strategic location adjacent to US and Cuba; extensive island chain
  of which 30 are inhabited

People Bahamas, The

Population:
  297,477
  note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the
  effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower
  life expectancy, higher infant mortality and death rates, lower
  population and growth rates, and changes in the distribution of
  population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (July
  2003 est.)

Age structure:
  0-14 years: 28.8% (male 42,799; female 42,730)
  15-64 years: 65.4% (male 95,718; female 98,875)
  65 years and over: 5.8% (male 7,092; female 10,263) (2003 est.)

Median age:
  total: 27 years
  male: 26.2 years
  female: 27.7 years (2002)

Population growth rate:
  0.77% (2003 est.)

Birth rate:
  18.57 births/1,000 population (2003 est.)

Death rate:
  8.68 deaths/1,000 population (2003 est.)

Net migration rate:
  -2.21 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2003 est.)

Sex ratio:
  at birth: 1.02 male(s)/female
  under 15 years: 1 male(s)/female
  15-64 years: 0.97 male(s)/female
  65 years and over: 0.69 male(s)/female
  total population: 0.96 male(s)/female (2003 est.)

Infant mortality rate:
  total: 26.21 deaths/1,000 live births
  female: 19.83 deaths/1,000 live births (2003 est.)
  male: 32.45 deaths/1,000 live births

Life expectancy at birth:
  total population: 65.71 years
  male: 62.3 years
  female: 69.18 years (2003 est.)

Total fertility rate:
  2.25 children born/woman (2003 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
  3.5% (2001 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
  6,200 (2001 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths:
  610 (2001 est.)

Nationality: noun: Bahamian(s) adjective: Bahamian

Ethnic groups:
  black 85%, white 12%, Asian and Hispanic 3%

Religions:
  Baptist 32%, Anglican 20%, Roman Catholic 19%, Methodist 6%, Church
  of God 6%, other Protestant 12%, none or unknown 3%, other 2%

Languages:
  English (official), Creole (among Haitian immigrants)

Literacy:
  definition: age 15 and over can read and write
  total population: 95.6%
  male: 94.7%
  female: 96.5% (2003 est.)

Government Bahamas, The

Country name:
  conventional long form: Commonwealth of The Bahamas
  conventional short form: The Bahamas

Government type:
  constitutional parliamentary democracy

Capital:
  Nassau

Administrative divisions:
  21 districts; Acklins and Crooked Islands, Bimini, Cat Island,
  Exuma, Freeport, Fresh Creek, Governor's Harbour, Green Turtle Cay,
  Harbour Island, High Rock, Inagua, Kemps Bay, Long Island, Marsh
  Harbour, Mayaguana, New Providence, Nichollstown and Berry Islands,
  Ragged Island, Rock Sound, Sandy Point, San Salvador and Rum Cay

Independence:
  10 July 1973 (from UK)

National holiday:
  Independence Day, 10 July (1973)

Constitution:
  10 July 1973

Legal system:
  based on English common law

Suffrage:
  18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
  chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952),
  represented by Governor General Ivy DUMONT (since NA May 2002)
  head of government: Prime Minister Perry CHRISTIE (since 3 May 2002)
  and Deputy Prime Minister Cynthia PRATT (since 7 May 2002)
  cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the governor general on the prime
  minister's recommendation
  elections: none; the monarch is hereditary; governor general
  appointed by the monarch; following legislative elections, the
  leader of the majority party or the leader of the majority coalition
  is usually appointed prime minister by the governor general; the
  prime minister recommends the deputy prime minister

Legislative branch:
  bicameral Parliament consists of the Senate (16-member body
  appointed by the governor general upon the advice of the prime
  minister and the opposition leader for five-year terms) and the
  House of Assembly (40 seats; members elected by direct popular vote
  to serve five-year terms)
  elections: last held 1 May 2002 (next to be held by May 2007)
  election results: percent of vote by party - PLP 50.8%, FNM 41.1%,
  independents 5.2%; seats by party - PLP 29, FNM 7, independents 4

Judicial branch:
  Supreme Court; Court of Appeal; magistrates courts

Political parties and leaders:
  Free National Movement or FNM [Tommy TURNQUEST]; Progressive
  Liberal Party or PLP [Perry CHRISTIE]

Political pressure groups and leaders:
  NA

International organization participation:
  ACP, C, Caricom, CDB, ECLAC, FAO, G-77, IADB, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt
  (signatory), ICFTU, ICRM, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC,
  ITU, LAES, NAM, OAS, OPANAL, OPCW (signatory), UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO,
  UNIDO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTrO (observer)

Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Joshua SEARS consulate(s) general: Miami and New York FAX: [1] (202) 319-2668 telephone: [1] (202) 319-2660 chancery: 2220 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008

Diplomatic representation from the US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affairs Robert M.
  WITAJEWSKI
  embassy: 42 Queen Street, Nassau
  mailing address: local or express mail address: P. O. Box N-8197,
  Nassau; Department of State, 3370 Nassau Place, Washington, DC
  20521-3370
  telephone: [1] (242) 322-1181, 328-2206 (after hours)
  FAX: [1] (242) 356-0222

Flag description:
  three equal horizontal bands of aquamarine (top), gold, and
  aquamarine, with a black equilateral triangle based on the hoist side

Economy Bahamas, The

Economy - overview:
  The Bahamas is a stable, developing nation with an economy heavily
  dependent on tourism and offshore banking. Tourism alone accounts
  for more than 60% of GDP and directly or indirectly employs half of
  the archipelago's labor force. Steady growth in tourism receipts and
  a boom in construction of new hotels, resorts, and residences had
  led to solid GDP growth in recent years, but the slowdown in the US
  economy and the attacks of 11 September 2001 held back growth in
  these sectors in 2002. Manufacturing and agriculture together
  contribute approximately a tenth of GDP and show little growth,
  despite government incentives aimed at those sectors. Overall growth
  prospects in the short run rest heavily on the fortunes of the
  tourism sector, which depends on growth in the US, the source of
  most of the visitors.

GDP:
  purchasing power parity - $4.59 billion (2002 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:
  0.1% (2002 est.)

GDP - per capita:
  purchasing power parity - $15,300 (2002 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
  agriculture: 3%
  industry: 7%
  services: 90% (1999 est.)

Population below poverty line:
  NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
  lowest 10%: NA%
  highest 10%: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices):
  1.8% (2001 est.)

Labor force:
  156,000 (1999)

Labor force - by occupation: tourism 50%, other services 40%, industry 5%, agriculture 5% (1999 est.)

Unemployment rate:
  6.9% (2001 est.)

Budget:
  revenues: $918.5 million
  expenditures: $956.5 million, including capital expenditures of
  $106.7 million (FY 99/00)

Industries:
  tourism, banking, e-commerce, cement, oil refining and
  transshipment, salt, rum, aragonite, pharmaceuticals, spiral-welded
  steel pipe

Industrial production growth rate:
  NA%

Electricity - production:
  1.56 billion kWh (2001)

Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel: 100% hydro: 0% other: 0% (2001) nuclear: 0%

Electricity - consumption:
  1.451 billion kWh (2001)

Electricity - exports:
  0 kWh (2001)

Electricity - imports:
  0 kWh (2001)

Oil - production:
  0 bbl/day (2001 est.)

Oil - consumption:
  23,000 bbl/day (2001 est.)

Oil - exports:
  NA (2001)

Oil - imports:
  NA (2001)

Agriculture - products:
  citrus, vegetables; poultry

Exports:
  $560.7 million (2002 est.)

Exports - commodities:
  fish and crawfish; rum, salt, chemicals; fruit and vegetables

Exports - partners:
  US 39.1%, Germany 15.4%, Spain 10.8%, France 7.4%, Poland 4.6%,
  Switzerland 4.3% (2002)

Imports:
  $1.86 billion (2002 est.)

Imports - commodities:
  machinery and transport equipment, manufactures, chemicals, mineral
  fuels; food and live animals

Imports - partners:
  US 20.3%, South Korea 20.1%, Germany 11.5%, Norway 11.5%, Japan
  10%, Italy 7.2% (2002)

Debt - external:
  $371.6 million (2001)

Economic aid - recipient:
  $9.8 million (1995)

Currency:
  Bahamian dollar (BSD)

Currency code:
  BSD

Exchange rates:
  Bahamian dollars per US dollar - 1 (2002), 1 (2001), 1 (2000), 1
  (1999), 1 (1998)

Fiscal year:
  1 July - 30 June

Communications Bahamas, The

Telephones - main lines in use:
  96,000 (1997)

Telephones - mobile cellular:
  6,152 (1997)

Telephone system:
  general assessment: modern facilities
  domestic: totally automatic system; highly developed
  international: tropospheric scatter and submarine cable to Florida;
  3 coaxial submarine cables; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat
  (Atlantic Ocean) (1997)

Radio broadcast stations:
  AM 3, FM 4, shortwave 0 (1998)

Radios:
  215,000 (1997)

Television broadcast stations:
  1 (1997)

Televisions:
  67,000 (1997)

Internet country code:
  .bs

Internet Service Providers (ISPs):
  19 (2000)

Internet users:
  16,900 (2002)

Transportation Bahamas, The

Railways: 0 km

Highways: total: 2,693 km paved: 1,546 km unpaved: 1,147 km (1999 est.)

Waterways:
  none

Ports and harbors:
  Freeport, Matthew Town, Nassau

Merchant marine:
  total: 1,090 ships (1,000 GRT or over) 33,065,778 GRT/46,202,085 DWT
  ships by type: bulk 150, cargo 223, chemical tanker 45, combination
  bulk 12, combination ore/oil 18, container 108, liquefied gas 26,
  livestock carrier 2, multi-functional large-load carrier 8,
  passenger 102, passenger/cargo 1, petroleum tanker 178, refrigerated
  cargo 135, roll on/roll off 40, short-sea passenger 17, specialized
  tanker 2, vehicle carrier 23
  note: includes some foreign-owned ships registered here as a flag of
  convenience: Angola 1, Argentina 1, Australia 4, Belgium 18, Bermuda
  1, Canada 5, Chile 1, China 3, Croatia 2, Cuba 3, Cyprus 2, Denmark
  27, Ecuador 1, Estonia 2, Finland 9, France 15, Germany 26, Greece
  173, Hong Kong 6, India 2, Indonesia 2, Ireland 1, Israel 3, Italy
  9, Jamaica 1, Japan 32, Kenya 3, Malaysia 10, Malta 2, Monaco 67,
  Netherlands 32, New Zealand 2, Norway 237, Panama 2, Philippines 3,
  Poland 13, Reunion 1, Russia 6, Saudi Arabia 9, Singapore 13,
  Slovenia 1, South Korea 2, Spain 7, Sweden 12, Switzerland 8,
  Thailand 1, Trinidad and Tobago 2, Turkey 2, Ukraine 2, United Arab
  Emirates 10, United Kingdom 107, United States 159, Uruguay 1 (2002
  est.)

Airports:
  64 (2002)

Airports - with paved runways: total: 30 over 3,047 m: 2 2,438 to 3,047 m: 3 914 to 1,523 m: 11 under 914 m: 2 (2002) 1,524 to 2,437 m: 12

Airports - with unpaved runways: total: 34 1,524 to 2,437 m: 3 914 to 1,523 m: 9 under 914 m: 22 (2002)

Heliports: 1 (2002)

Military Bahamas, The

Military branches:
  Royal Bahamas Defense Force (Coast Guard only), Royal Bahamas
  Police Force

Military expenditures - dollar figure:
  $20 million (FY95/96)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP:
  0.7% (FY99)

Transnational Issues Bahamas, The

Disputes - international:
  have not been able to agree on a maritime boundary with the US

Illicit drugs:
  transshipment point for cocaine and marijuana bound for US and
  Europe; offshore financial center

This page was last updated on 18 December, 2003

======================================================================

@Bahrain

Introduction Bahrain

Background:
  Bahrain's small size and central location among Persian Gulf
  countries require it to play a delicate balancing act in foreign
  affairs among its larger neighbors. Facing declining oil reserves,
  Bahrain has turned to petroleum processing and refining and has
  transformed itself into an international banking center. The new
  amir, installed in 1999, has pushed economic and political reforms
  and has worked to improve relations with the Shi'a community. In
  February 2001, Bahraini voters approved a referendum on the National
  Action Charter - the centerpiece of the amir's political
  liberalization program. In February 2002, Amir HAMAD bin Isa Al
  Khalifa proclaimed himself king. In October 2002, Bahrainis elected
  members of the lower house of Bahrain's reconstituted bicameral
  legislature, the National Assembly.

Geography Bahrain

Location:
  Middle East, archipelago in the Persian Gulf, east of Saudi Arabia

Geographic coordinates:
  26 00 N, 50 33 E

Map references:
  Middle East

Area:
  total: 665 sq km
  water: 0 sq km
  land: 665 sq km

Area - comparative:
  3.5 times the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries:
  0 km

Coastline:
  161 km

Maritime claims: contiguous zone: 24 NM territorial sea: 12 NM continental shelf: extending to boundaries to be determined

Climate:
  arid; mild, pleasant winters; very hot, humid summers

Terrain:
  mostly low desert plain rising gently to low central escarpment

Elevation extremes: lowest point: Persian Gulf 0 m highest point: Jabal ad Dukhan 122 m

Natural resources: oil, associated and nonassociated natural gas, fish, pearls

Land use: arable land: 4.35% permanent crops: 4.35% other: 91.3% (1998 est.)

Irrigated land:
  50 sq km (1998 est.)

Natural hazards:
  periodic droughts; dust storms

Environment - current issues:
  desertification resulting from the degradation of limited arable
  land, periods of drought, and dust storms; coastal degradation
  (damage to coastlines, coral reefs, and sea vegetation) resulting
  from oil spills and other discharges from large tankers, oil
  refineries, and distribution stations; lack of freshwater resources,
  groundwater and seawater are the only sources for all water needs

Environment - international agreements:
  party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Hazardous
  Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands
  signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - note:
  close to primary Middle Eastern petroleum sources; strategic
  location in Persian Gulf, which much of Western world's petroleum
  must transit to reach open ocean

People Bahrain

Population: 667,238 note: includes 235,108 non-nationals (July 2003 est.)

Age structure:
  0-14 years: 28.8% (male 97,294; female 94,930)
  15-64 years: 68% (male 266,351; female 187,473)
  65 years and over: 3.2% (male 10,807; female 10,383) (2003 est.)

Median age:
  total: 28.7 years
  male: 31.6 years
  female: 25.1 years (2002)

Population growth rate:
  1.61% (2003 est.)

Birth rate:
  19.02 births/1,000 population (2003 est.)

Death rate:
  3.99 deaths/1,000 population (2003 est.)

Net migration rate:
  1.07 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2003 est.)

Sex ratio:
  at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
  under 15 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
  15-64 years: 1.42 male(s)/female
  65 years and over: 1.04 male(s)/female
  total population: 1.28 male(s)/female (2003 est.)

Infant mortality rate:
  total: 18.59 deaths/1,000 live births
  female: 15.45 deaths/1,000 live births (2003 est.)
  male: 21.65 deaths/1,000 live births

Life expectancy at birth:
  total population: 73.72 years
  male: 71.28 years
  female: 76.24 years (2003 est.)

Total fertility rate:
  2.71 children born/woman (2003 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
  0.3% (2001 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
  less than 1,000

HIV/AIDS - deaths:
  NA

Nationality:
  noun: Bahraini(s)
  adjective: Bahraini

Ethnic groups:
  Bahraini 63%, Asian 19%, other Arab 10%, Iranian 8%

Religions:
  Shi'a Muslim 70%, Sunni Muslim 30%

Languages:
  Arabic, English, Farsi, Urdu

Literacy:
  definition: age 15 and over can read and write
  total population: 89.1%
  male: 91.9%
  female: 85% (2003 est.)

Government Bahrain

Country name:
  conventional long form: Kingdom of Bahrain
  conventional short form: Bahrain
  local short form: Al Bahrayn
  former: Dilmun
  local long form: Mamlakat al Bahrayn

Government type:
  constitutional hereditary monarchy

Capital:
  Manama

Administrative divisions:
  12 municipalities (manatiq, singular - mintaqah); Al Hadd, Al
  Manamah, Al Mintaqah al Gharbiyah, Al Mintaqah al Wusta, Al Mintaqah
  ash Shamaliyah, Al Muharraq, Ar Rifa' wa al Mintaqah al Janubiyah,
  Jidd Hafs, Madinat Hamad, Madinat 'Isa, Juzur Hawar, Sitrah
  note: all municipalities administered from Manama

Independence:
  15 August 1971 (from UK)

National holiday:
  National Day, 16 December (1971); note - 15 August 1971 is the date
  of independence from the UK, 16 December 1971 is the date of
  independence from British protection

Constitution:
  adopted late December 2000; Bahrani voters approved on 13-14
  February 2001 a referendum on legislative changes (revised
  constitution calls for a partially elected legislature, a
  constitutional monarchy, and an independent judiciary)

Legal system:
  based on Islamic law and English common law

Suffrage:
  18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
  chief of state: King HAMAD bin Isa Al Khalifa (since 6 March 1999);
  Heir Apparent Crown Prince SALMAN bin Hamad (son of the monarch,
  born 21 October 1969)
  head of government: Prime Minister KHALIFA bin Salman Al Khalifa
  (since NA 1971)
  cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the monarch
  elections: none; the monarchy is hereditary; prime minister
  appointed by the monarch

Legislative branch:
  bicameral Parliament consists of Shura Council (40 members
  appointed by the King) and House of Deputies (40 members directly
  elected to serve four-year terms)
  elections: House of Deputies - last held 31 October 2002 (next
  election to be held NA 2006)
  note: first elections since 7 December 1973; unicameral National
  Assembly dissolved 26 August 1975; National Action Charter created
  bicameral legislature on 23 December 2000; approved by referendum 14
  February 2001; first legislative session of Parliament held on 25
  December 2002
  election results: House of Deputies - percent of vote by party -
  NA%; seats by party - independents 21, Sunni Islamists 9, other 10

Judicial branch:
  High Civil Appeals Court

Political parties and leaders: political parties prohibited but politically oriented societies are allowed

Political pressure groups and leaders:
  Shi'a activists fomented unrest sporadically in 1994-97, demanding
  the return of an elected National Assembly and an end to
  unemployment; several small, clandestine leftist and Islamic
  fundamentalist groups are active

International organization participation:
  ABEDA, AFESD, AL, AMF, ESCWA, FAO, G-77, GCC, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICCt
  (signatory), ICRM, IDB, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol,
  IOC, ISO (correspondent), ITU, NAM, OAPEC, OIC, OPCW, UN, UNCTAD,
  UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Khalifa bin Ali bin Rashid AL KHALIFA chancery: 3502 International Drive NW, Washington, DC 20008 consulate(s) general: New York FAX: [1] (202) 362-2192 telephone: [1] (202) 342-0741

Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Ronald E. NEUMANN embassy: Building #979, Road 3119 (next to Al-Ahli Sports Club), Block 321, Zinj District, Manama mailing address: American Embassy Manama, PSC 451, FPO AE 09834-5100; international mail: American Embassy, Box 26431, Manama telephone: [973] 273-300 FAX: [973] 272-594

Flag description:
  red with a white serrated band (five white points) on the hoist
  side; the five points represent the five pillars of Islam

Economy Bahrain

Economy - overview:
  In Bahrain, petroleum production and refining account for about 60%
  of export receipts, 60% of government revenues, and 30% of GDP. With
  its highly developed communication and transport facilities, Bahrain
  is home to numerous multinational firms with business in the Gulf.
  Bahrain is dependent on Saudi Arabia for oil granted as aid. A large
  share of exports consists of petroleum products made from refining
  imported crude. Construction proceeds on several major industrial
  projects. Unemployment, especially among the young, and the
  depletion of oil and underground water resources are major long-term
  economic problems.

GDP:
  purchasing power parity - $9.91 billion (2002 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:
  2.9% (2002 est.)

GDP - per capita:
  purchasing power parity - $15,100 (2002 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
  agriculture: 1%
  industry: 35%
  services: 64% (2001 est.)

Population below poverty line:
  NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
  lowest 10%: NA%
  highest 10%: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices):
  0.5% (2002 est.)

Labor force:
  295,000
  note: 44% of the population in the 15-64 age group is non-national
  (1998 est.)

Labor force - by occupation: industry, commerce, and service 79%, government 20%, agriculture 1% (1997 est.)

Unemployment rate:
  15% (1998 est.)

Budget:
  revenues: $1.8 billion
  expenditures: $2.2 billion, including capital expenditures of $700
  million (2002 est.)

Industries:
  petroleum processing and refining, aluminum smelting, offshore
  banking, ship repairing; tourism

Industrial production growth rate:
  2% (2000 est.)

Electricity - production:
  6.257 billion kWh (2001)

Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel: 100% hydro: 0% other: 0% (2001) nuclear: 0%

Electricity - consumption:
  5.819 billion kWh (2001)

Electricity - exports:
  0 kWh (2001)

Electricity - imports:
  0 kWh (2001)

Oil - production:
  43,000 bbl/day (2001 est.)

Oil - consumption:
  31,000 bbl/day (2001 est.)

Oil - exports:
  NA (2001)

Oil - imports:
  NA (2001)

Oil - proved reserves:
  62.28 million bbl (37257)

Natural gas - production:
  8.9 billion cu m (2001 est.)

Natural gas - consumption:
  8.9 billion cu m (2001 est.)

Natural gas - exports:
  0 cu m (2001 est.)

Natural gas - imports:
  0 cu m (2001 est.)

Natural gas - proved reserves:
  46 billion cu m (37257)

Agriculture - products:
  fruit, vegetables; poultry, dairy products; shrimp, fish

Exports:
  $5.8 billion (2002)

Exports - commodities:
  petroleum and petroleum products, aluminum, textiles

Exports - partners:
  US 4.5%, India 3.2%, Saudi Arabia 2.1% (2002)

Imports:
  $4.2 billion (2002)

Imports - commodities:
  crude oil, machinery, chemicals

Imports - partners:
  Saudi Arabia 30.1%, US 11.7%, Japan 7.1%, Germany 6.5%, UK 5.6%
  (2002)

Debt - external:
  $3.7 billion (2002)

Economic aid - recipient:
  $150 million; note - $50 million annually since 1992 from each of
  Saudi Arabia, UAE, and Kuwait (2002)

Currency:
  Bahraini dinar (BHD)

Currency code:
  BHD

Exchange rates:
  Bahraini dinars per US dollar - 0.38 (2002), 0.38 (2001), 0.38
  (2000), 0.38 (1999), 0.38 (1998)

Fiscal year:
  calendar year

Communications Bahrain

Telephones - main lines in use:
  152,000 (1997)

Telephones - mobile cellular:
  58,543 (1997)

Telephone system:
  general assessment: modern system
  domestic: modern fiber-optic integrated services; digital network
  with rapidly growing use of mobile cellular telephones
  international: tropospheric scatter to Qatar and UAE; microwave
  radio relay to Saudi Arabia; submarine cable to Qatar, UAE, and
  Saudi Arabia; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Atlantic
  Ocean and 1 Indian Ocean) and 1 Arabsat (1997)

Radio broadcast stations:
  AM 2, FM 3, shortwave 0 (1998)

Radios:
  338,000 (1997)

Television broadcast stations:
  4 (1997)

Televisions:
  275,000 (1997)

Internet country code:
  .bh

Internet Service Providers (ISPs):
  1 (2000)

Internet users:
  140,200 (2002)

Transportation Bahrain

Railways: 0 km

Highways: total: 3,261 km paved: 2,531 km unpaved: 730 km (2000)

Waterways:
  none

Pipelines:
  gas 20 km; oil 53 km (2003)

Ports and harbors:
  Manama, Mina' Salman, Sitrah

Merchant marine:
  total: 7 ships (1,000 GRT or over) 234,599 GRT/336,528 DWT
  ships by type: bulk 3, cargo 1, container 2, petroleum tanker 1,
  includes a foreign-owned ship registered here as a flag of
  convenience: Kuwait 1 (2002 est.)

Airports:
  4 (2002)

Airports - with paved runways:
  total: 3
  over 3,047 m: 2
  1524 to 2437 m: 1 (2002)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
  total: 1
  1,524 to 2,437 m: 1 (2002)

Heliports:
  1 (2002)

Military Bahrain

Military branches:
  Bahrain Defense Forces (BDF) comprising Ground Force (includes Air
  Defense), Navy, Air Force, Coast Guard, Police Force, Amiri Guards,
  National Guard

Military manpower - military age:
  15 years of age (2003 est.)

Military manpower - availability:
  males age 15-49: 222,242 (2003 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:
  males age 15-49: 121,739 (2003 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
  males: 6,126 (2003 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure:
  $526.2 million (FY01)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP:
  6.7% (FY01)

Transnational Issues Bahrain

Disputes - international: none

This page was last updated on 18 December, 2003

======================================================================

@Baker Island

Introduction Baker Island

Background:
  The US took possession of the island in 1857, and its guano
  deposits were mined by US and British companies during the second
  half of the 19th century. In 1935, a short-lived attempt at
  colonization was begun on this island - as well as on nearby Howland
  Island - but was disrupted by World War II and thereafter abandoned.
  Presently the island is a National Wildlife Refuge run by the US
  Department of the Interior; a day beacon is situated near the middle
  of the west coast.

Geography Baker Island

Location:
  Oceania, atoll in the North Pacific Ocean, about half way between
  Hawaii and Australia

Geographic coordinates:
  0 13 N, 176 31 W

Map references:
  Oceania

Area:
  total: 1.4 sq km
  water: 0 sq km
  land: 1.4 sq km

Area - comparative:
  about 2.5 times the size of The Mall in Washington, DC

Land boundaries:
  0 km

Coastline:
  4.8 km

Maritime claims: exclusive economic zone: 200 NM territorial sea: 12 NM

Climate:
  equatorial; scant rainfall, constant wind, burning sun

Terrain:
  low, nearly level coral island surrounded by a narrow fringing reef

Elevation extremes: lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m highest point: unnamed location 8 m

Natural resources: guano (deposits worked until 1891), terrestrial and aquatic wildlife

Land use: arable land: 0% permanent crops: 0% other: 100% (1998 est.)

Irrigated land:
  0 sq km (1998 est.)

Natural hazards:
  the narrow fringing reef surrounding the island can be a maritime
  hazard

Environment - current issues:
  no natural fresh water resources

Geography - note:
  treeless, sparse, and scattered vegetation consisting of grasses,
  prostrate vines, and low growing shrubs; primarily a nesting,
  roosting, and foraging habitat for seabirds, shorebirds, and marine
  wildlife

People Baker Island

Population:
  uninhabited
  note: American civilians evacuated in 1942 after Japanese air and
  naval attacks during World War II; occupied by US military during
  World War II, but abandoned after the war; public entry is by
  special-use permit from US Fish and Wildlife Service only and
  generally restricted to scientists and educators; a cemetery and
  remnants of structures from early settlement are located near the
  middle of the west coast; visited annually by US Fish and Wildlife
  Service (July 2003 est.)

Government Baker Island

Country name: conventional long form: none conventional short form: Baker Island

Dependency status:
  unincorporated territory of the US; administered from Washington,
  DC, by the Fish and Wildlife Service of the US Department of the
  Interior as part of the National Wildlife Refuge system

Legal system:
  the laws of the US, where applicable, apply

Flag description:
  the flag of the US is used

Economy Baker Island

Economy - overview: no economic activity

Transportation Baker Island

Waterways:
  none

Ports and harbors:
  none; offshore anchorage only; note - there is one small boat
  landing area along the middle of the west coast

Airports:
  1 abandoned World War II runway of 1,665 m, completely covered with
  vegetation and unusable (2002)

Transportation - note:
  there is a day beacon near the middle of the west coast

Military Baker Island

Military - note:
  defense is the responsibility of the US; visited annually by the US
  Coast Guard

Transnational Issues Baker Island

Disputes - international: none

This page was last updated on 18 December, 2003

======================================================================

@Bangladesh

Introduction Bangladesh

Background:
  Bangladesh came into existence in 1971 when Bengali East Pakistan
  seceded from its union with West Pakistan. About a third of this
  extremely poor country floods annually during the monsoon rainy
  season, hampering economic development.

Geography Bangladesh

Location:
  Southern Asia, bordering the Bay of Bengal, between Burma and India

Geographic coordinates:
  24 00 N, 90 00 E

Map references:
  Asia

Area:
  total: 144,000 sq km
  land: 133,910 sq km
  water: 10,090 sq km

Area - comparative:
  slightly smaller than Iowa

Land boundaries: total: 4,246 km border countries: Burma 193 km, India 4,053 km

Coastline:
  580 km

Maritime claims:
  contiguous zone: 18 NM
  territorial sea: 12 NM
  continental shelf: up to the outer limits of the continental margin
  exclusive economic zone: 200 NM

Climate:
  tropical; mild winter (October to March); hot, humid summer (March
  to June); humid, warm rainy monsoon (June to October)

Terrain:
  mostly flat alluvial plain; hilly in southeast

Elevation extremes: lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m highest point: Keokradong 1,230 m

Natural resources: natural gas, arable land, timber, coal

Land use: arable land: 60.7% permanent crops: 2.61% other: 36.69% (1998 est.)

Irrigated land:
  38,440 sq km (1998 est.)

Natural hazards:
  droughts, cyclones; much of the country routinely inundated during
  the summer monsoon season

Environment - current issues:
  many people are landless and forced to live on and cultivate
  flood-prone land; water-borne diseases prevalent in surface water;
  water pollution, especially of fishing areas, results from the use
  of commercial pesticides; ground water contaminated by naturally
  occurring arsenic; intermittent water shortages because of falling
  water tables in the northern and central parts of the country; soil
  degradation and erosion; deforestation; severe overpopulation

Environment - international agreements:
  party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto
  Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental
  Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Nuclear Test Ban,
  Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands
  signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - note:
  most of the country is situated on deltas of large rivers flowing
  from the Himalayas: the Ganges unites with the Jamuna (main channel
  of the Brahmaputra) and later joins the Meghna to eventually empty
  into the Bay of Bengal

People Bangladesh

Population:
  138,448,210 (July 2003 est.)

Age structure:
  0-14 years: 34.1% (male 24,255,300; female 23,007,632)
  15-64 years: 62.5% (male 44,261,739; female 42,281,331)
  65 years and over: 3.4% (male 2,506,606; female 2,135,602) (2003
  est.)

Median age: total: 21.2 years male: 21.2 years female: 21.1 years (2002)

Population growth rate:
  2.06% (2003 est.)

Birth rate:
  29.9 births/1,000 population (2003 est.)

Death rate:
  8.63 deaths/1,000 population (2003 est.)

Net migration rate:
  -0.72 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2003 est.)

Sex ratio:
  at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female
  under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
  15-64 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
  65 years and over: 1.17 male(s)/female
  total population: 1.05 male(s)/female (2003 est.)

Infant mortality rate:
  total: 66.08 deaths/1,000 live births
  female: 64.88 deaths/1,000 live births (2003 est.)
  male: 67.21 deaths/1,000 live births

Life expectancy at birth:
  total population: 61.33 years
  male: 61.46 years
  female: 61.2 years (2003 est.)

Total fertility rate:
  3.17 children born/woman (2003 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
  less than 0.1% (2001 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
  13,000 (2001 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths:
  650 (2001 est.)

Nationality:
  noun: Bangladeshi(s)
  adjective: Bangladeshi

Ethnic groups:
  Bengali 98%, tribal groups, non-Bengali Muslims (1998)

Religions:
  Muslim 83%, Hindu 16%, other 1% (1998)

Languages:
  Bangla (official, also known as Bengali), English

Literacy:
  definition: age 15 and over can read and write
  total population: 43.1%
  male: 53.9%
  female: 31.8% (2003 est.)

Government Bangladesh

Country name:
  conventional long form: People's Republic of Bangladesh
  conventional short form: Bangladesh
  former: East Pakistan

Government type:
  parliamentary democracy

Capital:
  Dhaka

Administrative divisions:
  5 divisions; Barisal, Chittagong, Dhaka, Khulna, Rajshahi; note -
  there may be one additional division named Sylhet

Independence:
  16 December 1971 (from West Pakistan); note - 26 March 1971 is the
  date of independence from West Pakistan, 16 December 1971 is known
  as Victory Day and commemorates the official creation of the state
  of Bangladesh

National holiday:
  Independence Day, 26 March (1971); note - 26 March 1971 is the date
  of independence from West Pakistan, 16 December 1971 is Victory Day
  and commemorates the official creation of the state of Bangladesh

Constitution:
  4 November 1972, effective 16 December 1972, suspended following
  coup of 24 March 1982, restored 10 November 1986, amended many times

Legal system:
  based on English common law

Suffrage:
  18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
  chief of state: President Iajuddin AHMED (since 6 September 2002);
  note - the president's duties are normally ceremonial, but with the
  13th amendment to the constitution ("Caretaker Government
  Amendment"), the president's role becomes significant at times when
  Parliament is dissolved and a caretaker government is installed - at
  presidential direction - to supervise the elections
  head of government: Prime Minister Khaleda ZIA (since 10 October
  2001)
  cabinet: Cabinet selected by the prime minister and appointed by the
  president
  elections: president elected by National Parliament for a five-year
  term; election scheduled for 16 September 2002 was not held since
  Iajuddin AHMED was the only presidential candidate; he was sworn in
  on 6 September 2002 (next election to be held by NA 2007); following
  legislative elections, the leader of the party that wins the most
  seats is usually appointed prime minister by the president
  election results: Iajuddin AHMED declared by the Election Commission
  elected unopposed as president; percent of National Parliament vote
  - NA%

Legislative branch:
  unicameral National Parliament or Jatiya Sangsad; 300 seats elected
  by popular vote from single territorial constituencies (the
  constitutional amendment reserving 30 seats for women over and above
  the 300 regular parliament seats expired in May 2001); members serve
  five-year terms
  elections: last held 1 October 2001 (next to be held before October
  2006)
  election results: percent of vote by party - BNP and alliance
  partners 46%, AL 42%; seats by party - BNP 191, AL 62, JI 18, JP
  (Ershad faction) 14, IOJ 2, JP (Naziur) 4, other 9; note - the
  election of October 2001 brought a majority BNP government aligned
  with three other smaller parties - Jamaat-i-Islami, Islami Oikya
  Jote, and Jatiya Party (Naziur)

Judicial branch:
  Supreme Court (the chief justices and other judges are appointed by
  the president)

Political parties and leaders:
  Awami League or AL [Sheikh HASINA]; Bangladesh Communist Party or
  BCP [Saifuddin Ahmed MANIK]; Bangladesh Nationalist Party or BNP
  [Khaleda ZIA, chairperson]; Islami Oikya Jote or IOJ [Mufti Fazlul
  Haq AMINI]; Jamaat-E-Islami or JI [Motiur Rahman NIZAMI]; Jatiya
  Party or JP (Ershad faction) [Hussain Mohammad ERSHAD]; Jatiya Party
  (Manzur faction) [Naziur Rahman MANZUR]

Political pressure groups and leaders:
  NA

International organization participation:
  AsDB, C, CP, ESCAP, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICCt
  (signatory), ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF,
  IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, MINURSO, MONUC, NAM, OIC, OPCW,
  SAARC, UN, UNAMSIL, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIKOM, UNMEE,
  UNMIBH, UNMIK, UNMISET, UNMOP, UNMOT, UNOMIG, UNU, UPU, WCL, WCO,
  WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador Syed Hasan AHMAD
  consulate(s) general: Los Angeles and New York
  FAX: [1] (202) 244-5366
  telephone: [1] (202) 244-0183
  chancery: 3510 International Drive NW, Washington, DC 20008

Diplomatic representation from the US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador Mary Ann PETERS
  embassy: Madani Avenue, Baridhara, Dhaka 1212
  mailing address: G. P. O. Box 323, Dhaka 1000
  telephone: [880] (2) 8824700 through 8824722
  FAX: [880] (2) 8823744

Flag description:
  green with a large red disk slightly to the hoist side of center;
  the red sun of freedom represents the blood shed to achieve
  independence; the green field symbolizes the lush countryside, and
  secondarily, the traditional color of Islam

Economy Bangladesh

Economy - overview:
  Despite sustained domestic and international efforts to improve
  economic and demographic prospects, Bangladesh remains a poor,
  overpopulated, and ill-governed nation. Although half of GDP is
  generated through the service sector, nearly two-thirds of
  Bangladeshis are employed in the agriculture sector, with rice as
  the single-most-important product. Major impediments to growth
  include frequent cyclones and floods, inefficient state-owned
  enterprises, inadequate port facilities, a rapidly growing labor
  force that cannot be absorbed by agriculture, delays in exploiting
  energy resources (natural gas), insufficient power supplies, and
  slow implementation of economic reforms. Economic reform is stalled
  in many instances by political infighting and corruption at all
  levels of government. Progress also has been blocked by opposition
  from the bureaucracy, public sector unions, and other vested
  interest groups. The BNP government, led by Prime Minister Khaleda
  ZIA, has the parliamentary strength to push through needed reforms,
  but the party's political will to do so has been lacking in key
  areas.

GDP:
  purchasing power parity - $238.2 billion (2002 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:
  4.8% (2002 est.)

GDP - per capita:
  purchasing power parity - $1,800 (2002 est.)

GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 35% industry: 19% services: 46% (2001 est.)

Population below poverty line: 35.6% (FY 95/96 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: 3.9% highest 10%: 28.6% (1995-96 est.)

Distribution of family income - Gini index:
  33.6 (FY 95/96)

Inflation rate (consumer prices):
  3.1% (2002 est.)

Labor force:
  64.1 million
  note: extensive export of labor to Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, UAE, Oman,
  Qatar, and Malaysia; workers' remittances estimated at $1.71 billion
  in 1998-99 (1998)

Labor force - by occupation:
  agriculture 63%, services 26%, industry 11% (FY 95/96)

Unemployment rate:
  40% (includes underemployment) (2002 est.)

Budget:
  revenues: $4.9 billion
  expenditures: $6.8 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA
  (FY99/00 est.)

Industries:
  cotton textiles, jute, garments, tea processing, paper newsprint,
  cement, chemical fertilizer, light engineering, sugar

Industrial production growth rate:
  1.8% (2002 est.)

Electricity - production:
  15.33 billion kWh (2001)

Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel: 93.7% hydro: 6.3% other: 0% (2001) nuclear: 0%

Electricity - consumption:
  14.25 billion kWh (2001)

Electricity - exports:
  0 kWh (2001)

Electricity - imports:
  0 kWh (2001)

Oil - production:
  3,581 bbl/day (2001 est.)

Oil - consumption:
  71,000 bbl/day (2001 est.)

Oil - exports:
  NA (2001)

Oil - imports:
  NA (2001)

Oil - proved reserves:
  28.45 million bbl (37257)

Natural gas - production:
  9.9 billion cu m (2001 est.)

Natural gas - consumption:
  9.9 billion cu m (2001 est.)

Natural gas - exports:
  0 cu m (2001 est.)

Natural gas - imports:
  0 cu m (2001 est.)

Natural gas - proved reserves:
  150.3 billion cu m (37257)

Agriculture - products: rice, jute, tea, wheat, sugarcane, potatoes, tobacco, pulses, oilseeds, spices, fruit; beef, milk, poultry

Exports: $6.2 billion (2002)

Exports - commodities: garments, jute and jute goods, leather, frozen fish and seafood (2001)

Exports - partners:
  US 27.6%, Germany 10.4%, UK 9.8%, France 5.7%, Italy 4% (2002)

Imports:
  $8.5 billion (2002)

Imports - commodities:
  machinery and equipment, chemicals, iron and steel, textiles,
  foodstuffs, petroleum products, cement (2000)

Imports - partners:
  India 14.6%, China 11.6%, Singapore 11.5%, Japan 7.6%, Hong Kong
  5.4%, South Korea 4.3% (2002)

Debt - external:
  $16.5 billion (2002)

Economic aid - recipient:
  $1.575 billion (2000 est.)

Currency:
  taka (BDT)

Currency code:
  BDT

Exchange rates:
  taka per US dollar - 57.89 (2002), 55.81 (2001), 52.14 (2000),
  49.09 (1999), 46.91 (1998)

Fiscal year:
  1 July - 30 June

Communications Bangladesh

Telephones - main lines in use:
  500,000 (2000)

Telephones - mobile cellular:
  283,000 (2000)

Telephone system:
  general assessment: totally inadequate for a modern country
  domestic: modernizing; introducing digital systems; trunk systems
  include VHF and UHF microwave radio relay links, and some
  fiber-optic cable in cities
  international: satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Indian Ocean);
  international radiotelephone communications and landline service to
  neighboring countries (2000)

Radio broadcast stations:
  AM 12, FM 12, shortwave 2 (1999)

Radios:
  6.15 million (1997)

Television broadcast stations:
  15 (1999)

Televisions:
  770,000 (1997)

Internet country code:
  .bd

Internet Service Providers (ISPs):
  10 (2000)

Internet users:
  150,000 (2002)

Transportation Bangladesh

Railways:
  total: 2,706 km
  broad gauge: 884 km 1.676-m gauge
  narrow gauge: 1,822 km 1.000-m gauge (2002)

Highways:
  total: 207,486 km
  paved: 19,773 km
  unpaved: 187,713 km (1999)

Waterways:
  up to 8,046 km depending on season
  note: includes 3,058 km main cargo routes

Pipelines:
  gas 2,016 km (2003)

Ports and harbors:
  Chittagong, Dhaka, Mongla Port, Narayanganj

Merchant marine:
  total: 40 ships (1,000 GRT or over) 314,437 GRT/436,465 DWT
  ships by type: bulk 2, cargo 23, container 11, passenger 1,
  petroleum tanker 2, refrigerated cargo 1 (2002 est.)

Airports:
  18 (2002)

Airports - with paved runways: total: 15 over 3,047 m: 1 2,438 to 3,047 m: 3 1,524 to 2,437 m: 4 914 to 1,523 m: 1 under 914 m: 6 (2002)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
  total: 3
  1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
  under 914 m: 2 (2002)

Military Bangladesh

Military branches:
  Army, Navy, Air Force, Coast Guard, paramilitary forces (includes
  Bangladesh Rifles, Bangladesh Ansars, Village Defense Parties, Armed
  Police Battalions, National Cadet Corps)

Military manpower - availability:
  males age 15-49: 38,436,912 (2003 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:
  males age 15-49: 22,807,339 (2003 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure:
  $559 million (FY96)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP:
  1.8% (FY96)

Transnational Issues Bangladesh

Disputes - international:
  discussions with India remain stalled to delimit a small section of
  river boundary, demarcate and fence the porous land boundary,
  exchange 162 miniscule enclaves, allocate divided villages, and stop
  illegal cross-border trade and violence; Bangladesh protests India's
  attempts to fence off high-traffic sections of the porous boundary;
  dispute with India over New Moore/South Talpatty Island in the Bay
  of Bengal prevents maritime boundary delimitation; Burmese Muslim
  refugees strain Bangladesh's meager resources

Illicit drugs:
  transit country for illegal drugs produced in neighboring countries

This page was last updated on 18 December, 2003

======================================================================

@Barbados

Introduction Barbados

Background:
  The island was uninhabited when first settled by the British in
  1627. Slaves worked the sugar plantations established on the island
  until 1834 when slavery was abolished. The economy remained heavily
  dependent on sugar, rum, and molasses production through most of the
  20th century. The gradual introduction of social and political
  reforms in the 1940s and 1950s led to complete independence from the
  UK in 1966. In the 1990s, tourism and manufacturing surpassed the
  sugar industry in economic importance.

Geography Barbados

Location:
  Caribbean, island in the North Atlantic Ocean, northeast of
  Venezuela

Geographic coordinates:
  13 10 N, 59 32 W

Map references:
  Central America and the Caribbean

Area:
  total: 431 sq km
  water: 0 sq km
  land: 431 sq km

Area - comparative:
  2.5 times the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries:
  0 km

Coastline:
  97 km

Maritime claims: exclusive economic zone: 200 NM territorial sea: 12 NM

Climate:
  tropical; rainy season (June to October)

Terrain:
  relatively flat; rises gently to central highland region

Elevation extremes: lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m highest point: Mount Hillaby 336 m

Natural resources: petroleum, fish, natural gas

Land use: arable land: 37.21% permanent crops: 2.33% other: 60.46% (1998 est.)

Irrigated land:
  10 sq km (1998 est.)

Natural hazards:
  infrequent hurricanes; periodic landslides

Environment - current issues: pollution of coastal waters from waste disposal by ships; soil erosion; illegal solid waste disposal threatens contamination of aquifers

Environment - international agreements: party to: Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution signed, but not ratified: Biodiversity

Geography - note: easternmost Caribbean island

People Barbados

Population:
  277,264 (July 2003 est.)

Age structure:
  0-14 years: 21.2% (male 29,621; female 29,207)
  15-64 years: 70% (male 94,840; female 99,230)
  65 years and over: 8.8% (male 9,355; female 15,011) (2003 est.)

Median age:
  total: 33.3 years
  male: 32.2 years
  female: 34.4 years (2002)

Population growth rate:
  0.38% (2003 est.)

Birth rate:
  13.15 births/1,000 population (2003 est.)

Death rate:
  9.02 deaths/1,000 population (2003 est.)

Net migration rate:
  -0.31 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2003 est.)

Sex ratio:
  at birth: 1.01 male(s)/female
  under 15 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
  15-64 years: 0.96 male(s)/female
  65 years and over: 0.62 male(s)/female
  total population: 0.93 male(s)/female (2003 est.)

Infant mortality rate:
  total: 12.72 deaths/1,000 live births
  female: 11.04 deaths/1,000 live births (2003 est.)
  male: 14.39 deaths/1,000 live births

Life expectancy at birth:
  total population: 71.84 years
  male: 69.56 years
  female: 74.14 years (2003 est.)

Total fertility rate:
  1.65 children born/woman (2003 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
  1.2% - note: no country specific models provided (2001 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
  1,800 (2001 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths:
  250 (2001 est.)

Nationality:
  noun: Barbadian(s) or Bajan (colloquial)
  adjective: Barbadian or Bajan (colloquial)

Ethnic groups:
  black 90%, white 4%, Asian and mixed 6%

Religions:
  Protestant 67% (Anglican 40%, Pentecostal 8%, Methodist 7%, other
  12%), Roman Catholic 4%, none 17%, other 12%

Languages:
  English

Literacy:
  definition: age 15 and over has ever attended school
  total population: 97.4%
  male: 98%
  female: 96.8% (1995 est.)

