The Project Gutenberg eBook of The 2004 CIA World Factbook

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Title: The 2004 CIA World Factbook

Author: United States. Central Intelligence Agency

Release date: December 18, 2008 [eBook #27559]
Most recently updated: January 4, 2021

Language: English

Credits: Produced by Al Haines

*** START OF THE PROJECT GUTENBERG EBOOK THE 2004 CIA WORLD FACTBOOK ***

Produced by Al Haines

THE CIA WORLD FACTBOOK 2004

CONTENTS

Countries and Locations

Field Listings

Rank Orders

Appendixes

Notes and Definitions

History of The World Factbook

Contributors and Copyright Information

Purchasing Information

Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)

=====================================================================

What's New

- Country information has been updated as of 10 February, 2005.

- There have been some significant changes to the latest edition of The World Factbook. Recent confirmation that the United Kingdom Government administers the Sovereign Base Areas of Akrotiri and Dhekelia on Cyprus as dependencies (and not as lease areas like the US Guantanamo Bay Naval Station in Cuba) has required a changing of their status and their addition to the Factbook as new entities. In addition, the European Union has been included as an "Other" entity at the end of the listing. The European Union continues to accrue more nation-like characteristics for itself and so a separate listing was deemed appropriate. A fuller explanation may be found under the European Union Preliminary statement.

- Along with the new entities and the regular information updates, The World Factbook now also features five new fields. In the Economy category, entries have been added for Current account balance, Investment (gross fixed), Public debt, and Reserves of foreign exchange and gold. The Transnational issues category has a new Refugees and internally displaced persons entry.

- Revision of some individual country maps, first introduced in the 2001 edition, is continued in this edition. Several regional maps have also been updated to reflect boundary changes and place name spelling changes.

The World Factbook 2004 printed version provides a "snapshot" of the world as of 1 January, 2004.

=====================================================================

Country Listing

[Transcriber's note: To search on a country name in this file, prefix the name with "@", e.g. "@Afghanistan". "Afghanistan" will find all occurrences; prefixing it with "@" will find the correct location.]

World

A

Afghanistan
Akrotiri
Albania
Algeria
American Samoa
Andorra
Angola
Anguilla
Antarctica
Antigua and Barbuda
Arctic Ocean
Argentina
Armenia
Aruba
Ashmore and Cartier Islands
Atlantic Ocean
Australia
Austria
Azerbaijan

B

Bahamas, The
Bahrain
Baker Island
Bangladesh
Barbados
Bassas da India
Belarus
Belgium
Belize
Benin
Bermuda
Bhutan
Bolivia
Bosnia and Herzegovina
Botswana
Bouvet Island
Brazil
British Indian Ocean Territory
British Virgin Islands
Brunei
Bulgaria
Burkina Faso
Burma
Burundi

C

Cambodia
Cameroon
Canada
Cape Verde
Cayman Islands
Central African Republic
Chad
Chile
China
Christmas Island
Clipperton Island
Cocos (Keeling) Islands
Colombia
Comoros
Congo, Democratic Republic of the
Congo, Republic of the
Cook Islands
Coral Sea Islands
Costa Rica
Cote d'Ivoire
Croatia
Cuba
Cyprus
Czech Republic

D

Denmark
Dhekelia
Djibouti
Dominica
Dominican Republic

E

East Timor
Ecuador
Egypt
El Salvador
Equatorial Guinea
Eritrea
Estonia
Ethiopia
Europa Island

F

Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas)
Faroe Islands
Fiji
Finland
France
French Guiana
French Polynesia
French Southern and Antarctic Lands

G

Gabon
Gambia, The
Gaza Strip
Georgia
Germany
Ghana
Gibraltar
Glorioso Islands
Greece
Greenland
Grenada
Guadeloupe
Guam
Guatemala
Guernsey
Guinea
Guinea-Bissau
Guyana

H

Haiti
Heard Island and McDonald Islands
Holy See (Vatican City)
Honduras
Hong Kong
Howland Island
Hungary

I

Iceland
India
Indian Ocean
Indonesia
Iran
Iraq
Ireland
Israel
Italy

J

Jamaica
Jan Mayen
Japan
Jarvis Island
Jersey
Johnston Atoll
Jordan
Juan de Nova Island

K

Kazakhstan
Kenya
Kingman Reef
Kiribati
Korea, North
Korea, South
Kuwait
Kyrgyzstan