Government Barbados

Country name:
  conventional long form: none
  conventional short form: Barbados

Government type:
  parliamentary democracy; independent sovereign state within the
  Commonwealth

Capital:
  Bridgetown

Administrative divisions:
  11 parishes; Christ Church, Saint Andrew, Saint George, Saint
  James, Saint John, Saint Joseph, Saint Lucy, Saint Michael, Saint
  Peter, Saint Philip, Saint Thomas; note - the city of Bridgetown may
  be given parish status

Independence:
  30 November 1966 (from UK)

National holiday:
  Independence Day, 30 November (1966)

Constitution:
  30 November 1966

Legal system:
  English common law; no judicial review of legislative acts

Suffrage:
  18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
  chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952),
  represented by Governor General Sir Clifford Straughn HUSBANDS
  (since 1 June 1996)
  head of government: Prime Minister Owen Seymour ARTHUR (since 6
  September 1994); Deputy Prime Minister Mia MOTTLEY (since 26 May
  2003)
  cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the governor general on the advice of
  the prime minister
  elections: none; the monarch is hereditary; governor general
  appointed by the monarch; following legislative elections, the
  leader of the majority party or the leader of the majority coalition
  is usually appointed prime minister by the governor general; the
  prime minister recommends the deputy prime minister

Legislative branch:
  bicameral Parliament consists of the Senate (21-member body
  appointed by the governor general) and the House of Assembly (30
  seats; members are elected by direct popular vote to serve five-year
  terms)
  elections: House of Assembly - last held 21 May 2003 (next to be
  held by May 2008)
  election results: House of Assembly - percent of vote by party -
  NA%; seats by party - BLP 23, DLP 7

Judicial branch:
  Supreme Court of Judicature (judges are appointed by the Service
  Commissions for the Judicial and Legal Services)

Political parties and leaders:
  Barbados Labor Party or BLP [Owen ARTHUR]; Democratic Labor Party
  or DLP [Clyde Mascoll]

Political pressure groups and leaders:
  Barbados Workers Union [Leroy TROTMAN]; Clement Payne Labor Union
  [David COMMISSIONG]; People's Progressive Movement [Eric SEALY];
  Worker's Party of Barbados [Dr. George BELLE]

International organization participation:
  ACP, C, Caricom, CDB, ECLAC, FAO, G-77, IADB, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt,
  ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC,
  ISO, ITU, LAES, NAM, OAS, OPANAL, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU,
  WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador Michael Ian KING
  consulate(s): Los Angeles
  consulate(s) general: Miami and New York
  FAX: [1] (202) 332-7467
  telephone: [1] (202) 339-9201
  chancery: 2144 Wyoming Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008

Diplomatic representation from the US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador Earl N. PHILLIPS, Jr.
  embassy: Canadian Imperial Bank of Commerce Building, Broad Street,
  Bridgetown; (courier) ALICO Building-Cheapside, Bridgetown
  mailing address: P. O. Box 302, Bridgetown; FPO AA 34055
  telephone: [1] (246) 436-4950
  FAX: [1] (246) 429-5246, 429-3379

Flag description:
  three equal vertical bands of blue (hoist side), gold, and blue
  with the head of a black trident centered on the gold band; the
  trident head represents independence and a break with the past (the
  colonial coat of arms contained a complete trident)

Economy Barbados

Economy - overview:
  Historically, the Barbadian economy had been dependent on sugarcane
  cultivation and related activities, but production in recent years
  has diversified into manufacturing and tourism. Offshore finance and
  information services are important foreign exchange earners, and
  there is also a light-manufacturing sector. The government continues
  its efforts to reduce unemployment, to encourage direct foreign
  investment, and to privatize remaining state-owned enterprises. The
  economy contracted in 2002 mainly due to a 3% decline in tourism.
  Growth should be positive in 2003, the precise level largely
  dependent on economic conditions in the US and Europe.

GDP:
  purchasing power parity - $4.153 billion (2002 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:
  -2.8% (2002 est.)

GDP - per capita:
  purchasing power parity - $15,000 (2002 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
  agriculture: 6%
  industry: 16%
  services: 78% (2000 est.)

Population below poverty line:
  NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
  lowest 10%: NA%
  highest 10%: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices):
  -0.6% (2002 est.)

Labor force:
  128,500 (2001 est.)

Labor force - by occupation:
  services 75%, industry 15%, agriculture 10% (1996 est.)

Unemployment rate:
  10% (2001 est.)

Budget:
  revenues: $847 million (including grants)
  expenditures: $886 million, including capital expenditures of $NA
  (2000 est.)

Industries:
  tourism, sugar, light manufacturing, component assembly for export

Industrial production growth rate:
  -3.2% (2000 est.)

Electricity - production:
  780 million kWh (2001)

Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel: 100% hydro: 0% other: 0% (2001) nuclear: 0%

Electricity - consumption:
  725.4 million kWh (2001)

Electricity - exports:
  0 kWh (2001)

Electricity - imports:
  0 kWh (2001)

Oil - production:
  1,271 bbl/day (2001 est.)

Oil - consumption:
  10,900 bbl/day (2001 est.)

Oil - exports:
  NA (2001)

Oil - imports:
  NA (2001)

Oil - proved reserves:
  1.254 million bbl (37257)

Natural gas - production:
  29.17 million cu m (2001 est.)

Natural gas - consumption:
  29.17 million cu m (2001 est.)

Natural gas - exports:
  0 cu m (2001 est.)

Natural gas - imports:
  0 cu m (2001 est.)

Natural gas - proved reserves:
  70.79 million cu m (37257)

Agriculture - products:
  sugarcane, vegetables, cotton

Exports:
  $227 million (2002)

Exports - commodities:
  sugar and molasses, rum, other foods and beverages, chemicals,
  electrical components

Exports - partners:
  US 14.7%, Trinidad and Tobago 12%, UK 10.6%, Jamaica 6.2%, Saint
  Lucia 4.7% (2002)

Imports:
  $987 million (2002)

Imports - commodities:
  consumer goods, machinery, foodstuffs, construction materials,
  chemicals, fuel, electrical components

Imports - partners:
  US 41.1%, Trinidad and Tobago 17%, UK 7.3%, Japan 4.2% (2002)

Debt - external:
  $692 million (2002)

Economic aid - recipient:
  $9.1 million (1995)

Currency:
  Barbadian dollar (BBD)

Currency code:
  BBD

Exchange rates:
  Barbadian dollars per US dollar - 2 (2002), 2 (2001), 2 (2000), 2
  (1999), 2 (1998)

Fiscal year:
  1 April - 31 March

Communications Barbados

Telephones - main lines in use:
  108,000 (1997)

Telephones - mobile cellular:
  8,013 (1997)

Telephone system:
  general assessment: NA
  domestic: island-wide automatic telephone system
  international: satellite earth stations - 4 Intelsat (Atlantic
  Ocean); tropospheric scatter to Trinidad and Saint Lucia

Radio broadcast stations:
  AM 2, FM 3, shortwave 0 (1998)

Radios:
  237,000 (1997)

Television broadcast stations:
  1 (plus two cable channels) (1997)

Televisions:
  76,000 (1997)

Internet country code:
  .bb

Internet Service Providers (ISPs):
  19 (2000)

Internet users:
  6,000 (2000)

Transportation Barbados

Railways: 0 km

Highways: total: 1,793 km paved: 1,719 km unpaved: 74 km (1999)

Waterways:
  none

Ports and harbors:
  Bridgetown, Speightstown (Port Charles Marina)

Merchant marine:
  total: 34 ships (1,000 GRT or over) 284,222 GRT/439,810 DWT
  note: includes some foreign-owned ships registered here as a flag of
  convenience: Australia 1, The Bahamas 1, Canada 4, Germany 1, Greece
  2, Hong Kong 7, Norway 7, UK 18 (2002 est.)
  ships by type: bulk 8, cargo 22, combination bulk 1, container 1,
  petroleum tanker 2

Airports:
  1 (2002)

Airports - with paved runways: total: 1 over 3,047 m: 1 (2002)

Military Barbados

Military branches:
  Royal Barbados Defense Force (including Ground Forces and Coast
  Guard), Royal Barbados Police Force

Military manpower - availability:
  males age 15-49: 77,862 (2003 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:
  males age 15-49: 53,282 (2003 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure:
  $NA

Military expenditures - percent of GDP:
  NA%

Transnational Issues Barbados

Disputes - international:
  none

Illicit drugs:
  one of many Caribbean transshipment points for narcotics bound for
  Europe and the US; offshore financial center

This page was last updated on 18 December, 2003

======================================================================

@Bassas da India

Introduction Bassas da India

Background:
  This atoll is a volcanic rock surrounded by reefs and is awash at
  high tide. A French possession since 1897, it was placed under the
  administration of a commissioner residing in Reunion in 1968.

Geography Bassas da India

Location:
  Southern Africa, islands in the southern Mozambique Channel, about
  one-half of the way from Madagascar to Mozambique

Geographic coordinates:
  21 30 S, 39 50 E

Map references:
  Africa

Area:
  total: 0.2 sq km
  water: 0 sq km
  land: 0.2 sq km

Area - comparative:
  about one-third the size of The Mall in Washington, DC

Land boundaries:
  0 km

Coastline:
  35.2 km

Maritime claims: exclusive economic zone: 200 NM territorial sea: 12 NM

Climate:
  tropical

Terrain:
  volcanic rock

Elevation extremes: lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m highest point: unnamed location 2.4 m

Natural resources: none

Land use: arable land: 0% permanent crops: 0% other: 100% (all rock) (1998 est.)

Irrigated land:
  0 sq km (1998 est.)

Natural hazards:
  maritime hazard since it is usually under water during high tide
  and surrounded by reefs; subject to periodic cyclones

Environment - current issues:
  NA

Geography - note:
  the islands emerge from a circular reef that sits atop a
  long-extinct, submerged volcano

People Bassas da India

Population: uninhabited (July 2003 est.)

Government Bassas da India

Country name:
  conventional long form: none
  conventional short form: Bassas da India

Dependency status:
  possession of France; administered by a high commissioner of the
  Republic, resident in Reunion

Legal system:
  the laws of France, where applicable, apply

Flag description:
  the flag of France is used

Economy Bassas da India

Economy - overview: no economic activity

Transportation Bassas da India

Waterways:
  none

Ports and harbors:
  none; offshore anchorage only

Military Bassas da India

Military - note: defense is the responsibility of France

Transnational Issues Bassas da India

Disputes - international: claimed by Madagascar

This page was last updated on 18 December, 2003

======================================================================

@Belarus

Introduction Belarus

Background:
  After seven decades as a constituent republic of the USSR, Belarus
  attained its independence in 1991. It has retained closer political
  and economic ties to Russia than any of the other former Soviet
  republics. Belarus and Russia signed a treaty on a two-state union
  on 8 December 1999 envisioning greater political and economic
  integration. Although Belarus agreed to a framework to carry out the
  accord, serious implementation has yet to take place.

Geography Belarus

Location:
  Eastern Europe, east of Poland

Geographic coordinates:
  53 00 N, 28 00 E

Map references:
  Europe

Area:
  total: 207,600 sq km
  water: 0 sq km
  land: 207,600 sq km

Area - comparative:
  slightly smaller than Kansas

Land boundaries:
  total: 2,900 km
  border countries: Latvia 141 km, Lithuania 502 km, Poland 407 km,
  Russia 959 km, Ukraine 891 km

Coastline:
  0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims:
  none (landlocked)

Climate:
  cold winters, cool and moist summers; transitional between
  continental and maritime

Terrain:
  generally flat and contains much marshland

Elevation extremes:
  lowest point: Nyoman River 90 m
  highest point: Dzyarzhynskaya Hara 346 m

Natural resources:
  forests, peat deposits, small quantities of oil and natural gas,
  granite, dolomitic limestone, marl, chalk, sand, gravel, clay

Land use: arable land: 29.76% permanent crops: 0.69% other: 69.55% (1998 est.)

Irrigated land:
  1,150 sq km (1998 est.)

Natural hazards:
  NA

Environment - current issues: soil pollution from pesticide use; southern part of the country contaminated with fallout from 1986 nuclear reactor accident at Chornobyl' in northern Ukraine

Environment - international agreements: party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Sulphur 85, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands signed, but not ratified: Law of the Sea

Geography - note:
  landlocked; glacial scouring accounts for the flatness of
  Belarusian terrain and for its 11,000 lakes; the country is
  geologically well endowed with extensive deposits of granite,
  dolomitic limestone, marl, chalk, sand, gravel, and clay

People Belarus

Population:
  10,322,151 (July 2003 est.)

Age structure:
  0-14 years: 16.8% (male 885,265; female 848,516)
  15-64 years: 68.9% (male 3,456,769; female 3,652,766)
  65 years and over: 14.3% (male 490,529; female 988,306) (2003 est.)

Median age:
  total: 36.7 years
  male: 34.1 years
  female: 39.3 years (2002)

Population growth rate:
  -0.12% (2003 est.)

Birth rate:
  10.18 births/1,000 population (2003 est.)

Death rate:
  14.05 deaths/1,000 population (2003 est.)

Net migration rate:
  2.66 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2003 est.)

Sex ratio:
  at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
  under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
  15-64 years: 0.95 male(s)/female
  65 years and over: 0.5 male(s)/female
  total population: 0.88 male(s)/female (2003 est.)

Infant mortality rate:
  total: 13.87 deaths/1,000 live births
  female: 12.56 deaths/1,000 live births (2003 est.)
  male: 15.13 deaths/1,000 live births

Life expectancy at birth:
  total population: 68.43 years
  male: 62.54 years
  female: 74.6 years (2003 est.)

Total fertility rate:
  1.34 children born/woman (2003 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
  0.3% (2001 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
  15,000 (2001 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths:
  1,000 (2001 est.)

Nationality:
  noun: Belarusian(s)
  adjective: Belarusian

Ethnic groups:
  Belarusian 81.2%, Russian 11.4%, Polish, Ukrainian, and other 7.4%

Religions:
  Eastern Orthodox 80%, other (including Roman Catholic, Protestant,
  Jewish, and Muslim) 20% (1997 est.)

Languages:
  Belarusian, Russian, other

Literacy:
  definition: age 15 and over can read and write
  total population: 99.6%
  male: 99.8%
  female: 99.5% (2003 est.)

Government Belarus

Country name:
  conventional long form: Republic of Belarus
  conventional short form: Belarus
  local short form: none
  former: Belorussian (Byelorussian) Soviet Socialist Republic
  local long form: Respublika Byelarus'

Government type:
  republic

Capital:
  Minsk

Administrative divisions:
  6 voblastsi (singular - voblasts') and one municipality* (harady,
  singular - horad); Brestskaya (Brest), Homyel'skaya (Homyel'), Horad
  Minsk*, Hrodzyenskaya (Hrodna), Mahilyowskaya (Mahilyow), Minskaya,
  Vitsyebskaya (Vitsyebsk); note - when using a place name with the
  adjectival ending 'skaya,' the word voblasts' should be added to the
  place name
  note: voblasti have the administrative center name following in
  parentheses

Independence:
  25 August 1991 (from Soviet Union)

National holiday:
  Independence Day, 3 July (1944); note - 3 July 1944 was the date
  Minsk was liberated from German troops, 25 August 1991 was the date
  of independence from the Soviet Union

Constitution:
  30 March 1994; revised by national referendum of 24 November 1996
  giving the presidency greatly expanded powers and became effective
  27 November 1996

Legal system:
  based on civil law system

Suffrage:
  18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
  chief of state: President Aleksandr LUKASHENKO (since 20 July 1994)
  head of government: Prime Minister Sergei SIDORSKY (acting; since 10
  July 2003); Deputy Prime Ministers Andrei KOBYAKOV (since 13 March
  2000), Sergei SIDORSKY (since 24 September 2001), Vladimir DRAZHIN
  (since 24 September 2001), Roman VNUCHKO (since 10 July 2003)
  cabinet: Council of Ministers
  election results: Aleksandr LUKASHENKO reelected president; percent
  of vote - Aleksandr LUKASHENKO 75.6%, Vladimir GONCHARIK 15.4%
  elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term;
  first election took place 23 June and 10 July 1994; according to the
  1994 constitution, the next election should have been held in 1999,
  however LUKASHENKO extended his term to 2001 via a November 1996
  referendum; new election held 9 September 2001 (next election to be
  held by September 2006); prime minister and deputy prime ministers
  appointed by the president

Legislative branch:
  bicameral Parliament or Natsionalnoye Sobranie consists of the
  Council of the Republic or Soviet Respubliki (64 seats; 56 members
  elected by regional councils and 8 members appointed by the
  president, all for 4-year terms) and the Chamber of Representatives
  or Palata Pretsaviteley (110 seats; members elected by universal
  adult suffrage to serve 4-year terms)
  election results: party affiliation data unavailable; under present
  political conditions party designations are meaningless
  elections: last held October 2000 (next to be held NA 2004)

Judicial branch:
  Supreme Court (judges are appointed by the president);
  Constitutional Court (half of the judges appointed by the president
  and half appointed by the Chamber of Representatives)

Political parties and leaders:
  Agrarian Party or AP [Mikhail SHIMANSKY]; Belarusian Communist
  Party or KPB [Viktor CHIKIN, chairman]; Belarusian Ecological Green
  Party (merger of Belarusian Ecological Party and Green Party of
  Belarus) [leader NA]; Belarusian Patriotic Movement (Belarusian
  Patriotic Party) or BPR [Anatoliy BARANKEVICH, chairman]; Belarusian
  Popular Front or BNF [Vintsuk VYACHORKA]; Belarusian Social-Democrat
  Party or SDBP [Nikolay STATKEVICH, chairman]; Belarusian
  Social-Democratic Party or Hromada [Stanislav SHUSHKEVICH,
  chairman]; Belarusian Socialist Party [Vyacheslav KUZNETSOV]; Civic
  Accord Bloc (United Civic Party) or CAB [Anatol LIABEDZKA]; Liberal
  Democratic Party or LDPB [Sergei GAYDUKEVICH, chairman]; Party of
  Communists Belarusian or PKB [Sergei KALYAKIN, chairman]; Republican
  Party of Labor and Justice or RPPS [Anatoliy NETYLKIN, chairman];
  Social-Democrat Party of Popular Accord or PPA [Leanid SECHKA];
  Women's Party or "Nadezhda" [Valentina POLEVIKOVA, chairperson]

Political pressure groups and leaders:
  NA

International organization participation:
  CEI, CIS, EAPC, EBRD, ECE, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IFC, IFRCS, ILO,
  IMF, Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), ISO, ITU, NAM, NAM (observer),
  NSG, OPCW, OSCE, PCA, PFP, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCO,
  WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTrO (observer)

Diplomatic representation in the US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador Mikhail KHVOSTOV
  chancery: 1619 New Hampshire Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20009
  consulate(s) general: New York
  FAX: [1] (202) 986-1805
  telephone: [1] (202) 986-1604

Diplomatic representation from the US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador Michael G. KOZAK
  embassy: 46 Starovilenskaya St., Minsk 220002
  mailing address: PSC 78, Box B Minsk, APO 09723
  telephone: [375] (17) 210-12-83
  FAX: [375] (17) 234-7853

Flag description:
  red horizontal band (top) and green horizontal band one-half the
  width of the red band; a white vertical stripe on the hoist side
  bears a Belarusian national ornament in red

Economy Belarus

Economy - overview:
  Belarus has seen little structural reform since 1995, when
  President LUKASHENKO launched the country on the path of "market
  socialism." In keeping with this policy, LUKASHENKO reimposed
  administrative controls over prices and currency exchange rates and
  expanded the state's right to intervene in the management of private
  enterprise. In addition to the burdens imposed by high inflation and
  persistent trade deficits, businesses have been subject to pressure
  on the part of central and local governments, e.g., arbitrary
  changes in regulations, numerous rigorous inspections, retroactive
  application of new business regulations, and arrests of "disruptive"
  businessmen and factory owners. A wide range of redistributive
  policies has helped those at the bottom of the ladder. Close
  relations with Russia, possibly leading to reunion, color the
  pattern of economic developments. For the time being, Belarus
  remains self-isolated from the West and its open-market economies.

GDP:
  purchasing power parity - $90.19 billion (2002 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:
  4.7% (2002 est.)

GDP - per capita:
  purchasing power parity - $8,700 (2002 est.)

GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 15% industry: 40% services: 45% (2002 est.)

Population below poverty line: 22% (1995 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: 5.1% highest 10%: 20% (1998)

Distribution of family income - Gini index:
  21.7 (1998)

Inflation rate (consumer prices):
  42.8% (2002 est.)

Labor force:
  4.8 million (2000)

Labor force - by occupation:
  industry and construction NA%, agriculture and forestry NA%,
  services NA%

Unemployment rate:
  2.1% officially registered unemployed (December 2000); large number
  of underemployed workers

Budget:
  revenues: $4 billion
  expenditures: $4.1 billion, including capital expenditures of $180
  million (1997 est.)

Industries:
  metal-cutting machine tools, tractors, trucks, earthmovers,
  motorcycles, television sets, chemical fibers, fertilizer, textiles,
  radios, refrigerators

Industrial production growth rate:
  2.5% (2002 est.)

Electricity - production:
  24.4 billion kWh (2001)

Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel: 99.5% hydro: 0.1% other: 0.4% (2001) nuclear: 0%

Electricity - consumption:
  26.69 billion kWh (2001)

Electricity - exports:
  300 million kWh (2001)

Electricity - imports:
  4.3 billion kWh (2001)

Oil - production:
  37,000 bbl/day (2001 est.)

Oil - consumption:
  230,000 bbl/day (2001 est.)

Oil - exports:
  NA (2001)

Oil - imports:
  NA (2001)

Natural gas - production:
  200 million cu m (2001 est.)

Natural gas - consumption:
  18 billion cu m (2001 est.)

Natural gas - exports:
  0 cu m (2001 est.)

Natural gas - imports:
  17.8 billion cu m (2001 est.)

Agriculture - products:
  grain, potatoes, vegetables, sugar beets, flax; beef, milk

Exports:
  $7.7 billion f.o.b. (2002)

Exports - commodities:
  machinery and equipment, mineral products, chemicals, metals;
  textiles, foodstuffs

Exports - partners:
  Russia 50.8%, Latvia 7.3%, Ukraine 6.3%, Lithuania 4.1%, Germany
  4.1% (2002)

Imports:
  $8.8 billion f.o.b. (2002)

Imports - commodities:
  mineral products, machinery and equipment, chemicals, foodstuffs,
  metals

Imports - partners:
  Russia 68.2%, Germany 9.4%, Ukraine 3.2% (2002)

Debt - external:
  $851 million (2001 est.)

Economic aid - recipient:
  $194.3 million (1995)

Currency:
  Belarusian ruble (BYB/BYR)

Currency code:
  BYB/BYR

Exchange rates:
  Belarusian rubles per US dollar - NA (2002), 1,390 (2001), 876.75
  (2000), 248.8 (1999), 46.13 (1998)

Fiscal year:
  calendar year

Communications Belarus

Telephones - main lines in use:
  2.313 million (1997)

Telephones - mobile cellular:
  8,167 (1997)

Telephone system:
  general assessment: the Ministry of Telecommunications controls all
  telecommunications through its carrier (a joint stock company)
  Beltelcom which is a monopoly
  domestic: local - Minsk has a digital metropolitan network and a
  cellular NMT-450 network; waiting lists for telephones are long;
  local service outside Minsk is neglected and poor; intercity -
  Belarus has a partly developed fiber-optic backbone system presently
  serving at least 13 major cities (1998); Belarus's fiber optics form
  synchronous digital hierarchy rings through other countries'
  systems; an inadequate analog system remains operational
  international: Belarus is a member of the Trans-European Line (TEL),
  Trans-Asia-Europe (TAE) fiber-optic line, and has access to the
  Trans-Siberia Line (TSL); three fiber-optic segments provide
  connectivity to Latvia, Poland, Russia, and Ukraine; worldwide
  service is available to Belarus through this infrastructure;
  additional analog lines to Russia; Intelsat, Eutelsat, and
  Intersputnik earth stations

Radio broadcast stations:
  AM 28, FM 37, shortwave 11 (1998)

Radios:
  3.02 million (1997)

Television broadcast stations:
  47 (plus 27 repeaters) (1995)

Televisions:
  2.52 million (1997)

Internet country code:
  .by

Internet Service Providers (ISPs):
  23 (2002)

Internet users:
  422,000 (2002)

Transportation Belarus

Railways: total: 5,523 km broad gauge: 5,523 km 1.520-m gauge (875 km electrified) (2002)

Highways: total: 74,385 km paved: 66,203 km unpaved: 8,182 km (2000)

Waterways:
  NA km; note - Belarus has extensive and widely used canal and river
  systems

Pipelines:
  gas 4,519 km; oil 1,811 km; refined products 1,686 km (2003)

Ports and harbors:
  Mazyr

Airports:
  124 (2002)

Airports - with paved runways: total: 28 over 3,047 m: 2 2,438 to 3,047 m: 21 1,524 to 2,437 m: 4 under 914 m: 1 (2002)

Airports - with unpaved runways: total: 96 over 3,047 m: 3 2,438 to 3,047 m: 1 1,524 to 2,437 m: 11 914 to 1,523 m: 14 under 914 m: 67 (2002)

Military Belarus

Military branches:
  Army, Air Force (including air defense), Interior Ministry Troops,
  Border Guards

Military manpower - military age:
  18 years of age (2003 est.)

Military manpower - availability:
  males age 15-49: 2,756,572 (2003 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:
  males age 15-49: 2,158,875 (2003 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
  males: 86,654 (2003 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure:
  $176.1 million (FY02)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP:
  1.4% (FY02)

Transnational Issues Belarus

Disputes - international:
  1997 boundary treaty with Ukraine remains unratified over
  unresolved financial claims, preventing demarcation and encouraging
  illegal border crossing; boundaries with Latvia and Lithuania remain
  undemarcated despite European Union financial support

Illicit drugs:
  limited cultivation of opium poppy and cannabis, mostly for the
  domestic market; transshipment point for illicit drugs to and via
  Russia, and to the Baltics and Western Europe; lax money-laundering
  and banking regulations

This page was last updated on 18 December, 2003

======================================================================

@Belgium

Introduction Belgium

Background:
  Belgium became independent from the Netherlands in 1830 and was
  occupied by Germany during World Wars I and II. It has prospered in
  the past half century as a modern, technologically advanced European
  state and member of NATO and the EU. Tensions between the
  Dutch-speaking Flemings of the north and the French-speaking
  Walloons of the south have led in recent years to constitutional
  amendments granting these regions formal recognition and autonomy.

Geography Belgium

Location:
  Western Europe, bordering the North Sea, between France and the
  Netherlands

Geographic coordinates:
  50 50 N, 4 00 E

Map references:
  Europe

Area:
  total: 30,510 sq km
  land: 30,230 sq km
  water: 280 sq km

Area - comparative:
  about the size of Maryland

Land boundaries:
  total: 1,385 km
  border countries: France 620 km, Germany 167 km, Luxembourg 148 km,
  Netherlands 450 km

Coastline:
  66 km

Maritime claims:
  continental shelf: median line with neighbors
  territorial sea: 12 NM
  exclusive economic zone: median line with neighbors (extends about
  68 km from coast)

Climate:
  temperate; mild winters, cool summers; rainy, humid, cloudy

Terrain:
  flat coastal plains in northwest, central rolling hills, rugged
  mountains of Ardennes Forest in southeast

Elevation extremes:
  lowest point: North Sea 0 m
  highest point: Signal de Botrange 694 m

Natural resources:
  coal, natural gas

Land use:
  arable land: 25%
  permanent crops: 0%
  note: includes Luxembourg (1998 est.)
  other: 75%

Irrigated land:
  40 sq km (includes Luxembourg) (1998 est.)

Natural hazards:
  flooding is a threat in areas of reclaimed coastal land, protected
  from the sea by concrete dikes

Environment - current issues:
  the environment is exposed to intense pressures from human
  activities: urbanization, dense transportation network, industry,
  extensive animal breeding and crop cultivation; air and water
  pollution also have repercussions for neighboring countries;
  uncertainties regarding federal and regional responsibilities (now
  resolved) have slowed progress in tackling environmental challenges

Environment - international agreements:
  party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air
  Pollution-Sulphur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Air
  Pollution-Sulphur 85, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol,
  Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Seals, Antarctic
  Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered
  Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Kyoto
  Protocol, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation,
  Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical
  Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands
  signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants

Geography - note:
  crossroads of Western Europe; majority of West European capitals
  within 1,000 km of Brussels, the seat of both the European Union and
  NATO

People Belgium

Population:
  10,289,088 (July 2003 est.)

Age structure:
  0-14 years: 17.2% (male 905,856; female 865,589)
  15-64 years: 65.6% (male 3,400,419; female 3,346,182)
  65 years and over: 17.2% (male 725,162; female 1,045,880) (2003 est.)

Median age:
  total: 40 years
  male: 38.7 years
  female: 41.3 years (2002)

Population growth rate:
  0.14% (2003 est.)

Birth rate:
  10.45 births/1,000 population (2003 est.)

Death rate:
  10.07 deaths/1,000 population (2003 est.)

Net migration rate:
  0.97 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2003 est.)

Sex ratio:
  at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
  under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
  15-64 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
  65 years and over: 0.69 male(s)/female
  total population: 0.96 male(s)/female (2003 est.)

Infant mortality rate:
  total: 4.57 deaths/1,000 live births
  female: 3.96 deaths/1,000 live births (2003 est.)
  male: 5.16 deaths/1,000 live births

Life expectancy at birth:
  total population: 78.29 years
  male: 74.97 years
  female: 81.78 years (2003 est.)

Total fertility rate:
  1.62 children born/woman (2003 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
  0.2% (2001 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
  8,500 (2001 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths:
  less than 100 (2001 est.)

Nationality:
  noun: Belgian(s)
  adjective: Belgian

Ethnic groups:
  Fleming 58%, Walloon 31%, mixed or other 11%

Religions:
  Roman Catholic 75%, Protestant or other 25%

Languages:
  Dutch (official) 60%, French (official) 40%, German (official) less
  than 1%, legally bilingual (Dutch and French)

Literacy:
  definition: age 15 and over can read and write
  total population: 98%
  male: NA%
  female: NA%

Government Belgium

Country name:
  conventional long form: Kingdom of Belgium
  conventional short form: Belgium
  local short form: Belgique/Belgie
  local long form: Royaume de Belgique/Koninkrijk Belgie

Government type:
  federal parliamentary democracy under a constitutional monarch

Capital:
  Brussels

Administrative divisions:
  10 provinces (French: provinces, singular - province; Dutch:
  provincies, singular - provincie) and 3 regions* (French: regions;
  Dutch: gewesten); Antwerpen, Brabant Wallon, Brussels* (Bruxelles),
  Flanders*, Hainaut, Liege, Limburg, Luxembourg, Namur,
  Oost-Vlaanderen, Vlaams-Brabant, Wallonia*, West-Vlaanderen

Independence:
  4 October 1830 a provisional government declared independence from
  the Netherlands; 21 July 1831 the ascension of King Leopold I to the
  throne

National holiday:
  21 July (1831) ascension to the Throne of King Leopold I

Constitution:
  7 February 1831, last revised 14 July 1993; parliament approved a
  constitutional package creating a federal state

Legal system:
  civil law system influenced by English constitutional theory;
  judicial review of legislative acts; accepts compulsory ICJ
  jurisdiction, with reservations

Suffrage:
  18 years of age; universal and compulsory

Executive branch:
  chief of state: King ALBERT II (since 9 August 1993); Heir Apparent
  Prince PHILIPPE, son of the monarch
  head of government: Prime Minister Guy VERHOFSTADT (since 13 July
  1999)
  cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the monarch and approved
  by Parliament
  elections: none; the monarchy is hereditary; following legislative
  elections, the leader of the majority party or the leader of the
  majority coalition is usually appointed prime minister by the
  monarch and then approved by Parliament
  note: government coalition - VLD, MR, PS, SP, AGALEV, and ECOLO

Legislative branch:
  bicameral Parliament consists of a Senate or Senaat in Dutch, Senat
  in French (71 seats; 40 members are directly elected by popular
  vote, 31 are indirectly elected; members serve four-year terms) and
  a Chamber of Deputies or Kamer van Volksvertegenwoordigers in Dutch,
  Chambre des Representants in French (150 seats; members are directly
  elected by popular vote on the basis of proportional representation
  to serve four-year terms)
  elections: Senate and Chamber of Deputies - last held 18 June 2003
  (next to be held in NA May 2007)
  note: as a result of the 1993 constitutional revision that furthered
  devolution into a federal state, there are now three levels of
  government (federal, regional, and linguistic community) with a
  complex division of responsibilities; this reality leaves six
  governments each with its own legislative assembly; for other
  acronyms of the listed parties see the Political parties and leaders
  entry
  election results: Senate - percent of vote by party - SP.A-Spirit
  15.5%, VLD 15.4%, CD & V 12.7%, PS 12.8%, MR 12.1%, VB 9.4%, CDH
  5.6%; seats by party - SP.A-Spirit 7, VLD 7, CD & V 6, PS 6, MR 5,
  VB 5, CDH 2, other 2 (note - there are also 31 indirectly elected
  senators); Chamber of Deputies - percent of vote by party - VLD
  15.4%, SP.A-Spirit 14.9%, CD & V 13.3%, PS 13.0%, VB 11.6%, MR
  11.4%, CDH 5.5%, Ecolo 3.1%; seats by party - VLD 25, SP.A-Spirit
  23, CD & V 21, PS 25, VB 18, MR 24, CDH 8 Ecolo 4, other 2

Judicial branch:
  Supreme Court of Justice or Hof van Cassatie (in Dutch) or Cour de
  Cassation (in French) (judges are appointed for life by the monarch,
  although selected by the Government)

Political parties and leaders:
  AGALEV (Flemish Greens) [Dirk HOLEMANS]; Christian Democrats and
  Flemish or CD & V [Yves LETERME]; note - used to be the Flemish
  Christian Democrats or CVP; Ecolo (Francophone Greens) [Jean-Michel
  JAVAUK, Evelyne HUYTEBROECK, Claude BROUIR]; Flemish Liberal
  Democrats or VLD [Karel DE GUCHT]; Francophone Humanist and
  Democratic Center of CDH (used to be Social Christian Party or PSC)
  [Joelle MILQUET]; Francophone Reformist Movement or MR (used to be
  Liberal Reformation Party or PRL) [Antoine DUQUESNE]; Francophone
  Socialist Party or PS [Elio DI RUPO]; National Front or FN [Daniel
  FERET]; New Flemish Alliance or NVA [Geert BOURGEOIS]; note - new
  party that emerged after the demise of the People's Union or VU;
  Social Progressive Alternative Party or SP.A [Steve STEVAERT]; note
  - was Flemish Socialist Party or SP; Spirit [Els VAN WEERT]; note -
  new party that emerged after the demise of the People's Union or VU;
  Vlaams Blok or VB [Frank VANHECKE]; other minor parties

Political pressure groups and leaders: Christian and Socialist Trade Unions; Federation of Belgian Industries; numerous other associations representing bankers, manufacturers, middle-class artisans, and the legal and medical professions; various organizations represent the cultural interests of Flanders and Wallonia; various peace groups such as Pax Christi and groups representing immigrants

International organization participation:
  ACCT, AfDB, AsDB, Australia Group, Benelux, BIS, CE, CERN, EAPC,
  EBRD, ECE, EIB, EMU, ESA, EU, FAO, G- 9, G-10, IADB, IAEA, IBRD,
  ICAO, ICC, ICCt, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO,
  IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, MONUC, NATO, NEA, NSG, OAS
  (observer), OECD, OPCW, OSCE, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO,
  UNMIK, UNMOGIP, UNMOP, UNRWA, UNTSO, UPU, WADB (nonregional), WCL,
  WCO, WEU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTrO, ZC

Diplomatic representation in the US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador Franciskus VAN DAELE
  chancery: 3330 Garfield Street NW, Washington, DC 20008
  consulate(s) general: Atlanta, Chicago, Los Angeles, and New York
  FAX: [1] (202) 333-3079
  telephone: [1] (202) 333-6900

Diplomatic representation from the US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador Stephen Franklin BRAUER
  embassy: Regentlaan 27 Boulevard du Regent, B-1000 Brussels
  mailing address: PSC 82, Box 002, APO AE 09710
  telephone: [32] (2) 508-2111
  FAX: [32] (2) 511-2725

Flag description:
  three equal vertical bands of black (hoist side), yellow, and red;
  the design was based on the flag of France

Economy Belgium

Economy - overview:
  This modern private enterprise economy has capitalized on its
  central geographic location, highly developed transport network, and
  diversified industrial and commercial base. Industry is concentrated
  mainly in the populous Flemish area in the north. With few natural
  resources, Belgium must import substantial quantities of raw
  materials and export a large volume of manufactures, making its
  economy unusually dependent on the state of world markets. Roughly
  three-quarters of its trade is with other EU countries. Public debt
  is about 100% of GDP, and the government has succeeded in balancing
  its budget. Belgium, together with 11 of its EU partners, began
  circulating the euro currency in January 2002. Economic growth in
  2001-03 dropped sharply due to the global economic slowdown.
  Prospects for 2004 again depend largely on recovery in the EU and
  the US.

GDP:
  purchasing power parity - $299.7 billion (2002 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:
  0.7% (2002 est.)

GDP - per capita:
  purchasing power parity - $29,200 (2002 est.)

GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 1.3% industry: 24.4% services: 74.3% (2001)

Population below poverty line: 4%

Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: 3.2% highest 10%: 23% (1996)

Distribution of family income - Gini index:
  28.7 (1996)

Inflation rate (consumer prices):
  1.7% (2002 est.)

Labor force:
  4.44 million (2001)

Labor force - by occupation:
  services 73%, industry 25%, agriculture 2% (1999 est.)

Unemployment rate:
  7.2% (2002 est.)

Budget:
  revenues: $113.4 billion
  expenditures: $106 billion, including capital expenditures of $7.17
  billion (2000)

Industries:
  engineering and metal products, motor vehicle assembly, processed
  food and beverages, chemicals, basic metals, textiles, glass,
  petroleum, coal

Industrial production growth rate:
  4.5% (2000 est.)

Electricity - production:
  74.28 billion kWh (2001)

Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel: 38.4% hydro: 0.6% other: 1.8% (2001) nuclear: 59.3%

Electricity - consumption:
  78.18 billion kWh (2001)

Electricity - exports:
  6.712 billion kWh (2001)

Electricity - imports:
  15.82 billion kWh (2001)

Oil - production:
  0 bbl/day (2001 est.)

Oil - consumption:
  595,100 bbl/day (2001 est.)

Oil - exports:
  450,000 bbl/day (2001)

Oil - imports:
  1.042 million bbl/day (2001)

Natural gas - production:
  0 cu m (2001 est.)

Natural gas - consumption:
  15.5 billion cu m (2001 est.)

Natural gas - exports:
  0 cu m (2001 est.)

Natural gas - imports:
  15.4 billion cu m (2001 est.)

Agriculture - products: sugar beets, fresh vegetables, fruits, grain, tobacco; beef, veal, pork, milk

Exports: $162 billion f.o.b. (2002 est.)

Exports - commodities:
  machinery and equipment, chemicals, diamonds, metals and metal
  products, foodstuffs

Exports - partners:
  Germany 18.6%, France 16.3%, Netherlands 11.6%, UK 9.6%, US 7.9%,
  Italy 5.4% (2002)

Imports:
  $152 billion f.o.b. (2001)

Imports - commodities:
  machinery and equipment, chemicals, metals and metal products,
  foodstuffs

Imports - partners:
  Germany 17.2%, Netherlands 15.6%, France 12.8%, UK 7.3%, Ireland
  7%, US 6.4%, Italy 4% (2002)

Debt - external:
  $28.3 billion (1999 est.)

Economic aid - donor:
  ODA, $764 million (1997)

Currency:
  euro (EUR)
  note: on 1 January 1999, the European Monetary Union introduced the
  euro as a common currency to be used by financial institutions of
  member countries; on 1 January 2002, the euro became the sole
  currency for everyday transactions within the member countries

Currency code:
  EUR

Exchange rates:
  euros per US dollar - 1.06 (2002), 1.12 (2001), 1.09 (2000), 0.94
  (1999), 36.3 (1998)

Fiscal year:
  calendar year

Communications Belgium

Telephones - main lines in use:
  4.769 million (1997)

Telephones - mobile cellular:
  974,494 (1997)

Telephone system:
  general assessment: highly developed, technologically advanced, and
  completely automated domestic and international telephone and
  telegraph facilities
  domestic: nationwide cellular telephone system; extensive cable
  network; limited microwave radio relay network
  international: 5 submarine cables; satellite earth stations - 2
  Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean) and 1 Eutelsat

Radio broadcast stations:
  FM 79, AM 7, shortwave 1 (1998)

Radios:
  8.075 million (1997)

Television broadcast stations:
  25 (plus 10 repeaters) (1997)

Televisions:
  4.72 million (1997)

Internet country code:
  .be

Internet Service Providers (ISPs):
  61 (2000)

Internet users:
  3.76 million (2002)

Transportation Belgium

Railways: total: 3,471 km standard gauge: 3,471 km 1.435-m gauge (2,631 km electrified) (2002)

Highways:
  total: 148,216 km
  paved: 116,687 km (including 1,727 km of expressways)
  unpaved: 31,529 km (2000)

Waterways:
  1,570 km (route length in regular commercial use) (2001)

Pipelines:
  gas 1,485 km; oil 158 km; refined products 535 km (2003)

Ports and harbors:
  Antwerp (one of the world's busiest ports), Brugge, Gent, Hasselt,
  Liege, Mons, Namur, Oostende, Zeebrugge

Merchant marine:
  total: 20 ships (1,000 GRT or over) 32,215 GRT/55,725 DWT
  ships by type: cargo 6, chemical tanker 10, petroleum tanker 4,
  includes some foreign-owned ships registered here as a flag of
  convenience: Finland 1, Netherlands 3 (2002 est.)

Airports:
  42 (2002)

Airports - with paved runways: total: 25 over 3,047 m: 6 2,438 to 3,047 m: 8 914 to 1,523 m: 1 under 914 m: 7 (2002) 1,524 to 2,437 m: 3

Airports - with unpaved runways: total: 17 914 to 1,523 m: 2 under 914 m: 15 (2002)

Heliports: 1 (2002)

Military Belgium

Military branches:
  Army, Navy, Air Components, Federal Police

Military manpower - military age:
  19 years of age (2003 est.)

Military manpower - availability:
  males age 15-49: 2,497,423 (2003 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:
  males age 15-49: 2,059,131 (2003 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
  males: 60,921 (2003 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure:
  $3.077 billion (FY01/02)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP:
  1.4% (FY01/02)

Transnational Issues Belgium

Disputes - international:
  none

Illicit drugs:
  growing producer of synthetic drugs; transit point for US-bound
  ecstasy; source of precursor chemicals for South American cocaine
  processors; transshipment point for cocaine, heroin, hashish, and
  marijuana entering Western Europe; money laundering related to
  trafficking of drugs, automobiles, alcohol, and tobacco

This page was last updated on 18 December, 2003

======================================================================

@Belize

Introduction Belize

Background:
  Territorial disputes between the UK and Guatemala delayed the
  independence of Belize (formerly British Honduras) until 1981.
  Guatemala refused to recognize the new nation until 1992. Tourism
  has become the mainstay of the economy. The country remains plagued
  by high unemployment, growing involvement in the South American drug
  trade, and increased urban crime.

Geography Belize

Location:
  Middle America, bordering the Caribbean Sea, between Guatemala and
  Mexico

Geographic coordinates:
  17 15 N, 88 45 W

Map references:
  Central America and the Caribbean

Area:
  total: 22,966 sq km
  water: 160 sq km
  land: 22,806 sq km

Area - comparative:
  slightly smaller than Massachusetts

Land boundaries: total: 516 km border countries: Guatemala 266 km, Mexico 250 km

Coastline:
  386 km

Maritime claims:
  exclusive economic zone: 200 NM
  territorial sea: 12 NM in the north, 3 NM in the south; note - from
  the mouth of the Sarstoon River to Ranguana Cay, Belize's
  territorial sea is 3 NM; according to Belize's Maritime Areas Act,
  1992, the purpose of this limitation is to provide a framework for
  the negotiation of a definitive agreement on territorial differences
  with Guatemala

Climate:
  tropical; very hot and humid; rainy season (May to November); dry
  season (February to May)

Terrain:
  flat, swampy coastal plain; low mountains in south

Elevation extremes: lowest point: Caribbean Sea 0 m highest point: Victoria Peak 1,160 m

Natural resources: arable land potential, timber, fish, hydropower

Land use: arable land: 2.81% permanent crops: 1.1% other: 96.09% (1998 est.)

Irrigated land:
  30 sq km (1998 est.)

Natural hazards:
  frequent, devastating hurricanes (June to November) and coastal
  flooding (especially in south)

Environment - current issues:
  deforestation; water pollution from sewage, industrial effluents,
  agricultural runoff; solid and sewage waste disposal

Environment - international agreements:
  party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered
  Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection,
  Ship Pollution, Wetlands
  signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - note:
  only country in Central America without a coastline on the North
  Pacific Ocean

People Belize

Population:
  266,440 (July 2003 est.)

Age structure:
  0-14 years: 41.1% (male 55,880; female 53,706)
  15-64 years: 55.3% (male 74,612; female 72,813)
  65 years and over: 3.5% (male 4,571; female 4,858) (2003 est.)

Median age:
  total: 18.9 years
  male: 18.8 years
  female: 19 years (2002)

Population growth rate:
  2.44% (2003 est.)

Birth rate:
  30.46 births/1,000 population (2003 est.)

Death rate:
  6.05 deaths/1,000 population (2003 est.)

Net migration rate:
  0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2003 est.)

Sex ratio:
  at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
  under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
  15-64 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
  65 years and over: 0.94 male(s)/female
  total population: 1.03 male(s)/female (2003 est.)

Infant mortality rate:
  total: 27.07 deaths/1,000 live births
  female: 23.42 deaths/1,000 live births (2003 est.)
  male: 30.56 deaths/1,000 live births

Life expectancy at birth:
  total population: 67.36 years
  male: 65.19 years
  female: 69.63 years (2003 est.)

Total fertility rate:
  3.86 children born/woman (2003 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
  2% (2001 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
  2,500 (2001 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths:
  300 (2001 est.)

Nationality: noun: Belizean(s) adjective: Belizean

Ethnic groups:
  mestizo 48.7%, Creole 24.9%, Maya 10.6%, Garifuna 6.1%, other 9.7%

Religions:
  Roman Catholic 49.6%, Protestant 27% (Anglican 5.3%, Methodist
  3.5%, Mennonite 4.1%, Seventh-Day Adventist 5.2%, Pentecostal 7.4%,
  Jehovah's Witnesses 1.5%), none 9.4%, other 14% (2000)

Languages:
  English (official), Spanish, Mayan, Garifuna (Carib), Creole

Literacy:
  definition: age 15 and over can read and write
  total population: 94.1%
  male: 94.1%
  female: 94.1% (2003 est.)

Government Belize

Country name: conventional long form: none conventional short form: Belize former: British Honduras

Government type:
  parliamentary democracy

Capital:
  Belmopan

Administrative divisions:
  6 districts; Belize, Cayo, Corozal, Orange Walk, Stann Creek, Toledo

Independence:
  21 September 1981 (from UK)

National holiday:
  Independence Day, 21 September (1981)

Constitution:
  21 September 1981

Legal system:
  English law

Suffrage:
  18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
  chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952),
  represented by Governor General Sir Colville YOUNG, Sr. (since 17
  November 1993)
  head of government: Prime Minister Said Wilbert MUSA (since 28
  August 1998); Deputy Prime Minister John BRICENO (since 1 September
  1998)
  cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the governor general on the advice of
  the prime minister
  elections: none; the monarch is hereditary; governor general
  appointed by the monarch; following legislative elections, the
  leader of the majority party or the leader of the majority coalition
  is usually appointed prime minister by the governor general; prime
  minister recommends the deputy prime minister

Legislative branch:
  bicameral National Assembly consists of the Senate (12 members
  appointed by the governor general - six on the advice of the prime
  minister, three on the advice of the leader of the opposition, and
  one each on the advice of the Belize Council of Churches and
  Evangelical Association of Churches, the Belize Chamber of Commerce
  and Industry and the Belize Better Business Bureau, and the National
  Trade Union Congress and the Civil Society Steering Committee;
  members are appointed for five-year terms) and the House of
  Representatives (29 seats; members are elected by direct popular
  vote to serve five-year terms)
  elections: House of Representatives - last held 5 March 2003 (next
  to be held NA March 2008)
  election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party -
  PUP 21, UDP 8

Judicial branch:
  Supreme Court (the chief justice is appointed by the governor
  general on the advice of the prime minister)

Political parties and leaders:
  People's United Party or PUP [Said MUSA]; United Democratic Party
  or UDP [Dean BARROW, party leader; Douglas SINGH, party chairman]

Political pressure groups and leaders:
  Society for the Promotion of Education and Research or SPEAR [Adele
  CATZIM]

International organization participation:
  ACP, C, Caricom, CDB, ECLAC, FAO, G-77, IADB, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt,
  ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC,
  IOM, ITU, LAES, NAM, OAS, OPANAL, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU,
  WCL, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador Lisa M. SHOMAN
  consulate(s) general: Los Angeles
  FAX: [1] (202) 332-6888
  telephone: [1] (202) 332-9636
  chancery: 2535 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008

Diplomatic representation from the US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador Russell F. FREEMAN
  embassy: 29 Gabourel Lane and Hutson Street, Belize City
  mailing address: P. O. Box 286, Unit 7401, APO AA 34025
  telephone: [501] 227-7161 through 7163
  FAX: [501] 30802

Flag description:
  blue with a narrow red stripe along the top and the bottom edges;
  centered is a large white disk bearing the coat of arms; the coat of
  arms features a shield flanked by two workers in front of a mahogany
  tree with the related motto SUB UMBRA FLOREO (I Flourish in the
  Shade) on a scroll at the bottom, all encircled by a green garland

Economy Belize

Economy - overview:
  In this small, essentially private enterprise economy the tourism
  industry is the number one foreign exchange earner followed by cane
  sugar, citrus, marine products, bananas, and garments. The
  government's expansionary monetary and fiscal policies, initiated in
  September 1998, led to GDP growth of 6.5% in 1999, 10.8% in 2000,
  4.6% in 2001, and 3.7% in 2002. Major concerns continue to be the
  sizable trade deficit and foreign debt. A key short-term objective
  remains the reduction of poverty with the help of international
  donors.

GDP:
  purchasing power parity - $1.28 billion (2002 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:
  3.7% (2002 est.)

GDP - per capita:
  purchasing power parity - $4,900 (2002 est.)

GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 18% industry: 24% services: 58% (2001 est.)

Population below poverty line:
  33% (1999 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
  lowest 10%: NA%
  highest 10%: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices):
  1.9% (2002 est.)

Labor force: 90,000 note: shortage of skilled labor and all types of technical personnel

Labor force - by occupation:
  agriculture 27%, industry 18%, services 55% (2001 est.)

Unemployment rate:
  9.1% (2002)

Budget:
  revenues: $224 million
  expenditures: $209 million, including capital expenditures of $70
  million (2002 est.)

Industries:
  garment production, food processing, tourism, construction

Industrial production growth rate:
  4.6% (1999)

Electricity - production:
  199.5 million kWh (2001)

Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel: 59.9% hydro: 40.1% other: 0% (2001) nuclear: 0%

Electricity - consumption:
  185.5 million kWh (2001)

Electricity - exports:
  0 kWh (2001)

Electricity - imports:
  0 kWh (2001)

Oil - production:
  0 bbl/day (2001 est.)

Oil - consumption:
  5,000 bbl/day (2001 est.)

Oil - exports:
  NA (2001)

Oil - imports:
  NA (2001)

Agriculture - products: bananas, coca, citrus, sugar; fish, cultured shrimp; lumber; garments

Exports:
  $290 million f.o.b. (2002 est.)

Exports - commodities:
  sugar, bananas, citrus, clothing, fish products, molasses, wood

Exports - partners:
  US 40.5%, UK 23.2%, Peru 8.3% (2002)

Imports:
  $430 million c.i.f. (2002 est.)

Imports - commodities:
  machinery and transport equipment, manufactured goods; fuels,
  chemicals, pharmaceuticals; food, beverages, tobacco

Imports - partners:
  US 35.7%, Mexico 10.1%, Netherlands Antilles 6.1%, Japan 5.9%, Cuba
  5.7%, UK 5.4% (2002)

Debt - external:
  $475 million (2001 est.)

Economic aid - recipient:
  $NA

Currency:
  Belizean dollar (BZD)

Currency code:
  BZD

Exchange rates:
  Belizean dollars per US dollar - 2 (2002), 2 (2001), 2 (2000), 2
  (1999), 2 (1998)

Fiscal year:
  1 April - 31 March

Communications Belize

Telephones - main lines in use:
  31,000 (1997)

Telephones - mobile cellular:
  3,023 (1997)

Telephone system:
  general assessment: above-average system
  domestic: trunk network depends primarily on microwave radio relay
  international: satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations:
  AM 1, FM 12, shortwave 0 (1998)

Radios:
  133,000 (1997)

Television broadcast stations:
  2 (1997)

Televisions:
  41,000 (1997)

Internet country code:
  .bz

Internet Service Providers (ISPs):
  2 (2000)

Internet users:
  18,000 (2002)

Transportation Belize

Railways: 0 km

Highways: total: 2,872 km paved: 488 km unpaved: 2,384 km (1999 est.)

Waterways:
  825 km (river network used by shallow-draft craft; seasonally
  navigable)

Ports and harbors:
  Belize City, Big Creek, Corozol, Punta Gorda

Merchant marine:
  total: 292 ships (1,000 GRT or over) 1,030,141 GRT/1,499,777 DWT
  ships by type: bulk 15, cargo 200, chemical tanker 7, combination
  ore/oil 1, container 12, petroleum tanker 31, refrigerated cargo 18,
  roll on/roll off 5, specialized tanker 2, vehicle carrier 1
  note: includes some foreign-owned ships registered here as a flag of
  convenience: Albania 2, Belgium 3, British Virgin Islands 6,
  Cambodia 1, China 38, Cyprus 1, Ecuador 1, Egypt 1, Equatorial
  Guinea 1, Eritrea 1, Estonia 7, Germany 3, Greece 4, Grenada 1,
  Honduras 1, Hong Kong 20, Indonesia 6, Italy 2, Japan 4, Jordan 1,
  Lebanon 1, Liberia 5, Malaysia 3, Malta 2, Man, Isle of 1, Marshall
  Islands 13, Mexico 1, Netherlands 1, Nigeria 1, Panama 12,
  Philippines 4, Portugal 1, Romania 1, Russia 3, Saint Vincent and
  the Grenadines 3, Saudi Arabia 1, Singapore 22, South Korea 10,
  Spain 4, Switzerland 1, Taiwan 1, Thailand 6, Tunisia 1, Turkey 1,
  Ukraine 3, United Arab Emirates 9, United Kingdom 2, United States
  4, Virgin Islands (UK) 6, Yemen 1 (2002 est.)

Airports:
  42 (2002)

Airports - with paved runways:
  total: 4
  1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
  914 to 1,523 m: 1
  under 914 m: 2 (2002)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
  total: 38
  2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
  914 to 1,523 m: 10
  under 914 m: 27 (2002)

Military Belize

Military branches:
  Belize Defense Force (includes Army, Maritime Wing, Air Wing, and
  Volunteer Guard)

Military manpower - military age:
  18 years of age (2003 est.)

Military manpower - availability:
  males age 15-49: 66,332 (2003 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:
  males age 15-49: 39,337 (2003 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
  males: 3,046 (2003 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure:
  $7.7 million (FY00/01)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP:
  1.87% (FY00/01)

Transnational Issues Belize

Disputes - international:
  Guatemala has claimed half of southern Belize; Guatemalan squatters
  continue to settle along the border despite a 2000 agreement; OAS
  brokered a Differendum in 2002 that created a small adjustment to
  land boundary, a large Guatemalan maritime corridor in the
  Caribbean, a joint ecological park for disputed Sapodilla Cays, and
  a substantial US-UK financial package, but agreement was not brought
  to a popular referendum

Illicit drugs:
  major transshipment point for cocaine; small-scale illicit producer
  of cannabis for the international drug trade; some money-laundering
  activity related to offshore sector

This page was last updated on 18 December, 2003

======================================================================

@Benin

Introduction Benin

Background:
  Present day Benin was the site of Dahomey, a prominent West African
  kingdom that rose in the 15th century. The territory became a French
  Colony in 1872 and achieved independence on 1 August 1960, as the
  Republic of Benin. A succession of military governments ended in
  1972 with the rise to power of Mathieu KEREKOU and the establishment
  of a government based on Marxist-Leninist principles. A move to
  representative government began in 1989. Two years later, free
  elections ushered in former Prime Minister Nicephore SOGLO as
  president, marking the first successful transfer of power in Africa
  from a dictatorship to a democracy. KEREKOU was returned to power by
  elections held in 1996 and 2001, though some irregularities were
  alleged.

Geography Benin

Location:
  Western Africa, bordering the Bight of Benin, between Nigeria and
  Togo

Geographic coordinates:
  9 30 N, 2 15 E

Map references:
  Africa

Area:
  total: 112,620 sq km
  water: 2,000 sq km
  land: 110,620 sq km

Area - comparative:
  slightly smaller than Pennsylvania

Land boundaries:
  total: 1,989 km
  border countries: Burkina Faso 306 km, Niger 266 km, Nigeria 773 km,
  Togo 644 km

Coastline:
  121 km

Maritime claims:
  territorial sea: 200 NM

Climate:
  tropical; hot, humid in south; semiarid in north

Terrain:
  mostly flat to undulating plain; some hills and low mountains

Elevation extremes: lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m highest point: Mont Sokbaro 658 m

Natural resources: small offshore oil deposits, limestone, marble, timber

Land use: arable land: 15.28% permanent crops: 1.36% other: 83.36% (1998 est.)

Irrigated land:
  120 sq km (1998 est.)

Natural hazards:
  hot, dry, dusty harmattan wind may affect north from December to
  March

Environment - current issues:
  inadequate supplies of potable water; poaching threatens wildlife
  populations; deforestation; desertification

Environment - international agreements:
  party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered
  Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the
  Sea, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution,
  Wetlands
  signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - note:
  sandbanks create difficult access to a coast with no natural
  harbors, river mouths, or islands

People Benin

Population:
  7,041,490
  note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the
  effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower
  life expectancy, higher infant mortality and death rates, lower
  population and growth rates, and changes in the distribution of
  population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (July
  2003 est.)

Age structure:
  0-14 years: 47% (male 1,668,817; female 1,638,291)
  15-64 years: 50.7% (male 1,739,517; female 1,834,231)
  65 years and over: 2.3% (male 67,504; female 93,130) (2003 est.)

Median age:
  total: 16.4 years
  male: 15.9 years
  female: 16.9 years (2002)

Population growth rate:
  2.95% (2003 est.)

Birth rate:
  43.15 births/1,000 population (2003 est.)

Death rate:
  13.65 deaths/1,000 population (2003 est.)

Net migration rate:
  0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2003 est.)

Sex ratio:
  at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
  under 15 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
  15-64 years: 0.95 male(s)/female
  65 years and over: 0.72 male(s)/female
  total population: 0.97 male(s)/female (2003 est.)

Infant mortality rate:
  total: 86.76 deaths/1,000 live births
  female: 81.58 deaths/1,000 live births (2003 est.)
  male: 91.79 deaths/1,000 live births

Life expectancy at birth:
  total population: 51.08 years
  male: 50.35 years
  female: 51.84 years (2003 est.)

Total fertility rate:
  6.04 children born/woman (2003 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
  3.6% (2001 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
  120,000 (2001 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths:
  8,100 (2001 est.)

Nationality:
  noun: Beninese (singular and plural)
  adjective: Beninese

Ethnic groups:
  African 99% (42 ethnic groups, most important being Fon, Adja,
  Yoruba, Bariba), Europeans 5,500

Religions:
  indigenous beliefs 50%, Christian 30%, Muslim 20%

Languages:
  French (official), Fon and Yoruba (most common vernaculars in
  south), tribal languages (at least six major ones in north)

Literacy:
  definition: age 15 and over can read and write
  total population: 40.9%
  male: 56.2%
  female: 26.5% (2000)

Government Benin

Country name: conventional long form: Republic of Benin conventional short form: Benin local short form: Benin former: Dahomey local long form: Republique du Benin

Government type:
  republic under multiparty democratic rule; dropped Marxism-Leninism
  December 1989; democratic reforms adopted February 1990; transition
  to multiparty system completed 4 April 1991

Capital:
  Porto-Novo is the official capital; Cotonou is the seat of
  government

Administrative divisions:
  12 departments; Alibori, Atakora, Atlantique, Borgou, Collines,
  Kouffo, Donga, Littoral, Mono, Oueme, Plateau, Zou

Independence:
  1 August 1960 (from France)

National holiday:
  National Day, 1 August (1960)

Constitution:
  December 1990

Legal system:
  based on French civil law and customary law; has not accepted
  compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage:
  18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
  chief of state: President Mathieu KEREKOU (since 4 April 1996);
  note - the president is both the chief of state and head of
  government
  head of government: President Mathieu KEREKOU (since 4 April 1996);
  note - the president is both the chief of state and head of
  government
  cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president
  elections: president reelected by popular vote for a five-year term;
  runoff election held 22 March 2001 (next to be held NA March 2006)
  note: the four top-ranking contenders following the first-round
  presidential elections were: Mathieu KEREKOU (incumbent) 45.4%,
  Nicephore SOGOLO (former president) 27.1%, Adrien HOUNGBEDJI
  (National Assembly Speaker) 12.6%, and Bruno AMOUSSOU (Minister of
  State) 8.6%; the second-round balloting, originally scheduled for 18
  March 2001, was postponed four days because both SOGOLO and
  HOUNGBEDJI withdrew alleging electoral fraud; this left KEREKOU to
  run against his own Minister of State, AMOUSSOU, in what was termed
  a "friendly match"
  election results: Mathieu KEREKOU reelected president; percent of
  vote - Mathieu KEREKOU 84.1%, Bruno AMOUSSOU 15.9%

Legislative branch:
  unicameral National Assembly or Assemblee Nationale (83 seats;
  members are elected by direct popular vote to serve four-year terms)
  election results: percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party -
  Presidential Movement 52, opposition (PRB, PRD, E'toile, and 5 other
  small parties) 31
  elections: last held 30 March 2003 (next to be held NA March 2007)

Judicial branch:
  Constitutional Court or Cour Constitutionnelle; Supreme Court or
  Cour Supreme; High Court of Justice

Political parties and leaders:
  African Congress for Renewal or DUNYA [Saka SALEY]; African
  Movement for Democracy and Progress or MADEP [Sefou FAGBOHOUN];
  Alliance of the Social Democratic Party or PSD [Bruno AMOUSSOU];
  Coalition of Democratic Forces [Gatien HOUNGBEDJI]; Democratic
  Renewal Party or PRD [Adrien HOUNGBEDJI]; Front for Renewal and
  Development or FARD-ALAFIA [Jerome Sakia KINA]; Impulse for Progress
  and Democracy or IPD [Bertin BORNA]; Key Force or FC [leader NA];
  Presidential Movement (UBF, MADEP, FC, IDP, and 4 other small
  parties); Renaissance Party du Benin or PRB [Nicephore SOGLO]; The
  Star Alliance (Alliance E'toile) [Sacca LAFIA]; Union of Tomorrow's
  Benin or UBF [Bruno AMOUSSOU]
  note: approximately 20 additional minor parties

Political pressure groups and leaders:
  NA

International organization participation:
  ACP, AfDB, ECA, ECOWAS, Entente, FAO, FZ, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO,
  ICCt, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO,
  Interpol, IOC, IOM, ITU, MIPONUH, MONUC, NAM, OAU, OIC, OPCW, UN,
  UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNMEE, UPU, WADB (regional), WAEMU, WCL, WCO,
  WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Cyrille Segbe OGUIN FAX: [1] (202) 265-1996 telephone: [1] (202) 232-6656 chancery: 2124 Kalorama Road NW, Washington, DC 20008

Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Wayne NEILL embassy: Rue Caporal Bernard Anani, Cotonou mailing address: 01 B. P. 2012, Cotonou telephone: [229] 30-06-50 FAX: [229] 30-06-70

Flag description:
  two equal horizontal bands of yellow (top) and red with a vertical
  green band on the hoist side

Economy Benin

Economy - overview:
  The economy of Benin remains underdeveloped and dependent on
  subsistence agriculture, cotton production, and regional trade.
  Growth in real output has averaged a stable 5% in the past six
  years, but rapid population rise has offset much of this increase.
  Inflation has subsided over the past several years. In order to
  raise growth still further, Benin plans to attract more foreign
  investment, place more emphasis on tourism, facilitate the
  development of new food processing systems and agricultural
  products, and encourage new information and communication
  technology. The 2001 privatization policy should continue in
  telecommunications, water, electricity, and agriculture in spite of
  initial government reluctance. The Paris Club and bilateral
  creditors have eased the external debt situation, while pressing for
  speeded-up structural reforms.

GDP:
  purchasing power parity - $7.38 billion (2002 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:
  6% (2002 est.)

GDP - per capita:
  purchasing power parity - $1,100 (2002 est.)

GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 38% industry: 15% services: 47% (2002 est.)

Population below poverty line:
  37% (2001 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
  lowest 10%: NA%
  highest 10%: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices):
  3.3% (2002 est.)

Labor force:
  NA

Unemployment rate:
  NA%

Budget:
  revenues: $377.4 million
  expenditures: $561.8 million, including capital expenditures of $NA
  (2001)

Industries:
  textiles, food processing, chemical production, construction
  materials (2001)

Industrial production growth rate:
  8.3% (2001 est.)

Electricity - production:
  274.3 million kWh (2001)

Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel: 14.2% hydro: 85.8% other: 0% (2001) nuclear: 0%

Electricity - consumption:
  631.1 million kWh (2001)

Electricity - exports:
  0 kWh (2001)

Electricity - imports:
  376 million kWh (2001)

Oil - production:
  700 bbl/day (2001 est.)

Oil - consumption:
  11,500 bbl/day (2001 est.)

Oil - exports:
  NA (2001)

Oil - imports:
  NA (2001)

Oil - proved reserves:
  4.105 million bbl (37257)

Natural gas - proved reserves:
  608.8 million cu m (37257)

Agriculture - products: cotton, corn, cassava (tapioca), yams, beans, palm oil, peanuts, livestock (2001)

Exports:
  $207 million f.o.b. (2002)

Exports - commodities:
  cotton, crude oil, palm products, cocoa

Exports - partners:
  India 25%, Italy 11.1%, Indonesia 7.4%, China 7.2%, Thailand 6.7%,
  Brazil 6.1%, UK 4.4%, Niger 4% (2002)

Imports:
  $479 million c.i.f. (2002)

Imports - commodities:
  foodstuffs, capital goods, petroleum products

Imports - partners:
  China 30.7%, France 15.7%, UK 4.8%, Italy 4.2% (2002)

Debt - external:
  $1.6 billion (2000)

Economic aid - recipient:
  $342.6 million (2000)

Currency:
  Communaute Financiere Africaine franc (XOF); note - responsible
  authority is the Central Bank of the West African States

Currency code:
  XOF

Exchange rates:
  Communaute Financiere Africaine francs (XOF) per US dollar - 696.99
  (2002), 733.04 (2001), 711.98 (2000), 615.7 (1999), 589.95 (1998)

Fiscal year:
  calendar year

Communications Benin

Telephones - main lines in use:
  51,000 (2000)

Telephones - mobile cellular:
  55,500 (2000)

Telephone system:
  general assessment: NA
  domestic: fair system of open-wire, microwave radio relay, and
  cellular connections
  international: satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic
  Ocean); submarine cable

Radio broadcast stations:
  AM 2, FM 9, shortwave 4 (2000)

Radios:
  660,000 (2000)

Television broadcast stations:
  1;; (2001)

Televisions:
  66,000 (2000)

Internet country code:
  .bj

Internet Service Providers (ISPs):
  4 (2002)

Internet users:
  25,000 (2002)

Transportation Benin

Railways: total: 578 km narrow gauge: 578 km 1.000-m gauge (2002)

Highways:
  total: 6,787 km
  paved: 1,357 km (including 10 km of expressways)
  unpaved: 5,430 km (1999 est.)

Waterways:
  streams navigable along small sections, important only locally

Ports and harbors:
  Cotonou, Porto-Novo

Merchant marine:
  none (2002 est.)

Airports:
  5 (2002)

Airports - with paved runways:
  total: 1
  1,524 to 2,437 m: 1 (2002)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
  total: 4
  2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
  1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
  914 to 1,523 m: 2 (2002)

Military Benin

Military branches:
  Armed Forces (including Army, Navy, Air Force), National Gendarmerie

Military manpower - military age:
  18 years of age (2003 est.)

Military manpower - availability: note: both sexes are liable for military service females age 15-49: 1,536,036 (2003 est.) males age 15-49: 1,597,562

Military manpower - fit for military service:
  males age 15-49: 805,603
  females age 15-49: 809,961 (2003 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
  males: 75,021
  females: 78,998 (2003 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure:
  $80.8 million (FY02)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP:
  2.7% (FY02)

Transnational Issues Benin

Disputes - international:
  two villages are in dispute along the border with Burkina Faso;
  much of Benin-Niger boundary, including tripoint with Nigeria,
  remains undemarcated, but states accept 2001 arbitration over
  disputed Niger River islands; several villages along the Okpara
  River are in dispute with Nigeria; in 2001, Benin claimed Togo moved
  the boundary stones - joint commission presently resurveying the
  boundary

Illicit drugs:
  transshipment point for narcotics associated with Nigerian
  trafficking organizations and most commonly destined for Western
  Europe and the US; vulnerable to money laundering due to a poorly
  regulated financial infrastructure

This page was last updated on 18 December, 2003

======================================================================

@Bermuda

Introduction Bermuda

Background:
  Bermuda was first settled in 1609 by shipwrecked English colonists
  headed for Virginia. Tourism to the island to escape North American
  winters first developed in Victorian times. Tourism continues to be
  important to the island's economy, although international business
  has overtaken it in recent years. Bermuda has developed into a
  highly successful offshore financial center. A referendum on
  independence was soundly defeated in 1995.

Geography Bermuda

Location:
  North America, group of islands in the North Atlantic Ocean, east
  of North Carolina (US)

Geographic coordinates:
  32 20 N, 64 45 W

Map references:
  North America

Area:
  total: 53.3 sq km
  water: 0 sq km
  land: 53.3 sq km

Area - comparative:
  about one-third the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries:
  0 km

Coastline:
  103 km

Maritime claims: exclusive fishing zone: 200 NM territorial sea: 12 NM

Climate:
  subtropical; mild, humid; gales, strong winds common in winter

Terrain:
  low hills separated by fertile depressions

Elevation extremes: lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m highest point: Town Hill 76 m

Natural resources: limestone, pleasant climate fostering tourism

Land use: arable land: 6% permanent crops: 0% other: 94% (55% developed, 45% rural/open space) (1998 est.)

Irrigated land:
  NA sq km

Natural hazards:
  hurricanes (June to November)

Environment - current issues:
  asbestos disposal; water pollution; preservation of open space;
  sustainable development

Geography - note:
  consists of about 138 coral islands and islets with ample rainfall,
  but no rivers or freshwater lakes; some land was leased by US
  Government from 1941 to 1995

People Bermuda

Population:
  64,482 (July 2003 est.)

Age structure:
  0-14 years: 19.2% (male 6,195; female 6,205)
  15-64 years: 69.3% (male 22,110; female 22,574)
  65 years and over: 11.5% (male 3,215; female 4,183) (2003 est.)

Median age:
  total: 38.7 years
  male: 37.8 years
  female: 39.6 years (2002)

Population growth rate:
  0.72% (2003 est.)

Birth rate:
  12.13 births/1,000 population (2003 est.)

Death rate:
  7.46 deaths/1,000 population (2003 est.)

Net migration rate:
  2.56 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2003 est.)

Sex ratio:
  at birth: 1.02 male(s)/female
  under 15 years: 1 male(s)/female
  15-64 years: 0.98 male(s)/female
  65 years and over: 0.77 male(s)/female
  total population: 0.96 male(s)/female (2003 est.)

Infant mortality rate:
  total: 9.05 deaths/1,000 live births
  female: 7.3 deaths/1,000 live births (2003 est.)
  male: 10.77 deaths/1,000 live births

Life expectancy at birth:
  total population: 77.41 years
  male: 75.38 years
  female: 79.49 years (2003 est.)

Total fertility rate:
  1.9 children born/woman (2003 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
  NA%

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
  NA

HIV/AIDS - deaths:
  NA

Nationality: noun: Bermudian(s) adjective: Bermudian

Ethnic groups:
  black 58%, white 36%, other 6%

Religions:
  non-Anglican Protestant 39%, Anglican 27%, Roman Catholic 15%,
  other 19%

Languages:
  English (official), Portuguese

Literacy:
  definition: age 15 and over can read and write
  total population: 98%
  male: 98%
  female: 99% (1970 est.)

Government Bermuda

Country name: conventional long form: none conventional short form: Bermuda former: Somers Islands

Dependency status:
  overseas territory of the UK

Government type:
  parliamentary British overseas territory with internal
  self-government

Capital:
  Hamilton

Administrative divisions:
  9 parishes and 2 municipalities*; Devonshire, Hamilton, Hamilton*,
  Paget, Pembroke, Saint George*, Saint George's, Sandys, Smith's,
  Southampton, Warwick

Independence:
  none (overseas territory of the UK)

National holiday:
  Bermuda Day, 24 May

Constitution:
  8 June 1968, amended 1989

Legal system:
  English law

Suffrage:
  18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
  chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952),
  represented by Governor Sir John VEREKER (since NA April 2002)
  head of government: Premier Alex SCOTT (since 24 July 2003)
  cabinet: Cabinet nominated by the premier, appointed by the governor
  elections: none; the monarch is hereditary; governor appointed by
  the monarch; following legislative elections, the leader of the
  majority party or the leader of the majority coalition is usually
  appointed premier by the governor

Legislative branch:
  bicameral Parliament consists of the Senate (an 11-member body
  appointed by the governor, the premier, and the opposition) and the
  House of Assembly (36 seats; members are elected by popular vote to
  serve five-year terms)
  elections: last general election held 24 July 2003 (next to be held
  NA July 2008)
  election results: percent of vote by party - PLP 51.7%, UBP 48%;
  seats by party - PLP 22, UBP 14

Judicial branch:
  Supreme Court; Court of Appeal; Magistrate Courts

Political parties and leaders:
  National Liberal Party or NLP [Dessaline WALDRON]; Progressive
  Labor Party or PLP [Jennifer SMITH]; United Bermuda Party or UBP
  [Chairman Wayne FURBERT]

Political pressure groups and leaders:
  Bermuda Employer's Union [Eddie SAINTS]; Bermuda Industrial Union
  or BIU [Derrick BURGESS]; Bermuda Public Services Association or
  BPSA [leader NA]; Bermuda Union of Teachers [Michael CHARLES]

International organization participation:
  Caricom (observer), ICFTU, Interpol (subbureau), IOC, WCO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
  none (overseas territory of the UK)

Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Consul General Denis Patrick COLEMAN, Jr. consulate(s) general: Crown Hill, 16 Middle Road, Devonshire DVO3 mailing address: P. O. Box HM325, Hamilton HMBX; American Consulate General Hamilton, Department of State, 5300 Hamilton Place, Washington, DC 20520-5300 telephone: [1] (441) 295-1342 FAX: [1] (441) 295-1592, [1] (441) 296-9233

Flag description:
  red, with the flag of the UK in the upper hoist-side quadrant and
  the Bermudian coat of arms (white and green shield with a red lion
  holding a scrolled shield showing the sinking of the ship Sea
  Venture off Bermuda in 1609) centered on the outer half of the flag

Economy Bermuda

Economy - overview:
  Bermuda enjoys one of the highest per capita incomes in the world,
  with its economy primarily based on providing financial services for
  international business and luxury facilities for tourists. The
  effects of 11 September 2001 have had both positive and negative
  ramifications for Bermuda. On the positive side, a number of new
  reinsurance companies have located on the island, contributing to
  the expansion of an already robust international business sector. On
  the negative side, Bermuda's tourism industry - which derives over
  80% of its visitors from the US - has been severely hit as American
  tourists have chosen not to travel. Tourism rebounded somewhat in
  2002, but remains below the pre-11 September level. Most capital
  equipment and food must be imported. Bermuda's industrial sector is
  small, although construction continues to be important. Agriculture
  is limited, only 6% of the land being arable.

GDP:
  purchasing power parity - $2.25 billion (2002 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:
  0.5% (2002 est.)

GDP - per capita:
  purchasing power parity - $35,200 (2002 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
  agriculture: 1%
  industry: 10%
  services: 89% (2002 est.)

Population below poverty line:
  NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
  lowest 10%: NA%
  highest 10%: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices):
  2.3% (July 2002)

Labor force:
  37,472 (2000)

Labor force - by occupation: clerical 22%, services 20%, laborers 17%, professional and technical 17%, administrative and managerial 13%, sales 8%, agriculture and fishing 3% (2000 est.)

Unemployment rate:
  4.5% (1993)

Budget:
  revenues: $609.5 million
  expenditures: $574.6 million, including capital expenditures of
  $54.8 million (FY 00/01)

Industries:
  tourism, international business, light manufacturing

Industrial production growth rate:
  NA%

Electricity - production:
  643.7 million kWh (2001)

Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel: 100% hydro: 0% other: 0% (2001) nuclear: 0%

Electricity - consumption:
  598.6 million kWh (2001)

Electricity - exports:
  0 kWh (2001)

Electricity - imports:
  0 kWh (2001)

Oil - production:
  0 bbl/day (2001 est.)

Oil - consumption:
  4,000 bbl/day (2001 est.)

Oil - exports:
  NA (2001)

Oil - imports:
  NA (2001)

Agriculture - products:
  bananas, vegetables, citrus, flowers; dairy products

Exports:
  $51 million (2000)

Exports - commodities:
  reexports of pharmaceuticals

Exports - partners:
  France 77.4%, UK 2.8%, US 2.4% (2002)

Imports:
  $719 million (2000)

Imports - commodities:
  machinery and transport equipment, construction materials,
  chemicals, food and live animals

Imports - partners:
  Kazakhstan 30.9%, France 24.7%, Italy 10.5%, US 9.7%, South Korea
  8.4%, Mexico 4.3% (2002)

Debt - external:
  $145 million (FY 99/00)

Economic aid - recipient:
  $NA

Currency:
  Bermudian dollar (BMD)

Currency code:
  BMD

Exchange rates:
  Bermudian dollar per US dollar - 1.0000 (fixed rate pegged to the
  US dollar)

Fiscal year:
  1 April - 31 March

Communications Bermuda

Telephones - main lines in use:
  52,000 (1997)

Telephones - mobile cellular:
  7,980 (1996)

Telephone system:
  general assessment: NA
  domestic: modern, fully automatic telephone system
  international: 3 submarine cables; satellite earth stations - 3
  Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations:
  AM 5, FM 3, shortwave 0 (1998)

Radios:
  82,000 (1997)

Television broadcast stations:
  3 (1997)

Televisions:
  66,000 (1997)

Internet country code:
  .bm

Internet Service Providers (ISPs):
  20 (2000)

Internet users:
  25,000 (2000)

Transportation Bermuda

Railways:
  0 km

Highways:
  total: 450 km
  paved: 450 km
  note: public roads - 209 km; private roads - 241 km (2002)
  unpaved: 0 km

Waterways:
  none

Ports and harbors:
  Hamilton, Saint George's, Dockyard

Merchant marine:
  total: 93 ships (1,000 GRT or over) 4,993,227 GRT/7,089,760 DWT
  note: includes some foreign-owned ships registered here as a flag of
  convenience: Croatia 5, Denmark 2, Germany 1, Greece 1, Hong Kong 9,
  Indonesia 1, Norway 2, Sweden 11, United Kingdom 52, United States
  13 (2002 est.)
  ships by type: bulk 25, cargo 4, chemical tanker 1, container 14,
  liquefied gas 9, passenger 5, petroleum tanker 11, refrigerated
  cargo 13, roll on/roll off 7, short-sea passenger 4

Airports:
  1 (2002)

Airports - with paved runways: total: 1 2,438 to 3,047 m: 1 (2002)

Military Bermuda

Military branches:
  no regular indigenous military forces; Bermuda Regiment, Bermuda
  Police Force, Bermuda Reserve Constabulary

Military expenditures - dollar figure:
  $4.028 million (January 2002)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP:
  0.11% (FY00/01)

Military - note:
  defense is the responsibility of the UK

Transnational Issues Bermuda

Disputes - international: none

This page was last updated on 18 December, 2003

======================================================================

@Bhutan

Introduction Bhutan

Background:
  In 1865, Britain and Bhutan signed the Treaty of Sinchulu, under
  which Bhutan would receive an annual subsidy in exchange for ceding
  some border land. Under British influence, a monarchy was set up in
  1907; three years later, a treaty was signed whereby the British
  agreed not to interfere in Bhutanese internal affairs and Bhutan
  allowed Britain to direct its foreign affairs. This role was assumed
  by independent India after 1947. Two years later, a formal
  Indo-Bhutanese accord returned the areas of Bhutan annexed by the
  British, formalized the annual subsidies the country received, and
  defined India's responsibilities in defense and foreign relations. A
  refugee issue of some 100,000 Bhutanese in Nepal remains unresolved;
  90% of the refugees are housed in seven United Nations Office of the
  High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) camps. Maoist Assamese
  separatists from India, who have established themselves in the
  southeast portion of Bhutan, have drawn Indian cross-border
  incursions.

Geography Bhutan

Location:
  Southern Asia, between China and India

Geographic coordinates:
  27 30 N, 90 30 E

Map references:
  Asia

Area:
  total: 47,000 sq km
  water: 0 sq km
  land: 47,000 sq km

Area - comparative:
  about half the size of Indiana

Land boundaries: total: 1,075 km border countries: China 470 km, India 605 km

Coastline:
  0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims:
  none (landlocked)

Climate:
  varies; tropical in southern plains; cool winters and hot summers
  in central valleys; severe winters and cool summers in Himalayas

Terrain:
  mostly mountainous with some fertile valleys and savanna

Elevation extremes: lowest point: Drangme Chhu 97 m highest point: Kula Kangri 7,553 m

Natural resources: timber, hydropower, gypsum, calcium carbide

Land use: arable land: 2.98% permanent crops: 0.43% other: 96.59% (1998 est.)

Irrigated land:
  400 sq km (1998 est.)

Natural hazards:
  violent storms from the Himalayas are the source of the country's
  name which translates as Land of the Thunder Dragon; frequent
  landslides during the rainy season

Environment - current issues:
  soil erosion; limited access to potable water

Environment - international agreements:
  party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Nuclear Test Ban
  signed, but not ratified: Law of the Sea

Geography - note:
  landlocked; strategic location between China and India; controls
  several key Himalayan mountain passes

People Bhutan

Population: 2,139,549 note: other estimates range as low as 810,000 (July 2003 est.)

Age structure:
  0-14 years: 39.6% (male 438,784; female 407,919)
  15-64 years: 56.4% (male 621,666; female 585,550)
  65 years and over: 4% (male 43,262; female 42,368) (2003 est.)

Median age:
  total: 20.1 years
  male: 19.9 years
  female: 20.3 years (2002)

Population growth rate:
  2.14% (2003 est.)

Birth rate:
  34.82 births/1,000 population (2003 est.)

Death rate:
  13.47 deaths/1,000 population (2003 est.)

Net migration rate:
  0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2003 est.)

Sex ratio:
  at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
  under 15 years: 1.08 male(s)/female
  15-64 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
  65 years and over: 1.02 male(s)/female
  total population: 1.07 male(s)/female (2003 est.)

Infant mortality rate:
  total: 104.68 deaths/1,000 live births
  female: 106.97 deaths/1,000 live births (2003 est.)
  male: 102.49 deaths/1,000 live births

Life expectancy at birth:
  total population: 53.58 years
  male: 53.9 years
  female: 53.25 years (2003 est.)

Total fertility rate:
  4.94 children born/woman (2003 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
  less than 0.1% (2001 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
  less than 100 (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths:
  NA

Nationality:
  noun: Bhutanese (singular and plural)
  adjective: Bhutanese

Ethnic groups:
  Bhote 50%, ethnic Nepalese 35% (includes Lhotsampas—one of several
  Nepalese ethnic groups), indigenous or migrant tribes 15%

Religions:
  Lamaistic Buddhist 75%, Indian- and Nepalese-influenced Hinduism 25%

Languages:
  Dzongkha (official), Bhotes speak various Tibetan dialects,
  Nepalese speak various Nepalese dialects

Literacy:
  definition: age 15 and over can read and write
  total population: 42.2%
  male: 56.2%
  female: 28.1% (1995 est.)

Government Bhutan

Country name:
  conventional long form: Kingdom of Bhutan
  conventional short form: Bhutan

Government type:
  monarchy; special treaty relationship with India

Capital:
  Thimphu

Administrative divisions:
  18 districts (dzongkhag, singular and plural); Bumthang, Chhukha,
  Chirang, Dagana, Geylegphug, Ha, Lhuntshi, Mongar, Paro, Pemagatsel,
  Punakha, Samchi, Samdrup Jongkhar, Shemgang, Tashigang, Thimphu,
  Tongsa, Wangdi Phodrang
  note: there may be two new districts named Gasa and Yangtse

Independence:
  8 August 1949 (from India)

National holiday:
  National Day (Ugyen WANGCHUCK became first hereditary king), 17
  December (1907)

Constitution:
  no written constitution or bill of rights; note - the King
  commissioned a committee to draft a constitution in 2001, but has
  yet to be approved

Legal system:
  based on Indian law and English common law; has not accepted
  compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage:
  each family has one vote in village-level elections

Executive branch:
  chief of state: King Jigme Singye WANGCHUCK (since 24 July 1972)
  elections: none; the monarch is hereditary, but democratic reforms
  in July 1998 grant the National Assembly authority to remove the
  monarch with two-thirds vote
  head of government: Chairman of the Council of Ministers Lyonpo
  Jigme Y. THINLEY (since 30 August 2003)
  cabinet: Council of Ministers (Lhengye Shungtsog) nominated by the
  monarch, approved by the National Assembly; members serve fixed,
  five-year terms; note - there is also a Royal Advisory Council
  (Lodoi Tsokde), members nominated by the monarch

Legislative branch:
  unicameral National Assembly or Tshogdu (150 seats; 105 elected
  from village constituencies, 10 represent religious bodies, and 35
  are designated by the monarch to represent government and other
  secular interests; members serve three-year terms)
  elections: local elections last held November 2002 (next to be held
  NA 2005)
  election results: NA

Judicial branch:
  Supreme Court of Appeal (the monarch); High Court (judges appointed
  by the monarch)

Political parties and leaders:
  no legal parties

Political pressure groups and leaders:
  Buddhist clergy; ethnic Nepalese organizations leading militant
  antigovernment campaign; Indian merchant community; United Front for
  Democracy (exiled)

International organization participation:
  AsDB, CP, ESCAP, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IFAD, IMF, IOC, IOM
  (observer), ITU, NAM, OPCW (signatory), SAARC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO,
  UNIDO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WTrO (observer)

Diplomatic representation in the US:
  none; note - Bhutan has a Permanent Mission to the UN; address: 2
  United Nations Plaza, 27th Floor, New York, NY 10017; telephone [1]
  (212) 826-1919; the Bhutanese mission to the UN has consular
  jurisdiction in the US
  consulate(s) general: New York

Diplomatic representation from the US:
  the US and Bhutan have no formal diplomatic relations, although
  informal contact is maintained between the Bhutanese and US Embassy
  in New Delhi (India)

Flag description:
  divided diagonally from the lower hoist side corner; the upper
  triangle is yellow and the lower triangle is orange; centered along
  the dividing line is a large black and white dragon facing away from
  the hoist side

Economy Bhutan

Economy - overview:
  The economy, one of the world's smallest and least developed, is
  based on agriculture and forestry, providing the main livelihood for
  more than 90% of the population. Agriculture consists largely of
  subsistence farming and animal husbandry. Rugged mountains dominate
  the terrain and make the building of roads and other infrastructure
  difficult and expensive. The economy is closely aligned with India's
  through strong trade and monetary links and dependence on India's
  financial assistance. The industrial sector is technologically
  backward, with most production of the cottage industry type. Most
  development projects, such as road construction, rely on Indian
  migrant labor. Bhutan's hydropower potential and its attraction for
  tourists are key resources. The government has made some progress in
  expanding the nation's productive base and improving social welfare.
  Model education, social, and environment programs are underway with
  support from multilateral development organizations. Each economic
  program takes into account the government's desire to protect the
  country's environment and cultural traditions. Detailed controls and
  uncertain policies in areas like industrial licensing, trade, labor,
  and finance continue to hamper foreign investment.

GDP:
  purchasing power parity - $2.7 billion (2002 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:
  7.7% (2002 est.)

GDP - per capita:
  purchasing power parity - $1,300 (2002 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
  agriculture: 45%
  industry: 10%
  services: 45% (2002 est.)

Population below poverty line:
  NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
  lowest 10%: NA%
  highest 10%: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices):
  3% (2002 est.)

Labor force:
  NA
  note: massive lack of skilled labor

Labor force - by occupation:
  agriculture 93%, services 5%, industry and commerce 2%

Unemployment rate:
  NA%

Budget:
  revenues: $146 million
  expenditures: $152 million, including capital expenditures of NA
  note: the government of India finances nearly three-fifths of
  Bhutan's budget expenditures (FY95/96 est.)

Industries:
  cement, wood products, processed fruits, alcoholic beverages,
  calcium carbide

Industrial production growth rate:
  9.3% (1996 est.)

Electricity - production:
  1.896 billion kWh (2001)

Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel: 0.1% hydro: 99.9% other: 0% (2001) nuclear: 0%

Electricity - consumption:
  379.5 million kWh (2001)

Electricity - exports:
  1.4 billion kWh (2001)

Electricity - imports:
  16 million kWh (2001)

Oil - production:
  0 bbl/day (2001 est.)

Oil - consumption:
  1,020 bbl/day (2001 est.)

Oil - exports:
  NA (2001)

Oil - imports:
  NA (2001)

Agriculture - products:
  rice, corn, root crops, citrus, foodgrains; dairy products, eggs

Exports:
  $154 million f.o.b. (2000 est.)

Exports - commodities:
  electricity (to India), cardamom, gypsum, timber, handicrafts,
  cement, fruit, precious stones, spices

Exports - partners:
  US 24.1%, UK 23.9%, Pakistan 23.1%, France 13.9% (2002)

Imports:
  $196 million c.i.f. (2000 est.)

Imports - commodities:
  fuel and lubricants, grain, machinery and parts, vehicles, fabrics,
  rice

Imports - partners:
  Japan 44.5%, Germany 12.2%, UK 8.5%, Singapore 6%, South Korea 5%,
  US 4.2% (2002)

Debt - external:
  $245 million (2000)

Economic aid - recipient:
  substantial aid from India and other nations

Currency:
  ngultrum (BTN); Indian rupee (INR)

Currency code:
  BTN; INR

Exchange rates:
  ngultrum per US dollar - 48.61 (2002), 47.19 (2001), 44.94 (2000),
  43.06 (1999), 41.26 (1998)

Fiscal year:
  1 July - 30 June

Communications Bhutan

Telephones - main lines in use:
  6,000 (1997)

Telephones - mobile cellular:
  NA

Telephone system:
  general assessment: NA
  domestic: domestic telephone service is very poor with few
  telephones in use
  international: international telephone and telegraph service is by
  landline through India; a satellite earth station was planned (1990)

Radio broadcast stations:
  AM 0, FM 1, shortwave 1 (1998)

Radios:
  37,000 (1997)

Television broadcast stations:
  0 (1997)

Televisions:
  11,000 (1997)

Internet country code:
  .bt

Internet Service Providers (ISPs):
  NA

Internet users:
  2,500 (2002)

Transportation Bhutan

Railways: 0 km

Highways: total: 3,690 km paved: 2,240 km unpaved: 1,450 km (1999 est.)

Waterways:
  none

Ports and harbors:
  none

Airports:
  2 (2002)

Airports - with paved runways:
  total: 1
  1,524 to 2,437 m: 1 (2002)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
  total: 1
  914 to 1,523 m: 1 (2002)

Military Bhutan

Military branches:
  Royal Bhutan Army, Royal Bodyguard, National Militia, Royal Bhutan
  Police, Forest Guards

Military manpower - military age:
  18 years of age (2003 est.)