L

Laos
Latvia
Lebanon
Lesotho
Liberia
Libya
Liechtenstein
Lithuania
Luxembourg

M

Macau
Macedonia
Madagascar
Malawi
Malaysia
Maldives
Mali
Malta
Man, Isle of
Marshall Islands
Martinique
Mauritania
Mauritius
Mayotte
Mexico
Micronesia, Federated States of
Midway Islands
Moldova
Monaco
Mongolia
Montserrat
Morocco
Mozambique

N

Namibia
Nauru
Navassa Island
Nepal
Netherlands
Netherlands Antilles
New Caledonia
New Zealand
Nicaragua
Niger
Nigeria
Niue
Norfolk Island
Northern Mariana Islands
Norway

O

Oman

P

Pacific Ocean
Pakistan
Palau
Palmyra Atoll
Panama
Papua New Guinea
Paracel Islands
Paraguay
Peru
Philippines
Pitcairn Islands
Poland
Portugal
Puerto Rico

Q

Qatar

R

Reunion
Romania
Russia
Rwanda

S

Saint Helena
Saint Kitts and Nevis
Saint Lucia
Saint Pierre and Miquelon
Saint Vincent and the Grenadines
Samoa
San Marino
Sao Tome and Principe
Saudi Arabia
Senegal
Serbia and Montenegro
Seychelles
Sierra Leone
Singapore
Slovakia
Slovenia
Solomon Islands
Somalia
South Africa
South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands
Southern Ocean
Spain
Spratly Islands
Sri Lanka
Sudan
Suriname
Svalbard
Swaziland
Sweden
Switzerland
Syria

T

Taiwan entry follows Zimbabwe
Tajikistan
Tanzania
Thailand
Togo
Tokelau
Tonga
Trinidad and Tobago
Tromelin Island
Tunisia
Turkey
Turkmenistan
Turks and Caicos Islands
Tuvalu

U

Uganda
Ukraine
United Arab Emirates
United Kingdom
United States
Uruguay
Uzbekistan

V

Vanuatu
Venezuela
Vietnam
Virgin Islands

W

Wake Island
Wallis and Futuna
West Bank
Western Sahara

Y

Yemen

Z

Zambia
Zimbabwe

Taiwan
European Union

=====================================================================

Field Listings

[Transcriber's note: To search on a field code in this file, prefix the code number with "@", e.g. "@2001". "2001" will find all occurrences; prefixing it with "@" will find the correct location.]