Military manpower - availability:
  males age 15-49: 530,860 (2003 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:
  males age 15-49: 283,493 (2003 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
  males: 22,755 (2003 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure:
  $9.3 million (FY02)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP:
  1.9% (FY02)

Transnational Issues Bhutan

Disputes - international:
  approximately 100,000 Bhutanese refugees living in Nepal, 90% of
  whom reside in seven UN Office of the High Commissioner for Refugees
  camps, place decades-long strains on Nepal

This page was last updated on 18 December, 2003

======================================================================

@Bolivia

Introduction Bolivia

Background:
  Bolivia, named after independence fighter Simon BOLIVAR, broke away
  from Spanish rule in 1825; much of its subsequent history has
  consisted of a series of nearly 200 coups and counter-coups.
  Comparatively democratic civilian rule was established in the 1980s,
  but leaders have faced difficult problems of deep-seated poverty,
  social unrest, and drug production. Current goals include attracting
  foreign investment, strengthening the educational system, resolving
  disputes with coca growers over Bolivia's counterdrug efforts,
  continuing the privatization program, and waging an anticorruption
  campaign.

Geography Bolivia

Location:
  Central South America, southwest of Brazil

Geographic coordinates:
  17 00 S, 65 00 W

Map references:
  South America

Area:
  total: 1,098,580 sq km
  water: 14,190 sq km
  land: 1,084,390 sq km

Area - comparative:
  slightly less than three times the size of Montana

Land boundaries:
  total: 6,743 km
  border countries: Argentina 832 km, Brazil 3,400 km, Chile 861 km,
  Paraguay 750 km, Peru 900 km

Coastline:
  0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims:
  none (landlocked)

Climate:
  varies with altitude; humid and tropical to cold and semiarid

Terrain:
  rugged Andes Mountains with a highland plateau (Altiplano), hills,
  lowland plains of the Amazon Basin

Elevation extremes:
  lowest point: Rio Paraguay 90 m
  highest point: Nevado Sajama 6,542 m

Natural resources:
  tin, natural gas, petroleum, zinc, tungsten, antimony, silver,
  iron, lead, gold, timber, hydropower

Land use: arable land: 1.73% permanent crops: 0.21% other: 98.06% (1998 est.)

Irrigated land:
  1,280 sq km (1998 est.)

Natural hazards:
  flooding in the northeast (March-April)

Environment - current issues:
  the clearing of land for agricultural purposes and the
  international demand for tropical timber are contributing to
  deforestation; soil erosion from overgrazing and poor cultivation
  methods (including slash-and-burn agriculture); desertification;
  loss of biodiversity; industrial pollution of water supplies used
  for drinking and irrigation

Environment - international agreements:
  party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto
  Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law
  of the Sea, Nuclear Test Ban, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83,
  Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands
  signed, but not ratified: Environmental Modification, Marine
  Dumping, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection

Geography - note:
  landlocked; shares control of Lago Titicaca, world's highest
  navigable lake (elevation 3,805 m), with Peru

People Bolivia

Population:
  8,586,443 (July 2003 est.)

Age structure:
  0-14 years: 37.1% (male 1,624,366; female 1,562,501)
  15-64 years: 58.4% (male 2,452,892; female 2,561,873)
  65 years and over: 4.5% (male 172,292; female 212,519) (2003 est.)

Median age:
  total: 20.8 years
  male: 20.1 years
  female: 21.5 years (2002)

Population growth rate:
  1.63% (2003 est.)

Birth rate:
  25.53 births/1,000 population (2003 est.)

Death rate:
  7.91 deaths/1,000 population (2003 est.)

Net migration rate:
  -1.37 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2003 est.)

Sex ratio:
  at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
  under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
  15-64 years: 0.96 male(s)/female
  65 years and over: 0.81 male(s)/female
  total population: 0.98 male(s)/female (2003 est.)

Infant mortality rate:
  total: 56.05 deaths/1,000 live births
  female: 52.16 deaths/1,000 live births (2003 est.)
  male: 59.75 deaths/1,000 live births

Life expectancy at birth:
  total population: 64.78 years
  male: 62.2 years
  female: 67.48 years (2003 est.)

Total fertility rate:
  3.23 children born/woman (2003 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
  0.1% - note: no country specific models provided (2001 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
  4,600 (2001 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths:
  290 (2001 est.)

Nationality:
  noun: Bolivian(s)
  adjective: Bolivian

Ethnic groups:
  Quechua 30%, mestizo (mixed white and Amerindian ancestry) 30%,
  Aymara 25%, white 15%

Religions:
  Roman Catholic 95%, Protestant (Evangelical Methodist)

Languages:
  Spanish (official), Quechua (official), Aymara (official)

Literacy:
  definition: age 15 and over can read and write
  total population: 87.2%
  male: 93.1%
  female: 81.6% (2003 est.)

Government Bolivia

Country name:
  conventional long form: Republic of Bolivia
  conventional short form: Bolivia
  local short form: Bolivia
  local long form: Republica de Bolivia

Government type:
  republic

Capital:
  La Paz (seat of government); Sucre (legal capital and seat of
  judiciary)

Administrative divisions:
  9 departments (departamentos, singular - departamento); Chuquisaca,
  Cochabamba, Beni, La Paz, Oruro, Pando, Potosi, Santa Cruz, Tarija

Independence:
  6 August 1825 (from Spain)

National holiday:
  Independence Day, 6 August (1825)

Constitution:
  2 February 1967; revised in August 1994

Legal system:
  based on Spanish law and Napoleonic Code; has not accepted
  compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage:
  18 years of age, universal and compulsory (married); 21 years of
  age, universal and compulsory (single)

Executive branch:
  chief of state: President Carlos Diego MESA Gisbert (since 17
  October 2003); Vice President (vacant); note - the president is both
  the chief of state and head of government
  head of government: President Carlos Diego MESA Gisbert (since 17
  October 2003); Vice President (vacant); note - the president is both
  the chief of state and head of government
  cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president
  elections: president and vice president elected on the same ticket
  by popular vote for five-year terms; election last held 30 June 2002
  (next to be held NA June 2007)
  election results: as a result of no candidate winning a majority in
  the 30 June 2002 election, Gonzalo SANCHEZ DE LOZADA Bustamante was
  chosen president by Congress; Congressional votes - Gonzalo SANCHEZ
  DE LOZADA Bustamante 84, Evo MORALES 43; note - following the
  resignation of the elected president on 17 October 2003, Vice
  President Carlos Diego MESA Gisbert assumed the presidency

Legislative branch:
  bicameral National Congress or Congreso Nacional consists of
  Chamber of Senators or Camara de Senadores (27 seats; members are
  directly elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms) and
  Chamber of Deputies or Camara de Diputados (130 seats; members are
  directly elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms; note -
  some members are drawn from party lists, thus not directly elected)
  elections: Chamber of Senators and Chamber of Deputies - last held
  30 June 2002 (next to be held NA June 2007)
  election results: Chamber of Senators - percent of vote by party -
  NA%; seats by party - MNR 11, MAS 8, MIR 5, NFR 2, other 1; Chamber
  of Deputies - percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - MNR
  36, MAS 27, MIR 26, NFR 25, others 16

Judicial branch:
  Supreme Court or Corte Suprema (judges appointed for 10-year terms
  by National Congress); District Courts (one in each department);
  provincial and local courts (to try minor cases)

Political parties and leaders:
  Bolivian Socialist Falange or FSB [Romel PANTOJA]; Civic Solidarity
  Union or UCS [Johnny FERNANDEZ]; Free Bolivia Movement or MBL [Franz
  BARRIOS]; Marshal of Ayacucho Institutional Vanguard or VIMA [Freddy
  ZABALA]; Movement of the Revolutionary Left or MIR [Jaime PAZ
  Zamora]; Movement Toward Socialism or MAS [Evo MORALES]; Movement
  Without Fear or MSM [Juan DEL GRANADO]; Nationalist Democratic
  Action or ADN [Jorge Fernando QUIROGA Ramirez]; Nationalist
  Revolutionary Movement or MNR [Gonzalo SANCHEZ DE LOZADA]; New
  Republican Force or NFR [Manfred REYES-VILLA]; Pachakuti Indigenous
  Movement or MIP [Felipe QUISPE]; Socialist Party or PS [Jeres
  JUSTINIANO]
  note: the MNR, MIR, and UCS comprise the ruling coalition

Political pressure groups and leaders:
  Cocalero Groups; indigenous organizations; labor unions; Sole
  Confederation of Campesino Workers of Bolivia or CSUTCB [Felipe
  QUISPE]

International organization participation:
  ECLAC, FAO, G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IFAD,
  IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO (correspondent),
  ITU, LAES, LAIA, Mercosur (associate), MONUC, NAM, OAS, OPANAL,
  OPCW, PCA, RG, UN, UNAMSIL, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNMIK, UNMISET,
  UPU, WCL, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Jaime APARICIO Otero chancery: 3014 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008 consulate(s) general: Miami, New York, and San Francisco consulate(s): Washington, DC FAX: [1] (202) 328-3712 telephone: [1] (202) 483-4410

Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador David N. GREENLEE embassy: Avenida Arce 2780, San Jorge, La Paz mailing address: P. O. Box 425, La Paz; APO AA 34032 telephone: [591] (2) 2430120, 2430251 FAX: [591] (2) 2433900

Flag description:
  three equal horizontal bands of red (top), yellow, and green with
  the coat of arms centered on the yellow band; similar to the flag of
  Ghana, which has a large black five-pointed star centered in the
  yellow band

Economy Bolivia

Economy - overview:
  Bolivia, long one of the poorest and least developed Latin American
  countries, made considerable progress in the 1990s toward the
  development of a market-oriented economy. Successes under President
  SANCHEZ DE LOZADA (1993-97) included the signing of a free trade
  agreement with Mexico and becoming an associate member of the
  Southern Cone Common Market (Mercosur), as well as the privatization
  of the state airline, telephone company, railroad, electric power
  company, and oil company. Growth slowed in 1999, in part due to
  tight government budget policies, which limited needed
  appropriations for anti-poverty programs, and the fallout from the
  Asian financial crisis. In 2000, major civil disturbances held down
  growth to 2.5%. Bolivia's GDP failed to grow in 2001 due to the
  global slowdown and laggard domestic activity. Growth picked up
  slightly in 2002, but the first quarter of 2003 saw extensive civil
  riots and looting and loss of confidence in the government. Bolivia
  will remain highly dependent on foreign aid unless and until it can
  develop its substantial natural resources.

GDP:
  purchasing power parity - $21.15 billion (2002 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:
  2.8% (2002 est.)

GDP - per capita:
  purchasing power parity - $2,500 (2002 est.)

GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 20% industry: 20% services: 60% (2002 est.)

Population below poverty line: 70% (1999 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: 1.3% highest 10%: 32% (1999)

Distribution of family income - Gini index:
  58.9 (1997)

Inflation rate (consumer prices):
  2% (2001 est.)

Labor force:
  2.5 million

Labor force - by occupation:
  agriculture NA%, industry NA%, services NA%

Unemployment rate:
  7.6%
  note: widespread underemployment (2000)

Budget:
  revenues: $4 billion
  expenditures: $4 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA
  (2002 est.)

Industries:
  mining, smelting, petroleum, food and beverages, tobacco,
  handicrafts, clothing

Industrial production growth rate:
  3.9% (1998)

Electricity - production:
  3.901 billion kWh (2001)

Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel: 44.4% hydro: 54% other: 1.5% (2001) nuclear: 0%

Electricity - consumption:
  3.634 billion kWh (2001)

Electricity - exports:
  3 million kWh (2001)

Electricity - imports:
  9 million kWh (2001)

Oil - production:
  44,340 bbl/day (2001 est.)

Oil - consumption:
  49,000 bbl/day (2001 est.)

Oil - exports:
  NA (2001)

Oil - imports:
  NA (2001)

Oil - proved reserves:
  458.8 million bbl (37257)

Natural gas - production:
  4.05 billion cu m (2001 est.)

Natural gas - consumption:
  1.15 billion cu m (2001 est.)

Natural gas - exports:
  2.9 billion cu m (2001 est.)

Natural gas - imports:
  0 cu m (2001 est.)

Natural gas - proved reserves:
  727.2 billion cu m (37257)

Agriculture - products: soybeans, coffee, coca, cotton, corn, sugarcane, rice, potatoes; timber

Exports:
  $1.3 billion f.o.b. (2002 est.)

Exports - commodities:
  soybeans, natural gas, zinc, gold, wood (2000)

Exports - partners:
  Brazil 24.3%, Switzerland 15.7%, US 14.1%, Venezuela 12.8%,
  Colombia 10.2%, Peru 5.4% (2002)

Imports:
  $1.6 billion f.o.b. (2002 est.)

Imports - commodities:
  capital goods, raw materials and semi-manufactures, chemicals,
  petroleum, food

Imports - partners:
  Brazil 22%, Argentina 17.4%, US 15.6%, Chile 7%, Japan 5.5%, Peru
  5.4%, China 4.8% (2002)

Debt - external:
  $5.9 billion (2002 est.)

Economic aid - recipient:
  $588 million (1997)

Currency:
  boliviano (BOB)

Currency code:
  BOB

Exchange rates:
  bolivianos per US dollar - 7.17 (2002), 6.61 (2001), 6.18 (2000),
  5.81 (1999), 5.51 (1998)

Fiscal year:
  calendar year

Communications Bolivia

Telephones - main lines in use:
  327,600 (1996)

Telephones - mobile cellular:
  116,000 (1997)

Telephone system:
  general assessment: new subscribers face bureaucratic difficulties;
  most telephones are concentrated in La Paz and other cities; mobile
  cellular telephone use expanding rapidly
  domestic: primary trunk system, which is being expanded, employs
  digital microwave radio relay; some areas are served by fiber-optic
  cable; mobile cellular systems are being expanded
  international: satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations:
  AM 171, FM 73, shortwave 77 (1999)

Radios:
  5.25 million (1997)

Television broadcast stations:
  48 (1997)

Televisions:
  900,000 (1997)

Internet country code:
  .bo

Internet Service Providers (ISPs):
  9 (2000)

Internet users:
  78,000 (2000)

Transportation Bolivia

Railways: total: 3,519 km narrow gauge: 3,519 km 1.000-m gauge (2002)

Highways:
  total: 53,790 km
  paved: 3,496 km (including 13 km of expressways)
  unpaved: 50,294 km (2000 est.)

Waterways:
  10,000 km (commercially navigable)

Pipelines:
  gas 4,860 km; liquid petroleum gas 47 km; oil 2,460 km; refined
  products 1,589 km; unknown (oil/water) 247 km (2003)

Ports and harbors:
  Puerto Aguirre (on the Paraguay/Parana waterway, at the
  Bolivia/Brazil border); also, Bolivia has free port privileges in
  maritime ports in Argentina, Brazil, Chile, and Paraguay

Merchant marine:
  total: 53 ships (1,000 GRT or over) 347,535 GRT/591,113 DWT
  ships by type: bulk 2, cargo 25, chemical tanker 4, container 4,
  livestock carrier 1, petroleum tanker 12, roll on/roll off 1,
  short-sea passenger 3, specialized tanker 1
  note: includes some foreign-owned ships registered here as a flag of
  Belize 2, China 2, Cuba 1, Cyprus 1, Egypt 1, Honduras 1, Latvia 2,
  Liberia 2, Panama 1, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 1, Saudi
  Arabia 1, Singapore 1, South Korea 3, Switzerland 1, Ukraine 1, UAE
  5, US 1 (2002 est.)

Airports:
  1,081 (2002)

Airports - with paved runways: total: 12 over 3,047 m: 4 2,438 to 3,047 m: 2 1,524 to 2,437 m: 5 914 to 1,523 m: 1 (2002)

Airports - with unpaved runways: total: 1,069 over 3,047 m: 1 2,438 to 3,047 m: 3 1,524 to 2,437 m: 64 914 to 1,523 m: 225 under 914 m: 776 (2002)

Military Bolivia

Military branches:
  Army (Ejercito Boliviano), Navy (Fuerza Naval, includes Marines),
  Air Force (Fuerza Aerea Boliviana), National Police Force (Policia
  Nacional de Bolivia)

Military manpower - military age:
  19 years of age (2003 est.)

Military manpower - availability:
  males age 15-49: 2,118,908 (2003 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:
  males age 15-49: 1,380,883 (2003 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
  males: 96,003 (2003 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure:
  $147 million (FY99)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP:
  1.8% (FY99)

Transnational Issues Bolivia

Disputes - international:
  continues to press Chile and Peru to restore the Atacama corridor
  ceded to Chile in 1884; Chile demands water rights to Bolivia's Rio
  Lauca and Silala Spring

Illicit drugs:
  world's third-largest cultivator of coca (after Colombia and Peru)
  with an estimated 24,400 hectares under cultivation in June 2002, a
  23% increase from June 2001; intermediate coca products and cocaine
  exported to or through Colombia, Brazil, Argentina, and Chile to the
  US and other international drug markets; eradication and alternative
  crop programs under the SANCHEZ DE LOZADA administration have been
  unable to keep pace with farmers' attempts to increase cultivation
  after significant reductions in 1998 and 1999; money-laundering
  activity related to narcotics trade, especially along the borders
  with Brazil and Paraguay

This page was last updated on 18 December, 2003

======================================================================

@Bosnia and Herzegovina

Introduction Bosnia and Herzegovina

Background:
  Bosnia and Herzegovina's declaration of sovereignty in October
  1991, was followed by a declaration of independence from the former
  Yugoslavia on 3 March 1992 after a referendum boycotted by ethnic
  Serbs. The Bosnian Serbs - supported by neighboring Serbia and
  Montenegro - responded with armed resistance aimed at partitioning
  the republic along ethnic lines and joining Serb-held areas to form
  a "greater Serbia." In March 1994, Bosniaks and Croats reduced the
  number of warring factions from three to two by signing an agreement
  creating a joint Bosniak/Croat Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina.
  On 21 November 1995, in Dayton, Ohio, the warring parties initialed
  a peace agreement that brought to a halt three years of interethnic
  civil strife (the final agreement was signed in Paris on 14 December
  1995). The Dayton Agreement retained Bosnia and Herzegovina's
  international boundaries and created a joint multi-ethnic and
  democratic government. This national government was charged with
  conducting foreign, economic, and fiscal policy. Also recognized was
  a second tier of government comprised of two entities roughly equal
  in size: the Bosniak/Croat Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina and
  the Bosnian Serb-led Republika Srpska (RS). The Federation and RS
  governments were charged with overseeing internal functions. In
  1995-96, a NATO-led international peacekeeping force (IFOR) of
  60,000 troops served in Bosnia to implement and monitor the military
  aspects of the agreement. IFOR was succeeded by a smaller, NATO-led
  Stabilization Force (SFOR) whose mission is to deter renewed
  hostilities. SFOR remains in place although troop levels were
  reduced to approximately 12,000 by the close of 2002.

Geography Bosnia and Herzegovina

Location:
  Southeastern Europe, bordering the Adriatic Sea and Croatia

Geographic coordinates:
  44 00 N, 18 00 E

Map references:
  Europe

Area:
  total: 51,129 sq km
  water: 0 sq km
  land: 51,129 sq km

Area - comparative:
  slightly smaller than West Virginia

Land boundaries: total: 1,459 km border countries: Croatia 932 km, Serbia and Montenegro 527 km

Coastline:
  20 km

Maritime claims:
  NA

Climate:
  hot summers and cold winters; areas of high elevation have short,
  cool summers and long, severe winters; mild, rainy winters along
  coast

Terrain:
  mountains and valleys

Elevation extremes:
  lowest point: Adriatic Sea 0 m
  highest point: Maglic 2,386 m

Natural resources:
  coal, iron, bauxite, manganese, forests, copper, chromium, lead,
  zinc, hydropower

Land use: arable land: 9.8% permanent crops: 2.94% other: 87.26% (1998 est.)

Irrigated land:
  20 sq km (1998 est.)

Natural hazards:
  destructive earthquakes

Environment - current issues:
  air pollution from metallurgical plants; sites for disposing of
  urban waste are limited; water shortages and destruction of
  infrastructure because of the 1992-95 civil strife

Environment - international agreements:
  party to: Air Pollution, Climate Change, Hazardous Wastes, Law of
  the Sea, Marine Life Conservation, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer
  Protection, Wetlands
  signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - note:
  within Bosnia and Herzegovina's recognized borders, the country is
  divided into a joint Bosniak/Croat Federation (about 51% of the
  territory) and the Bosnian Serb-led Republika Srpska or RS (about
  49% of the territory); the region called Herzegovina is contiguous
  to Croatia and Serbia and Montenegro (Montenegro), and traditionally
  has been settled by an ethnic Croat majority in the west and an
  ethnic Serb majority in the east

People Bosnia and Herzegovina

Population:
  3,989,018 (July 2003 est.)

Age structure:
  0-14 years: 19.4% (male 397,810; female 377,005)
  15-64 years: 70.5% (male 1,439,383; female 1,372,891)
  65 years and over: 10.1% (male 171,643; female 230,286) (2003 est.)

Median age:
  total: 35.5 years
  male: 35.1 years
  female: 35.9 years (2002)

Population growth rate:
  0.48% (2003 est.)

Birth rate:
  12.65 births/1,000 population (2003 est.)

Death rate:
  8.21 deaths/1,000 population (2003 est.)

Net migration rate:
  0.32 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2003 est.)

Sex ratio:
  at birth: 1.07 male(s)/female
  under 15 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
  15-64 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
  65 years and over: 0.75 male(s)/female
  total population: 1.01 male(s)/female (2003 est.)

Infant mortality rate:
  total: 22.7 deaths/1,000 live births
  female: 19.85 deaths/1,000 live births (2003 est.)
  male: 25.37 deaths/1,000 live births

Life expectancy at birth:
  total population: 72.29 years
  male: 69.56 years
  female: 75.22 years (2003 est.)

Total fertility rate:
  1.71 children born/woman (2003 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
  less than 0.1% (2001 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
  NA

HIV/AIDS - deaths:
  100 (2001 est.)

Nationality:
  noun: Bosnian(s)
  adjective: Bosnian

Ethnic groups:
  Serb 37.1%, Bosniak 48%, Croat 14.3%, other 0.6% (2000)
  note: Bosniak has replaced Muslim as an ethnic term in part to avoid
  confusion with the religious term Muslim - an adherent of Islam

Religions:
  Muslim 40%, Orthodox 31%, Roman Catholic 15%, Protestant 4%, other
  10%

Languages:
  Croatian, Serbian, Bosnian

Literacy: definition: NA total population: NA% male: NA% female: NA%

Government Bosnia and Herzegovina

Country name:
  conventional long form: none
  conventional short form: Bosnia and Herzegovina
  local long form: none
  local short form: Bosna i Hercegovina

Government type:
  emerging federal democratic republic

Capital:
  Sarajevo

Administrative divisions:
  there are two first-order administrative divisions and one
  internationally supervised district* - Brcko district (Brcko
  Distrikt)*, the Bosniak/Croat Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina
  (Federacija Bosna i Hercegovina) and the Bosnian Serb-led Republika
  Srpska; note - Brcko district is in northeastern Bosnia and is an
  administrative unit under the sovereignty of Bosnia and Herzegovina;
  the district remains under international supervision

Independence:
  1 March 1992 (from Yugoslavia; referendum for independence was
  completed 1 March 1992; independence was declared 3 March 1992)

National holiday:
  National Day, 25 November (1943)

Constitution:
  the Dayton Agreement, signed 14 December 1995, included a new
  constitution now in force; note - each of the entities also has its
  own constitution

Legal system:
  based on civil law system

Suffrage:
  16 years of age, if employed; 18 years of age, universal

Executive branch:
  chief of state: Chairman of the Presidency Dragan COVIC (chairman
  since 27 June 2003; presidency member since 5 October 2002 - Croat)
  other members of the three-member rotating (every eight months)
  presidency: Sulejman TIHIC (since 5 October 2002 - Bosniak) and
  Borislav PARAVAC (since 10 April 2003 - Serb); note - Mirko SAROVIC
  resigned 2 April 2003
  elections: the three members of the presidency (one Bosniak, one
  Croat, one Serb) are elected by popular vote for a four-year term;
  the member with the most votes becomes the chairman unless he or she
  was the incumbent chairman at the time of the election, but the
  chairmanship rotates every eight months; election last held 5
  October 2002 (next to be held NA 2006); the chairman of the Council
  of Ministers is appointed by the presidency and confirmed by the
  National House of Representatives
  head of government: Chairman of the Council of Ministers Adnan
  TERZIC (since 20 December 2002),
  cabinet: Council of Ministers nominated by the council chairman;
  approved by the National House of Representatives
  election results: percent of vote - Mirko SAROVIC with 35.5% of the
  Serb vote was elected chairman of the collective presidency for the
  first eight months; Dragan COVIC received 61.5% of the Croat vote;
  Sulejman TIHIC received 37% of the Bosniak vote
  note: President of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina: Niko
  LOZANCIC (since 27 January 2003); Vice Presidents Sahbaz DZIHANOVIC
  (since NA 2003) and Desnica RADIVOJEVIC (since NA 2003); President
  of the Republika Srpska: Dragan COVIC (since 28 November 2002)

Legislative branch:
  bicameral Parliamentary Assembly or Skupstina consists of the
  National House of Representatives or Predstavnicki Dom (42 seats -
  elected by proportional representation, 28 seats allocated from the
  Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina and 14 seats from the Republika
  Srpska; members elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms)
  and the House of Peoples or Dom Naroda (15 seats - 5 Bosniak, 5
  Croat, 5 Serb; members elected by the Bosniak/Croat Federation's
  House of Representatives and the Republika Srpska's National
  Assembly to serve four-year terms); note - Bosnia's election law
  specifies four-year terms for the state and first-order
  administrative division entity legislatures
  election results: National House of Representatives - percent of
  vote by party/coalition - SDA 21.9%, SDS 14.0%, SBiH 10.5%, SDP
  10.4%, SNSD 9.8%, HDZ 9.5%, PDP 4.6%, others 19.3%; seats by
  party/coalition - SDA 10, SDS 5, SBiH 6, SDP 4, SNSD 3, HDZ 5, PDP
  2, others 7; House of Peoples - percent of vote by party/coalition -
  NA%; seats by party/coalition - NA
  elections: National House of Representatives - elections last held 5
  October 2002 (next to be held in NA 2006); House of Peoples - last
  constituted NA January 2003 (next to be constituted in 2007)
  note: the Bosniak/Croat Federation has a bicameral legislature that
  consists of a House of Representatives (98 seats; members elected by
  popular vote to serve four-year terms); elections last held 5
  October 2002 (next to be held NA October 2006); percent of vote by
  party - NA%; seats by party/coalition - SDA 32, HDZ-BiH 16, SDP 15,
  SBiH 15, other 20; and a House of Peoples (60 seats - 30 Bosniak, 30
  Croat); last constituted December 2002; the Republika Srpska has a
  National Assembly (83 seats; members elected by popular vote to
  serve four-year terms); elections last held 5 October 2002 (next to
  be held in the fall of 2006); percent of vote by party - NA%; seats
  by party/coalition - SDS 26, SNSD 19, PDP 9, SDA 6, SRS 4, SPRS 3,
  DNZ 3, SBiH 4, SDP 3, others 6; as a result of the 2002
  constitutional reform process, a 28-member Republika Srpska Council
  of Peoples (COP) was established in the Republika Srpska National
  Assembly; each constituent nation and "others" will have eight
  delegates

Judicial branch:
  BiH Constitutional Court (consists of nine members: four members
  are selected by the Bosniak/Croat Federation's House of
  Representatives, two members by the Republika Srpska's National
  Assembly, and three non-Bosnian members by the president of the
  European Court of Human Rights); BiH State Court (consists of nine
  judges and three divisions - Administrative, Appellate and Criminal
  - having jurisdiction over cases related to state-level law and
  appellate jurisdiction over cases initiated in the entities; note -
  a War Crimes Chamber may be added at a future date)
  note: the entities each have a Supreme Court; each entity also has a
  number of lower courts; there are 10 cantonal courts in the
  Federation, plus a number of municipal courts; the Republika Srpska
  has five municipal courts

Political parties and leaders:
  Alliance of Independent Social Democrats or SNSD [Milorad DODIK];
  Bosnian Party or BOSS [Mirnes AJANOVIC]; Civic Democratic Party or
  GDS [Ilija SIMIC]; Croatian Democratic Union of Bosnia and
  Herzegovina or HDZ [Barisa COLAK (acting)]; Croat Christian
  Democratic Union of Bosnia and Herzegovina or HKDU [Mijo
  IVANIC-LONIC]; Croat Party of Rights or HSP [Zdravko HRISTIC]; Croat
  Peasants Party or HSS [Ilija SIMIC]; Democratic National Union or
  DNZ [Fikret ABDIC]; Liberal Democratic Party or LDS [Rasim KADIC];
  New Croat Initiative or NHI [Kresimir ZUBAK]; Party for Bosnia and
  Herzegovina or SBiH [Safet HALILOVIC]; Party of Democratic Action or
  SDA [Sulejman TIHIC]; Party of Democratic Progress or PDP [Mladen
  IVANIC]; Pro-European People's Party or PROENS [Jadranko PRLIC];
  Serb Democratic Party or SDS [Dragan KALINIC]; Serb Radical Party of
  the Republika Srpska or SRS-RS [Radislav KANJERIC]; Social
  Democratic Party of BIH or SDP [Zlatko LAGUMDZIJA]; Socialist Party
  of Republika Srpska or SPRS [Petar DJOKIC]

Political pressure groups and leaders:
  NA

International organization participation:
  BIS, CE, CEI, EBRD, ECE, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt, IDA,
  IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), ISO,
  ITU, NAM (guest), OAS (observer), OIC (observer), OPCW, OSCE, UN,
  UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNMEE, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO
  (observer)

Diplomatic representation in the US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador Igor DAVIDOVIC
  chancery: 2109 E Street NW, Washington, DC 20037
  telephone: [1] (202) 337-1500
  consulate(s) general: New York
  FAX: [1] (202) 337-1502

Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Clifford G. BOND embassy: Alipasina 43, 71000 Sarajevo mailing address: use street address telephone: [387] (33) 445-700 FAX: [387] (33) 659-722 branch office(s): Banja Luka, Mostar

Flag description:
  a wide medium blue vertical band on the fly side with a yellow
  isosceles triangle abutting the band and the top of the flag; the
  remainder of the flag is medium blue with seven full five-pointed
  white stars and two half stars top and bottom along the hypotenuse
  of the triangle

Government - note:
  The Dayton Agreement, signed in Paris on 14 December 1995, retained
  Bosnia and Herzegovina's exterior border and created a joint
  multi-ethnic and democratic government. This national government -
  based on proportional representation similar to that which existed
  in the former socialist regime - is charged with conducting foreign,
  economic, and fiscal policy. The Dayton Agreement also recognized a
  second tier of government, comprised of two entities - a joint
  Bosniak/Croat Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina and the Bosnian
  Serb Republika Srpska (RS) - each presiding over roughly one-half
  the territory. The Federation and RS governments are charged with
  overseeing internal functions. The Bosniak/Croat Federation is
  further divided into 10 cantons. The Dayton Agreement established
  the Office of the High Representative (OHR) to oversee the
  implementation of the civilian aspects of the agreement.

Economy Bosnia and Herzegovina

Economy - overview:
  Bosnia and Herzegovina ranked next to The Former Yugoslav Republic
  of Macedonia as the poorest republic in the old Yugoslav federation.
  Although agriculture is almost all in private hands, farms are small
  and inefficient, and the republic traditionally is a net importer of
  food. Industry has been greatly overstaffed, one reflection of the
  socialist economic structure of Yugoslavia. TITO had pushed the
  development of military industries in the republic with the result
  that Bosnia hosted a number of Yugoslavia's defense plants. The
  bitter interethnic warfare in Bosnia caused production to plummet by
  80% from 1990 to 1995, unemployment to soar, and human misery to
  multiply. With an uneasy peace in place, output recovered in 1996-99
  at high percentage rates from a low base; but output growth slowed
  in 2000-02. GDP remains far below the 1990 level. Economic data are
  of limited use because, although both entities issue figures,
  national-level statistics are limited. Moreover, official data do
  not capture the large share of black market activity. The marka -
  the national currency introduced in 1998 - is now pegged to the
  euro, and the Central Bank of Bosnia and Herzegovina has
  dramatically increased its reserve holdings. Implementation of
  privatization, however, has been slow, and local entities only
  reluctantly support national-level institutions. Banking reform
  accelerated in 2001 as all the Communist-era payments bureaus were
  shut down. The country receives substantial amounts of
  reconstruction assistance and humanitarian aid from the
  international community but will have to prepare for an era of
  declining assistance.

GDP:
  purchasing power parity - $7.3 billion (2002 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:
  2.3% (2002 est.)

GDP - per capita:
  purchasing power parity - $1,900 (2002 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
  agriculture: 13%
  industry: 40.9%
  services: 46.1% (2001 est.)

Population below poverty line:
  NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
  lowest 10%: NA%
  highest 10%: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices):
  3.5% (2002 est.)

Labor force:
  1.026 million

Labor force - by occupation:
  agriculture NA%, industry NA%, services NA%

Unemployment rate:
  40% (2002 est.)

Budget:
  revenues: $1.9 billion
  expenditures: $2.2 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA
  (1999 est.)

Industries:
  steel, coal, iron ore, lead, zinc, manganese, bauxite, vehicle
  assembly, textiles, tobacco products, wooden furniture, tank and
  aircraft assembly, domestic appliances, oil refining (2001)

Industrial production growth rate:
  7% (2002 est.)

Electricity - production:
  9.979 billion kWh (2001)

Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel: 53.5% hydro: 46.5% other: 0% (2001) nuclear: 0%

Electricity - consumption:
  8.116 billion kWh (2001)

Electricity - exports:
  2.569 billion kWh (2001)

Electricity - imports:
  1.405 billion kWh (2001)

Oil - production:
  0 bbl/day (2001 est.)

Oil - consumption:
  20,000 bbl/day (2001 est.)

Oil - exports:
  NA (2001)

Oil - imports:
  NA (2001)

Natural gas - production:
  0 cu m (2001 est.)

Natural gas - consumption:
  300 million cu m (2001 est.)

Natural gas - exports:
  0 cu m (2001 est.)

Natural gas - imports:
  300 million cu m (2001 est.)

Agriculture - products:
  wheat, corn, fruits, vegetables; livestock

Exports:
  $1.15 billion f.o.b. (2002 est.)

Exports - commodities:
  metals, clothing, wood products

Exports - partners:
  Italy 31.6%, Croatia 18%, Germany 12.9%, Austria 10.1%, Slovenia
  6.9%, Greece 4.3% (2002)

Imports:
  $2.8 billion f.o.b. (2002 est.)

Imports - commodities:
  machinery and equipment, chemicals, fuels, foodstuffs

Imports - partners:
  Croatia 23.7%, Slovenia 14.8%, Germany 14%, Italy 13.1%, Hungary
  8%, Austria 7.7% (2002)

Debt - external:
  $2.8 billion (2001)

Economic aid - recipient:
  $650 million (2001 est.)

Currency:
  marka (BAM)

Currency code:
  BAM

Exchange rates:
  marka per US dollar - NA (2002), 2.19 (2001), 2.12 (2000), 1.84
  (1999), 1.76 (1998)

Fiscal year:
  calendar year

Communications Bosnia and Herzegovina

Telephones - main lines in use:
  303,000 (1997)

Telephones - mobile cellular:
  9,000 (1997)

Telephone system:
  general assessment: telephone and telegraph network needs
  modernization and expansion; many urban areas are below average as
  contrasted with services in other former Yugoslav republics
  domestic: NA
  international: no satellite earth stations

Radio broadcast stations:
  AM 8, FM 16, shortwave 1 (1998)

Radios:
  940,000 (1997)

Television broadcast stations:
  33 (plus 277 repeaters) (September 1995)

Televisions:
  NA

Internet country code:
  .ba

Internet Service Providers (ISPs):
  3 (2000)

Internet users:
  45,000 (2002)

Transportation Bosnia and Herzegovina

Railways:
  total: 1,021 km (795 km electrified)
  standard gauge: 1,021 km 1.435-m gauge (2002)

Highways:
  total: 21,846 km
  paved: 11,424 km
  unpaved: 10,422 km (1999 est)

Waterways:
  NA km; large sections of the Sava blocked by downed bridges, silt,
  and debris

Pipelines:
  gas 170 km; oil 9 km (2003)

Ports and harbors:
  Bosanska Gradiska, Bosanski Brod, Bosanski Samac, and Brcko (all
  inland waterway ports on the Sava), Orasje

Merchant marine:
  none (2002 est.)

Airports:
  32 (2002)

Airports - with paved runways: total: 14 2,438 to 3,047 m: 5 1,524 to 2,437 m: 5 under 914 m: 3 (2002) 914 to 1523 m: 1

Airports - with unpaved runways: total: 18 1,524 to 2,437 m: 1 914 to 1,523 m: 7 under 914 m: 10 (2002)

Heliports: 5 (2002)

Military Bosnia and Herzegovina

Military branches:
  VF Army (the air and air defense forces are subordinate commands
  within the Army), VRS Army (the air and air defense forces are
  subordinate commands within the Army)

Military manpower - military age:
  19 years of age (2003 est.)

Military manpower - availability:
  males age 15-49: 1,132,476 (2003 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:
  males age 15-49: 897,856 (2003 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
  males: 29,861 (2003 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure:
  $234.3 million (FY02)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP:
  4.5% (FY02)

Transnational Issues Bosnia and Herzegovina

Disputes - international:
  Bosnia and Herzegovina and Serbia and Montenegro have delimited
  about half of their boundary, but sections along the Drina River
  remain in dispute; discussions continue with Croatia on problem
  sections of the Una River and villages at the base of Mount
  Pljesevica

Illicit drugs:
  minor transit point for marijuana and opiate trafficking routes to
  Western Europe; organized crime launders money, but the lack of a
  well-developed financial infrastructure limits the country's utility
  as a money-laundering center

This page was last updated on 18 December, 2003

======================================================================

@Botswana

Introduction Botswana

Background:
  Formerly the British protectorate of Bechuanaland, Botswana adopted
  its new name upon independence in 1966. Four decades of
  uninterrupted civilian leadership, progressive social policies, and
  significant capital investment have created one of the most dynamic
  economies in Africa. Mineral extraction, principally diamond mining,
  dominates economic activity, though tourism is a growing sector due
  to the country's conservation practices and extensive nature
  preserves. Botswana has the world's highest known rate of HIV/AIDS
  infection, but also one of Africa's most progressive and
  comprehensive programs for dealing with the disease.

Geography Botswana

Location:
  Southern Africa, north of South Africa

Geographic coordinates:
  22 00 S, 24 00 E

Map references:
  Africa

Area:
  total: 600,370 sq km
  water: 15,000 sq km
  land: 585,370 sq km

Area - comparative:
  slightly smaller than Texas

Land boundaries:
  total: 4,013 km
  border countries: Namibia 1,360 km, South Africa 1,840 km, Zimbabwe
  813 km

Coastline:
  0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims:
  none (landlocked)

Climate:
  semiarid; warm winters and hot summers

Terrain:
  predominantly flat to gently rolling tableland; Kalahari Desert in
  southwest

Elevation extremes:
  lowest point: junction of the Limpopo and Shashe Rivers 513 m
  highest point: Tsodilo Hills 1,489 m

Natural resources:
  diamonds, copper, nickel, salt, soda ash, potash, coal, iron ore,
  silver

Land use: arable land: 0.61% permanent crops: 0.01% other: 99.38% (1998 est.)

Irrigated land:
  10 sq km (1998 est.)

Natural hazards:
  periodic droughts; seasonal August winds blow from the west,
  carrying sand and dust across the country, which can obscure
  visibility

Environment - current issues:
  overgrazing; desertification; limited fresh water resources

Environment - international agreements: party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - note: landlocked; population concentrated in eastern part of the country

People Botswana

Population:
  1,573,267
  note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the
  effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower
  life expectancy, higher infant mortality and death rates, lower
  population and growth rates, and changes in the distribution of
  population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (July
  2003 est.)

Age structure:
  0-14 years: 39.5% (male 314,764; female 307,024)
  15-64 years: 56% (male 424,726; female 455,967)
  65 years and over: 4.5% (male 30,599; female 40,187) (2003 est.)

Median age:
  total: 19.1 years
  male: 18.4 years
  female: 19.8 years (2002)

Population growth rate:
  -0.55% (2003 est.)

Birth rate:
  25.5 births/1,000 population (2003 est.)

Death rate:
  31 deaths/1,000 population (2003 est.)

Net migration rate:
  0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2003 est.)

Sex ratio:
  at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
  under 15 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
  15-64 years: 0.93 male(s)/female
  65 years and over: 0.76 male(s)/female
  total population: 0.96 male(s)/female (2003 est.)

Infant mortality rate:
  total: 67.34 deaths/1,000 live births
  female: 66.28 deaths/1,000 live births (2003 est.)
  male: 68.36 deaths/1,000 live births

Life expectancy at birth:
  total population: 32.26 years
  male: 32.2 years
  female: 32.32 years (2003 est.)

Total fertility rate:
  3.27 children born/woman (2003 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
  38.8% (2001 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
  330,000 (2001 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths:
  26,000 (2001 est.)

Nationality:
  noun: Motswana (singular), Batswana (plural)
  adjective: Motswana (singular), Batswana (plural)

Ethnic groups:
  Tswana (or Setswana) 79%, Kalanga 11%, Basarwa 3%, other, including
  Kgalagadi and white 7%

Religions:
  indigenous beliefs 85%, Christian 15%

Languages:
  English (official), Setswana

Literacy:
  definition: age 15 and over can read and write
  total population: 79.8%
  male: 76.9%
  female: 82.4% (2003 est.)

Government Botswana

Country name:
  conventional long form: Republic of Botswana
  conventional short form: Botswana
  former: Bechuanaland

Government type:
  parliamentary republic

Capital:
  Gaborone

Administrative divisions:
  9 districts and four town councils*; Central, Francistown*,
  Gaborone*, Ghanzi, Kgalagadi, Kgatleng, Kweneng, Lobatse*,
  Northwest, Northeast, Selebi-Pikwe*, Southeast, Southern

Independence:
  30 September 1966 (from UK)

National holiday:
  Independence Day (Botswana Day), 30 September (1966)

Constitution:
  March 1965, effective 30 September 1966

Legal system:
  based on Roman-Dutch law and local customary law; judicial review
  limited to matters of interpretation; has not accepted compulsory
  ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage:
  18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
  chief of state: President Festus MOGAE (since 1 April 1998) and
  Vice President Seretse Ian KHAMA (since 13 July 1998); note - the
  president is both the chief of state and head of government
  head of government: President Festus MOGAE (since 1 April 1998) and
  Vice President Seretse Ian KHAMA (since 13 July 1998); note - the
  president is both the chief of state and head of government
  cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president
  elections: president elected by the National Assembly for a
  five-year term; election last held 16 October 1999 (next to be held
  NA October 2004); vice president appointed by the president
  election results: Festus MOGAE elected president; percent of
  National Assembly vote - 54.3%

Legislative branch:
  bicameral Parliament consists of the House of Chiefs (a largely
  advisory 15-member body consisting of the chiefs of the eight
  principal tribes, four elected subchiefs, and three members selected
  by the other 12 members) and the National Assembly (44 seats, 40
  members are directly elected by popular vote and 4 are appointed by
  the majority party; members serve five-year terms)
  elections: National Assembly elections last held 16 October 1999
  (next to be held NA October 2004)
  election results: percent of vote by party - BDP 54.3%, BNF 24.7%,
  other 21%; seats by party - BDP 33, BNF 6, other 1

Judicial branch:
  High Court; Court of Appeal; Magistrates' Courts (one in each
  district)

Political parties and leaders:
  Botswana Democratic Party or BDP [Festus MOGAE]; Botswana National
  Front or BNF [Otswoletse MOUPO]; Botswana Congress Party or BCP
  [Mokgweetsi KGOSIPULA]; Botswana Alliance Movement or BAM [Ephraim
  Lepetu SETSHWAELO]
  note: a number of minor parties joined forces in 1999 to form the
  BAM but did not capture any parliamentary seats; the BAM parties
  are: the United Action Party [Ephraim Lepetu SETSHWAELO], the
  Independence Freedom Party or IFP [Motsamai MPHO], and the Botswana
  Progressive Union [D. K. KWELE]

Political pressure groups and leaders:
  NA

International organization participation:
  ACP, AfDB, C, ECA, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt, ICFTU, ICRM,
  IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, Interpol, IOC, ISO, ITU, NAM, OAU,
  OPCW, SACU, SADC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCO, WFTU, WHO,
  WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador Lapologang Caesar LEKOA
  chancery: 1531-1533 New Hampshire Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20036
  FAX: [1] (202) 244-4164
  telephone: [1] (202) 244-4990

Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Joseph HUGGINS embassy: address NA, Gaborone mailing address: Embassy Enclave, P. O. Box 90, Gaborone telephone: [267] 353982 FAX: [267] 312782

Flag description: light blue with a horizontal white-edged black stripe in the center

Economy Botswana

Economy - overview:
  Botswana has maintained one of the world's highest growth rates
  since independence in 1966. Through fiscal discipline and sound
  management, Botswana has transformed itself from one of the poorest
  countries in the world to a middle-income country with a per capita
  GDP of $9,500 in 2002. Two major investment services rank Botswana
  as the best credit risk in Africa. Diamond mining has fueled much of
  the expansion and currently accounts for more than one-third of GDP
  and for nine-tenths of export earnings. Tourism, subsistence
  farming, and cattle raising are other key sectors. On the downside,
  the government must deal with high rates of unemployment and
  poverty. Unemployment officially is 21%, but unofficial estimates
  place it closer to 40%. HIV/AIDS infection rates are the highest in
  the world and threaten Botswana's impressive economic gains.
  Long-term prospects are overshadowed by the prospects of a leveling
  off in diamond mining production.

GDP:
  purchasing power parity - $13.48 billion (2002 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:
  4.2% (2002 est.)

GDP - per capita:
  purchasing power parity - $8,500 (2002 est.)

GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 4% industry: 44% (including 36% mining) services: 52% (2001 est.)

Population below poverty line:
  47%

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
  lowest 10%: NA%
  highest 10%: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices):
  8.1% (2002 est.)

Labor force:
  264,000 formal sector employees (2000)

Labor force - by occupation:
  NA

Unemployment rate:
  40% (official rate is 21%) (2001 est.)

Budget:
  revenues: $2.3 billion
  expenditures: $2.4 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA
  (FY 01/02)

Industries:
  diamonds, copper, nickel, salt, soda ash, potash; livestock
  processing; textiles

Industrial production growth rate:
  2.4% (2001 est.)

Electricity - production:
  409.8 million kWh (2001)

Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel: 100% hydro: 0% other: 0% (2001) nuclear: 0%

Electricity - consumption:
  1.564 billion kWh (2001)

Electricity - exports:
  0 kWh (2001)

Electricity - imports:
  1.183 billion kWh (2001)

Oil - production:
  0 bbl/day (2001 est.)

Oil - consumption:
  16,000 bbl/day (2001 est.)

Oil - exports:
  NA (2001)

Oil - imports:
  NA (2001)

Agriculture - products:
  livestock, sorghum, maize, millet, beans, sunflowers, groundnuts

Exports:
  $2.4 billion f.o.b. (2002 est.)

Exports - commodities:
  diamonds 90%, copper, nickel, soda ash, meat, textiles

Exports - partners:
  European Free Trade Association (EFTA) 87%, Southern African
  Customs Union (SACU) 7%, Zimbabwe 4% (2000)

Imports:
  $1.9 billion f.o.b. (2002 est.)

Imports - commodities:
  foodstuffs, machinery, electrical goods, transport equipment,
  textiles, fuel and petroleum products, wood and paper products,
  metal and metal products

Imports - partners:
  Southern African Customs Union (SACU) 74%, EFTA 17%, Zimbabwe 4%
  (2000)

Debt - external:
  $360 million (2002)

Economic aid - recipient:
  $73 million (1995)

Currency:
  pula (BWP)

Currency code:
  BWP

Exchange rates:
  pulas per US dollar - 6.33 (2002), 5.84 (2001), 5.1 (2000), 4.62
  (1999), 4.23 (1998)

Fiscal year:
  1 April - 31 March

Communications Botswana

Telephones - main lines in use:
  131,000 (September 2001)

Telephones - mobile cellular:
  270,000 (September 2001)

Telephone system:
  general assessment: the system is expanding with the growth of
  mobile cellular service and participation in regional development
  domestic: small system of open-wire lines, microwave radio relay
  links, and a few radiotelephone communication stations; mobile
  cellular service is growing fast
  international: two international exchanges; digital microwave radio
  relay links to Namibia, Zambia, Zimbabwe, and South Africa;
  satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Indian Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations:
  AM 8, FM 13, shortwave 4 (2001)

Radios:
  252,720 (2000)

Television broadcast stations:
  1 (2001)

Televisions:
  31,000 (1997)

Internet country code:
  .bw

Internet Service Providers (ISPs):
  11 (2001)

Internet users:
  33,000 (2001)

Transportation Botswana

Railways: total: 888 km narrow gauge: 888 km 1.067-m gauge (2002)

Highways: total: 10,217 km paved: 5,619 km unpaved: 4,598 km (1999)

Waterways:
  none

Ports and harbors:
  none

Airports:
  86 (2002)

Airports - with paved runways:
  total: 10
  2,438 to 3,047 m: 2
  1,524 to 2,437 m: 7
  914 to 1,523 m: 1 (2002)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
  total: 76
  1,524 to 2,437 m: 3
  914 to 1,523 m: 55
  under 914 m: 18 (2002)

Military Botswana

Military branches:
  Botswana Defense Force (including Army and Air Wing), Botswana
  National Police

Military manpower - military age:
  18 years of age (2003 est.)

Military manpower - availability:
  males age 15-49: 381,056 (2003 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:
  males age 15-49: 201,402 (2003 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
  males: 20,476 (2003 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure:
  $207.3 million (FY02)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP:
  3.5% (FY02)

Transnational Issues Botswana

Disputes - international:
  established a commission with Namibia to resolve small residual
  disputes along the Caprivi Strip, including the Situngu marshlands
  along the Linyanti River; downstream Botswana residents protest
  Namibia's planned construction of the Okavango hydroelectric dam on
  Popa Falls; dormant dispute remains where Botswana, Namibia, Zambia,
  and Zimbabwe boundaries converge

This page was last updated on 18 December, 2003

======================================================================

@Bouvet Island

Introduction Bouvet Island

Background:
  This uninhabited volcanic island is almost entirely covered by
  glaciers and is difficult to approach. It was discovered in 1739 by
  a French naval officer after whom the island was named. No claim was
  made until 1825, when the British flag was raised. In 1928, the UK
  waived its claim in favor of Norway, which had occupied the island
  the previous year. In 1971, Bouvet Island and the adjacent
  territorial waters were designated a nature reserve. Since 1977,
  Norway has run an automated meteorological station on the island.

Geography Bouvet Island

Location:
  island in the South Atlantic Ocean, southwest of the Cape of Good
  Hope (South Africa)

Geographic coordinates:
  54 26 S, 3 24 E

Map references:
  Antarctic Region

Area:
  total: 58.5 sq km
  water: 0 sq km
  land: 58.5 sq km

Area - comparative:
  about 0.3 times the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries:
  0 km

Coastline:
  29.6 km

Maritime claims:
  territorial sea: 4 NM

Climate:
  antarctic

Terrain:
  volcanic; coast is mostly inaccessible

Elevation extremes: lowest point: South Atlantic Ocean 0 m highest point: Olav Peak 935 m

Natural resources: none

Land use: arable land: 0% permanent crops: 0% other: 100% (93% ice) (1998 est.)

Irrigated land:
  0 sq km (1998 est.)

Natural hazards:
  NA

Environment - current issues:
  NA

Geography - note:
  covered by glacial ice; declared a nature reserve

People Bouvet Island

Population: uninhabited (July 2003 est.)

Government Bouvet Island

Country name:
  conventional long form: none
  conventional short form: Bouvet Island

Dependency status:
  territory of Norway; administered by the Polar Department of the
  Ministry of Justice and Police from Oslo

Legal system:
  the laws of Norway, where applicable, apply

Flag description:
  the flag of Norway is used

Economy Bouvet Island

Economy - overview: no economic activity; declared a nature reserve

Communications Bouvet Island

Internet country code:
  .bv

Communications - note:
  automatic meteorological station

Transportation Bouvet Island

Waterways:
  none

Ports and harbors:
  none; offshore anchorage only

Military Bouvet Island

Military - note: defense is the responsibility of Norway

Transnational Issues Bouvet Island

Disputes - international: none

This page was last updated on 18 December, 2003

======================================================================

@Brazil

Introduction Brazil

Background:
  Following three centuries under the rule of Portugal, Brazil became
  an independent nation in 1822. By far the largest and most populous
  country in South America, Brazil has overcome more than half a
  century of military intervention in the governance of the country to
  pursue industrial and agricultural growth and development of the
  interior. Exploiting vast natural resources and a large labor pool,
  Brazil is today South America's leading economic power and a
  regional leader. Highly unequal income distribution remains a
  pressing problem.

Geography Brazil

Location:
  Eastern South America, bordering the Atlantic Ocean

Geographic coordinates:
  10 00 S, 55 00 W

Map references:
  South America

Area:
  total: 8,511,965 sq km
  land: 8,456,510 sq km
  note: includes Arquipelago de Fernando de Noronha, Atol das Rocas,
  Ilha da Trindade, Ilhas Martin Vaz, and Penedos de Sao Pedro e Sao
  Paulo
  water: 55,455 sq km

Area - comparative:
  slightly smaller than the US

Land boundaries:
  total: 14,691 km
  border countries: Argentina 1,224 km, Bolivia 3,400 km, Colombia
  1,643 km, French Guiana 673 km, Guyana 1,119 km, Paraguay 1,290 km,
  Peru 1,560 km, Suriname 597 km, Uruguay 985 km, Venezuela 2,200 km

Coastline:
  7,491 km

Maritime claims: contiguous zone: 24 NM territorial sea: 12 NM continental shelf: 200 NM or to edge of the continental margin exclusive economic zone: 200 NM

Climate:
  mostly tropical, but temperate in south

Terrain:
  mostly flat to rolling lowlands in north; some plains, hills,
  mountains, and narrow coastal belt

Elevation extremes:
  lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m
  highest point: Pico da Neblina 3,014 m

Natural resources:
  bauxite, gold, iron ore, manganese, nickel, phosphates, platinum,
  tin, uranium, petroleum, hydropower, timber

Land use: arable land: 6.3% permanent crops: 1.42% other: 92.28% (1998 est.)

Irrigated land:
  26,560 sq km (1998 est.)

Natural hazards:
  recurring droughts in northeast; floods and occasional frost in
  south

Environment - current issues:
  deforestation in Amazon Basin destroys the habitat and endangers a
  multitude of plant and animal species indigenous to the area; there
  is a lucrative illegal wildlife trade; air and water pollution in
  Rio de Janeiro, Sao Paulo, and several other large cities; land
  degradation and water pollution caused by improper mining
  activities; wetland degradation; severe oil spills

Environment - international agreements:
  party to: Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living
  Resources, Antarctic Seals, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate
  Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered
  Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the
  Sea, Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship
  Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling
  signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - note:
  largest country in South America; shares common boundaries with
  every South American country except Chile and Ecuador

People Brazil

Population:
  182,032,604
  note: Brazil took a count in August 2000, which reported a
  population of 169,799,170; that figure was about 3.3% lower than
  projections by the US Census Bureau, and is close to the implied
  underenumeration of 4.6% for the 1991 census; estimates for this
  country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality
  due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant
  mortality and death rates, lower population and growth rates, and
  changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would
  otherwise be expected (July 2003 est.)

Age structure:
  0-14 years: 27.1% (male 25,151,855; female 24,196,506)
  15-64 years: 67.2% (male 60,667,014; female 61,683,580)
  65 years and over: 5.7% (male 4,232,784; female 6,100,865) (2003
  est.)

Median age: total: 27 years male: 26.2 years female: 27.7 years (2002)

Population growth rate:
  1.15% (2003 est.)

Birth rate:
  17.67 births/1,000 population (2003 est.)

Death rate:
  6.13 deaths/1,000 population (2003 est.)

Net migration rate:
  -0.03 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2003 est.)

Sex ratio:
  at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
  under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
  15-64 years: 0.98 male(s)/female
  65 years and over: 0.69 male(s)/female
  total population: 0.98 male(s)/female (2003 est.)

Infant mortality rate:
  total: 31.74 deaths/1,000 live births
  female: 27.68 deaths/1,000 live births (2003 est.)
  male: 35.61 deaths/1,000 live births

Life expectancy at birth:
  total population: 71.13 years
  male: 67.16 years
  female: 75.3 years (2003 est.)

Total fertility rate:
  2.01 children born/woman (2003 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
  0.7% (2001 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
  610,000 (2001 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths:
  8,400 (2001 est.)

Nationality:
  noun: Brazilian(s)
  adjective: Brazilian

Ethnic groups:
  white (includes Portuguese, German, Italian, Spanish, Polish) 55%,
  mixed white and black 38%, black 6%, other (includes Japanese, Arab,
  Amerindian) 1%

Religions:
  Roman Catholic (nominal) 80%

Languages:
  Portuguese (official), Spanish, English, French

Literacy:
  definition: age 15 and over can read and write
  total population: 86.4%
  male: 86.1%
  female: 86.6% (2003 est.)

Government Brazil

Country name:
  conventional long form: Federative Republic of Brazil
  conventional short form: Brazil
  local short form: Brasil
  local long form: Republica Federativa do Brasil

Government type:
  federative republic

Capital:
  Brasilia

Administrative divisions:
  26 states (estados, singular - estado) and 1 federal district*
  (distrito federal); Acre, Alagoas, Amapa, Amazonas, Bahia, Ceara,
  Distrito Federal*, Espirito Santo, Goias, Maranhao, Mato Grosso,
  Mato Grosso do Sul, Minas Gerais, Para, Paraiba, Parana, Pernambuco,
  Piaui, Rio de Janeiro, Rio Grande do Norte, Rio Grande do Sul,
  Rondonia, Roraima, Santa Catarina, Sao Paulo, Sergipe, Tocantins

Independence:
  7 September 1822 (from Portugal)

National holiday:
  Independence Day, 7 September (1822)

Constitution:
  5 October 1988

Legal system:
  based on Roman codes; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage:
  voluntary between 16 and 18 years of age and over 70; compulsory
  over 18 and under 70 years of age

Executive branch:
  chief of state: President Luiz Inacio LULA DA SILVA (since 1
  January 2003); Vice President Jose ALENCAR (since 1 January 2003);
  note - the president is both the chief of state and head of
  government
  election results: in runoff election 27 October 2002, Luiz Inacio
  LULA DA SILVA (PT) was elected with 61.3% of the vote; Jose SERRA
  (PSDB) 38.7%
  elections: president and vice president elected on the same ticket
  by popular vote for four-year terms; election last held 6 October
  2002 (next to be held NA October 2006); runoff election held 27
  October 2002
  cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president
  head of government: President Luiz Inacio LULA DA SILVA (since 1
  January 2003); Vice President Jose ALENCAR (since 1 January 2003);
  note - the president is both the chief of state and head of
  government

Legislative branch:
  bicameral National Congress or Congresso Nacional consists of the
  Federal Senate or Senado Federal (81 seats; three members from each
  state or federal district elected according to the principle of
  majority to serve eight-year terms; one-third elected after a
  four-year period, two-thirds elected after the next four-year
  period) and the Chamber of Deputies or Camara dos Deputados (513
  seats; members are elected by proportional representation to serve
  four-year terms)
  election results: Federal Senate - percent of vote by party - NA%;
  seats by party PMBD 19, PFL 19, PT 14, PSDB 11, PDT 5, PSB 4, PL 3,
  PTB 3, PPS 1, PSD 1, PPB 1; Chamber of Deputies - percent of vote by
  party - NA%; seats by party - PT 91, PFL 84, PMDB 74, PSDB 71, PPB
  49, PL 26, PTB 26, PSB 22, PDT 21, PPS 15, PCdoB 12, PRONA 6, PV 5,
  other 11
  elections: Federal Senate - last held 6 October 2002 for two-thirds
  of the Senate (next to be held NA October 2006 for one-third of the
  Senate); Chamber of Deputies - last held 6 October 2002 (next to be
  held NA October 2006)

Judicial branch:
  Supreme Federal Tribunal (11 ministers are appointed by the
  president and confirmed by the Senate); Higher Tribunal of Justice;
  Regional Federal Tribunals (judges are appointed for life)

Political parties and leaders:
  Brazilian Democratic Movement Party or PMDB [Michel TEMER];
  Brazilian Labor Party or PTB [Jose Carlos MARTINEZ]; Brazilian
  Social Democracy Party or PSDB [Senator Jose ANIBAL]; Brazilian
  Socialist Party or PSB [Miguel ARRAES]; Brazilian Progressive Party
  or PPB [Paulo Salim MALUF]; Communist Party of Brazil or PCdoB
  [Renato RABELLO]; Democratic Labor Party or PDT [Leonel BRIZOLA];
  Green Party or PV [leader NA]; Liberal Front Party or PFL [Jorge
  BORNHAUSEN]; Liberal Party or PL [Deputy Valdemar COSTA Neto];
  National Order Reconstruction Party or PRONA [Dr. Eneas CARNEIRO];
  Popular Socialist Party or PPS [Senator Roberto FREIRE]; Social
  Democratic Party or PSD [leader NA]; Worker's Party or PT [Jose
  GENOINO]

Political pressure groups and leaders:
  left wing of the Catholic Church; Landless Worker's Movement; labor
  unions allied to leftist Worker's Party

International organization participation:
  AfDB, BIS, ECLAC, FAO, G-15, G-19, G-24, G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD,
  ICAO, ICC, ICCt, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF,
  IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), ISO, ITU, LAES, LAIA, Mercosur,
  NAM (observer), NSG, OAS, OPANAL, OPCW, PCA, RG, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO,
  UNHCR, UNIDO, UNITAR, UNMISET, UNMOP, UNMOVIC, UNU, UPU, WCL, WCO,
  WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Rubens Antonio BARBOSA; note - Ambassador-Designate Roberto ABDENUR expected to arrive March 2004 FAX: [1] (202) 238-2827 consulate(s) general: Boston, Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, Miami, New York, and San Francisco chancery: 3006 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008 telephone: [1] (202) 238-2700

Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Donna J. HRINAK embassy: Avenida das Nacoes, Quadra 801, Lote 3, Distrito Federal Cep 70403-900, Brasilia mailing address: Unit 3500, APO AA 34030 telephone: [55] (61) 312-7000 FAX: [55] (61) 225-9136 consulate(s) general: Rio de Janeiro, Sao Paulo consulate(s): Recife

Flag description:
  green with a large yellow diamond in the center bearing a blue
  celestial globe with 27 white five-pointed stars (one for each state
  and the Federal District) arranged in the same pattern as the night
  sky over Brazil; the globe has a white equatorial band with the
  motto ORDEM E PROGRESSO (Order and Progress)

Economy Brazil

Economy - overview:
  Possessing large and well-developed agricultural, mining,
  manufacturing, and service sectors, Brazil's economy outweighs that
  of all other South American countries and is expanding its presence
  in world markets. The maintenance of large current account deficits
  via capital account surpluses became problematic as investors became
  more risk averse to emerging markets as a consequence of the Asian
  financial crisis in 1997 and the Russian bond default in August
  1998. After crafting a fiscal adjustment program and pledging
  progress on structural reform, Brazil received a $41.5 billion
  IMF-led international support program in November 1998. In January
  1999, the Brazilian Central Bank announced that the real would no
  longer be pegged to the US dollar. The consequent devaluation helped
  moderate the downturn in economic growth in 1999, and the country
  posted moderate GDP growth in 2000. Economic growth slowed
  considerably in 2001-03 - to less than 2% - because of a slowdown in
  major markets and the hiking of interest rates by the Central Bank
  to combat inflationary pressures. New president DA SILVA, who took
  office 1 January 2003, has given priority to reforming the complex
  tax code, trimming the overblown civil service pension system, and
  continuing the fight against inflation.

GDP:
  purchasing power parity - $1.376 trillion (2002 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:
  1.5% (2002 est.)

GDP - per capita:
  purchasing power parity - $7,600 (2002 est.)

GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 8% industry: 36% services: 56% (2001 est.)

Population below poverty line: 22% (1998 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: 0.7% highest 10%: 48% (1998)

Distribution of family income - Gini index:
  60.7 (1998)

Inflation rate (consumer prices):
  8.3% (2002)

Labor force:
  79 million (1999 est.)

Labor force - by occupation:
  services 53%, agriculture 23%, industry 24%

Unemployment rate:
  6.4% (2001 est.)

Budget:
  revenues: $100.6 billion
  expenditures: $91.6 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA
  (2000)

Industries:
  textiles, shoes, chemicals, cement, lumber, iron ore, tin, steel,
  aircraft, motor vehicles and parts, other machinery and equipment

Industrial production growth rate:
  2.3% (2002 est.)

Electricity - production:
  321.2 billion kWh (2001)

Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel: 8.3% hydro: 82.7% other: 4.6% (2001) nuclear: 4.4%

Electricity - consumption:
  335.9 billion kWh (2001)

Electricity - exports:
  0 kWh (2001)

Electricity - imports:
  37.19 billion kWh; note - supplied by Paraguay (2001)

Oil - production:
  1.561 million bbl/day (2001 est.)

Oil - consumption:
  2.199 million bbl/day (2001 est.)

Oil - exports:
  NA (2001)

Oil - imports:
  NA (2001)

Oil - proved reserves:
  8.507 billion bbl (37257)

Natural gas - production:
  5.95 billion cu m (2001 est.)

Natural gas - consumption:
  9.59 billion cu m (2001 est.)

Natural gas - exports:
  0 cu m (2001 est.)

Natural gas - imports:
  3.64 billion cu m (2001 est.)

Natural gas - proved reserves:
  221.7 billion cu m (37257)

Agriculture - products:
  coffee, soybeans, wheat, rice, corn, sugarcane, cocoa, citrus; beef

Exports:
  $59.4 billion f.o.b. (2002 est.)

Exports - commodities:
  transport equipment, iron ore, soybeans, footwear, coffee, autos

Exports - partners:
  US 23.8%, Argentina 8.5%, Germany 5%, China 4.3%, Netherlands 4.2%
  (2002)

Imports:
  $46.2 billion f.o.b. (2002)

Imports - commodities:
  machinery, electrical, and transport equipment, chemical products,
  oil

Imports - partners:
  US 23.3%, Argentina 12.6%, Germany 8.7%, France 5.2% (2002)

Debt - external:
  $222.4 billion (2002)

Economic aid - recipient:
  $30 billion IMF disbursement (2002)

Currency:
  real (BRL)

Currency code:
  BRL

Exchange rates:
  reals per US dollar - 2.92 (2002), 2.36 (2001), 1.83 (2000), 1.81
  (1999), 1.16 (1998)
  note: from October 1994 through 14 January 1999, the official rate
  was determined by a managed float; since 15 January 1999, the
  official rate floats independently with respect to the US dollar

Fiscal year:
  calendar year

Communications Brazil

Telephones - main lines in use:
  17.039 million (1997)

Telephones - mobile cellular:
  4.4 million (1997)

Telephone system:
  general assessment: good working system
  domestic: extensive microwave radio relay system and a domestic
  satellite system with 64 earth stations
  international: 3 coaxial submarine cables; satellite earth stations
  - 3 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean), 1 Inmarsat (Atlantic Ocean region
  east), connected by microwave relay system to Mercosur Brazilsat B3
  satellite earth station

Radio broadcast stations:
  AM 1,365, FM 296, shortwave 161 (of which 91 are collocated with AM
  stations) (1999)

Radios:
  71 million (1997)

Television broadcast stations:
  138 (1997)

Televisions:
  36.5 million (1997)

Internet country code:
  .br

Internet Service Providers (ISPs):
  50 (2000)

Internet users:
  13.98 million (2002)

Transportation Brazil

Railways:
  total: 31,543 km (1,981 km electrified)
  broad gauge: 4,961 km 1.600-m gauge (692 km electrified)
  narrow gauge: 25,992 km 1.000-m gauge (581 km electrified)
  dual gauge: 396 km 1.000-m and 1.600-m gauges (three rails) (78 km
  electrified) (2002)
  standard gauge: 194 km 1.440-m gauge (630 km electrified)

Highways: total: 1,724,929 km paved: 94,871 km unpaved: 1,630,058 km (2000)

Waterways:
  50,000 km

Pipelines:
  condensate/gas 243 km; gas 10,984 km; liquid petroleum gas 341 km;
  oil 5,113 km; refined products 4,800 km (2003)

Ports and harbors:
  Belem, Fortaleza, Ilheus, Imbituba, Manaus, Paranagua, Porto
  Alegre, Recife, Rio de Janeiro, Rio Grande, Salvador, Santos, Vitoria

Merchant marine:
  total: 159 ships (1,000 GRT or over) 3,257,186 GRT/5,101,578 DWT
  note: includes some foreign-owned ships registered here as a flag of
  convenience: Chile 2, Germany 6, Greece 1, Monaco 1 (2002 est.)
  ships by type: bulk 29, cargo 23, chemical tanker 7, combination
  ore/oil 7, container 12, liquefied gas 11, multi-functional
  large-load carrier 1, passenger/cargo 5, petroleum tanker 53, roll
  on/roll off 10, short-sea passenger 1

Airports:
  3,590 (2002)

Airports - with paved runways: total: 665 over 3,047 m: 7 2,438 to 3,047 m: 23 1,524 to 2,437 m: 155 914 to 1,523 m: 435 under 914 m: 45 (2002)

Airports - with unpaved runways: total: 2,925 1,524 to 2,437 m: 70 914 to 1,523 m: 1,384 under 914 m: 1,471 (2002)

Military Brazil

Military branches:
  Brazilian Army, Brazilian Navy (includes naval air and marines),
  Brazilian Air Force, Federal Police (paramilitary)

Military manpower - military age:
  18 years of age (2003 est.)

Military manpower - availability:
  males age 15-49: 51,381,048 (2003 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:
  males age 15-49: 34,347,078 (2003 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
  males: 1,744,148 (2003 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure:
  $13.408 billion (FY99)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP:
  1.9% (FY99)

Transnational Issues Brazil

Disputes - international:
  unruly region at convergence of Argentina-Brazil-Paraguay borders
  is locus of money laundering, smuggling, arms and drug trafficking,
  and harbors Islamist militants; uncontested dispute with Uruguay
  over certain islands in the Quarai/Cuareim and Invernada boundary
  streams and the resulting tripoint with Argentina

Illicit drugs:
  illicit producer of cannabis; minor coca cultivation in the Amazon
  region, used for domestic consumption; government has a large-scale
  eradication program to control cannabis; important transshipment
  country for Colombian and Peruvian cocaine headed for the US and
  Europe; also used by traffickers as a way station for narcotics air
  transshipments between Peru and Colombia; upsurge in drug-related
  violence and weapons smuggling; important market for Colombian,
  Bolivian, and Peruvian cocaine; illicit narcotics proceeds earned in
  Brazil are often laundered through the financial system; significant
  illicit financial activity in the Tri-Border Area

This page was last updated on 18 December, 2003

======================================================================

@British Indian Ocean Territory

Introduction British Indian Ocean Territory

Background:
  Established as a territory of the UK in 1965, a number of the
  British Indian Ocean Territory (BIOT) islands were transferred to
  the Seychelles when it attained independence in 1976. Subsequently,
  BIOT has consisted only of the six main island groups comprising the
  Chagos Archipelago. The largest and most southerly of the islands,
  Diego Garcia, contains a joint UK-US naval support facility. All of
  the remaining islands are uninhabited. Former agricultural workers,
  earlier residents in the islands, were relocated primarily to
  Mauritius but also to the Seychelles, between 1967 and 1973. In
  2000, a British High Court ruling invalidated the local immigration
  order that had excluded them from the archipelago, but upheld the
  special military status of Diego Garcia.

Geography British Indian Ocean Territory

Location:
  archipelago in the Indian Ocean, south of India, about one-half the
  way from Africa to Indonesia

Geographic coordinates:
  6 00 S, 71 30 E

Map references:
  Political Map of the World

Area:
  total: 60 sq km
  note: includes the entire Chagos Archipelago
  water: 0 sq km
  land: 60 sq km

Area - comparative:
  about 0.3 times the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries:
  0 km

Coastline:
  698 km

Maritime claims: exclusive fishing zone: 200 NM territorial sea: 3 NM

Climate:
  tropical marine; hot, humid, moderated by trade winds

Terrain:
  flat and low (most areas do not exceed four meters in elevation)

Elevation extremes: lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m highest point: unnamed location on Diego Garcia 15 m

Natural resources: coconuts, fish, sugarcane

Land use: arable land: NEGL permanent crops: 0% other: 100% (1998 est.)

Irrigated land:
  0 sq km (1998 est.)

Natural hazards:
  NA

Environment - current issues:
  NA

Geography - note:
  archipelago of 2,300 islands; Diego Garcia, largest and
  southernmost island, occupies strategic location in central Indian
  Ocean; island is site of joint US-UK military facility

People British Indian Ocean Territory

Population:
  no indigenous inhabitants
  note: approximately 1,200 former agricultural workers resident in
  the Chagos Archipelago, often referred to as Chagossians or Ilois,
  were relocated to Mauritius and the Seychelles in the 1960's and
  1970's, in November 2000 they were granted the right of return by a
  British High Court ruling, though no timetable has been set; in
  2001, there were approximately 1,500 UK and US military personnel
  and 2,000 civilian contractors living on the island of Diego Garcia
  (July 2003 est.)

Government British Indian Ocean Territory

Country name:
  conventional long form: British Indian Ocean Territory
  conventional short form: none
  abbreviation: BIOT

Dependency status:
  overseas territory of the UK; administered by a commissioner,
  resident in the Foreign and Commonwealth Office in London

Legal system:
  the laws of the UK, where applicable, apply

Executive branch:
  chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952)
  head of government: Commissioner Alan HUCKLE (since 2001);
  Administrator Louise SAVILL (since NA); note - both reside in the UK
  elections: none; the monarch is hereditary; commissioner and
  administrator appointed by the monarch
  cabinet: NA

Diplomatic representation in the US:
  none (overseas territory of the UK)

Diplomatic representation from the US:
  none (overseas territory of the UK)

Flag description:
  white with six blue wavy horizontal stripes; the flag of the UK is
  in the upper hoist-side quadrant; the striped section bears a palm
  tree and yellow crown centered on the outer half of the flag

Economy British Indian Ocean Territory

Economy - overview:
  All economic activity is concentrated on the largest island of
  Diego Garcia, where joint UK-US defense facilities are located.
  Construction projects and various services needed to support the
  military installations are done by military and contract employees
  from the UK, Mauritius, the Philippines, and the US. There are no
  industrial or agricultural activities on the islands. When the Ilois
  return, they plan to reestablish sugarcane production and fishing.

Electricity - production:
  NA kWh; note - electricity supplied by the US military

Electricity - consumption:
  NA kWh

Communications British Indian Ocean Territory

Telephones - main lines in use:
  NA

Telephone system:
  general assessment: separate facilities for military and public
  needs are available
  domestic: all commercial telephone services are available, including
  connection to the Internet
  international: international telephone service is carried by
  satellite (2000)

Radio broadcast stations:
  AM 1, FM 2, shortwave 0 (1998)

Radios:
  NA

Television broadcast stations:
  1 (1997)

Televisions:
  NA

Internet country code:
  .io

Internet Service Providers (ISPs):
  1 (2000)

Transportation British Indian Ocean Territory

Highways:
  total: NA km
  paved: short section of paved road between port and airfield on
  Diego Garcia
  unpaved: NA km

Waterways:
  none

Ports and harbors:
  Diego Garcia

Airports:
  1 (2002)

Airports - with paved runways: total: 1 over 3,047 m: 1 (2002)

Military British Indian Ocean Territory

Military - note:
  defense is the responsibility of the UK; the US lease on Diego
  Garcia expires in 2016

Transnational Issues British Indian Ocean Territory

Disputes - international:
  Mauritius and Seychelles claim the Chagos Archipelago and its
  former inhabitants, who reside chiefly in Mauritius, but in 2001
  were granted UK citizenship and the right to repatriation since
  eviction in 1965; repatriation is complicated by the US military
  lease of Diego Garcia, the largest island in the chain

This page was last updated on 18 December, 2003

======================================================================

@British Virgin Islands

Introduction British Virgin Islands

Background:
  First settled by the Dutch in 1648, the islands were annexed in
  1672 by the English. The economy is closely tied to the larger and
  more populous US Virgin Islands to the west; the US dollar is the
  legal currency.

Geography British Virgin Islands

Location:
  Caribbean, between the Caribbean Sea and the North Atlantic Ocean,
  east of Puerto Rico

Geographic coordinates:
  18 30 N, 64 30 W

Map references:
  Central America and the Caribbean

Area:
  total: 153 sq km
  note: comprised of 16 inhabited and more than 20 uninhabited
  islands; includes the island of Anegada
  water: 0 sq km
  land: 153 sq km

Area - comparative:
  about 0.9 times the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries:
  0 km

Coastline:
  80 km

Maritime claims: exclusive fishing zone: 200 NM territorial sea: 3 NM

Climate:
  subtropical; humid; temperatures moderated by trade winds

Terrain:
  coral islands relatively flat; volcanic islands steep, hilly

Elevation extremes:
  lowest point: Caribbean Sea 0 m
  highest point: Mount Sage 521 m

Natural resources:
  NEGL

Land use:
  arable land: 20%
  permanent crops: 6.67%
  other: 73.33% (1998 est.)

Irrigated land:
  NA sq km

Natural hazards:
  hurricanes and tropical storms (July to October)

Environment - current issues: limited natural fresh water resources (except for a few seasonal streams and springs on Tortola, most of the islands' water supply comes from wells and rainwater catchments)

Geography - note: strong ties to nearby US Virgin Islands and Puerto Rico

People British Virgin Islands

Population:
  21,730 (July 2003 est.)

Age structure:
  0-14 years: 21.9% (male 2,401; female 2,358)
  15-64 years: 73.1% (male 8,181; female 7,709)
  65 years and over: 5% (male 578; female 503) (2003 est.)

Median age:
  total: 30.7 years
  male: 31 years
  female: 30.4 years (2002)

Population growth rate:
  2.1% (2003 est.)

Birth rate:
  15 births/1,000 population (2003 est.)

Death rate:
  4.46 deaths/1,000 population (2003 est.)

Net migration rate:
  10.45 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2003 est.)

Sex ratio:
  at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
  under 15 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
  15-64 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
  65 years and over: 1.15 male(s)/female
  total population: 1.06 male(s)/female (2003 est.)

Infant mortality rate:
  total: 18.8 deaths/1,000 live births
  female: 15.6 deaths/1,000 live births (2003 est.)
  male: 21.86 deaths/1,000 live births

Life expectancy at birth:
  total population: 76.06 years
  male: 75.07 years
  female: 77.1 years (2003 est.)

Total fertility rate:
  1.72 children born/woman (2003 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
  NA%

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
  NA

HIV/AIDS - deaths:
  NA

Nationality: noun: British Virgin Islander(s) adjective: British Virgin Islander

Ethnic groups:
  black 83%, white, Indian, Asian and mixed

Religions:
  Protestant 86% (Methodist 33%, Anglican 17%, Church of God 9%,
  Seventh-Day Adventist 6%, Baptist 4%, Jehovah's Witnesses 2%, other
  15%), Roman Catholic 10%, none 2%, other 2% (1991)

Languages:
  English (official)

Literacy:
  definition: age 15 and over can read and write
  total population: 97.8% (1991 est.)
  male: NA%
  female: NA%

Government British Virgin Islands

Country name:
  conventional long form: none
  conventional short form: British Virgin Islands
  abbreviation: BVI

Dependency status:
  overseas territory of the UK; internal self-governing

Government type:
  NA

Capital:
  Road Town

Administrative divisions:
  none (overseas territory of the UK)

Independence:
  none (overseas territory of the UK)

National holiday:
  Territory Day, 1 July

Constitution:
  1 June 1977

Legal system:
  English law

Suffrage:
  18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
  chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952),
  represented by Governor Tom MACAN (since 14 October 2002)
  elections: none; the monarch is hereditary; governor appointed by
  the monarch; following legislative elections, the leader of the
  majority party or the leader of the majority coalition is usually
  appointed chief minister by the governor
  head of government: Chief Minister Orlando SMITH (since 17 June 2003)
  cabinet: Executive Council appointed by the governor from members of
  the Legislative Council

Legislative branch:
  unicameral Legislative Council (13 seats; members are elected by
  direct popular vote, one member from each of 9 electoral districts,
  four at-large members; members serve four-year terms)
  elections: last held 16 May 2003 (next to be held NA 2007)
  election results: percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party -
  NDP 8, VIP 5

Judicial branch:
  Eastern Caribbean Supreme Court, consisting of the High Court of
  Justice and the Court of Appeal (one judge of the Supreme Court is a
  resident of the islands and presides over the High Court);
  Magistrate's Court; Juvenile Court; Court of Summary Jurisdiction

Political parties and leaders:
  Concerned Citizens Movement or CCM [Ethlyn SMITH]; National
  Democratic Party or NDP [Orlando SMITH]; United Party or UP [Gregory
  MADURO]; Virgin Islands Party or VIP [Ralph T. O'NEAL]

Political pressure groups and leaders:
  NA

International organization participation:
  Caricom (associate), CDB, ECLAC (associate), Interpol (subbureau),
  IOC, OECS (associate), UNESCO (associate)

Diplomatic representation in the US:
  none (overseas territory of the UK)

Diplomatic representation from the US:
  none (overseas territory of the UK)

Flag description:
  blue, with the flag of the UK in the upper hoist-side quadrant and
  the Virgin Islander coat of arms centered in the outer half of the
  flag; the coat of arms depicts a woman flanked on either side by a
  vertical column of six oil lamps above a scroll bearing the Latin
  word VIGILATE (Be Watchful)

Economy British Virgin Islands

Economy - overview:
  The economy, one of the most stable and prosperous in the
  Caribbean, is highly dependent on tourism, generating an estimated
  45% of the national income. An estimated 350,000 tourists, mainly
  from the US, visited the islands in 1998. Tourism suffered in 2002
  because of the lackluster US economy. In the mid-1980s, the
  government began offering offshore registration to companies wishing
  to incorporate in the islands, and incorporation fees now generate
  substantial revenues. Roughly 400,000 companies were on the offshore
  registry by yearend 2000. The adoption of a comprehensive insurance
  law in late 1994, which provides a blanket of confidentiality with
  regulated statutory gateways for investigation of criminal offenses,
  is expected to make the British Virgin Islands even more attractive
  to international business. Livestock raising is the most important
  agricultural activity; poor soils limit the islands' ability to meet
  domestic food requirements. Because of traditionally close links
  with the US Virgin Islands, the British Virgin Islands has used the
  dollar as its currency since 1959.

GDP:
  purchasing power parity - $320 million (2002 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:
  1% (2002 est.)

GDP - per capita:
  purchasing power parity - $16,000 (2002 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
  agriculture: 1.8%
  industry: 6.2%
  services: 92% (1996 est.)

Population below poverty line:
  NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
  lowest 10%: NA%
  highest 10%: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices):
  2.5% (2002)

Labor force:
  4,911 (1980)

Labor force - by occupation:
  agriculture NA%, industry NA%, services NA%

Unemployment rate:
  3% (1995)

Budget:
  revenues: $121.5 million
  expenditures: $115.5 million, including capital expenditures of $NA
  (1997)

Industries:
  tourism, light industry, construction, rum, concrete block,
  offshore financial center

Industrial production growth rate:
  NA

Electricity - production:
  38.1 million kWh (2001)

Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel: 100% hydro: 0% other: 0% (2001) nuclear: 0%

Electricity - consumption:
  35.43 million kWh (2001)

Electricity - exports:
  0 kWh (2001)

Electricity - imports:
  0 kWh (2001)

Oil - production:
  0 bbl/day (2001 est.)

Oil - consumption:
  420 bbl/day (2001 est.)

Oil - exports:
  NA (2001)

Oil - imports:
  NA (2001)

Agriculture - products:
  fruits, vegetables; livestock, poultry; fish

Exports:
  $25.3 million (2002)

Exports - commodities:
  rum, fresh fish, fruits, animals; gravel, sand

Exports - partners:
  Virgin Islands (US), Puerto Rico, US

Imports:
  $187 million (2002 est.)

Imports - commodities:
  building materials, automobiles, foodstuffs, machinery

Imports - partners:
  Virgin Islands (US), Puerto Rico, US

Debt - external:
  $36.1 million (1997)

Economic aid - recipient:
  NA%

Currency:
  US dollar (USD)

Currency code:
  USD

Exchange rates:
  the US dollar is used

Fiscal year:
  1 April - 31 March

Communications British Virgin Islands

Telephones - main lines in use:
  10,000 (1996)

Telephones - mobile cellular:
  NA

Telephone system:
  general assessment: worldwide telephone service
  domestic: NA
  international: submarine cable to Bermuda

Radio broadcast stations:
  AM 1, FM 4, shortwave 0 (1998)

Radios:
  9,000 (1997)

Television broadcast stations:
  1 (plus one cable company) (1997)

Televisions:
  4,000 (1997)

Internet country code:
  .vg

Internet Service Providers (ISPs):
  16 (2000)

Internet users:
  NA

Transportation British Virgin Islands

Railways: 0 km

Highways: total: 177 km paved: 177 km unpaved: 0 km (2000)

Waterways:
  none

Ports and harbors:
  Road Town

Merchant marine:
  total: 1 ship (1,000 GRT or over) 19,203 GRT/28,864 DWT
  ships by type: cargo 1 (2002 est.)

Airports:
  3 (2002)

Airports - with paved runways:
  total: 2
  914 to 1,523 m: 1
  under 914 m: 1 (2002)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
  total: 1
  914 to 1,523 m: 1 (2002)

Military British Virgin Islands

Military - note: defense is the responsibility of the UK

Transnational Issues British Virgin Islands

Disputes - international:
  none

Illicit drugs:
  transshipment point for South American narcotics destined for the
  US and Europe; large offshore financial center

This page was last updated on 18 December, 2003

======================================================================

@Brunei

Introduction Brunei

Background:
  The Sultanate of Brunei's influence peaked between the 15th and
  17th centuries when its control extended over coastal areas of
  northwest Borneo and the southern Philippines. Brunei subsequently
  entered a period of decline brought on by internal strife over royal
  succession, colonial expansion of European powers, and piracy. In
  1888, Brunei became a British protectorate; independence was
  achieved in 1984. The same family has ruled Brunei for over six
  centuries. Brunei benefits from extensive petroleum and natural gas
  fields, the source of one of the highest per capita GDPs in the
  developing world.

Geography Brunei

Location:
  Southeastern Asia, bordering the South China Sea and Malaysia

Geographic coordinates:
  4 30 N, 114 40 E

Map references:
  Southeast Asia

Area:
  total: 5,770 sq km
  water: 500 sq km
  land: 5,270 sq km

Area - comparative:
  slightly smaller than Delaware

Land boundaries: total: 381 km border countries: Malaysia 381 km

Coastline:
  161 km

Maritime claims:
  exclusive economic zone: 200 NM or to median line
  territorial sea: 12 NM

Climate:
  tropical; hot, humid, rainy

Terrain:
  flat coastal plain rises to mountains in east; hilly lowland in west

Elevation extremes: lowest point: South China Sea 0 m highest point: Bukit Pagon 1,850 m

Natural resources: petroleum, natural gas, timber

Land use: arable land: 0.57% permanent crops: 0.76% other: 98.67% (1998 est.)

Irrigated land:
  10 sq km (1998 est.)

Natural hazards:
  typhoons, earthquakes, and severe flooding are rare

Environment - current issues:
  seasonal smoke/haze resulting from forest fires in Indonesia

Environment - international agreements:
  party to: Endangered Species, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer
  Protection, Ship Pollution
  signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - note:
  close to vital sea lanes through South China Sea linking Indian and
  Pacific Oceans; two parts physically separated by Malaysia; almost
  an enclave of Malaysia

People Brunei

Population:
  358,098 (July 2003 est.)

Age structure:
  0-14 years: 29.6% (male 54,118; female 51,902)
  15-64 years: 67.6% (male 128,421; female 113,480)
  65 years and over: 2.8% (male 4,804; female 5,373) (2003 est.)

Median age:
  total: 26.4 years
  male: 27 years
  female: 25.7 years (2002)

Population growth rate:
  2% (2003 est.)

Birth rate:
  19.68 births/1,000 population (2003 est.)

Death rate:
  3.39 deaths/1,000 population (2003 est.)

Net migration rate:
  3.75 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2003 est.)

Sex ratio:
  at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female
  under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
  15-64 years: 1.13 male(s)/female
  65 years and over: 0.89 male(s)/female
  total population: 1.1 male(s)/female (2003 est.)

Infant mortality rate:
  total: 13.5 deaths/1,000 live births
  female: 9.71 deaths/1,000 live births (2003 est.)
  male: 17.09 deaths/1,000 live births

Life expectancy at birth:
  total population: 74.3 years
  male: 71.9 years
  female: 76.82 years (2003 est.)

Total fertility rate:
  2.37 children born/woman (2003 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
  0.2% (2001 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
  less than 100 (2001 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths:
  NA

Nationality:
  noun: Bruneian(s)
  adjective: Bruneian

Ethnic groups:
  Malay 67%, Chinese 15%, indigenous 6%, other 12%

Religions:
  Muslim (official) 67%, Buddhist 13%, Christian 10%, indigenous
  beliefs and other 10%

Languages:
  Malay (official), English, Chinese

Literacy:
  definition: age 15 and over can read and write
  total population: 91.8%
  male: 94.8%
  female: 88.5% (2003 est.)

Government Brunei

Country name:
  conventional long form: Negara Brunei Darussalam
  conventional short form: Brunei

Government type:
  constitutional sultanate

Capital:
  Bandar Seri Begawan

Administrative divisions:
  4 districts (daerah-daerah, singular - daerah); Belait, Brunei and
  Muara, Temburong, Tutong

Independence:
  1 January 1984 (from UK)

National holiday:
  National Day, 23 February (1984); note - 1 January 1984 was the
  date of independence from the UK, 23 February 1984 was the date of
  independence from British protection

Constitution:
  29 September 1959 (some provisions suspended under a State of
  Emergency since December 1962, others since independence on 1
  January 1984)

Legal system:
  based on English common law; for Muslims, Islamic Shari'a law
  supersedes civil law in a number of areas

Suffrage:
  none

Executive branch:
  chief of state: Sultan and Prime Minister Sir HASSANAL Bolkiah
  (since 5 October 1967); note - the monarch is both the chief of
  state and head of government
  head of government: Sultan and Prime Minister Sir HASSANAL Bolkiah
  (since 5 October 1967); note - the monarch is both the chief of
  state and head of government
  cabinet: Council of Cabinet Ministers appointed and presided over by
  the monarch; deals with executive matters; note - there is also a
  Religious Council (members appointed by the monarch) that advises on
  religious matters, a Privy Council (members appointed by the
  monarch) that deals with constitutional matters, and the Council of
  Succession (members appointed by the monarch) that determines the
  succession to the throne if the need arises
  elections: none; the monarch is hereditary

Legislative branch:
  unicameral Legislative Council or Majlis Masyuarat Megeri (a privy
  council that serves only in a consultative capacity; NA seats;
  members appointed by the monarch)
  elections: last held in March 1962
  note: in 1970 the Council was changed to an appointive body by
  decree of the monarch; an elected Legislative Council is being
  considered as part of constitutional reform, but elections are
  unlikely for several years

Judicial branch:
  Supreme Court (chief justice and judges are sworn in by the monarch
  for three-year terms)

Political parties and leaders:
  Brunei Solidarity National Party or PPKB in Malay [Haji Mohd HATTA
  bin Haji Zainal Abidin, president]; note - the PPKB is the only
  legal political party in Brunei; it was registered in 1985 but
  became largely inactive after 1988; it was revived in 1995 and again
  in 1998; it has less than 200 registered party members; other
  parties include Brunei People's Party or PRB (banned in 1962) and
  Brunei National Democratic Party (registered in May 1965,
  deregistered by the Brunei Government in 1988)

Political pressure groups and leaders:
  NA

International organization participation:
  APEC, ARF, ASEAN, C, ESCAP, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDB, IFRCS,
  IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, ISO (correspondent), ITU, NAM, OIC, OPCW,
  UN, UNCTAD, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador Anak Dato Haji PUTEH
  FAX: [1] (202) 885-0560
  telephone: [1] (202) 237-1838
  chancery: 3520 International Court NW, Washington, DC 20008

Diplomatic representation from the US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador Gene B. CHRISTY
  embassy: Third Floor, Teck Guan Plaza, Jalan Sultan, Bandar Seri
  Begawan
  mailing address: PSC 470 (BSB), FPO AP 96507
  telephone: [673] (2) 229670
  FAX: [673] (2) 225293

Flag description:
  yellow with two diagonal bands of white (top, almost double width)
  and black starting from the upper hoist side; the national emblem in
  red is superimposed at the center; the emblem includes a
  swallow-tailed flag on top of a winged column within an upturned
  crescent above a scroll and flanked by two upraised hands

Economy Brunei

Economy - overview:
  This small, wealthy economy encompasses a mixture of foreign and
  domestic entrepreneurship, government regulation, welfare measures,
  and village tradition. Crude oil and natural gas production account
  for nearly half of GDP. Per capita GDP is far above most other Third
  World countries, and substantial income from overseas investment
  supplements income from domestic production. The government provides
  for all medical services and subsidizes rice and housing. Brunei's
  leaders are concerned that steadily increased integration in the
  world economy will undermine internal social cohesion, although it
  became a more prominent player by serving as chairman for the 2000
  APEC (Asian Pacific Economic Cooperation) forum. Plans for the
  future include upgrading the labor force, reducing unemployment,
  strengthening the banking and tourist sectors, and, in general,
  further widening the economic base beyond oil and gas.