Code Field Description

2001 GDP 2002 Population growth rate (%) 2003 GDP - real growth rate (%) 2004 GDP - per capita 2006 Dependency status 2007 Diplomatic representation from the US 2008 Transportation - note 2010 Age structure (%) 2011 Geographic coordinates 2012 GDP - composition by sector (%) 2013 Radio broadcast stations 2015 Television broadcast stations 2018 Sex ratio (male(s)/female) 2019 Heliports 2020 Elevation extremes (m) 2021 Natural hazards 2022 People - note 2023 Area - comparative 2024 Military manpower - military age and obligation (years of age) 2025 Military manpower - fit for military service 2026 Military manpower - reaching military age annually 2028 Background 2030 Airports - with paved runways 2031 Airports - with unpaved runways 2032 Environment - current issues 2033 Environment - international agreements 2034 Military expenditures - percent of GDP (%) 2038 Electricity - production (kWh) 2042 Electricity - consumption (kWh) 2043 Electricity - imports (kWh) 2044 Electricity - exports (kWh) 2045 2046 Population below poverty line (%) 2047 Household income or consumption by percentage share (%) 2048 Labor force - by occupation (%) 2049 Exports - commodities 2050 Exports - partners (%) 2051 Administrative divisions 2052 Agriculture - products 2053 Airports 2054 Birth rate (births/1,000 population) 2055 Military branches 2056 Budget 2057 Capital 2058 Imports - commodities 2059 Climate 2060 Coastline (km) 2061 Imports - partners (%) 2062 Economic aid - donor 2063 Constitution 2064 Economic aid - recipient 2065 Currency 2066 Death rate (deaths/1,000 population) 2067 Military expenditures - dollar figure 2068 Dependent areas 2070 Disputes - international 2075 Ethnic groups (%) 2076 Exchange rates 2077 Executive branch 2078 Exports 2079 Debt - external 2080 Fiscal year 2081 Flag description 2085 Highways (km) 2086 Illicit drugs 2087 Imports 2088 Independence 2089 Industrial production growth rate (%) 2090 Industries 2091 Infant mortality rate (deaths/1,000 live births) 2092 Inflation rate (consumer prices) (%) 2093 Waterways (km) 2094 Judicial branch 2095 Labor force 2096 Land boundaries (km) 2097 Land use (%) 2098 Languages (%) 2100 Legal system 2101 Legislative branch 2102 Life expectancy at birth (years) 2103 Literacy (%) 2105 Military manpower - availability 2106 Maritime claims 2107 International organization participation 2108 Merchant marine 2109 National holiday 2110 Nationality 2111 Natural resources 2112 Net migration rate (migrant(s)/1,000 population) 2113 Geography - note 2115 Political pressure groups and leaders 2116 Economy - overview 2117 Pipelines (km) 2118 Political parties and leaders 2119 Population 2120 Ports and harbors 2121 Railways (km) 2122 Religions (%) 2123 Suffrage 2124 Telephone system 2125 Terrain 2127 Total fertility rate (children born/woman) 2128 Government type 2129 Unemployment rate (%) 2137 Military - note 2138 Communications - note 2140 Government - note 2142 Country name 2144 Location 2145 Map references 2146 Irrigated land (sq km) 2147 Area (sq km) 2149 Diplomatic representation in the US 2150 Telephones - main lines in use 2151 Telephones - mobile cellular 2153 Internet users 2154 Internet country code 2155 HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate (%) 2156 HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS 2157 HIV/AIDS - deaths 2158 Currency code 2172 Distribution of family income - Gini index 2173 Oil - production (bbl/day) 2174 Oil - consumption (bbl/day) 2175 Oil - imports (bbl/day) 2176 Oil - exports (bbl/day) 2177 Median age (years) 2178 Oil - proved reserves (bbl) 2179 Natural gas - proved reserves (cu m) 2180 Natural gas - production (cu m) 2181 Natural gas - consumption (cu m) 2182 Natural gas - imports (cu m) 2183 Natural gas - exports (cu m) 2184 Internet hosts 2185 Investment (gross fixed) (% of GDP) 2186 Public debt (% of GDP) 2187 Current account balance 2188 Reserves of foreign exchange & gold 2194 Refugees and internally displaced persons

======================================================================

Rank Orders

[Transcriber's note: To search on a rank order in this file, prefix the rank's name with "@", e.g. "@Population". "Population" will find all occurrences; prefixing it with "@" will find the correct location.]

Guide to Rank Order Pages

Rank Order pages are presorted lists of data from selected Factbook data fields. Rank Order pages are generally given in descending order - highest to lowest - such as Population and Area. The two exceptions are Unemployment Rate and Inflation Rate, which are in ascending - lowest to highest - order. Rank Order pages are available for the following 40 fields in six of the nine Factbook categories.

Geography

Area - total

People

Population
Birth rate
Death rate
Infant mortality rate
Life expectancy at birth - total
Total fertility rate
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS
HIV/AIDS - deaths

Economy

GDP
GDP - real growth rate
GDP - per capita
Investment, gross fixed
Inflation rate (consumer prices)
Labor force
Unemployment rate
Public debt
Industrial production growth rate
Electricity - production
Electricity - consumption
Oil - production
Oil - consumption
Oil - exports
Oil - imports
Oil - proved reserves
Natural Gas - production
Natural Gas - consumption
Natural Gas - exports
Natural Gas - imports
Natural Gas - proved reserves
Current account balance
Exports
Imports
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold
Debt - external

Communications

Telephones - main lines in use
Telephones - mobile cellular
Internet hosts
Internet users

Transportation

Railways - total
Highways - total

Military

Military expenditures - dollar figure
Military expenditures - percent of GDP

Factbook fields with Rank Order pages are easily identified with a small bar chart icon to the right of the data field title.

Not all Rank Order pages include the same number of entries because information for a particular field is not available for all countries. In addition, not all data fields are suitable for displaying as Rank Order pages, such as those containing textual information. Textual information is more readily viewed by clicking on the Field Listing icon next to the Data field title. The other icon next to the data field title provides the definition of the field.