GDP:
  purchasing power parity - $6.5 billion (2002 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:
  3% (2002 est.)

GDP - per capita:
  purchasing power parity - $18,600 (2002 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
  agriculture: 5%
  industry: 45%
  services: 50% (2001 est.)

Population below poverty line:
  NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
  lowest 10%: NA%
  highest 10%: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices):
  -2% (2002 est.)

Labor force:
  143,400
  note: includes foreign workers and military personnel; temporary
  residents make up about 40% of labor force (1999 est.)

Labor force - by occupation: government 48%, production of oil, natural gas, services, and construction 42%, agriculture, forestry, and fishing 10% (1999 est.)

Unemployment rate:
  10% (2001 est.)

Budget:
  revenues: $2.5 billion
  expenditures: $2.6 billion, including capital expenditures of $1.35
  billion (1997 est.)

Industries:
  petroleum, petroleum refining, liquefied natural gas, construction

Industrial production growth rate:
  5% (2002 est.)

Electricity - production:
  2.497 billion kWh (2001)

Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel: 100% hydro: 0% other: 0% (2001) nuclear: 0%

Electricity - consumption:
  2.322 billion kWh (2001)

Electricity - exports:
  0 kWh (2001)

Electricity - imports:
  0 kWh (2001)

Oil - production:
  217,200 bbl/day (2001 est.)

Oil - consumption:
  13,000 bbl/day (2001 est.)

Oil - exports:
  NA (2001)

Oil - imports:
  NA (2001)

Oil - proved reserves:
  1.255 billion bbl (37257)

Natural gas - production:
  10.35 billion cu m (2001 est.)

Natural gas - consumption:
  1.35 billion cu m (2001 est.)

Natural gas - exports:
  9 billion cu m (2001 est.)

Natural gas - imports:
  0 cu m (2001 est.)

Natural gas - proved reserves:
  315 billion cu m (37257)

Agriculture - products:
  rice, vegetables, fruits, chickens, water buffalo

Exports:
  $3 billion f.o.b. (2000 est.)

Exports - commodities:
  crude oil, natural gas, refined products

Exports - partners:
  Japan 40.3%, South Korea 12.3%, Thailand 12.1%, Australia 9.2%, US
  8.1%, China 6.4%, Singapore 5.7% (2002)

Imports:
  $1.4 billion c.i.f. (2000 est.)

Imports - commodities:
  machinery and transport equipment, manufactured goods, food,
  chemicals

Imports - partners:
  Singapore 30.6%, Japan 21.5%, Malaysia 17.4%, UK 6.1%, Hong Kong 4%
  (2002)

Debt - external:
  $0

Economic aid - recipient:
  $4.3 million (1995)

Currency:
  Bruneian dollar (BND)

Currency code:
  BND

Exchange rates:
  Bruneian dollars per US dollar - 1.79 (2002), 1.79 (2001), 1.72
  (2000), 1.69 (1999), 1.67 (1998)

Fiscal year:
  calendar year

Communications Brunei

Telephones - main lines in use:
  79,000 (1996)

Telephones - mobile cellular:
  43,524 (1996)

Telephone system:
  general assessment: service throughout the country is excellent;
  international service is good to East Asia, Europe, and the US
  domestic: every service available
  international: satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Indian Ocean
  and 1 Pacific Ocean); digital submarine cable links to Malaysia, the
  Philippines, and Singapore (2001)

Radio broadcast stations:
  AM 3, FM 10, shortwave 0 (1998)

Radios:
  329,000 (1998)

Television broadcast stations:
  2 (1997)

Televisions:
  201,900 (1998)

Internet country code:
  .bn

Internet Service Providers (ISPs):
  2 (2000)

Internet users:
  35,000 (2002)

Transportation Brunei

Railways:
  total: 13 km (private line)
  narrow gauge: 13 km 0.610-m gauge (2001 est.)

Highways: total: 2,525 km paved: 2,525 km unpaved: 0 km (2000)

Waterways:
  209 km; navigable by craft drawing less than 1.2 m

Pipelines:
  gas 665 km; oil 439 km (2003)

Ports and harbors:
  Bandar Seri Begawan, Kuala Belait, Muara, Seria, Tutong

Merchant marine:
  total: 8 ships (1,000 GRT or over) 465,937 GRT/413,393 DWT
  ships by type: liquefied gas 8
  note: includes some foreign-owned ships registered here as a flag of
  convenience: UK 7 (2002 est.)

Airports:
  2 (2002)

Airports - with paved runways:
  total: 1
  over 3,047 m: 1 (2002)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
  total: 1
  914 to 1,523 m: 1 (2002)

Heliports:
  3 (2002)

Military Brunei

Military branches:
  Land Forces, Navy, Air Force, Royal Brunei Police

Military manpower - military age:
  18 years of age (2003 est.)

Military manpower - availability:
  males age 15-49: 110,888 (2003 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:
  males age 15-49: 63,966 (2003 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
  males: 3,277 (2003 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure:
  $329.7 million (FY02)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP:
  5% (FY02)

Transnational Issues Brunei

Disputes - international:
  Involved in dispute over the Spratly Islands with China, Malaysia,
  Philippines, Taiwan, and Vietnam; Brunei established an exclusive
  economic fishing zone encompassing Louisa Reef in southern Spratly
  Islands in 1984 but makes no public territorial claim to the
  offshore reefs; claimants in November 2002 signed the "Declaration
  on the Conduct of Parties in the South China Sea", a mechanism to
  ease tension but which fell short of a legally binding "code of
  conduct"

Illicit drugs:
  drug trafficking and illegally importing controlled substances are
  serious offenses in Brunei and carry a mandatory death penalty

This page was last updated on 18 December, 2003

======================================================================

@Bulgaria

Introduction Bulgaria

Background:
  The Bulgars, a Central Asian Turkic tribe, merged with the local
  Slavic inhabitants in the late 7th century to form the first
  Bulgarian state. In succeeding centuries, Bulgaria struggled with
  the Byzantine Empire to assert its place in the Balkans, but by the
  end of the 14th century the country was overrun by the Ottoman
  Turks. Bulgaria regained its independence in 1878, but having fought
  on the losing side in both World Wars, it fell within the Soviet
  sphere of influence and became a People's Republic in 1946.
  Communist domination ended in 1990, when Bulgaria held its first
  multiparty election since World War II and began the contentious
  process of moving toward political democracy and a market economy
  while combating inflation, unemployment, corruption, and crime.
  Today, reforms and democratization keep Bulgaria on a path toward
  eventual integration into NATO and the EU - with which it began
  accession negotiations in 2000.

Geography Bulgaria

Location:
  Southeastern Europe, bordering the Black Sea, between Romania and
  Turkey

Geographic coordinates:
  43 00 N, 25 00 E

Map references:
  Europe

Area:
  total: 110,910 sq km
  water: 360 sq km
  land: 110,550 sq km

Area - comparative:
  slightly larger than Tennessee

Land boundaries:
  total: 1,808 km
  border countries: Greece 494 km, The Former Yugoslav Republic of
  Macedonia 148 km, Romania 608 km, Serbia and Montenegro 318 km,
  Turkey 240 km

Coastline:
  354 km

Maritime claims: contiguous zone: 24 NM exclusive economic zone: 200 NM territorial sea: 12 NM

Climate:
  temperate; cold, damp winters; hot, dry summers

Terrain:
  mostly mountains with lowlands in north and southeast

Elevation extremes: lowest point: Black Sea 0 m highest point: Musala 2,925 m

Natural resources: bauxite, copper, lead, zinc, coal, timber, arable land

Land use: arable land: 39% permanent crops: 1.8% other: 59.2% (1998 est.)

Irrigated land:
  8,000 sq km (1998 est.)

Natural hazards:
  earthquakes, landslides

Environment - current issues:
  air pollution from industrial emissions; rivers polluted from raw
  sewage, heavy metals, detergents; deforestation; forest damage from
  air pollution and resulting acid rain; soil contamination from heavy
  metals from metallurgical plants and industrial wastes

Environment - international agreements:
  party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air
  Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Sulphur 85,
  Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Antarctic-Environmental
  Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Treaty,
  Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species,
  Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea,
  Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
  signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution-Sulphur 94, Climate
  Change-Kyoto Protocol

Geography - note:
  strategic location near Turkish Straits; controls key land routes
  from Europe to Middle East and Asia

People Bulgaria

Population:
  7,537,929 (July 2003 est.)

Age structure:
  0-14 years: 14.2% (male 549,142; female 520,057)
  15-64 years: 68.8% (male 2,551,548; female 2,632,978)
  65 years and over: 17% (male 535,165; female 749,039) (2003 est.)

Median age:
  total: 40.5 years
  male: 38.4 years
  female: 42.4 years (2002)

Population growth rate:
  -1.09% (2003 est.)

Birth rate:
  8.02 births/1,000 population (2003 est.)

Death rate:
  14.34 deaths/1,000 population (2003 est.)

Net migration rate:
  -4.58 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2003 est.)

Sex ratio:
  at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female
  under 15 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
  15-64 years: 0.97 male(s)/female
  65 years and over: 0.71 male(s)/female
  total population: 0.93 male(s)/female (2003 est.)

Infant mortality rate:
  total: 13.7 deaths/1,000 live births
  female: 11.88 deaths/1,000 live births (2003 est.)
  male: 15.43 deaths/1,000 live births

Life expectancy at birth:
  total population: 71.8 years
  male: 68.26 years
  female: 75.56 years (2003 est.)

Total fertility rate:
  1.13 children born/woman (2003 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: less than 0.1% - note: no country specific models provided (2001 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
  346 (2001 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths:
  100 (2001 est.)

Nationality:
  noun: Bulgarian(s)
  adjective: Bulgarian

Ethnic groups:
  Bulgarian 83.6%, Turk 9.5%, Roma 4.6%, other 2.3% (including
  Macedonian, Armenian, Tatar, Circassian) (1998)

Religions:
  Bulgarian Orthodox 83.8%, Muslim 12.1%, Roman Catholic 1.7%, Jewish
  0.1%, Protestant, Gregorian-Armenian, and other 2.3% (1998)

Languages:
  Bulgarian, secondary languages closely correspond to ethnic
  breakdown

Literacy:
  definition: age 15 and over can read and write
  total population: 98.6%
  male: 99.1%
  female: 98.2% (2003 est.)

Government Bulgaria

Country name:
  conventional long form: Republic of Bulgaria
  conventional short form: Bulgaria

Government type:
  parliamentary democracy

Capital:
  Sofia

Administrative divisions:
  28 provinces (oblasti, singular - oblast); Blagoevgrad, Burgas,
  Dobrich, Gabrovo, Khaskovo, Kurdzhali, Kyustendil, Lovech, Montana,
  Pazardzhik, Pernik, Pleven, Plovdiv, Razgrad, Ruse, Shumen,
  Silistra, Sliven, Smolyan, Sofiya, Sofiya-Grad, Stara Zagora,
  Turgovishte, Varna, Veliko Turnovo, Vidin, Vratsa, Yambol

Independence:
  3 March 1878 (from Ottoman Empire)

National holiday:
  Liberation Day, 3 March (1878)

Constitution:
  adopted 12 July 1991

Legal system:
  civil law and criminal law based on Roman law; accepts compulsory
  ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage:
  18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
  chief of state: President Georgi PURVANOV (since 22 January 2002);
  Vice President Angel MARIN (since 22 January 2002)
  head of government: Chairman of the Council of Ministers (Prime
  Minister) Simeon SAXE-COBURG-GOTHA (since 24 July 2001); Deputy
  Prime Ministers Nikolay VASILEV (since 24 July 2001), and Lidiya
  SHULEVA (since 24 July 2001), Plamen PANAYOTOV (since 17 July 2003)
  cabinet: Council of Ministers elected by the National Assembly
  elections: president and vice president elected on the same ticket
  by popular vote for five-year terms; election last held 11 November
  and 18 November 2001 (next to be held NA 2006); chairman of the
  Council of Ministers (prime minister) nominated by the president;
  deputy prime ministers nominated by the prime minister
  election results: Georgi PURVANOV elected president; percent of vote
  - Georgi PURVANOV 54.13%, Petar STOYANOV 45.87%

Legislative branch:
  unicameral National Assembly or Narodno Sobranie (240 seats;
  members elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms)
  elections: last held 17 June 2001 (next to be held NA June 2005)
  election results: percent of vote by party - NMS2 42.74%, UtdDF
  18.18%, CfB 17.15%, MRF 7.45%; seats by party - NMS2 120, UtdDF 51,
  CfB 48, MRF 21; note - seating as of March 2003 - NMS2 110, UtdDF
  50, CfB 48, MRF 20, independents 12

Judicial branch:
  Supreme Administrative Court; Supreme Court of Cassation;
  Constitutional Court (12 justices appointed or elected for nine-year
  terms); Supreme Judicial Council (consists of the chairmen of the
  two Supreme Courts, the Chief Prosecutor, and 22 other members;
  responsible for appointing the justices, prosecutors, and
  investigating magistrates in the justice system; members of the
  Supreme Judicial Council elected for five-year terms, 11 elected by
  the National Assembly and 11 by bodies of the judiciary)

Political parties and leaders:
  Bulgarian Socialist Party or BSP [Sergei STANISHEV]; Coalition for
  Bulgaria or CfB (coalition of parties dominated by BSP) [Sergei
  STANISHEV]; Internal Macedonian Revolutionary Organization or VMRO
  [Krasimir KARAKACHANOV]; Movement for Rights and Freedoms or MRF
  [Ahmed DOGAN]; National Movement for Simeon II or NMS2 [Simeon
  SAXE-COBURG-GOTHA]; Union of Democratic Forces or UDF [Nadezhda
  MIKHAYLOVA]; Union of Free Democrats or UFD [Stefan SOFIYANSKI];
  United Democratic Forces or UtdDF (a coalition between the UDF and
  other center-right parties)

Political pressure groups and leaders:
  agrarian movement; Confederation of Independent Trade Unions of
  Bulgaria or CITUB; Podkrepa Labor Confederation; numerous regional,
  ethnic, and national interest groups with various agendas

International organization participation:
  ACCT, Australia Group, BIS, BSEC, CE, CEI, CERN, EAPC, EBRD, ECE,
  EU (applicant), FAO, G- 9, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt, ICFTU, ICRM, IFC,
  IFRCS, IHO (pending member), ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO,
  ITU, NAM (guest), NSG, OAS (observer), OPCW, OSCE, PCA, PFP, UN, UN
  Security Council (temporary), UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNMEE, UNMIBH,
  UNMIK, UNMOP, UPU, WCL, WCO, WEU (associate partner), WFTU, WHO,
  WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO, ZC

Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Elena B. POPTODOROVA consulate(s): New York FAX: [1] (202) 234-7973 telephone: [1] (202) 387-0174 chancery: 1621 22nd Street NW, Washington, DC 20008

Diplomatic representation from the US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador James William PARDEW
  embassy: 1 Suborna Street, Sofia 1000
  mailing address: American Embassy Sofia, Department of State, 5740
  Sofia Place, Washington, DC 20521-5740
  telephone: [359] (2) 937-5100
  FAX: [359] (2) 981-89-77

Flag description:
  three equal horizontal bands of white (top), green, and red; the
  national emblem formerly on the hoist side of the white stripe has
  been removed - it contained a rampant lion within a wreath of wheat
  ears below a red five-pointed star and above a ribbon bearing the
  dates 681 (first Bulgarian state established) and 1944 (liberation
  from Nazi control)

Economy Bulgaria

Economy - overview:
  Bulgaria, a former communist country striving to enter the European
  Union, has experienced macroeconomic stability and strong growth
  since a major economic downturn in 1996 led to the fall of the then
  socialist government. As a result, the government became committed
  to economic reform and responsible fiscal planning. A $300 million
  stand-by agreement negotiated with the IMF at the end of 2001 has
  supported government efforts to overcome high rates of poverty and
  unemployment.

GDP:
  purchasing power parity - $49.23 billion (2002 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:
  4.8% (2002 est.)

GDP - per capita:
  purchasing power parity - $6,500 (2002 est.)

GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 13.7% industry: 28.5% services: 57.9% (2001)

Population below poverty line: 12.6% (2001 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: 4.5% highest 10%: 22.8% (1997)

Distribution of family income - Gini index:
  26.4 (2001)

Inflation rate (consumer prices):
  5.9% (2002 est.)

Labor force:
  3.83 million (2000 est.)

Labor force - by occupation:
  agriculture 26%, industry 31%, services 43% (1998 est.)

Unemployment rate:
  18% (2002 est.)

Budget:
  revenues: $5.57 billion
  expenditures: $5.68 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA
  (2001 est.)

Industries:
  electricity, gas and water; food, beverages and tobacco; machinery
  and equipment, base metals, chemical products, coke, refined
  petroleum, nuclear fuel

Industrial production growth rate:
  2% (2002 est.)

Electricity - production:
  41.38 billion kWh (2001)

Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel: 47.8% hydro: 8.1% other: 0% (2001) nuclear: 44.1%

Electricity - consumption:
  32.52 billion kWh (2001)

Electricity - exports:
  6.79 billion kWh (2001)

Electricity - imports:
  830 million kWh (2001)

Oil - production:
  603 bbl/day (2001 est.)

Oil - consumption:
  94,000 bbl/day (2001 est.)

Oil - exports:
  NA (2001)

Oil - imports:
  NA (2001)

Oil - proved reserves:
  8.1 million bbl (37257)

Natural gas - production:
  4 million cu m (2001 est.)

Natural gas - consumption:
  5.804 billion cu m (2001 est.)

Natural gas - exports:
  0 cu m (2001 est.)

Natural gas - imports:
  5.8 billion cu m (2001 est.)

Natural gas - proved reserves:
  3.724 billion cu m (37257)

Agriculture - products: vegetables, fruits, tobacco, livestock, wine, wheat, barley, sunflowers, sugar beets

Exports:
  $5.3 billion f.o.b. (2002 est.)

Exports - commodities:
  clothing, footwear, iron and steel, machinery and equipment, fuels

Exports - partners:
  Italy 15.5%, Germany 9.6%, Turkey 9.4%, Greece 9.2%, France 5.3%,
  US 4.8% (2002)

Imports:
  $6.9 billion f.o.b. (2002 est.)

Imports - commodities:
  fuels, minerals, and raw materials; machinery and equipment; metals
  and ores; chemicals and plastics; food, textiles

Imports - partners:
  Russia 14.6%, Germany 14.4%, Italy 11.4%, Greece 6.1%, France 5.7%,
  Turkey 5% (2002)

Debt - external:
  $10.3 billion (yearend 2002)

Economic aid - recipient:
  $300 million (2000 est.)

Currency:
  lev (BGL)

Currency code:
  BGN

Exchange rates:
  leva per US dollar - 2.08 (2002), 2.18 (2001), 2.12 (2000), 1.84
  (1999), 1.76 (1998)
  note: on 5 July 1999, the lev was redenominated; the post-5 July
  1999 lev is equal to 1,000 of the pre-5 July 1999 lev

Fiscal year:
  calendar year

Communications Bulgaria

Telephones - main lines in use:
  3,186,731 (2001)

Telephones - mobile cellular:
  1.054 million (2001)

Telephone system:
  general assessment: extensive but antiquated
  domestic: more than two-thirds of the lines are residential;
  telephone service is available in most villages; a fairly modern
  digital cable trunk line now connects switching centers in most of
  the regions, the others are connected by digital microwave radio
  relay
  international: direct dialing to 58 countries; satellite earth
  stations - 1 Intersputnik (Atlantic Ocean region); 2 Intelsat
  (Atlantic and Indian Ocean regions)

Radio broadcast stations:
  AM 31, FM 63, shortwave 2 (2001)

Radios:
  4.51 million (1997)

Television broadcast stations:
  39 (plus 1,242 repeaters) (2001)

Televisions:
  3.31 million (1997)

Internet country code:
  .bg

Internet Service Providers (ISPs):
  200 (2001)

Internet users:
  585,000 (2001)

Transportation Bulgaria

Railways:
  total: 4,294 km
  standard gauge: 4,049 km 1.435-m gauge (2,710 km electrified)
  narrow gauge: 245 km 0.760-m gauge (2002)

Highways:
  total: 37,286 km
  paved: 35,049 km (including 324 km of expressways)
  unpaved: 2,237 km (2000)

Waterways:
  470 km (1987)

Pipelines:
  gas 2,425 km; oil 339 km; refined products 156 km (2003)

Ports and harbors:
  Burgas, Lom, Nesebur, Ruse, Varna, Vidin

Merchant marine:
  total: 69 ships (1,000 GRT or over) 829,421 GRT/1,252,496 DWT
  ships by type: bulk 42, cargo 10, chemical tanker 4, container 2,
  passenger/cargo 1, petroleum tanker 4, railcar carrier 2, roll
  on/roll off 2, short-sea passenger 1, specialized tanker 1 (2002
  est.)

Airports:
  216 (2002)

Airports - with paved runways: total: 128 over 3,047 m: 1 2,438 to 3,047 m: 20 914 to 1,523 m: 1 under 914 m: 92 (2002) 1,524 to 2,437 m: 14

Airports - with unpaved runways: total: 88 1,524 to 2,437 m: 4 914 to 1,523 m: 10 under 914 m: 74 (2002)

Heliports: 1 (2002)

Military Bulgaria

Military branches:
  Army, Navy, Air and Air Defense Forces (subordinate to Ministry of
  Defense), Internal Forces (subordinate to Ministry of Interior),
  Civil Defense Forces (subordinate to the president)

Military manpower - military age:
  19 years of age (2003 est.)

Military manpower - availability:
  males age 15-49: 1,854,049 (2003 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:
  males age 15-49: 1,551,485 (2003 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
  males: 54,107 (2003 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure:
  $356 million (FY02)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP:
  2.7% (FY02)

Transnational Issues Bulgaria

Disputes - international: joint boundary commission is rectifying boundary with Romania based on shifts in Danube since last delimitation in 1920

Illicit drugs:
  major European transshipment point for Southwest Asian heroin and,
  to a lesser degree, South American cocaine for the European market;
  limited producer of precursor chemicals; some money laundering of
  drug-related proceeds through financial institutions

This page was last updated on 18 December, 2003

======================================================================

@Burkina Faso

Introduction Burkina Faso

Background:
  Independence from France came to Burkina Faso (formerly Upper
  Volta) in 1960. Repeated military coups during the 1970s and 1980s
  were followed by multiparty elections in the early 1990s. Burkina
  Faso's high population density and limited natural resources result
  in poor economic prospects for the majority of its citizens. Every
  year, several hundred thousand seasonal farm workers seek employment
  in Cote d'Ivoire and Ghana and are adversely affected by instability
  in those regions.

Geography Burkina Faso

Location:
  Western Africa, north of Ghana

Geographic coordinates:
  13 00 N, 2 00 W

Map references:
  Africa

Area:
  total: 274,200 sq km
  water: 400 sq km
  land: 273,800 sq km

Area - comparative:
  slightly larger than Colorado

Land boundaries:
  total: 3,193 km
  border countries: Benin 306 km, Cote d'Ivoire 584 km, Ghana 549 km,
  Mali 1,000 km, Niger 628 km, Togo 126 km

Coastline:
  0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims:
  none (landlocked)

Climate:
  tropical; warm, dry winters; hot, wet summers

Terrain:
  mostly flat to dissected, undulating plains; hills in west and
  southeast

Elevation extremes:
  lowest point: Mouhoun (Black Volta) River 200 m
  highest point: Tena Kourou 749 m

Natural resources:
  manganese, limestone, marble; small deposits of gold, antimony,
  copper, nickel, bauxite, lead, phosphates, zinc, silver

Land use: arable land: 12.43% permanent crops: 0.18% other: 87.39% (1998 est.)

Irrigated land:
  250 sq km (1998 est.)

Natural hazards:
  recurring droughts

Environment - current issues:
  recent droughts and desertification severely affecting agricultural
  activities, population distribution, and the economy; overgrazing;
  soil degradation; deforestation

Environment - international agreements:
  party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered
  Species, Hazardous Wastes, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer
  Protection, Wetlands
  signed, but not ratified: Law of the Sea, Nuclear Test Ban

Geography - note:
  landlocked savanna cut by the three principal rivers of the Black,
  Red, and White Voltas

People Burkina Faso

Population:
  13,228,460
  note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the
  effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower
  life expectancy, higher infant mortality and death rates, lower
  population and growth rates, and changes in the distribution of
  population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (July
  2003 est.)

Age structure:
  0-14 years: 46.1% (male 3,057,855; female 3,036,705)
  15-64 years: 51% (male 3,296,726; female 3,455,817)
  65 years and over: 2.9% (male 161,914; female 219,443) (2003 est.)

Median age:
  total: 16.8 years
  male: 16.4 years
  female: 17.2 years (2002)

Population growth rate:
  2.6% (2003 est.)

Birth rate:
  44.78 births/1,000 population (2003 est.)

Death rate:
  18.76 deaths/1,000 population (2003 est.)

Net migration rate:
  0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2003 est.)

Sex ratio:
  at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
  under 15 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
  15-64 years: 0.95 male(s)/female
  65 years and over: 0.74 male(s)/female
  total population: 0.97 male(s)/female (2003 est.)

Infant mortality rate:
  total: 99.78 deaths/1,000 live births
  female: 91.46 deaths/1,000 live births (2003 est.)
  male: 107.87 deaths/1,000 live births

Life expectancy at birth:
  total population: 44.46 years
  male: 43.02 years
  female: 45.94 years (2003 est.)

Total fertility rate:
  6.34 children born/woman (2003 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
  6.5% (2001 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
  440,000 (2001 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths:
  44,000 (2001 est.)

Nationality:
  noun: Burkinabe (singular and plural)
  adjective: Burkinabe

Ethnic groups:
  Mossi over 40%, Gurunsi, Senufo, Lobi, Bobo, Mande, Fulani

Religions:
  indigenous beliefs 40%, Muslim 50%, Christian (mainly Roman
  Catholic) 10%

Languages:
  French (official), native African languages belonging to Sudanic
  family spoken by 90% of the population

Literacy:
  definition: age 15 and over can read and write
  total population: 26.6%
  male: 36.9%
  female: 16.6% (2003 est.)

Government Burkina Faso

Country name:
  conventional long form: none
  conventional short form: Burkina Faso
  former: Upper Volta, Republic of Upper Volta

Government type:
  parliamentary republic

Capital:
  Ouagadougou

Administrative divisions:
  45 provinces; Bale, Bam, Banwa, Bazega, Bougouriba, Boulgou,
  Boulkiemde, Comoe, Ganzourgou, Gnagna, Gourma, Houet, Ioba, Kadiogo,
  Kenedougou, Komondjari, Kompienga, Kossi, Koulpelogo, Kouritenga,
  Kourweogo, Leraba, Loroum, Mouhoun, Namentenga, Nahouri, Nayala,
  Noumbiel, Oubritenga, Oudalan, Passore, Poni, Sanguie, Sanmatenga,
  Seno, Sissili, Soum, Sourou, Tapoa, Tuy, Yagha, Yatenga, Ziro,
  Zondoma, Zoundweogo

Independence:
  5 August 1960 (from France)

National holiday:
  Republic Day, 11 December (1958)

Constitution:
  2 June 1991 approved by referendum; 11 June 1991 formally adopted

Legal system:
  based on French civil law system and customary law

Suffrage:
  universal

Executive branch:
  chief of state: President Blaise COMPAORE (since 15 October 1987)
  head of government: Prime Minister Ernest Paramanga YONLI (since 6
  November 2000)
  cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president on the
  recommendation of the prime minister
  elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term;
  election last held 15 November 1998 (next to be held NA 2005); in
  April 2000, the constitution was amended reducing the presidential
  term from seven to five years, enforceable as of 2005, and allowing
  the president to be reelected only once; it is unclear whether this
  amendment will be applied retroactively or not; prime minister
  appointed by the president with the consent of the legislature
  note: President COMPAORE faces an increasingly well-coordinated
  opposition; recent charges against a former member of his
  Presidential Guard in the 1998 assassination of a newspaper editor
  signify an attempt to defuse chronic areas of dissatisfaction
  election results: Blaise COMPAORE reelected president with 87.5%
  percent of the vote

Legislative branch:
  unicameral National Assembly or Assemblee Nationale (111 seats;
  members are elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms)
  election results: percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party -
  CDP 57, RDA-ADF 17, PDP/PS 10, CFD 5, PAI 5, others 17
  elections: National Assembly election last held 5 May 2002 (next to
  be held NA May 2007)

Judicial branch:
  Supreme Court; Appeals Court

Political parties and leaders:
  African Democratic Rally-Alliance for Democracy and Federation or
  RDA-ADF [Herman YAMEOGO]; Confederation for Federation and Democracy
  or CFD [Amadou Diemdioda DICKO]; Congress for Democracy and Progress
  or CDP [Roch Marc-Christian KABORE]; Movement for Tolerance and
  Progress or MTP [Nayabtigungou Congo KABORE]; Party for African
  Independence or PAI [Philippe OUEDRAOGO]; Party for Democracy and
  Progress or PDP [Joseph KI-ZERBO]; Union of Greens for the
  Development of Burkina Faso or UVDB [Ram OVEDRAGO]

Political pressure groups and leaders:
  Burkinabe General Confederation of Labor or CGTB; Burkinabe
  Movement for Human Rights or MBDHP; Group of 14 February; National
  Confederation of Burkinabe Workers or CNTB; National Organization of
  Free Unions or ONSL; watchdog/political action groups throughout the
  country in both organizations and communities

International organization participation:
  ACCT, ACP, AfDB, ECA, ECOWAS, Entente, FAO, FZ, G-77, IAEA, IBRD,
  ICAO, ICC, ICCt (signatory), ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC,
  IFRCS, ILO, IMF, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ITU, MONUC, NAM, OAU, OIC,
  OPCW, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WADB (regional), WAEMU,
  WCL, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador Tertius ZONGO
  chancery: 2340 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
  FAX: [1] (202) 667-1882
  telephone: [1] (202) 332-5577

Diplomatic representation from the US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador Anthony HOLMES
  embassy: 602 Avenue Raoul Follereau, Koulouba, Secteur 4
  mailing address: 01 B. P. 35, Ouagadougou 01; pouch mail - U. S.
  Department of State, 2440 Ouagadougou Place, Washington, DC
  20521-2440
  telephone: [226] 306723
  FAX: [226] 303890

Flag description:
  two equal horizontal bands of red (top) and green with a yellow
  five-pointed star in the center; uses the popular pan-African colors
  of Ethiopia

Economy Burkina Faso

Economy - overview:
  One of the poorest countries in the world, landlocked Burkina Faso
  has few natural resources, a fragile soil, and a highly unequal
  distribution of income. About 90% of the population is engaged in
  (mainly subsistence) agriculture, which is vulnerable to variations
  in rainfall. Industry remains dominated by unprofitable
  government-controlled corporations. Following the African franc
  currency devaluation in January 1994 the government updated its
  development program in conjunction with international agencies, and
  exports and economic growth have increased. Maintenance of
  macroeconomic progress depends on continued low inflation, reduction
  in the trade deficit, and reforms designed to encourage private
  investment. The internal crisis in neighboring Cote d'Ivoire
  continues to hurt trade and industrial prospects and deepens the
  need for international assistance.

GDP:
  purchasing power parity - $14.51 billion (2002 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:
  4.6% (2002 est.)

GDP - per capita:
  purchasing power parity - $1,100 (2002 est.)

GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 35% industry: 17% services: 48% (2001)

Population below poverty line:
  45% (2001 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
  lowest 10%: 2%
  highest 10%: 46.8% (1994)

Distribution of family income - Gini index:
  48.2 (1994)

Inflation rate (consumer prices):
  3.5% (2001 est.)

Labor force:
  5 million
  note: a large part of the male labor force migrates annually to
  neighboring countries for seasonal employment (2002)

Labor force - by occupation:
  agriculture 90% (2000 est.)

Unemployment rate:
  NA%

Budget:
  revenues: $316 million
  expenditures: $NA, including capital expenditures of $NA (2001)

Industries:
  cotton lint, beverages, agricultural processing, soap, cigarettes,
  textiles, gold

Industrial production growth rate:
  14% (2001 est.)

Electricity - production:
  279.2 million kWh (2001)

Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel: 69.9% hydro: 30.1% other: 0% (2001) nuclear: 0%

Electricity - consumption:
  259.6 million kWh (2001)

Electricity - exports:
  0 kWh (2001)

Electricity - imports:
  0 kWh (2001)

Oil - production:
  0 bbl/day (2001 est.)

Oil - consumption:
  8,000 bbl/day (2001 est.)

Oil - exports:
  NA (2001)

Oil - imports:
  NA (2001)

Agriculture - products: cotton, peanuts, shea nuts, sesame, sorghum, millet, corn, rice; livestock

Exports:
  $250 million f.o.b. (2002 est.)

Exports - commodities:
  cotton, livestock, gold

Exports - partners:
  Singapore 14.7%, Italy 11.3%, Colombia 8.6%, France 7.7%, India
  6.9%, Ghana 6%, Japan 4.4%, Thailand 4.3% (2002)

Imports:
  $525 million f.o.b. (2002 est.)

Imports - commodities:
  capital goods, foodstuffs, petroleum

Imports - partners:
  France 27.7%, Cote d'Ivoire 23%, Togo 4.3% (2002)

Debt - external:
  $1.3 billion (2000)

Economic aid - recipient:
  $484.1 million (1995)

Currency:
  Communaute Financiere Africaine franc (XOF); note - responsible
  authority is the Central Bank of the West African States

Currency code:
  XOF

Exchange rates:
  Communaute Financiere Africaine francs (XOF) per US dollar - 696.99
  (2002), 733.04 (2001), 711.98 (2000), 615.7 (1999), 589.95 (1998)

Fiscal year:
  calendar year

Communications Burkina Faso

Telephones - main lines in use:
  53,200 (2000)

Telephones - mobile cellular:
  25,200 (2000)

Telephone system:
  general assessment: all services only fair
  domestic: microwave radio relay, open-wire, and radiotelephone
  communication stations
  international: satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations:
  AM 3, FM 17, shortwave 3 (2002)

Radios:
  394,020 (2000)

Television broadcast stations:
  1 (2002)

Televisions:
  131,340 (2002)

Internet country code:
  .bf

Internet Service Providers (ISPs):
  1 (2002)

Internet users:
  25,000 (2002)

Transportation Burkina Faso

Railways:
  total: 622 km
  narrow gauge: 622 km 1.000-m gauge
  note:: another 660 km of this railway extends into Cote D'Ivoire
  (2002)

Highways: total: 12,506 km paved: 2,001 km unpaved: 10,505 km (1999)

Waterways:
  none

Ports and harbors:
  none

Airports:
  33 (2002)

Airports - with paved runways: total: 2 over 3,047 m: 1 2,438 to 3,047 m: 1 (2002)

Airports - with unpaved runways: total: 31 1,524 to 2,437 m: 3 914 to 1,523 m: 11 under 914 m: 17 (2002)

Military Burkina Faso

Military branches:
  Army, Air Force, National Gendarmerie, National Police, People's
  Militia

Military manpower - availability:
  males age 15-49: 2,957,710 (2003 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:
  males age 15-49: 1,506,944 (2003 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure:
  $45.83 million (FY02)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP:
  1.4% (FY02)

Transnational Issues Burkina Faso

Disputes - international:
  two villages are in dispute along the border with Benin; Burkina
  Faso border regions have become a staging area for Liberia and Cote
  d'Ivoire rebels and an asylum for refugees caught in regional
  fighting; the Ivorian Government accuses Burkina Faso of supporting
  Ivorian rebels

This page was last updated on 18 December, 2003

======================================================================

@Burma

Introduction Burma

Background:
  Britain conquered Burma over a period of 62 years (1824-1886) and
  incorporated it into its Indian Empire. Burma was administered as a
  province of India until 1937 when it became a separate,
  self-governing colony; independence outside of the Commonwealth was
  attained in 1948. Gen. NE WIN dominated the government from 1962 to
  1988, first as military ruler, then as president, and later as
  political kingmaker. Despite multiparty elections in 1990 that
  resulted in the main opposition party winning a decisive victory,
  the ruling military junta refused to hand over power. Key opposition
  leader and Nobel Peace Prize recipient AUNG SAN SUU KYI, under house
  arrest from 1989 to 1995, was again placed under house detention
  from September 2000 to May 2002 and again in May 2003; her
  supporters are routinely harassed or jailed.

Geography Burma

Location:
  Southeastern Asia, bordering the Andaman Sea and the Bay of Bengal,
  between Bangladesh and Thailand

Geographic coordinates:
  22 00 N, 98 00 E

Map references:
  Southeast Asia

Area:
  total: 678,500 sq km
  land: 657,740 sq km
  water: 20,760 sq km

Area - comparative:
  slightly smaller than Texas

Land boundaries:
  total: 5,876 km
  border countries: Bangladesh 193 km, China 2,185 km, India 1,463 km,
  Laos 235 km, Thailand 1,800 km

Coastline:
  1,930 km

Maritime claims:
  contiguous zone: 24 NM
  territorial sea: 12 NM
  continental shelf: 200 NM or to the edge of the continental margin
  exclusive economic zone: 200 NM

Climate:
  tropical monsoon; cloudy, rainy, hot, humid summers (southwest
  monsoon, June to September); less cloudy, scant rainfall, mild
  temperatures, lower humidity during winter (northeast monsoon,
  December to April)

Terrain:
  central lowlands ringed by steep, rugged highlands

Elevation extremes:
  lowest point: Andaman Sea 0 m
  highest point: Hkakabo Razi 5,881 m

Natural resources:
  petroleum, timber, tin, antimony, zinc, copper, tungsten, lead,
  coal, some marble, limestone, precious stones, natural gas,
  hydropower

Land use:
  arable land: 14.53%
  permanent crops: 0.9%
  other: 84.57% (1998 est.)

Irrigated land:
  15,920 sq km (1998 est.)

Natural hazards:
  destructive earthquakes and cyclones; flooding and landslides
  common during rainy season (June to September); periodic droughts

Environment - current issues:
  deforestation; industrial pollution of air, soil, and water;
  inadequate sanitation and water treatment contribute to disease

Environment - international agreements: party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Law of the Sea, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94 signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - note: strategic location near major Indian Ocean shipping lanes

People Burma

Population:
  42,510,537
  note: estimates for this country take into account the effects of
  excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life
  expectancy, higher infant mortality and death rates, lower
  population and growth rates, and changes in the distribution of
  population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (July
  2003 est.)

Age structure:
  0-14 years: 28.1% (male 6,091,220; female 5,840,968)
  15-64 years: 67% (male 14,162,190; female 14,347,751)
  65 years and over: 4.9% (male 916,702; female 1,151,706) (2003 est.)

Median age:
  total: 25.3 years
  male: 24.8 years
  female: 25.9 years (2002)

Population growth rate:
  0.52% (2003 est.)

Birth rate:
  19.15 births/1,000 population (2003 est.)

Death rate:
  12.17 deaths/1,000 population (2003 est.)

Net migration rate:
  -1.81 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2003 est.)

Sex ratio:
  at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female
  under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
  15-64 years: 0.99 male(s)/female
  65 years and over: 0.8 male(s)/female
  total population: 0.99 male(s)/female (2003 est.)

Infant mortality rate:
  total: 70.35 deaths/1,000 live births
  female: 63.84 deaths/1,000 live births (2003 est.)
  male: 76.48 deaths/1,000 live births

Life expectancy at birth:
  total population: 55.79 years
  male: 54.12 years
  female: 57.56 years (2003 est.)

Total fertility rate:
  2.15 children born/woman (2003 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
  1.99% (2001 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
  530,000 (2001 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths:
  65,000 (2001 est.)

Nationality:
  noun: Burmese (singular and plural)
  adjective: Burmese

Ethnic groups:
  Burman 68%, Shan 9%, Karen 7%, Rakhine 4%, Chinese 3%, Indian 2%,
  Mon 2%, other 5%

Religions:
  Buddhist 89%, Christian 4% (Baptist 3%, Roman Catholic 1%), Muslim
  4%, animist 1%, other 2%

Languages:
  Burmese, minority ethnic groups have their own languages

Literacy:
  definition: age 15 and over can read and write
  total population: 83.1%
  male: 88.7%
  female: 77.7% (1995 est.)
  note: these are official statistics; estimates of functional
  literacy are likely closer to 30% (1999 est.)

Government Burma

Country name:
  conventional long form: Union of Burma
  conventional short form: Burma
  local short form: Myanma Naingngandaw
  local long form: Pyidaungzu Myanma Naingngandaw (translated by the
  US Government as Union of Myanma and by the Burmese as Union of
  Myanmar)
  former: Socialist Republic of the Union of Burma
  note: since 1989 the military authorities in Burma have promoted the
  name Myanmar as a conventional name for their state; this decision
  was not approved by any sitting legislature in Burma, and the US
  Government did not adopt the name, which is a derivative of the
  Burmese short-form name Myanma Naingngandaw

Government type:
  military regime

Capital:
  Rangoon (regime refers to the capital as Yangon)

Administrative divisions:
  7 divisions* (taing-myar, singular - taing) and 7 states (pyi
  ne-myar, singular - pyi ne); Chin State, Ayeyarwady*, Bago*, Kachin
  State, Kayin State, Kayah State, Magway*, Mandalay*, Mon State,
  Rakhine State, Sagaing*, Shan State, Tanintharyi*, Yangon*

Independence:
  4 January 1948 (from UK)

National holiday:
  Independence Day, 4 January (1948)

Constitution:
  3 January 1974 (suspended since 18 September 1988); national
  convention started on 9 January 1993 to draft a new constitution;
  progress has since been stalled

Legal system:
  has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage:
  18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
  chief of state: Chairman of the State Peace and Development Council
  Sr. Gen. THAN SHWE (since 23 April 1992)
  head of government: Chairman of the State Peace and Development
  Council Sr. Gen. THAN SHWE (since 23 April 1992); note - the
  appointed Prime Minister, Gen. KNIN NYUNT (since 25 August 2003), is
  not the head of government
  cabinet: State Peace and Development Council (SPDC); military junta,
  so named 15 November 1997, which initially assumed power 18
  September 1988 under the name State Law and Order Restoration
  Council; the SPDC oversees the cabinet
  elections: none

Legislative branch:
  unicameral People's Assembly or Pyithu Hluttaw (485 seats; members
  elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms)
  elections: last held 27 May 1990, but Assembly never convened
  election results: percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party -
  NLD 392, SNLD 23, NUP 10, other 60

Judicial branch:
  remnants of the British-era legal system are in place, but there is
  no guarantee of a fair public trial; the judiciary is not
  independent of the executive

Political parties and leaders:
  National League for Democracy or NLD [AUNG SHWE, chairman, AUNG SAN
  SUU KYI, general secretary]; National Unity Party or NUP (proregime)
  [THA KYAW]; Shan Nationalities League for Democracy or SNLD [KHUN
  TUN OO]; Union Solidarity and Development Association or USDA
  (proregime, a social and political organization) [THAN AUNG, general
  secretary]; and other smaller parties

Political pressure groups and leaders: All Burma Student Democratic Front or ABSDF; Kachin Independence Army or KIA; Karen National Union or KNU; National Coalition Government of the Union of Burma or NCGUB [Dr. SEIN WIN] consists of individuals legitimately elected to the People's Assembly but not recognized by the military regime (the group fled to a border area and joined with insurgents in December 1990 to form a parallel government); several Shan factions; United Wa State Army or UWSA

International organization participation:
  ARF, AsDB, ASEAN, CP, ESCAP, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM,
  IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, ITU, NAM, OPCW
  (signatory), UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO,
  WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador LINN MYAING
  consulate(s) general: New York
  FAX: [1] (202) 332-9046
  telephone: [1] (202) 332-9044
  chancery: 2300 S Street NW, Washington, DC 20008

Diplomatic representation from the US:
  chief of mission: Permanent Charge d'Affaires Carmen M. MARTINEZ
  embassy: 581 Merchant Street, Rangoon (GPO 521)
  mailing address: Box B, APO AP 96546
  telephone: [95] (1) 379 880, 379 881
  FAX: [95] (1) 256 018

Flag description:
  red with a blue rectangle in the upper hoist-side corner bearing,
  all in white, 14 five-pointed stars encircling a cogwheel containing
  a stalk of rice; the 14 stars represent the 14 administrative
  divisions

Economy Burma

Economy - overview:
  Burma is a resource-rich country that suffers from abject rural
  poverty. The military regime took steps in the early 1990s to
  liberalize the economy after decades of failure under the "Burmese
  Way to Socialism", but those efforts have since stalled. Burma has
  been unable to achieve monetary or fiscal stability, resulting in an
  economy that suffers from serious macroeconomic imbalances -
  including a steep inflation rate and an official exchange rate that
  overvalues the Burmese kyat by more than 100 times the market rate.
  In addition, most overseas development assistance ceased after the
  junta suppressed the democracy movement in 1988 and subsequently
  ignored the results of the 1990 election. Burma is data poor, and
  official statistics are often dated and inaccurate. Published
  estimates of Burma's foreign trade are greatly understated because
  of the size of the black market and border trade - often estimated
  to be one to two times the official economy.

GDP:
  purchasing power parity - $73.69 billion (2002 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:
  5.3% (2002 est.)

GDP - per capita:
  purchasing power parity - $1,700 (2002 est.)

GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 60% industry: 9% services: 31% (2002 est.)

Population below poverty line: 25% (2000 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: 2.8% highest 10%: 32.4% (1998)

Inflation rate (consumer prices):
  53.7% (2002 est.)

Labor force:
  23.7 million (1999 est.)

Labor force - by occupation:
  agriculture 70%, industry 7%, services 23% (2001 est.)

Unemployment rate:
  5.1% (2001 est.)

Budget:
  revenues: $7.9 billion
  expenditures: $12.2 billion, including capital expenditures of $5.7
  billion (FY96/97)

Industries:
  agricultural processing; knit and woven apparel; wood and wood
  products; copper, tin, tungsten, iron; construction materials;
  pharmaceuticals; fertilizer

Industrial production growth rate:
  NA%

Electricity - production:
  6.139 billion kWh (2001)

Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel: 44.4% hydro: 55.6% other: 0% (2001) nuclear: 0%

Electricity - consumption:
  5.709 billion kWh (2001)

Electricity - exports:
  0 kWh (2001)

Electricity - imports:
  0 kWh (2001)

Oil - production:
  14,170 bbl/day (2001 est.)

Oil - consumption:
  38,000 bbl/day (2001 est.)

Oil - exports:
  NA (2001)

Oil - imports:
  NA (2001)

Oil - proved reserves:
  142.5 million bbl (37257)

Natural gas - production:
  7.35 billion cu m (2001 est.)

Natural gas - consumption:
  2.15 billion cu m (2001 est.)

Natural gas - exports:
  5.2 billion cu m (2001 est.)

Natural gas - imports:
  0 cu m (2001 est.)

Natural gas - proved reserves:
  314.4 billion cu m (37257)

Agriculture - products: rice, pulses, beans, sesame, groundnuts, sugarcane; hardwood; fish and fish products

Exports:
  $2.7 billion f.o.b. (2002)

Exports - commodities:
  gas, wood products, pulses, beans, fish, rice

Exports - partners:
  Thailand 31.4%, US 13%, India 7.4%, China 4.7% (2002)

Imports:
  $2.5 billion f.o.b. (2002)

Imports - commodities:
  machinery, transport equipment, construction materials, crude oil;
  food products

Imports - partners:
  China 27%, Singapore 19.5%, Thailand 12%, Malaysia 9.1%, Taiwan
  6.3%, South Korea 5.3%, Japan 4.3% (2002)

Debt - external:
  $6.1 billion (2002 est.)

Economic aid - recipient:
  $99 million (FY98/99)

Currency:
  kyat (MMK)

Currency code:
  MMK

Exchange rates:
  kyats per US dollar - 6.64 (2002), 6.75 (2001), 6.52 (2000), 6.29
  (1999), 6.34 (1998)

Fiscal year:
  1 April - 31 March

Communications Burma

Telephones - main lines in use:
  250,000 (2000)

Telephones - mobile cellular:
  8,492 (1997)

Telephone system:
  general assessment: meets minimum requirements for local and
  intercity service for business and government; international service
  is good
  domestic: NA
  international: satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Indian Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations:
  AM 2, FM 3, shortwave 3 (1998)

Radios:
  4.2 million (1997)

Television broadcast stations:
  2 (1998)

Televisions:
  320,000 (2000)

Internet country code:
  .mm

Internet Service Providers (ISPs):
  1
  note: as of September 2000, Internet connections were legal only for
  the government, tourist offices, and a few large businesses (2000)

Internet users:
  10,000 (2002)

Transportation Burma

Railways: total: 3,955 km narrow gauge: 3,955 km 1.000-m gauge (2002)

Highways: total: 28,200 km paved: 3,440 km unpaved: 24,760 km (1996 est.)

Waterways: 12,800 km note: 3,200 km navigable by large commercial vessels

Pipelines:
  gas 2,056 km; oil 558 km (2003)

Ports and harbors:
  Bassein, Bhamo, Chauk, Mandalay, Moulmein, Myitkyina, Rangoon,
  Akyab (Sittwe), Tavoy

Merchant marine:
  total: 33 ships (1,000 GRT or over) 352,765 GRT/536,396 DWT
  note: includes some foreign-owned ships registered here as a flag of
  convenience: Germany 5, Japan 4 (2002 est.)
  ships by type: bulk 7, cargo 21, container 1, passenger/cargo 3,
  petroleum tanker 1

Airports:
  80 (2002)

Airports - with paved runways: total: 8 over 3,047 m: 2 2,438 to 3,047 m: 2 1,524 to 2,437 m: 4 (2002)

Airports - with unpaved runways: total: 72 under 914 m: 34 (2002) 914 to 1,523 m: 20 over 3,047 m: 2 1,524 to 2,437 m: 16

Heliports: 1 (2002)

Military Burma

Military branches:
  Army, Navy, Air Force

Military manpower - military age:
  18 years of age (2003 est.)

Military manpower - availability: males age 15-49: 12,349,921 note: both sexes liable for military service (2003 est.) females age 15-49: 12,358,507

Military manpower - fit for military service:
  males age 15-49: 6,566,122
  females age 15-49: 6,553,458 (2003 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
  males: 453,420
  females: 455,422 (2003 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure:
  $39 million (FY97)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP:
  2.1% (FY97)

Transnational Issues Burma

Disputes - international:
  despite continuing border committee talks, significant differences
  remain with Thailand over boundary alignment and the handling of
  ethnic rebels, refugees, and illegal cross-border activities

Illicit drugs:
  world's second largest producer of illicit opium (potential
  production in 2002 - 630 metric tons, down 27% due to drought and,
  to a lesser extent, eradication; cultivation in 2002 - 77,000
  hectares, a 27% decline from 2001); surrender of drug warlord KHUN
  SA's Mong Tai Army in January 1996 was hailed by Rangoon as a major
  counternarcotics success, but lack of government will and ability to
  take on major narcotrafficking groups and lack of serious commitment
  against money laundering continues to hinder the overall antidrug
  effort; major source of methamphetamine and heroin for regional
  consumption

This page was last updated on 18 December, 2003

======================================================================

@Burundi

Introduction Burundi

Background:
  Burundi's first democratically elected president was assassinated
  in October 1993 after only four months in office. Since then, some
  200,000 Burundians have perished in widespread, often intense ethnic
  violence between Hutu and Tutsi factions. Hundreds of thousands have
  been internally displaced or have become refugees in neighboring
  countries. Burundi troops, seeking to secure their borders,
  intervened in the conflict in the Democratic Republic of the Congo
  in 1998. More recently, many of these troops have been redeployed
  back to Burundi to deal with periodic upsurges in rebel activity. A
  new transitional government, inaugurated on 1 November 2001, was to
  be the first step toward holding national elections in three years.
  While the Government of Burundi signed a cease-fire agreement in
  December 2002 with three of Burundi's four Hutu rebel groups,
  implementation of the agreement has been problematic and one rebel
  group refuses to sign on, clouding prospects for a sustainable peace.

Geography Burundi

Location:
  Central Africa, east of Democratic Republic of the Congo

Geographic coordinates:
  3 30 S, 30 00 E

Map references:
  Africa

Area:
  total: 27,830 sq km
  water: 2,180 sq km
  land: 25,650 sq km

Area - comparative:
  slightly smaller than Maryland

Land boundaries:
  total: 974 km
  border countries: Democratic Republic of the Congo 233 km, Rwanda
  290 km, Tanzania 451 km

Coastline:
  0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims:
  none (landlocked)

Climate:
  equatorial; high plateau with considerable altitude variation (772
  m to 2,670 m above sea level); average annual temperature varies
  with altitude from 23 to 17 degrees centigrade but is generally
  moderate as the average altitude is about 1,700 m; average annual
  rainfall is about 150 cm; wet seasons from February to May and
  September to November, and dry seasons from June to August and
  December to January

Terrain:
  hilly and mountainous, dropping to a plateau in east, some plains

Elevation extremes:
  lowest point: Lake Tanganyika 772 m
  highest point: Mount Heha 2,670 m

Natural resources:
  nickel, uranium, rare earth oxides, peat, cobalt, copper, platinum
  (not yet exploited), vanadium, arable land, hydropower

Land use:
  arable land: 29.98%
  permanent crops: 12.85%
  other: 57.17% (1998 est.)

Irrigated land:
  740 sq km (1998 est.)

Natural hazards:
  flooding, landslides, drought

Environment - current issues:
  soil erosion as a result of overgrazing and the expansion of
  agriculture into marginal lands; deforestation (little forested land
  remains because of uncontrolled cutting of trees for fuel); habitat
  loss threatens wildlife populations

Environment - international agreements:
  party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto
  Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes,
  Ozone Layer Protection
  signed, but not ratified: Law of the Sea, Nuclear Test Ban

Geography - note:
  landlocked; straddles crest of the Nile-Congo watershed; the
  Kagera, which drains into Lake Victoria, is the most remote
  headstream of the White Nile

People Burundi

Population:
  6,096,156
  note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the
  effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower
  life expectancy, higher infant mortality and death rates, lower
  population and growth rates, and changes in the distribution of
  population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (July
  2003 est.)

Age structure:
  0-14 years: 46.7% (male 1,438,759; female 1,409,567)
  15-64 years: 50.6% (male 1,516,833; female 1,564,513)
  65 years and over: 2.7% (male 66,355; female 100,129) (2003 est.)

Median age:
  total: 16.3 years
  male: 15.9 years
  female: 16.7 years (2002)

Population growth rate:
  2.18% (2003 est.)

Birth rate:
  39.72 births/1,000 population (2003 est.)

Death rate:
  17.8 deaths/1,000 population (2003 est.)

Net migration rate:
  -0.12 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2003 est.)

Sex ratio:
  at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
  under 15 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
  15-64 years: 0.97 male(s)/female
  65 years and over: 0.66 male(s)/female
  total population: 0.98 male(s)/female (2003 est.)

Infant mortality rate:
  total: 71.54 deaths/1,000 live births
  female: 64.42 deaths/1,000 live births (2003 est.)
  male: 78.45 deaths/1,000 live births

Life expectancy at birth:
  total population: 43.2 years
  male: 42.54 years
  female: 43.88 years (2003 est.)

Total fertility rate:
  5.99 children born/woman (2003 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
  8.3% (2001 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
  390,000 (2001 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths:
  40,000 (2001 est.)

Nationality:
  noun: Burundian(s)
  adjective: Burundian

Ethnic groups:
  Hutu (Bantu) 85%, Tutsi (Hamitic) 14%, Twa (Pygmy) 1%, Europeans
  3,000, South Asians 2,000

Religions:
  Christian 67% (Roman Catholic 62%, Protestant 5%), indigenous
  beliefs 23%, Muslim 10%

Languages:
  Kirundi (official), French (official), Swahili (along Lake
  Tanganyika and in the Bujumbura area)

Literacy:
  definition: age 15 and over can read and write
  total population: 51.6%
  male: 58.5%
  female: 45.2% (2003 est.)

Government Burundi

Country name:
  conventional long form: Republic of Burundi
  conventional short form: Burundi
  local short form: Burundi
  local long form: Republika y'u Burundi
  former: Urundi

Government type:
  republic

Capital:
  Bujumbura

Administrative divisions:
  16 provinces; Bubanza, Bujumbura, Bururi, Cankuzo, Cibitoke,
  Gitega, Karuzi, Kayanza, Kirundo, Makamba, Muramvya, Muyinga, Mwaro,
  Ngozi, Rutana, Ruyigi

Independence:
  1 July 1962 (from UN trusteeship under Belgian administration)

National holiday:
  Independence Day, 1 July (1962)

Constitution:
  13 March 1992; provided for establishment of a plural political
  system; supplanted on 6 June 1998 by a Transitional Constitution
  which enlarged the National Assembly and created two vice presidents

Legal system:
  based on German and Belgian civil codes and customary law; has not
  accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage:
  NA years of age; universal adult

Executive branch:
  chief of state: President Domitien NDAYIZEYE (since 30 April 2003);
  note - NDAYIZEYE, a Hutu, was sworn in as president for the second
  half of the three-year transitional government inaugurated on 1
  November 2001; Vice President Alphonse KADEGE (since 30 April 2003);
  note - from the Tutsi minority
  head of government: President Domitien NDAYIZEYE (since 30 April
  2003); note - NDAYIZEYE, a Hutu, was sworn in as president for the
  second half of the three-year transitional government inaugurated on
  1 November 2001; Vice President Alphonse KADEGE (since 30 April
  2003); note - from the Tutsi minority
  cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by president
  elections: NA; current president assumed power on 30 April 2003 as
  part of the transitional government established by the 2000 Arusha
  Accord

Legislative branch:
  bicameral, consists of a National Assembly or Assemblee Nationale
  (expanded from 121 to approximately 140 seats under the transitional
  government inaugurated 1 November 2001; members are elected by
  popular vote to serve five-year terms) and a Senate (54 seats; term
  length is undefined, the current senators will likely serve out the
  three-year transition period)
  elections: last held 29 June 1993 (next was scheduled to be held in
  1998, but was suspended by presidential decree in 1996; elections
  are planned to follow the completion of the three-year transitional
  government)
  election results: percent of vote by party - FRODEBU 71.04%, UPRONA
  21.4%, other 7.56%; seats by party - FRODEBU 65, UPRONA 16,
  civilians 27, other parties 13

Judicial branch:
  Supreme Court or Cour Supreme; Constitutional Court; Courts of
  Appeal (there are three in separate locations); Tribunals of First
  Instance (17 at the province level and 123 small local tribunals)

Political parties and leaders:
  the two national, mainstream, governing parties are: Unity for
  National Progress or UPRONA [Alphonse KADEGE, president]; Burundi
  Democratic Front or FRODEBU [Jean MINANI, president]
  note: a multiparty system was introduced after 1998, included are:
  Burundi African Alliance for the Salvation or ABASA [Terrence
  NSANZE]; Rally for Democracy and Economic and Social Development or
  RADDES [Joseph NZEYIMANA]; Party for National Redress or PARENA
  [Jean-Baptiste BAGAZA]; People's Reconciliation Party or PRP
  [Mathias HITIMANA]

Political pressure groups and leaders:
  loosely organized Hutu and Tutsi militias, often affiliated with
  Hutu and Tutsi extremist parties or subordinate to government
  security forces

International organization participation:
  ACCT, ACP, AfDB, CEEAC, CEPGL, ECA, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt
  (signatory), ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, Interpol, IOC,
  IOM (observer), ISO (subscriber), ITU, NAM, OAU, OPCW, UN, UNCTAD,
  UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador Antoine NTAMOBWA
  chancery: Suite 212, 2233 Wisconsin Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20007
  FAX: [1] (202) 342-2578
  telephone: [1] (202) 342-2574

Diplomatic representation from the US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador James Howard YELLIN
  embassy: Avenue des Etats-Unis, Bujumbura
  mailing address: B. P. 1720, Bujumbura
  telephone: [257] 223454
  FAX: [257] 222926

Flag description:
  divided by a white diagonal cross into red panels (top and bottom)
  and green panels (hoist side and outer side) with a white disk
  superimposed at the center bearing three red six-pointed stars
  outlined in green arranged in a triangular design (one star above,
  two stars below)

Economy Burundi

Economy - overview:
  Burundi is a landlocked, resource-poor country with an
  underdeveloped manufacturing sector. The economy is predominantly
  agricultural with roughly 90% of the population dependent on
  subsistence agriculture. Economic growth depends on coffee and tea
  exports, which account for 90% of foreign exchange earnings. The
  ability to pay for imports, therefore, rests primarily on weather
  conditions and international coffee and tea prices. The Tutsi
  minority, 14% of the population, dominates the government and the
  coffee trade at the expense of the Hutu majority, 85% of the
  population. Since October 1993 an ethnic-based war has resulted in
  the death of over 200,000 persons, sent 800,000 refugees into
  Tanzania, and displaced 525,000 others internally. Doubts about the
  prospects for sustainable peace continue to impede development. Only
  one in two children go to school, and approximately one in ten
  adults has HIV/AIDS. Food, medicine, and electricity remain in short
  supply.

GDP:
  purchasing power parity - $3.146 billion (2002 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:
  4.5% (2002 est.)

GDP - per capita:
  purchasing power parity - $500 (2002 est.)

GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 50% industry: 19% services: 31% (2002 est.)

Population below poverty line: 70% (2002 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: 1.8% highest 10%: 32.9% (1998)

Distribution of family income - Gini index:
  42.5 (1998)

Inflation rate (consumer prices):
  12% (2002 est.)

Labor force:
  3.7 million (2000)

Labor force - by occupation:
  NA

Unemployment rate:
  NA%

Budget:
  revenues: $125 million
  expenditures: $176 million, including capital expenditures of $NA
  (2000 est.)

Industries:
  light consumer goods such as blankets, shoes, soap; assembly of
  imported components; public works construction; food processing

Industrial production growth rate:
  18% (2001)

Electricity - production:
  155.4 million kWh (2001)

Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel: 0.6% hydro: 99.4% other: 0% (2001) nuclear: 0%

Electricity - consumption:
  177.5 million kWh (2001)

Electricity - exports:
  0 kWh (2001)

Electricity - imports:
  33 million kWh; note - supplied by the Democratic Republic of the
  Congo (2001)

Oil - production:
  0 bbl/day (2001 est.)

Oil - consumption:
  2,750 bbl/day (2001 est.)

Oil - exports:
  NA (2001)

Oil - imports:
  NA (2001)

Agriculture - products: coffee, cotton, tea, corn, sorghum, sweet potatoes, bananas, manioc (tapioca); beef, milk, hides

Exports:
  $26 million f.o.b. (2002 est.)

Exports - commodities:
  coffee, tea, sugar, cotton, hides

Exports - partners:
  Switzerland 28.8%, Germany 20.2%, Belgium 9.4%, Kenya 7.8%, Rwanda
  6.5%, Netherlands 4.6% (2002)

Imports:
  $135 million f.o.b. (2002 est.)

Imports - commodities:
  capital goods, petroleum products, foodstuffs

Imports - partners:
  Belgium 12.4%, Saudi Arabia 12.3%, Tanzania 9.3%, Kenya 7.7%,
  France 7.4%, India 4.5% (2002)

Debt - external:
  $1.14 billion (2001)

Economic aid - recipient:
  $92.7 million (2000)

Currency:
  Burundi franc (BIF)

Currency code:
  BIF

Exchange rates:
  Burundi francs per US dollar - NA (2002), 830.35 (2001), 720.67
  (2000), 563.56 (1999), 447.77 (1998)

Fiscal year:
  calendar year

Communications Burundi

Telephones - main lines in use:
  18,000 (2002)

Telephones - mobile cellular:
  30,000 (2002)

Telephone system:
  general assessment: primitive system
  domestic: sparse system of open-wire, radiotelephone communications,
  and low-capacity microwave radio relay
  international: satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Indian Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations:
  AM 0, FM 4, shortwave 1 (2001)

Radios:
  440,000 (2001)

Television broadcast stations:
  1 (2001)

Televisions:
  25,000 (1997)

Internet country code:
  .bi

Internet Service Providers (ISPs):
  1 (2000)

Internet users:
  6,000 (2002)

Transportation Burundi

Railways: 0 km

Highways: total: 14,480 km paved: 1,028 km unpaved: 13,452 km (1999 est.)

Waterways:
  Lake Tanganyika

Ports and harbors:
  Bujumbura

Airports:
  7 (2002)

Airports - with paved runways:
  total: 1
  over 3,047 m: 1 (2002)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
  total: 6
  914 to 1,523 m: 3
  under 914 m: 3 (2002)

Military Burundi

Military branches:
  Army (including naval and air units), Gendarmerie

Military manpower - military age:
  16 years of age (2003 est.)

Military manpower - availability:
  males age 15-49: 1,375,900 (2003 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:
  males age 15-49: 723,516 (2003 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
  males: 79,462 (2003 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure:
  $42.13 million (FY02)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP:
  5.3% (FY02)

Transnational Issues Burundi

Disputes - international:
  Tutsi, Hutu, and other conflicting ethnic groups, associated
  political rebels, armed gangs, and various government forces
  continue fighting in the Great Lakes region, transcending the
  boundaries of Burundi, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Rwanda, and
  Uganda to gain control over populated and natural resource areas;
  government heads pledge to end conflict, but localized violence
  continues despite UN peacekeeping efforts

This page was last updated on 18 December, 2003

======================================================================

@Cambodia

Introduction Cambodia

Background:
  Following a five-year struggle, Communist Khmer Rouge forces
  captured Phnom Penh in 1975 and ordered the evacuation of all cities
  and towns; over 1 million displaced people died from execution or
  enforced hardships. A 1978 Vietnamese invasion drove the Khmer Rouge
  into the countryside and touched off almost 20 years of fighting.
  UN-sponsored elections in 1993 helped restore some semblance of
  normalcy as did the rapid diminishment of the Khmer Rouge in the
  mid-1990s. A coalition government, formed after national elections
  in 1998, brought renewed political stability and the surrender of
  remaining Khmer Rouge forces in 1998.

Geography Cambodia

Location:
  Southeastern Asia, bordering the Gulf of Thailand, between
  Thailand, Vietnam, and Laos

Geographic coordinates:
  13 00 N, 105 00 E

Map references:
  Southeast Asia

Area:
  total: 181,040 sq km
  land: 176,520 sq km
  water: 4,520 sq km

Area - comparative:
  slightly smaller than Oklahoma

Land boundaries: total: 2,572 km border countries: Laos 541 km, Thailand 803 km, Vietnam 1,228 km

Coastline: 443 km

Maritime claims: contiguous zone: 24 NM territorial sea: 12 NM continental shelf: 200 NM exclusive economic zone: 200 NM

Climate:
  tropical; rainy, monsoon season (May to November); dry season
  (December to April); little seasonal temperature variation

Terrain:
  mostly low, flat plains; mountains in southwest and north

Elevation extremes:
  lowest point: Gulf of Thailand 0 m
  highest point: Phnum Aoral 1,810 m

Natural resources:
  timber, gemstones, some iron ore, manganese, phosphates, hydropower
  potential

Land use: arable land: 20.96% permanent crops: 0.61% other: 78.43% (1998 est.)

Irrigated land:
  2,700 sq km (1998 est.)

Natural hazards:
  monsoonal rains (June to November); flooding; occasional droughts

Environment - current issues:
  illegal logging activities throughout the country and strip mining
  for gems in the western region along the border with Thailand have
  resulted in habitat loss and declining biodiversity (in particular,
  destruction of mangrove swamps threatens natural fisheries); soil
  erosion; in rural areas, a majority of the population does not have
  access to potable water; toxic waste delivery from Taiwan sparked
  unrest in Kampong Saom (Sihanoukville) in December 1998

Environment - international agreements:
  party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered
  Species, Hazardous Wastes, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer
  Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands
  signed, but not ratified: Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping

Geography - note:
  a land of paddies and forests dominated by the Mekong River and
  Tonle Sap

People Cambodia

Population:
  13,124,764
  note: estimates for this country take into account the effects of
  excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life
  expectancy, higher infant mortality and death rates, lower
  population and growth rates, and changes in the distribution of
  population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (July
  2003 est.)

Age structure:
  0-14 years: 39.3% (male 2,606,568; female 2,557,736)
  15-64 years: 57.6% (male 3,599,216; female 3,962,520)
  65 years and over: 3.1% (male 148,287; female 250,437) (2003 est.)

Median age:
  total: 19.2 years
  male: 18.4 years
  female: 20 years (2002)

Population growth rate:
  1.8% (2003 est.)

Birth rate:
  27.28 births/1,000 population (2003 est.)

Death rate:
  9.26 deaths/1,000 population (2003 est.)

Net migration rate:
  0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2003 est.)

Sex ratio:
  at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
  under 15 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
  15-64 years: 0.91 male(s)/female
  65 years and over: 0.59 male(s)/female
  total population: 0.94 male(s)/female (2003 est.)

Infant mortality rate:
  total: 75.94 deaths/1,000 live births
  female: 66.51 deaths/1,000 live births (2003 est.)
  male: 84.96 deaths/1,000 live births

Life expectancy at birth:
  total population: 57.92 years
  male: 55.49 years
  female: 60.47 years (2003 est.)

Total fertility rate:
  3.58 children born/woman (2003 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
  2.7% (2001 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
  170,000 (2001 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths:
  12,000 (2001 est.)

Nationality:
  noun: Cambodian(s)
  adjective: Cambodian

Ethnic groups:
  Khmer 90%, Vietnamese 5%, Chinese 1%, other 4%

Religions:
  Theravada Buddhist 95%, other 5%

Languages:
  Khmer (official) 95%, French, English

Literacy:
  definition: age 15 and over can read and write
  total population: 69.9%
  male: 80.5%
  female: 60.3% (2003 est.)

Government Cambodia

Country name:
  conventional long form: Kingdom of Cambodia
  conventional short form: Cambodia
  local short form: Kampuchea
  local long form: Preahreacheanachakr Kampuchea
  former: Khmer Republic, Kampuchea Republic

Government type:
  multiparty democracy under a constitutional monarchy established in
  September 1993

Capital:
  Phnom Penh

Administrative divisions:
  20 provinces (khett, singular and plural) and 4 municipalities*
  (krong, singular and plural); Banteay Mean Cheay, Batdambang,
  Kampong Cham, Kampong Chhnang, Kampong Spoe, Kampong Thum, Kampot,
  Kandal, Kaoh Kong, Keb*, Kracheh, Mondol Kiri, Otdar Mean Cheay,
  Pailin*, Phnum Penh*, Pouthisat, Preah Seihanu*, Preah Vihear, Prey
  Veng, Rotanah Kiri, Siem Reab, Stoeng Treng, Svay Rieng, Takev

Independence:
  9 November 1953 (from France)

National holiday:
  Independence Day, 9 November (1953)

Constitution:
  promulgated 21 September 1993

Legal system:
  primarily a civil law mixture of French-influenced codes from the
  United Nations Transitional Authority in Cambodia (UNTAC) period,
  royal decrees, and acts of the legislature, with influences of
  customary law and remnants of communist legal theory; increasing
  influence of common law in recent years

Suffrage:
  18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
  chief of state: King Norodom SIHANOUK (reinstated 24 September 1993)
  head of government: Prime Minister HUN SEN (since 30 November 1998)
  and Deputy Prime Ministers SAR KHENG (since 1993) and TOL LAH (since
  1998)
  cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the monarch
  elections: none; the monarch is chosen by a Royal Throne Council;
  following legislative elections, a member of the majority party or
  majority coalition is named prime minister by the Chairman of the
  National Assembly and appointed by the king

Legislative branch:
  bicameral consists of the National Assembly (122 seats; members
  elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms) and the Senate (61
  seats; two members appointed by the monarch, two elected by the
  National Assembly, and 57 elected by "functional constituencies";
  members serve five-year terms)
  elections: National Assembly - last held 27 July 2003 (next to be
  held in July 2007); Senate - last held 2 March 1999 (next to be held
  in 2004)
  election results: National Assembly - percent of vote by party - CPP
  47%, SRP 22%, FUNCINPEC 21%, other 10%; seats by party - CPP 73,
  FUNCINPEC 26, SRP 24; Senate - percent of vote by party - NA%; seats
  by party - CPP 31, FUNCINPEC 21, SRP 7, other 2 (2003)

Judicial branch:
  Supreme Council of the Magistracy (provided for in the constitution
  and formed in December 1997); Supreme Court (and lower courts)
  exercises judicial authority

Political parties and leaders:
  Buddhist Liberal Party or BLP [IENG MOULY]; Cambodian Pracheachon
  Party or Cambodian People's Party or CPP [CHEA SIM]; Khmer Citizen
  Party or KCP [NGUON SOEUR]; National United Front for an
  Independent, Neutral, Peaceful, and Cooperative Cambodia or
  FUNCINPEC [Prince NORODOM RANARIDDH]; Sam Rangsi Party or SRP
  (formerly Khmer Nation Party or KNP) [SAM RANGSI]

Political pressure groups and leaders:
  NA

International organization participation:
  ACCT, ARF, AsDB, ASEAN, CP, ESCAP, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO,
  ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC,
  IOM, ISO (subscriber), ITU, NAM, OPCW (signatory), PCA, UN, UNCTAD,
  UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO (observer)

Diplomatic representation in the US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador ROLAND ENG
  FAX: [1] (202) 726-8381
  telephone: [1] (202) 726-7742
  chancery: 4530 16th Street NW, Washington, DC 20011

Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Charles Aaron RAY embassy: 27 EO Street 240, Phnom Penh mailing address: Box P, APO AP 96546 telephone: [855] (23) 216-436/438 FAX: [855] (23) 216-437/811

Flag description:
  three horizontal bands of blue (top), red (double width), and blue
  with a white three-towered temple representing Angkor Wat outlined
  in black in the center of the red band

Economy Cambodia

Economy - overview:
  Cambodia's economy slowed dramatically in 1997-1998 due to the
  regional economic crisis, civil violence, and political infighting.
  Foreign investment and tourism fell off. In 1999, the first full
  year of peace in 30 years, progress was made on economic reforms and
  growth resumed at 5.0%. Despite severe flooding, GDP grew at 5.0% in
  2000, 6.3% in 2001, and 5.2% in 2002. Tourism was Cambodia's fastest
  growing industry, with arrivals up 34% in 2000 and up another 40% in
  2001 before the September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks in the US. Even
  given these stout growth estimates, the long-term development of the
  economy after decades of war remains a daunting challenge. The
  population lacks education and productive skills, particularly in
  the poverty-ridden countryside, which suffers from an almost total
  lack of basic infrastructure. Fear of renewed political instability
  and corruption within the government discourage foreign investment
  and delay foreign aid. The government is addressing these issues
  with assistance from bilateral and multilateral donors.

GDP:
  purchasing power parity - $20.42 billion (2002 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:
  4.5% (2002 est.)

GDP - per capita:
  purchasing power parity - $1,600 (2002 est.)

GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 40% industry: 20% services: 40% (2001 est.)

Population below poverty line: 36% (1997 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: 2.9% highest 10%: 33.8% (1997)

Distribution of family income - Gini index:
  40.4 (1997)

Inflation rate (consumer prices):
  3.3% (2002 est.)

Labor force:
  6 million (1998 est.)

Labor force - by occupation:
  agriculture 80% (2001 est.)

Unemployment rate:
  2.8% (1999 est.)

Budget:
  revenues: $396 million
  expenditures: $607 million, including capital expenditures of $254
  million (2001 est.)

Industries:
  tourism, garments, rice milling, fishing, wood and wood products,
  rubber, cement, gem mining, textiles

Industrial production growth rate:
  16% (2001 est.)

Electricity - production:
  119 million kWh (2001)

Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel: 65% hydro: 35% other: 0% (2001) nuclear: 0%

Electricity - consumption:
  110.6 million kWh (2001)

Electricity - exports:
  0 kWh (2001)

Electricity - imports:
  0 kWh (2001)

Oil - production:
  0 bbl/day (2001 est.)

Oil - consumption:
  3,600 bbl/day (2001 est.)

Oil - exports:
  NA (2001)

Oil - imports:
  NA (2001)

Agriculture - products:
  rice, rubber, corn, vegetables

Exports:
  $1.38 billion f.o.b. (2001 est.)

Exports - commodities:
  timber, garments, rubber, rice, fish

Exports - partners:
  US 60.2%, Germany 9.1%, UK 7.1%, Singapore 4.4% (2002)

Imports:
  $1.73 billion f.o.b. (2001 est.)

Imports - commodities:
  petroleum products, cigarettes, gold, construction materials,
  machinery, motor vehicles

Imports - partners:
  Thailand 24.8%, Singapore 16.9%, China 12.1%, Hong Kong 10.9%,
  South Korea 5.5%, Vietnam 5.2% (2002)

Debt - external:
  $829 million (1999 est.)

Economic aid - recipient: $548 million pledged in grants and concessional loans for 2001 by international donors

Currency:
  riel (KHR)

Currency code:
  KHR

Exchange rates:
  riels per US dollar - 3,912.08 (2002), 3,916.33 (2001), 3,840.75
  (2000), 3,807.83 (1999), 3,744.42 (1998)

Fiscal year:
  calendar year

Communications Cambodia

Telephones - main lines in use:
  21,800 (mid-1998)

Telephones - mobile cellular:
  80,000 (2000)

Telephone system:
  general assessment: adequate landline and/or cellular service in
  Phnom Penh and other provincial cities; rural areas have little
  telephone service
  domestic: NA
  international: adequate but expensive landline and cellular service
  available to all countries from Phnom Penh and major provincial
  cities; satellite earth station - 1 Intersputnik (Indian Ocean
  region)

Radio broadcast stations:
  AM 7, FM 3, shortwave 3 (1999)

Radios:
  1.34 million (1997)

Television broadcast stations:
  6 (2003)

Televisions:
  94,000 (1997)

Internet country code:
  .kh

Internet Service Providers (ISPs):
  2 (2000)

Internet users:
  10,000 (2002)

Transportation Cambodia

Railways: total: 602 km narrow gauge: 602 km 1.000-m gauge (2002)

Highways:
  total: 12,323 km
  paved: 1,996 km
  unpaved: 10,327 km (2000 est)

Waterways:
  3,700 km
  note: navigable all year to craft drawing 0.6 m or less; 282 km
  navigable to craft drawing as much as 1.8 m

Ports and harbors:
  Kampong Saom (Sihanoukville), Kampot, Krong Kaoh Kong, Phnom Penh

Merchant marine:
  total: 527 ships (1,000 GRT or over) 2,328,371 GRT/3,294,028 DWT
  ships by type: bulk 49, cargo 412, chemical tanker 2, combination
  bulk 4, container 17, liquefied gas 1, livestock carrier 2,
  multi-functional large-load carrier 1, passenger/cargo 1, petroleum
  tanker 18, refrigerated cargo 11, roll on/roll off 7, short-sea
  passenger 2
  note: includes some foreign-owned ships registered here as a flag of
  convenience: Aruba 1, Belize 11, Bulgaria 3, Cambodia 194, Canada 4,
  China 25, Cyprus 14, Egypt 10, Estonia 2, France 1, Georgia 1,
  Germany 1, Gibraltar 1, Greece 13, Honduras 8, Hong Kong 12, Iceland
  1, Indonesia 2, Iran 1, Ireland 1, Italy 2, Japan 2, Jordan 1, North
  Korea, 1, South Korea, 25, Latvia 3, Lebanon 6, Liberia 7, Malaysia
  1, Malta 1, Marshall Islands 4, Netherlands 1, Norway 1, Panama 10,
  Romania 2, Russia 75, Saint Kitts and Nevis 4, Saint Vincent and the
  Grenadines 5, Singapore 17, Syria 20, Turkey 18, Ukraine 16, United
  Arab Emirates 3, United Kingdom 1, United States 5, Vietnam 3 (2002
  est.)

Airports:
  21 (2002)

Airports - with paved runways:
  total: 5
  2,438 to 3,047 m: 2
  1,524 to 2,437 m: 2
  914 to 1,523 m: 1 (2002)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
  total: 16
  under 914 m: 1 (2002)
  1,524 to 2,437 m: 2
  914 to 1,523 m: 13

Heliports:
  2 (2002)

Military Cambodia

Military branches:
  Royal Cambodian Armed Forces (RCAF): Army, Navy, Air Force

Military manpower - military age:
  18 years of age (2003 est.)

Military manpower - availability:
  males age 15-49: 3,275,533 (2003 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:
  males age 15-49: 1,829,535 (2003 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
  males: 165,395 (2003 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure:
  $112 million (FY01 est.)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP:
  3% (FY01 est.)

Transnational Issues Cambodia

Disputes - international:
  completed boundary demarcation with Thailand; accuses Vietnam of
  moving and destroying boundary markers and encroachments, initiating
  border incidents; accuses Thailand of preventing access to Preah
  Vihear temple ruins awarded to Cambodia by ICJ decision in 1962;
  maritime boundary with Vietnam hampered by dispute over offshore
  islands

Illicit drugs:
  narcotics-related corruption reportedly involving some in the
  government, military, and police; possible small-scale opium,
  heroin, and amphetamine production; large producer of cannabis for
  the international market; vulnerable to money laundering due to its
  cash-based economy and porous borders

This page was last updated on 18 December, 2003

======================================================================

@Cameroon

Introduction Cameroon

Background:
  The former French Cameroon and part of British Cameroon merged in
  1961 to form the present country. Cameroon has generally enjoyed
  stability, which has permitted the development of agriculture,
  roads, and railways, as well as a petroleum industry. Despite
  movement toward democratic reform, political power remains firmly in
  the hands of an ethnic oligarchy.

Geography Cameroon

Location:
  Western Africa, bordering the Bight of Biafra, between Equatorial
  Guinea and Nigeria

Geographic coordinates:
  6 00 N, 12 00 E

Map references:
  Africa

Area:
  total: 475,440 sq km
  water: 6,000 sq km
  land: 469,440 sq km

Area - comparative:
  slightly larger than California

Land boundaries:
  total: 4,591 km
  border countries: Central African Republic 797 km, Chad 1,094 km,
  Republic of the Congo 523 km, Equatorial Guinea 189 km, Gabon 298
  km, Nigeria 1,690 km

Coastline:
  402 km

Maritime claims:
  territorial sea: 50 NM

Climate:
  varies with terrain, from tropical along coast to semiarid and hot
  in north

Terrain:
  diverse, with coastal plain in southwest, dissected plateau in
  center, mountains in west, plains in north

Elevation extremes:
  lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m
  highest point: Fako (on Cameroon Mountain) 4,095 m

Natural resources:
  petroleum, bauxite, iron ore, timber, hydropower

Land use: arable land: 12.81% permanent crops: 2.58% other: 84.61% (1998 est.)

Irrigated land:
  330 sq km (1998 est.)

Natural hazards:
  volcanic activity with periodic releases of poisonous gases from
  Lake Nyos and Lake Monoun volcanoes

Environment - current issues:
  water-borne diseases are prevalent; deforestation; overgrazing;
  desertification; poaching; overfishing

Environment - international agreements:
  party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered
  Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection,
  Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94
  signed, but not ratified: Nuclear Test Ban

Geography - note:
  sometimes referred to as the hinge of Africa; throughout the
  country there are areas of thermal springs and indications of
  current or prior volcanic activity; Mount Cameroon, the highest
  mountain in Sub-Saharan west Africa, is an active volcano

People Cameroon

Population:
  15,746,179
  note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the
  effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower
  life expectancy, higher infant mortality and death rates, lower
  population and growth rates, and changes in the distribution of
  population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (July
  2003 est.)

Age structure:
  0-14 years: 42.3% (male 3,372,129; female 3,291,295)
  15-64 years: 54.5% (male 4,315,672; female 4,265,286)
  65 years and over: 3.2% (male 227,444; female 274,353) (2003 est.)

Median age:
  total: 18.4 years
  male: 18.2 years
  female: 18.5 years (2002)

Population growth rate:
  2.02% (2003 est.)

Birth rate:
  35.49 births/1,000 population (2003 est.)

Death rate:
  15.3 deaths/1,000 population (2003 est.)

Net migration rate:
  0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2003 est.)

Sex ratio:
  at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
  under 15 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
  15-64 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
  65 years and over: 0.83 male(s)/female
  total population: 1.01 male(s)/female (2003 est.)

Infant mortality rate:
  total: 70.12 deaths/1,000 live births
  female: 65.91 deaths/1,000 live births (2003 est.)
  male: 74.2 deaths/1,000 live births

Life expectancy at birth:
  total population: 48.05 years
  male: 47.15 years
  female: 48.97 years (2003 est.)

Total fertility rate:
  4.63 children born/woman (2003 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
  11.8% (2001 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
  920,000 (2001 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths:
  53,000 (2001 est.)

Nationality:
  noun: Cameroonian(s)
  adjective: Cameroonian

Ethnic groups:
  Cameroon Highlanders 31%, Equatorial Bantu 19%, Kirdi 11%, Fulani
  10%, Northwestern Bantu 8%, Eastern Nigritic 7%, other African 13%,
  non-African less than 1%

Religions:
  indigenous beliefs 40%, Christian 40%, Muslim 20%

Languages:
  24 major African language groups, English (official), French
  (official)

Literacy:
  definition: age 15 and over can read and write
  total population: 79%
  male: 84.7%
  female: 73.4% (2003 est.)

Government Cameroon

Country name:
  conventional long form: Republic of Cameroon
  conventional short form: Cameroon
  former: French Cameroon

Government type:
  unitary republic; multiparty presidential regime (opposition
  parties legalized in 1990)
  note: preponderance of power remains with the president

Capital:
  Yaounde

Administrative divisions:
  10 provinces; Adamaoua, Centre, Est, Extreme-Nord, Littoral, Nord,
  Nord-Ouest, Ouest, Sud, Sud-Ouest

Independence:
  1 January 1960 (from French-administered UN trusteeship)

National holiday:
  Republic Day (National Day), 20 May (1972)

Constitution:
  20 May 1972 approved by referendum; 2 June 1972 formally adopted;
  revised January 1996

Legal system:
  based on French civil law system, with common law influence; has
  not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage:
  20 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
  chief of state: President Paul BIYA (since 6 November 1982)
  elections: president elected by popular vote for a seven-year term;
  election last held 12 October 1997 (next to be held NA October
  2004); prime minister appointed by the president
  head of government: Prime Minister Peter Mafany MUSONGE (since 19
  September 1996)
  cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president from proposals submitted
  by the prime minister
  election results: President Paul BIYA reelected; percent of vote -
  Paul BIYA 92.6%; note - supporters of the opposition candidates
  boycotted the elections, making a comparison of vote shares
  relatively meaningless

Legislative branch:
  unicameral National Assembly or Assemblee Nationale (180 seats;
  members are elected by direct popular vote to serve five-year terms;
  note - the president can either lengthen or shorten the term of the
  legislature)
  elections: last held 23 June 2002 (next to be held NA 2007)
  election results: percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party -
  RDCP 133, SDF 21, UDC 5, other 21
  note: the constitution calls for an upper chamber for the
  legislature, to be called a Senate, but it has yet to be established

Judicial branch:
  Supreme Court (judges are appointed by the president); High Court
  of Justice (consists of 9 judges and 6 substitute judges, elected by
  the National Assembly)

Political parties and leaders:
  Cameroonian Democratic Union or UDC [Adamou NDAM NJOYA]; Democratic
  Rally of the Cameroon People or RDCP [Paul BIYA]; Movement for the
  Defense of the Republic or MDR [Dakole DAISSALA]; Movement for the
  Liberation and Development of Cameroon or MLDC [leader Marcel
  YONDO]; Movement for the Youth of Cameroon or MYC [Dieudonne TINA];
  National Union for Democracy and Progress or UNDP [Maigari BELLO
  BOUBA]; Social Democratic Front or SDF [John FRU NDI]; Union of
  Cameroonian Populations or UPC [Augustin Frederic KODOCK]

Political pressure groups and leaders:
  Southern Cameroon National Council [Frederick Ebong ALOBWEDE];
  Human Rights Defense Group [Albert MUKONG, president]

International organization participation:
  ACCT, ACP, AfDB, BDEAC, C, CEEAC, CEMAC, ECA, FAO, FZ, G-19, G-77,
  IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICCt (signatory), ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IDB,
  IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, ISO (correspondent),
  ITU, MONUC, NAM, OAU, OIC, OPCW, PCA, UN, UN Security Council
  (temporary), UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO,
  WMO, WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador Jerome MENDOUGA
  chancery: 2349 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
  FAX: [1] (202) 387-3826
  telephone: [1] (202) 265-8790

Diplomatic representation from the US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador George McDade STAPLES
  embassy: Rue Nachtigal, Yaounde
  mailing address: P. O. Box 817, Yaounde; pouch: American Embassy,
  Department of State, Washington, DC 20521-2520
  telephone: [237] 223-05-12, 222-25-89, 222-17-94, 223-40-14
  FAX: [237] 223-07-53
  branch office(s): Douala

Flag description:
  three equal vertical bands of green (hoist side), red, and yellow
  with a yellow five-pointed star centered in the red band; uses the
  popular pan-African colors of Ethiopia

Economy Cameroon

Economy - overview:
  Because of its oil resources and favorable agricultural conditions,
  Cameroon has one of the best-endowed primary commodity economies in
  sub-Saharan Africa. Still, it faces many of the serious problems
  facing other underdeveloped countries, such as a top-heavy civil
  service and a generally unfavorable climate for business enterprise.
  Since 1990, the government has embarked on various IMF and World
  Bank programs designed to spur business investment, increase
  efficiency in agriculture, improve trade, and recapitalize the
  nation's banks. In June 2000, the government completed an
  IMF-sponsored, three-year structural adjustment program; however,
  the IMF is pressing for more reforms, including increased budget
  transparency, privatization, and poverty reduction programs.
  International oil and cocoa prices have considerable impact on the
  economy.

GDP:
  purchasing power parity - $26.84 billion (2002 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:
  4% (2002 est.)

GDP - per capita:
  purchasing power parity - $1,700 (2002 est.)

GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 46% industry: 21% services: 33% (2001 est.)

Population below poverty line: 48% (2000 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: 1.9% highest 10%: 36.6% (1996)

Distribution of family income - Gini index:
  47.7 (1996)

Inflation rate (consumer prices):
  4.5% (2002 est.)

Labor force:
  NA

Labor force - by occupation:
  agriculture 70%, industry and commerce 13%, other 17%

Unemployment rate:
  30% (2001 est.)

Budget:
  revenues: $2.2 billion
  expenditures: $2.1 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA
  (FY 00/01 est.)

Industries:
  petroleum production and refining, food processing, light consumer
  goods, textiles, lumber

Industrial production growth rate:
  4.2% (1999 est.)

Electricity - production:
  3.613 billion kWh (2001)

Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel: 2.7% hydro: 97.3% other: 0% (2001) nuclear: 0%

Electricity - consumption:
  3.36 billion kWh (2001)

Electricity - exports:
  0 kWh (2001)

Electricity - imports:
  0 kWh (2001)

Oil - production:
  76,650 bbl/day (2001 est.)

Oil - consumption:
  22,000 bbl/day (2001 est.)

Oil - exports:
  NA (2001)

Oil - imports:
  NA (2001)

Oil - proved reserves:
  200 million bbl (37257)

Natural gas - production:
  0 cu m (2001 est.)

Natural gas - consumption:
  0 cu m (2001 est.)

Natural gas - exports:
  0 cu m (2001 est.)

Natural gas - imports:
  0 cu m (2001 est.)

Natural gas - proved reserves:
  55.22 billion cu m (37257)

Agriculture - products: coffee, cocoa, cotton, rubber, bananas, oilseed, grains, root starches; livestock; timber

Exports: $1.9 billion f.o.b. (2002 est.)

Exports - commodities:
  crude oil and petroleum products, lumber, cocoa beans, aluminum,
  coffee, cotton

Exports - partners:
  Italy 16.7%, Spain 16%, France 12.8%, US 8.3%, Netherlands 8.2%,
  Taiwan 7.7%, China 5.2%, UK 4.4% (2002)

Imports:
  $1.7 billion f.o.b. (2002 est.)

Imports - commodities:
  machinery, electrical equipment, transport equipment, fuel, food

Imports - partners:
  France 28.2%, Nigeria 12.8%, US 8%, Belgium 5.7%, Germany 5.3%,
  Italy 4.3% (2002)

Debt - external:
  $8.6 billion (2002 est.)