All of the 'Rank Order' pages can be downloaded as tab-delimited data files and can be opened in other applications such as spreadsheets and databases. To save a Rank Order page in a spreadsheet, first click on the 'Download Datafile' choice above the Rank Order page you selected; then, at the top of your browser window, click on 'File' and 'Save As'. After saving the file, open the spreadsheet, find the saved file, and 'Open' it.

Additional Rank Order pages being considered for future updates of the
Factbook Web site include:

  Median age
  Literacy
  Population below the poverty line
  Waterways
  Airports

This page was last updated on 9 December, 2004

=====================================================================

Appendixes

Appendix A - Abbreviations

Appendix B - International Organizations and Groups

Appendix C - Selected International Environmental Agreements

Appendix D - Cross-Reference List of Country Data Codes

Appendix E - Cross-Reference List of Hydrographic Data Codes

Appendix F - Cross-Reference List of Geographic Names

======================================================================

Notes and Definitions

Along with the new entities and the regular information updates, The World Factbook now also features six new fields. In the Economy category, entries have been added for Current account balance, Investment (gross fixed), Public debt, and Reserves of foreign exchange and gold. The Transnational issues category has a new Refugees and internally displaced persons entry. Revision of some individual country maps, first introduced in the 2001 edition, is continued in this edition. Several regional maps have also been updated to reflect boundary changes and place name spelling changes.

Abbreviations This information is included in Appendix A: Abbreviations, which includes all abbreviations and acronyms used in the Factbook, with their expansions.

Acronyms An acronym is an abbreviation coined from the initial letter of each successive word in a term or phrase. In general, an acronym made up solely from the first letter of the major words in the expanded form is rendered in all capital letters (NATO from North Atlantic Treaty Organization; an exception would be ASEAN for Association of Southeast Asian Nations). In general, an acronym made up of more than the first letter of the major words in the expanded form is rendered with only an initial capital letter (Comsat from Communications Satellite Corporation; an exception would be NAM from Nonaligned Movement). Hybrid forms are sometimes used to distinguish between initially identical terms (WTO: WTrO for World Trade Organization and WToO for World Tourism Organization.)

Administrative divisions This entry generally gives the numbers, designatory terms, and first- order administrative divisions as approved by the US Board on Geographic Names (BGN). Changes that have been reported but not yet acted on by BGN are noted.

Age structure This entry provides the distribution of the population according to age. Information is included by sex and age group (0-14 years, 15-64 years, 65 years and over). The age structure of a population affects a nation's key socioeconomic issues. Countries with young populations (high percentage under age 15) need to invest more in schools, while countries with older populations (high percentage ages 65 and over) need to invest more in the health sector. The age structure can also be used to help predict potential political issues. For example, the rapid growth of a young adult population unable to find employment can lead to unrest.

Agriculture - products This entry is an ordered listing of major crops and products starting with the most important.

Airports This entry gives the total number of airports. The runway(s) may be paved (concrete or asphalt surfaces) or unpaved (grass, dirt, sand, or gravel surfaces), but must be usable. Not all airports have facilities for refueling, maintenance, or air traffic control.

Airports - with paved runways This entry gives the total number of airports with paved runways (concrete or asphalt surfaces) by length. For airports with more than one runway, only the longest runway is included according to the following five groups - (1) over 3,047 m, (2) 2,438 to 3,047 m, (3) 1,524 to 2,437 m, (4) 914 to 1,523 m, and (5) under 914 m. Only airports with usable runways are included in this listing. Not all airports have facilities for refueling, maintenance, or air traffic control.

Airports - with unpaved runways This entry gives the total number of airports with unpaved runways (grass, dirt, sand, or gravel surfaces) by length. For airports with more than one runway, only the longest runway is included according to the following five groups - (1) over 3,047 m, (2) 2,438 to 3,047 m, (3) 1,524 to 2,437 m, (4) 914 to 1,523 m, and (5) under 914 m. Only airports with usable runways are included in this listing. Not all airports have facilities for refueling, maintenance, or air traffic control

Appendixes
This section includes Factbook-related material by topic.

Area This entry includes three subfields. Total area is the sum of all land and water areas delimited by international boundaries and/or coastlines. Land area is the aggregate of all surfaces delimited by international boundaries and/or coastlines, excluding inland water bodies (lakes, reservoirs, rivers). Water area is the sum of all water surfaces delimited by international boundaries and/or coastlines, including inland water bodies (lakes, reservoirs, rivers).

Area - comparative This entry provides an area comparison based on total area equivalents. Most entities are compared with the entire US