Economic aid - recipient:
  on 23 January 2001, the Paris Club agreed to reduce Cameroon's debt
  of $1.3 billion by $900 million; total debt relief now amounts to
  $1.26 billion

Currency:
  Communaute Financiere Africaine franc (XAF); note - responsible
  authority is the Bank of the Central African States

Currency code:
  XAF

Exchange rates:
  Communaute Financiere Africaine francs (XAF) per US dollar - 696.99
  (2002), 733.04 (2001), 711.98 (2000), 615.7 (1999), 589.95 (1998)

Fiscal year:
  1 July - 30 June

Communications Cameroon

Telephones - main lines in use:
  95,000 (2001)

Telephones - mobile cellular:
  300,000 (2002)

Telephone system:
  general assessment: available only to business and government
  domestic: cable, microwave radio relay, and tropospheric scatter
  international: satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations:
  AM 2, FM 9, shortwave 3 (2002)

Radios:
  2.27 million (1997)

Television broadcast stations:
  1 (2002)

Televisions:
  450,000 (1997)

Internet country code:
  .cm

Internet Service Providers (ISPs):
  1 (2002)

Internet users:
  45,000
  note: Cameroon also had more than 100 cyber-cafes in 2001 (December
  2001)

Transportation Cameroon

Railways: total: 1,008 km narrow gauge: 1,008 km 1.000-m gauge (2002)

Highways: total: 34,300 km paved: 4,288 km unpaved: 30,012 km (1999 est.)

Waterways:
  2,090 km (of decreasing importance) (2002)

Pipelines:
  gas 90 km; liquid petroleum gas 9 km; oil 1,124 km (2003)

Ports and harbors:
  Bonaberi, Douala, Garoua, Kribi, Tiko

Airports:
  49 (2002)

Airports - with paved runways: total: 11 over 3,047 m: 2 2,438 to 3,047 m: 4 1,524 to 2,437 m: 3 914 to 1,523 m: 1 under 914 m: 1 (2002)

Airports - with unpaved runways: total: 38 1,524 to 2,437 m: 7 914 to 1,523 m: 20 under 914 m: 11 (2002)

Military Cameroon

Military branches:
  Army, Navy (includes naval infantry), Air Force, National
  Gendarmerie, Presidential Guard

Military manpower - military age:
  18 years of age (2003 est.)

Military manpower - availability:
  males age 15-49: 3,799,841 (2003 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:
  males age 15-49: 1,928,285 (2003 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
  males: 179,586 (2003 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure:
  $118.6 million (FY00)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP:
  1.4% (FY98)

Transnational Issues Cameroon

Disputes - international:
  ICJ ruled in 2002 on the Cameroon-Nigeria land and maritime
  boundary by awarding the potentially petroleum-rich Bakassi
  Peninsula and offshore region to Cameroon; Nigeria rejected cession
  of the peninsula, but the parties have formed a Joint Border
  Commission to resolve differences bilaterally and have commenced
  with demarcation in less-contested sections of the boundary; Lake
  Chad Commission continues to urge signatories Cameroon, Chad, Niger,
  and Nigeria to ratify delimitation treaty over the lake region,
  which remains the site of armed clashes among local populations and
  militias; Nigeria agreed to ratify the treaty and relinquish
  sovereignty of disputed lands to Cameroon by December 2003

This page was last updated on 18 December, 2003

======================================================================

@Canada

Introduction Canada

Background:
  A land of vast distances and rich natural resources, Canada became
  a self-governing dominion in 1867 while retaining ties to the
  British crown. Economically and technologically the nation has
  developed in parallel with the US, its neighbor to the south across
  an unfortified border. Its paramount political problem continues to
  be the relationship of the province of Quebec, with its
  French-speaking residents and unique culture, to the remainder of
  the country.

Geography Canada

Location:
  Northern North America, bordering the North Atlantic Ocean on the
  east, North Pacific Ocean on the west, and the Arctic Ocean on the
  north, north of the conterminous US

Geographic coordinates:
  60 00 N, 95 00 W

Map references:
  North America

Area:
  total: 9,984,670 sq km
  land: 9,093,507 sq km
  water: 891,163 sq km

Area - comparative:
  somewhat larger than the US

Land boundaries: total: 8,893 km border countries: US 8,893 km (includes 2,477 km with Alaska)

Coastline:
  202,080 km

Maritime claims:
  contiguous zone: 24 NM
  territorial sea: 12 NM
  continental shelf: 200 NM or to the edge of the continental margin
  exclusive economic zone: 200 NM

Climate:
  varies from temperate in south to subarctic and arctic in north

Terrain:
  mostly plains with mountains in west and lowlands in southeast

Elevation extremes:
  lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m
  highest point: Mount Logan 5,959 m

Natural resources:
  iron ore, nickel, zinc, copper, gold, lead, molybdenum, potash,
  diamonds, silver, fish, timber, wildlife, coal, petroleum, natural
  gas, hydropower

Land use:
  arable land: 4.94%
  permanent crops: 0.02%
  other: 95.04% (1998 est.)

Irrigated land:
  7,200 sq km (1998 est.)

Natural hazards:
  continuous permafrost in north is a serious obstacle to
  development; cyclonic storms form east of the Rocky Mountains, a
  result of the mixing of air masses from the Arctic, Pacific, and
  North American interior, and produce most of the country's rain and
  snow east of the mountains

Environment - current issues:
  air pollution and resulting acid rain severely affecting lakes and
  damaging forests; metal smelting, coal-burning utilities, and
  vehicle emissions impacting on agricultural and forest productivity;
  ocean waters becoming contaminated due to agricultural, industrial,
  mining, and forestry activities

Environment - international agreements:
  party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air
  Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Sulphur 85,
  Air Pollution-Sulphur 94, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources,
  Antarctic Seals, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change,
  Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification,
  Hazardous Wastes, Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer
  Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94,
  Wetlands
  signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds,
  Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Law
  of the Sea, Marine Life Conservation

Geography - note:
  second-largest country in world (after Russia); strategic location
  between Russia and US via north polar route; approximately 85% of
  the population is concentrated within 300 km of the US border

People Canada

Population:
  32,207,113 (July 2003 est.)

Age structure:
  0-14 years: 18.5% (male 3,052,005; female 2,903,007)
  15-64 years: 68.6% (male 11,099,907; female 10,984,903)
  65 years and over: 12.9% (male 1,774,262; female 2,393,029) (2003
  est.)

Median age: total: 37.8 years male: 36.9 years female: 38.8 years (2002)

Population growth rate:
  0.94% (2003 est.)

Birth rate:
  10.99 births/1,000 population (2003 est.)

Death rate:
  7.61 deaths/1,000 population (2003 est.)

Net migration rate:
  6.01 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2003 est.)

Sex ratio:
  at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
  under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
  15-64 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
  65 years and over: 0.74 male(s)/female
  total population: 0.98 male(s)/female (2003 est.)

Infant mortality rate:
  total: 4.88 deaths/1,000 live births
  female: 4.39 deaths/1,000 live births (2003 est.)
  male: 5.36 deaths/1,000 live births

Life expectancy at birth:
  total population: 79.83 years
  male: 76.44 years
  female: 83.38 years (2003 est.)

Total fertility rate:
  1.61 children born/woman (2003 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
  0.3% (2001 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
  55,000 (2001 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths:
  less than 500 (2001 est.)

Nationality:
  noun: Canadian(s)
  adjective: Canadian

Ethnic groups:
  British Isles origin 28%, French origin 23%, other European 15%,
  Amerindian 2%, other, mostly Asian, African, Arab 6%, mixed
  background 26%

Religions:
  Roman Catholic 46%, Protestant 36%, other 18%
  note: based on the 1991 census

Languages:
  English 59.3% (official), French 23.2% (official), other 17.5%

Literacy:
  definition: age 15 and over can read and write
  total population: 97% (1986 est.)
  male: NA%
  female: NA%

Government Canada

Country name: conventional long form: none conventional short form: Canada

Government type:
  confederation with parliamentary democracy

Capital:
  Ottawa

Administrative divisions:
  10 provinces and 3 territories*; Alberta, British Columbia,
  Manitoba, New Brunswick, Newfoundland and Labrador, Northwest
  Territories*, Nova Scotia, Nunavut*, Ontario, Prince Edward Island,
  Quebec, Saskatchewan, Yukon Territory*

Independence:
  1 July 1867 (from UK)

National holiday:
  Canada Day, 1 July (1867)

Constitution:
  17 April 1982 (Constitution Act); originally, the machinery of the
  government was set up in the British North America Act of 1867;
  charter of rights and unwritten customs

Legal system:
  based on English common law, except in Quebec, where civil law
  system based on French law prevails; accepts compulsory ICJ
  jurisdiction, with reservations

Suffrage:
  18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
  chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952),
  represented by Governor General Adrienne CLARKSON (since 7 October
  1999)
  elections: none; the monarchy is hereditary; governor general
  appointed by the monarch on the advice of the prime minister for a
  five-year term; following legislative elections, the leader of the
  majority party or the leader of the majority coalition in the House
  of Commons is automatically designated prime minister by the
  governor general
  head of government: Prime Minister Paul MARTIN (since 12 December
  2003); Deputy Prime Minister Anne MCLELLAN (since 12 December 2003)
  cabinet: Federal Ministry chosen by the prime minister from among
  the members of his own party sitting in Parliament

Legislative branch:
  bicameral Parliament or Parlement consists of the Senate or Senat
  (members appointed by the governor general with the advice of the
  prime minister and serve until reaching 75 years of age; its normal
  limit is 105 senators) and the House of Commons or Chambre des
  Communes (301 seats; members elected by direct, popular vote to
  serve for up to five-year terms)
  elections: House of Commons - last held 27 November 2000 (next to be
  held by 2005)
  election results: House of Commons - percent of vote by party -
  Liberal Party 41%, Canadian Alliance 26%, Bloc Quebecois 11%, New
  Democratic Party 9%, Progressive Conservative Party 12%; seats by
  party - Liberal Party 172, Canadian Alliance 66, Bloc Quebecois 38,
  New Democratic Party 13, Progressive Conservative Party 12; note -
  percent of vote by party as of January 2002 - Liberal Party 51%,
  Canadian Alliance 10%, Bloc Quebecois 10%, New Democratic Party 9%,
  Progressive Conservative Party 18%; seats by party - Liberal Party
  172, Canadian Alliance 66, Bloc Quebecois 38, New Democratic Party
  13, Progressive Conservative Party 12

Judicial branch:
  Supreme Court of Canada (judges are appointed by the prime minister
  through the governor general); Federal Court of Canada; Federal
  Court of Appeal; Provincial Courts (these are named variously Court
  of Appeal, Court of Queens Bench, Superior Court, Supreme Court, and
  Court of Justice)

Political parties and leaders:
  Bloc Quebecois [Gilles DUCEPPE]; Canadian Alliance [Stephen
  HARPER]; Liberal Party [Paul MARTIN]; New Democratic Party [Jack
  LAYTON]; Progressive Conservative Party [Peter MACKAY]

Political pressure groups and leaders:
  NA

International organization participation:
  ACCT, AfDB, APEC, ARF (dialogue partner), AsDB, ASEAN (dialogue
  partner), Australia Group, BIS, C, CDB, CE (observer), EAPC, EBRD,
  ECE, ECLAC, ESA (cooperating state), FAO, G-7, G-8, G-10, IADB,
  IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICCt, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC,
  IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, MINURCA,
  MIPONUH, MONUC, NAM (guest), NATO, NEA, NSG, OAS, OECD, OPCW, OSCE,
  PCA, UN, UNAMSIL, UNCTAD, UNDOF, UNESCO, UNFICYP, UNHCR, UNMEE,
  UNMIBH, UNMIK, UNMOP, UNMOVIC, UNTSO, UNU, UPU, WCL, WCO, WFTU, WHO,
  WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO, ZC

Diplomatic representation in the US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador Michael F. KERGIN
  chancery: 501 Pennsylvania Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20001
  FAX: [1] (202) 682-7726
  telephone: [1] (202) 682-1740
  consulate(s) general: Atlanta, Boston, Buffalo, Chicago, Dallas,
  Detroit, Los Angeles, Minneapolis, New York, and Seattle
  consulate(s): Miami, Princeton, San Francisco, and San Jose

Diplomatic representation from the US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador Paul CELLUCCI
  embassy: 490 Sussex Drive, Ottawa, Ontario K1N 1G8
  mailing address: P. O. Box 5000, Ogdensburgh, NY 13669-0430
  telephone: [1] (613) 238-5335, 4470
  FAX: [1] (613) 688-3097
  consulate(s) general: Calgary, Halifax, Montreal, Quebec, Toronto,
  and Vancouver

Flag description:
  two vertical bands of red (hoist and fly side, half width), with
  white square between them; an 11-pointed red maple leaf is centered
  in the white square; the official colors of Canada are red and white

Economy Canada

Economy - overview:
  As an affluent, high-tech industrial society, Canada today closely
  resembles the US in its market-oriented economic system, pattern of
  production, and high living standards. Since World War II, the
  impressive growth of the manufacturing, mining, and service sectors
  has transformed the nation from a largely rural economy into one
  primarily industrial and urban. The 1989 US-Canada Free Trade
  Agreement (FTA) and the 1994 North American Free Trade Agreement
  (NAFTA) (which includes Mexico) touched off a dramatic increase in
  trade and economic integration with the US. As a result of the close
  cross-border relationship, the economic sluggishness in the United
  States in 2001-02 had a negative impact on the Canadian economy.
  Real growth averaged nearly 3% during 1993-2000, but declined in
  2001, with moderate recovery in 2002. Unemployment is up, with
  contraction in the manufacturing and natural resource sectors.
  Nevertheless, given its great natural resources, skilled labor
  force, and modern capital plant Canada enjoys solid economic
  prospects. Two shadows loom, the first being the continuing
  constitutional impasse between English- and French-speaking areas,
  which has been raising the specter of a split in the federation.
  Another long-term concern is the flow south to the US of
  professionals lured by higher pay, lower taxes, and the immense
  high-tech infrastructure. A key strength in the economy is the
  substantial trade surplus.

GDP:
  purchasing power parity - $934.1 billion (2002 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:
  3.3% (2002 est.)

GDP - per capita:
  purchasing power parity - $29,300 (2002 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
  agriculture: 2.3%
  industry: 26.5%
  services: 71.2% (2001 est.)

Population below poverty line:
  NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: 2.8% highest 10%: 23.8% (1994)

Distribution of family income - Gini index:
  31.5 (1994)

Inflation rate (consumer prices):
  2.2% (2002 est.)

Labor force:
  16.4 million (2001 est.)

Labor force - by occupation: services 74%, manufacturing 15%, construction 5%, agriculture 3%, other 3% (2000)

Unemployment rate:
  7.6% (2002 est.)

Budget:
  revenues: $178.6 billion
  expenditures: $161.4 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA
  (FY 00/01 est.)

Industries:
  transportation equipment, chemicals, processed and unprocessed
  minerals, food products; wood and paper products; fish products,
  petroleum and natural gas

Industrial production growth rate:
  2.2% (2002 est.)

Electricity - production:
  566.3 billion kWh (2001)

Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel: 28% hydro: 57.9% other: 1.3% (2001) nuclear: 12.9%

Electricity - consumption:
  504.4 billion kWh (2001)

Electricity - exports:
  38.4 billion kWh (2001)

Electricity - imports:
  16.11 billion kWh (2001)

Oil - production:
  2.738 million bbl/day (2001 est.)

Oil - consumption:
  1.703 million bbl/day (2001 est.)

Oil - exports:
  2.008 million bbl/day (2001)

Oil - imports:
  1.145 million bbl/day (2001)

Oil - proved reserves:
  5.112 billion bbl (37257)

Natural gas - production:
  186.8 billion cu m (2001 est.)

Natural gas - consumption:
  82.25 billion cu m (2001 est.)

Natural gas - exports:
  109 billion cu m (2001 est.)

Natural gas - imports:
  4.46 billion cu m (2001 est.)

Natural gas - proved reserves:
  1.691 trillion cu m (37257)

Agriculture - products: wheat, barley, oilseed, tobacco, fruits, vegetables; dairy products; forest products; fish

Exports:
  $260.5 billion f.o.b. (2002 est.)

Exports - commodities:
  motor vehicles and parts, industrial machinery, aircraft,
  telecommunications equipment; chemicals, plastics, fertilizers; wood
  pulp, timber, crude petroleum, natural gas, electricity, aluminum

Exports - partners:
  US 87.7%, Japan 2%, UK 1.1% (2002)

Imports:
  $229 billion f.o.b. (2002 est.)

Imports - commodities:
  machinery and equipment, motor vehicles and parts, crude oil,
  chemicals, electricity, durable consumer goods

Imports - partners:
  US 62.6%, China 4.6%, Japan 4.4% (2002)

Debt - external:
  $1.9 billion $NA (2000)

Economic aid - donor:
  ODA, $1.3 billion (1999)

Currency:
  Canadian dollar (CAD)

Currency code:
  CAD

Exchange rates:
  Canadian dollars per US dollar - 1.57 (2002), 1.55 (2001), 1.49
  (2000), 1.49 (1999), 1.48 (1998)

Fiscal year:
  1 April - 31 March

Communications Canada

Telephones - main lines in use:
  20,802,900 (1999)

Telephones - mobile cellular:
  8,751,300 (1997)

Telephone system:
  general assessment: excellent service provided by modern technology
  domestic: domestic satellite system with about 300 earth stations
  international: 5 coaxial submarine cables; satellite earth stations
  - 5 Intelsat (4 Atlantic Ocean and 1 Pacific Ocean) and 2
  Intersputnik (Atlantic Ocean region)

Radio broadcast stations:
  AM 535, FM 53, shortwave 6 (1998)

Radios:
  32.3 million (1997)

Television broadcast stations:
  80 (plus many repeaters) (1997)

Televisions:
  21.5 million (1997)

Internet country code:
  .ca

Internet Service Providers (ISPs):
  760 (2000 est.)

Internet users:
  16.84 million (2002)

Transportation Canada

Railways: total: 49,422 km standard gauge: 49,422 km 1.435-m gauge (129 km electrified) (2002)

Highways:
  total: 1.408 million km
  paved: 497,306 km (including 16,900 km of expressways)
  unpaved: 911,494 km (2002)

Waterways:
  3,000 km (including Saint Lawrence Seaway)

Pipelines:
  crude and refined oil 23,564 km; natural gas 74,980 km

Ports and harbors:
  Becancour (Quebec), Churchill, Halifax, Hamilton, Montreal, New
  Westminster, Prince Rupert, Quebec, Saint John (New Brunswick), St.
  John's (Newfoundland), Sept Isles, Sydney, Trois-Rivieres, Thunder
  Bay, Toronto, Vancouver, Windsor

Merchant marine:
  total: 122 ships (1,000 GRT or over) 1,840,272 GRT/2,740,864 DWT
  ships by type: barge carrier 1, bulk 64, cargo 11, chemical tanker
  6, combination bulk 2, combination ore/oil 1, container 1, passenger
  2, passenger/cargo 1, petroleum tanker 18, railcar carrier 2, roll
  on/roll off 9, short-sea passenger 3, specialized tanker 1
  note: includes some foreign-owned ships registered here as a flag of
  convenience: Germany 3, Monaco 16, United Kingdom 1, United States 1
  (2002 est.)

Airports:
  1,389 (2002)

Airports - with paved runways: total: 507 over 3,047 m: 18 2,438 to 3,047 m: 15 914 to 1,523 m: 245 under 914 m: 80 (2002) 1,524 to 2,437 m: 149

Airports - with unpaved runways: total: 882 1,524 to 2,437 m: 73 914 to 1,523 m: 363 under 914 m: 446 (2002)

Heliports: 12 (2002)

Military Canada

Military branches:
  Canadian Armed Forces (comprising Land Forces Command, Maritime
  Command, Air Command, Communications Command, Training Command)

Military manpower - military age:
  16 years of age (2003 est.)

Military manpower - availability:
  males age 15-49: 8,391,120 (2003 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:
  males age 15-49: 7,158,016 (2003 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
  males: 216,488 (2003 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure:
  $7.861 billion (FY01/02)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP:
  1.1% (FY01/02)

Transnational Issues Canada

Disputes - international:
  managed maritime boundary disputes with the US at Dixon Entrance,
  Beaufort Sea, Strait of Juan de Fuca, and around the disputed
  Machias Seal Island and North Rock; uncontested dispute with Denmark
  over Hans Island sovereignty in the Kennedy Channel between
  Ellesmere Island and Greenland

Illicit drugs:
  illicit producer of cannabis for the domestic drug market; use of
  hydroponics technology permits growers to plant large quantities of
  high-quality marijuana indoors; transit point for heroin and cocaine
  entering the US market; vulnerable to narcotics money laundering
  because of its mature financial services sector

This page was last updated on 18 December, 2003

======================================================================

@Cape Verde

Introduction Cape Verde

Background:
  The uninhabited islands were discovered and colonized by the
  Portuguese in the 15th century; they subsequently became a trading
  center for African slaves and later an important coaling and
  resupply stop for whaling and transatlantic shipping. Following
  independence in 1975, and a tentative interest in unification with
  Guinea-Bissau, a one-party system was established and maintained
  until multi-party elections were held in 1990. Cape Verde continues
  to exhibit one of Africa's most stable democratic governments.
  Repeated droughts during the second half of the 20th century caused
  significant hardship and prompted heavy emigration. As a result,
  Cape Verde's expatriate population is greater than its domestic one.
  Most Cape Verdeans have both African and Portuguese antecedents.

Geography Cape Verde

Location:
  Western Africa, group of islands in the North Atlantic Ocean, west
  of Senegal

Geographic coordinates:
  16 00 N, 24 00 W

Map references:
  Political Map of the World

Area:
  total: 4,033 sq km
  water: 0 sq km
  land: 4,033 sq km

Area - comparative:
  slightly larger than Rhode Island

Land boundaries:
  0 km

Coastline:
  965 km

Maritime claims: measured from claimed archipelagic baselines territorial sea: 12 NM exclusive economic zone: 200 NM contiguous zone: 24 NM

Climate:
  temperate; warm, dry summer; precipitation meager and very erratic

Terrain:
  steep, rugged, rocky, volcanic

Elevation extremes: lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m highest point: Mt. Fogo 2,829 m (a volcano on Fogo Island)

Natural resources: salt, basalt rock, limestone, kaolin, fish

Land use: arable land: 9.68% permanent crops: 0.5% other: 89.82% (1998 est.)

Irrigated land:
  30 sq km (1998 est.)

Natural hazards:
  prolonged droughts; seasonal harmattan wind produces obscuring
  dust; volcanically and seismically active

Environment - current issues:
  soil erosion; demand for wood used as fuel has resulted in
  deforestation; desertification; environmental damage has threatened
  several species of birds and reptiles; illegal beach sand
  extraction; overfishing

Environment - international agreements:
  party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification,
  Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine
  Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection
  signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - note:
  strategic location 500 km from west coast of Africa near major
  north-south sea routes; important communications station; important
  sea and air refueling site

People Cape Verde

Population:
  412,137 (July 2003 est.)

Age structure:
  0-14 years: 41% (male 85,254; female 83,716)
  15-64 years: 52.3% (male 103,690; female 111,992)
  65 years and over: 6.7% (male 10,498; female 16,987) (2003 est.)

Median age:
  total: 18.7 years
  male: 17.9 years
  female: 19.6 years (2002)

Population growth rate:
  0.79% (2003 est.)

Birth rate:
  26.95 births/1,000 population (2003 est.)

Death rate:
  6.86 deaths/1,000 population (2003 est.)

Net migration rate:
  -12.16 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2003 est.)

Sex ratio:
  at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
  under 15 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
  15-64 years: 0.93 male(s)/female
  65 years and over: 0.62 male(s)/female
  total population: 0.94 male(s)/female (2003 est.)

Infant mortality rate:
  total: 50.5 deaths/1,000 live births
  female: 45.01 deaths/1,000 live births (2003 est.)
  male: 55.83 deaths/1,000 live births

Life expectancy at birth:
  total population: 69.83 years
  male: 66.53 years
  female: 73.23 years (2003 est.)

Total fertility rate:
  3.77 children born/woman (2003 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
  0.04% (2001 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
  775 (2001)

HIV/AIDS - deaths:
  225 (as of 2001)

Nationality:
  noun: Cape Verdean(s)
  adjective: Cape Verdean

Ethnic groups:
  Creole (mulatto) 71%, African 28%, European 1%

Religions:
  Roman Catholic (infused with indigenous beliefs); Protestant
  (mostly Church of the Nazarene)

Languages:
  Portuguese, Crioulo (a blend of Portuguese and West African words)

Literacy:
  definition: age 15 and over can read and write
  total population: 76.6%
  male: 85.8%
  female: 69.2% (2003 est.)

Government Cape Verde

Country name:
  conventional long form: Republic of Cape Verde
  conventional short form: Cape Verde
  local short form: Cabo Verde
  local long form: Republica de Cabo Verde

Government type:
  republic

Capital:
  Praia

Administrative divisions:
  17 municipalities (concelhos, singular - concelho); Boa Vista,
  Brava, Maio, Mosteiros, Paul, Praia, Porto Novo, Ribeira Grande,
  Sal, Santa Catarina, Santa Cruz, Sao Domingos, Sao Filipe, Sao
  Miguel, Sao Nicolau, Sao Vicente, Tarrafal

Independence:
  5 July 1975 (from Portugal)

National holiday:
  Independence Day, 5 July (1975)

Constitution:
  new constitution came into force 25 September 1992; underwent a
  major revision on 23 November 1995, substantially increasing the
  powers of the president, and a further revision in 1999, to create
  the position of national ombudsman (Provedor de Justica)

Legal system:
  derived from the legal system of Portugal

Suffrage:
  18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
  chief of state: President Pedro PIRES (since 22 March 2001)
  head of government: Prime Minister Jose Maria Pereira NEVES (since 1
  February 2001)
  cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president on the
  recommendation of the prime minister
  elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term;
  election last held 11 and 25 February 2001 (next to be held NA
  February 2006); prime minister nominated by the National Assembly
  and appointed by the president
  election results: Pedro PIRES elected president; percent of vote -
  Pedro PIRES (PAICV) 49.43%, Carlos VIEGA (MPD) 49.42%; note - the
  election was won by only twelve votes

Legislative branch:
  unicameral National Assembly or Assembleia Nacional (72 seats;
  members are elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms)
  elections: last held 14 January 2001 (next to be held NA December
  2005)
  election results: percent of vote by party - PAICV 47.3%, MPD 39.8%,
  ADM 6%, other 6.9%; seats by party - PAICV 40, MPD 30, ADM 2

Judicial branch:
  Supreme Tribunal of Justice or Supremo Tribunal de Justia

Political parties and leaders:
  African Party for Independence of Cape Verde or PAICV [Jose Maria
  Pereira NEVES, chairman]; Democratic Alliance for Change or ADM [Dr.
  Eurico MONTEIRO] (a coalition of PCD, PTS, and UCID); Democratic
  Christian Party or PDC [Manuel RODRIGUES, chairman]; Democratic
  Renovation Party or PRD [Jacinto SANTOS, president]; Movement for
  Democracy or MPD [Agostinho LOPES, president]; Party for Democratic
  Convergence or PCD [Dr. Eurico MONTEIRO, president]; Party of Work
  and Solidarity or PTS [Anibal MEDINA, president]; Social Democratic
  Party or PSD [Joao ALEM, president]

Political pressure groups and leaders:
  NA

International organization participation:
  ACCT, ACP, AfDB, ECA, ECOWAS, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt
  (signatory), ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO,
  Interpol, IOC, IOM, IOM (observer), ITU, NAM, OAU, OPCW (signatory),
  UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO
  (observer)

Diplomatic representation in the US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador Jose BRITO
  consulate(s) general: Boston
  FAX: [1] (202) 965-1207
  telephone: [1] (202) 965-6820
  chancery: 3415 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20007

Diplomatic representation from the US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador Donald C. JOHNSON
  embassy: Rua Abilio m. Macedo 81, Praia
  mailing address: C. P. 201, Praia
  telephone: [238] 61 56 16, 61 56 17
  FAX: [238] 61 13 55

Flag description:
  three horizontal bands of light blue (top, double width), white
  (with a horizontal red stripe in the middle third), and light blue;
  a circle of 10 yellow five-pointed stars is centered on the hoist
  end of the red stripe and extends into the upper and lower blue bands

Economy Cape Verde

Economy - overview:
  This island economy suffers from a poor natural resource base,
  including serious water shortages exacerbated by cycles of long-term
  drought. The economy is service-oriented, with commerce, transport,
  tourism, and public services accounting for 72% of GDP. Although
  nearly 70% of the population lives in rural areas, the share of
  agriculture in GDP in 2001 was only 11%, of which fishing accounts
  for 1.5%. About 82% of food must be imported. The fishing potential,
  mostly lobster and tuna, is not fully exploited. Cape Verde annually
  runs a high trade deficit, financed by foreign aid and remittances
  from emigrants; remittances supplement GDP by more than 20%.
  Economic reforms are aimed at developing the private sector and
  attracting foreign investment to diversify the economy. Prospects
  for 2003 depend heavily on the maintenance of aid flows, tourism,
  remittances, and the momentum of the government's development
  program.

GDP:
  purchasing power parity - $600 million (2002 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:
  4% (2002 est.)

GDP - per capita:
  purchasing power parity - $1,400 (2002 est.)

GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 11% industry: 17% services: 72% (2001)

Population below poverty line:
  30% (2000)

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
  lowest 10%: NA%
  highest 10%: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices):
  3% (2002)

Labor force:
  NA

Unemployment rate:
  21% (2000 est.)

Budget:
  revenues: $112 million
  expenditures: $198 million, including capital expenditures of $NA
  (2000)

Industries:
  food and beverages, fish processing, shoes and garments, salt
  mining, ship repair

Industrial production growth rate:
  NA%

Electricity - production:
  42.03 million kWh (2001)

Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel: 100% hydro: 0% other: 0% (2001) nuclear: 0%

Electricity - consumption:
  39.08 million kWh (2001)

Electricity - exports:
  0 kWh (2001)

Electricity - imports:
  0 kWh (2001)

Oil - production:
  0 bbl/day (2001 est.)

Oil - consumption:
  2,000 bbl/day (2001 est.)

Oil - exports:
  NA (2001)

Oil - imports:
  NA (2001)

Agriculture - products: bananas, corn, beans, sweet potatoes, sugarcane, coffee, peanuts; fish

Exports:
  $30 million f.o.b. (2002 est.)

Exports - commodities:
  fuel, shoes, garments, fish, hides

Exports - partners:
  Portugal 38.5%, UK 26.4%, France 23.1%, US 8.2% (2002)

Imports:
  $220 million f.o.b. (2002 est.)

Imports - commodities:
  foodstuffs, industrial products, transport equipment, fuels

Imports - partners:
  Portugal 49.1%, Netherlands 7.2%, Germany 5.7% (2002)

Debt - external:
  $325 million (2002)

Economic aid - recipient:
  $136 million (1999)

Currency:
  Cape Verdean escudo (CVE)

Currency code:
  CVE

Exchange rates:
  Cape Verdean escudos (CVE) per US dollar - NA (2002), 123.21
  (2001), 115.88 (2000), 102.7 (1999), 98.16 (1998)

Fiscal year:
  calendar year

Communications Cape Verde

Telephones - main lines in use:
  60,935 (2002)

Telephones - mobile cellular:
  28,119 (2002)

Telephone system:
  general assessment: effective system, being improved
  domestic: interisland microwave radio relay system with both analog
  and digital exchanges; work is in progress on a submarine
  fiber-optic cable system which is scheduled for completion in 2003
  international: 2 coaxial submarine cables; HF radiotelephone to
  Senegal and Guinea-Bissau; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat
  (Atlantic Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations:
  AM 0, FM 15 (and 17 repeaters), shortwave 0 (2002)

Radios:
  100,000 (2002 est.)

Television broadcast stations:
  1 (and 7 repeaters) (2002)

Televisions:
  15,000 (2002 est.)

Internet country code:
  .cv

Internet Service Providers (ISPs):
  1 (2002)

Internet users:
  12,000 (2002)

Transportation Cape Verde

Railways: 0 km

Highways: total: 1,100 km paved: 858 km unpaved: 242 km (1999 est.)

Waterways:
  none

Ports and harbors:
  Mindelo, Praia, Tarrafal

Merchant marine:
  total: 4 ships (1,000 GRT or over) 5,395 GRT/6,614 DWT
  ships by type: cargo 2, chemical tanker 1, passenger/cargo 1
  note: includes a foreign-owned ship registered here as a flag of
  convenience: United Kingdom 1 (2002 est.)

Airports: 9 note: 3 airports are reported to be nonoperational (2002)

Airports - with paved runways: total: 6 over 3,047 m: 1 914 to 1,523 m: 5 (2002)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
  total: 3
  914 to 1,523 m: 3 (2002)

Military Cape Verde

Military branches:
  Army, Coast Guard

Military manpower - availability:
  males age 15-49: 95,450 (2003 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:
  males age 15-49: 53,842 (2003 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure:
  $9.3 million (FY02)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP:
  1.6% (FY02)

Transnational Issues Cape Verde

Disputes - international:
  none

Illicit drugs:
  used as a transshipment point for illicit drugs moving from Latin
  America and Asia destined for Western Europe; the lack of a
  well-developed financial system limits the country's utility as a
  money-laundering center

This page was last updated on 18 December, 2003

======================================================================

@Cayman Islands

Introduction Cayman Islands

Background:
  The Cayman Islands were colonized from Jamaica by the British
  during the 18th and 19th centuries. Administered by Jamaica since
  1863, they remained a British dependency after 1962 when the former
  became independent.

Geography Cayman Islands

Location:
  Caribbean, island group in Caribbean Sea, nearly one-half of the
  way from Cuba to Honduras

Geographic coordinates:
  19 30 N, 80 30 W

Map references:
  Central America and the Caribbean

Area:
  total: 262 sq km
  water: 0 sq km
  land: 262 sq km

Area - comparative:
  1.5 times the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries:
  0 km

Coastline:
  160 km

Maritime claims:
  exclusive fishing zone: 200 NM
  territorial sea: 12 NM

Climate:
  tropical marine; warm, rainy summers (May to October) and cool,
  relatively dry winters (November to April)

Terrain:
  low-lying limestone base surrounded by coral reefs

Elevation extremes: lowest point: Caribbean Sea 0 m highest point: The Bluff 43 m

Natural resources: fish, climate and beaches that foster tourism

Land use: arable land: 0% permanent crops: 0% other: 100% (1998 est.)

Irrigated land:
  NA sq km

Natural hazards:
  hurricanes (July to November)

Environment - current issues: no natural fresh water resources; drinking water supplies must be met by rainwater catchments

Geography - note: important location between Cuba and Central America

People Cayman Islands

Population:
  41,934 (July 2003 est.)

Age structure:
  0-14 years: 21.6% (male 4,525; female 4,541)
  15-64 years: 70.6% (male 14,463; female 15,157)
  65 years and over: 7.7% (male 1,515; female 1,733) (2003 est.)

Median age:
  total: 36.1 years
  male: 35.8 years
  female: 36.4 years (2002)

Population growth rate:
  2.79% (2003 est.)

Birth rate:
  13.33 births/1,000 population (2003 est.)

Death rate:
  4.7 deaths/1,000 population (2003 est.)

Net migration rate:
  19.27 migrant(s)/1,000 population
  note: major destination for Cubans trying to migrate to the US (2003
  est.)

Sex ratio:
  at birth: 1.02 male(s)/female
  under 15 years: 1 male(s)/female
  15-64 years: 0.95 male(s)/female
  65 years and over: 0.87 male(s)/female
  total population: 0.96 male(s)/female (2003 est.)

Infant mortality rate:
  total: 8.64 deaths/1,000 live births
  female: 7.35 deaths/1,000 live births (2003 est.)
  male: 9.9 deaths/1,000 live births

Life expectancy at birth:
  total population: 79.67 years
  male: 77.08 years
  female: 82.3 years (2003 est.)

Total fertility rate:
  1.91 children born/woman (2003 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
  NA%

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
  NA

HIV/AIDS - deaths:
  NA

Nationality:
  noun: Caymanian(s)
  adjective: Caymanian

Ethnic groups:
  mixed 40%, white 20%, black 20%, expatriates of various ethnic
  groups 20%

Religions:
  United Church (Presbyterian and Congregational), Anglican, Baptist,
  Church of God, other Protestant, Roman Catholic

Languages:
  English

Literacy:
  definition: age 15 and over has ever attended school
  total population: 98%
  male: 98%
  female: 98% (1970 est.)

Government Cayman Islands

Country name: conventional long form: none conventional short form: Cayman Islands

Dependency status:
  overseas territory of the UK

Government type:
  British crown colony

Capital:
  George Town

Administrative divisions:
  8 districts; Creek, Eastern, Midland, South Town, Spot Bay, Stake
  Bay, West End, Western

Independence:
  none (overseas territory of the UK)

National holiday:
  Constitution Day, first Monday in July

Constitution:
  1959, revised 1972 and 1992

Legal system:
  British common law and local statutes

Suffrage:
  18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
  chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952);
  Governor Bruce DINWIDDY (since 29 May 2002)
  elections: none; the monarch is hereditary; the governor is
  appointed by the monarch; the chief secretary is appointed by the
  governor
  head of government: Chief Secretary W. McKeeva BUSH (since NA
  December 2001)
  cabinet: Executive Council (three members appointed by the governor,
  four members elected by the Legislative Assembly)

Legislative branch:
  unicameral Legislative Assembly (18 seats, three appointed members
  from the Executive Council and 15 elected by popular vote; members
  serve four-year terms)
  elections: last held 8 November 2000 (next to be held NA November
  2004)
  election results: percent of vote - NA%; seats - NA

Judicial branch:
  Summary Court; Grand Court; Cayman Islands Court of Appeal

Political parties and leaders:
  there are no formal political parties but the following loose
  groupings act as political organizations; National Team [leader NA];
  Democratic Alliance [leader NA]; Team Cayman [leader NA]; United
  Democratic Party [leader NA]

Political pressure groups and leaders:
  NA

International organization participation:
  Caricom (associate), CDB, Interpol (subbureau), IOC, UNESCO
  (associate)

Diplomatic representation in the US:
  none (overseas territory of the UK)

Diplomatic representation from the US:
  none (overseas territory of the UK)

Flag description:
  blue, with the flag of the UK in the upper hoist-side quadrant and
  the Caymanian coat of arms centered on the outer half of the flag;
  the coat of arms includes a pineapple and turtle above a shield with
  three stars (representing the three islands) and a scroll at the
  bottom bearing the motto HE HATH FOUNDED IT UPON THE SEAS

Economy Cayman Islands

Economy - overview:
  With no direct taxation, the islands are a thriving offshore
  financial center. More than 40,000 companies were registered in the
  Cayman Islands as of 1998, including almost 600 banks and trust
  companies; banking assets exceed $500 billion. A stock exchange was
  opened in 1997. Tourism is also a mainstay, accounting for about 70%
  of GDP and 75% of foreign currency earnings. The tourist industry is
  aimed at the luxury market and caters mainly to visitors from North
  America. Total tourist arrivals exceeded 1.2 million in 1997, with
  600,000 from the US. About 90% of the islands' food and consumer
  goods must be imported. The Caymanians enjoy one of the highest
  outputs per capita and one of the highest standards of living in the
  world.

GDP:
  purchasing power parity - $1.27 billion (2002 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:
  1.7% (2002 est.)

GDP - per capita:
  purchasing power parity - $35,000 (2002 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
  agriculture: 1.4%
  industry: 3.2%
  services: 95.4% (1994 est.)

Population below poverty line:
  NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
  lowest 10%: NA%
  highest 10%: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices):
  2.8% (2002)

Labor force:
  19,820 (1995)

Labor force - by occupation:
  agriculture 1.4%, industry 12.6%, services 86% (1995)

Unemployment rate:
  4.1% (1997)

Budget:
  revenues: $265.2 million
  expenditures: $248.9 million, including capital expenditures of $NA
  (1997)

Industries:
  tourism, banking, insurance and finance, construction, construction
  materials, furniture

Industrial production growth rate:
  NA%

Electricity - production:
  381.9 million kWh (2001)

Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel: 100% hydro: 0% other: 0% (2001) nuclear: 0%

Electricity - consumption:
  355.2 million kWh (2001)

Electricity - exports:
  0 kWh (2001)

Electricity - imports:
  0 kWh (2001)

Oil - production:
  0 bbl/day (2001 est.)

Oil - consumption:
  2,400 bbl/day (2001 est.)

Oil - exports:
  NA (2001)

Oil - imports:
  NA (2001)

Agriculture - products:
  vegetables, fruit; livestock, turtle farming

Exports:
  $1.2 million (1999)

Exports - commodities:
  turtle products, manufactured consumer goods

Exports - partners:
  mostly US

Imports:
  $457.4 million (1999)

Imports - commodities:
  foodstuffs, manufactured goods

Imports - partners:
  US, Trinidad and Tobago, UK, Netherlands Antilles, Japan

Debt - external:
  $70 million (1996)

Economic aid - recipient:
  $NA

Currency:
  Caymanian dollar (KYD)

Currency code:
  KYD

Exchange rates:
  Caymanian dollars per US dollar - 0.82 (29 October 2001), 0.83 (3
  November 1995), 0.85 (22 November 1993)

Fiscal year:
  1 April - 31 March

Communications Cayman Islands

Telephones - main lines in use:
  19,000 (1995)

Telephones - mobile cellular:
  2,534 (1995)

Telephone system:
  general assessment: NA
  domestic: NA
  international: 1 submarine coaxial cable; satellite earth station -
  1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations:
  AM 1, FM 5, shortwave 0 (1998)

Radios:
  36,000 (1997)

Television broadcast stations:
  1 with cable system

Televisions:
  7,000 (1997)

Internet country code:
  .ky

Internet Service Providers (ISPs):
  16 (2000)

Internet users:
  NA

Transportation Cayman Islands

Railways: 0 km

Highways: total: 785 km paved: 785 km (2000)

Waterways:
  none

Ports and harbors:
  Cayman Brac, George Town

Merchant marine:
  total: 123 ships (1,000 GRT or over) 2,402,058 GRT/3,792,094 DWT
  ships by type: bulk 22, cargo 5, chemical tanker 31, container 2,
  liquefied gas 1, petroleum tanker 21, refrigerated cargo 35, roll
  on/roll off 5, specialized tanker 1
  note: includes some foreign-owned ships registered here as a flag of
  convenience: Bahrain 2, China 1, Germany 4, Greece 27, Hong Kong 3,
  Italy 2, Japan 1, Norway 14, Sweden 13, United Kingdom 15, United
  States 35 (2002 est.)

Airports:
  3 (2002)

Airports - with paved runways:
  total: 2
  1,524 to 2,437 m: 2 (2002)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
  total: 1
  914 to 1,523 m: 1 (2002)

Military Cayman Islands

Military branches:
  no regular indigenous military forces; Royal Cayman Islands Police
  Force (RCIPF)

Military - note:
  defense is the responsibility of the UK

Transnational Issues Cayman Islands

Disputes - international:
  none

Illicit drugs:
  offshore financial center; vulnerable to drug transshipment to the
  US and Europe

This page was last updated on 18 December, 2003

======================================================================

@Central African Republic

Introduction Central African Republic

Background:
  The former French colony of Ubangi-Shari became the Central African
  Republic upon independence in 1960. After three tumultuous decades
  of misrule - mostly by military governments - civilian rule was
  established in 1993 and lasted for one decade. In March 2003 a
  military coup deposed the civilian government of President
  Ange-Felix PATASSE and has since established a new government.

Geography Central African Republic

Location:
  Central Africa, north of Democratic Republic of the Congo

Geographic coordinates:
  7 00 N, 21 00 E

Map references:
  Africa

Area:
  total: 622,984 sq km
  water: 0 sq km
  land: 622,984 sq km

Area - comparative:
  slightly smaller than Texas

Land boundaries:
  total: 5,203 km
  border countries: Cameroon 797 km, Chad 1,197 km, Democratic
  Republic of the Congo 1,577 km, Republic of the Congo 467 km, Sudan
  1,165 km

Coastline:
  0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims:
  none (landlocked)

Climate:
  tropical; hot, dry winters; mild to hot, wet summers

Terrain:
  vast, flat to rolling, monotonous plateau; scattered hills in
  northeast and southwest

Elevation extremes:
  lowest point: Oubangui River 335 m
  highest point: Mont Ngaoui 1,420 m

Natural resources:
  diamonds, uranium, timber, gold, oil, hydropower

Land use:
  arable land: 3.1%
  permanent crops: 0.14%
  other: 96.76% (1998 est.)

Irrigated land:
  NA sq km

Natural hazards:
  hot, dry, dusty harmattan winds affect northern areas; floods are
  common

Environment - current issues:
  tap water is not potable; poaching has diminished its reputation as
  one of the last great wildlife refuges; desertification;
  deforestation

Environment - international agreements:
  party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered
  Species, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Tropical Timber 94
  signed, but not ratified: Law of the Sea

Geography - note:
  landlocked; almost the precise center of Africa

People Central African Republic

Population:
  3,683,538
  note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the
  effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower
  life expectancy, higher infant mortality and death rates, lower
  population and growth rates, and changes in the distribution of
  population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (July
  2003 est.)

Age structure:
  0-14 years: 43.1% (male 799,241; female 788,370)
  15-64 years: 53.5% (male 969,581; female 1,000,740)
  65 years and over: 3.4% (male 53,322; female 72,284) (2003 est.)

Median age:
  total: 17.9 years
  male: 17.6 years
  female: 18.3 years (2002)

Population growth rate:
  1.62% (2003 est.)

Birth rate:
  35.93 births/1,000 population (2003 est.)

Death rate:
  19.73 deaths/1,000 population (2003 est.)

Net migration rate:
  0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2003 est.)

Sex ratio:
  at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
  under 15 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
  15-64 years: 0.97 male(s)/female
  65 years and over: 0.74 male(s)/female
  total population: 0.98 male(s)/female (2003 est.)

Infant mortality rate:
  total: 93.3 deaths/1,000 live births
  female: 86.04 deaths/1,000 live births (2003 est.)
  male: 100.35 deaths/1,000 live births

Life expectancy at birth:
  total population: 41.71 years
  male: 40.18 years
  female: 43.29 years (2003 est.)

Total fertility rate:
  4.68 children born/woman (2003 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
  12.9% (2001 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
  250,000 (2001 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths:
  22,000 (2001 est.)

Nationality:
  noun: Central African(s)
  adjective: Central African

Ethnic groups:
  Baya 33%, Banda 27%, Mandjia 13%, Sara 10%, Mboum 7%, M'Baka 4%,
  Yakoma 4%, other 2%

Religions: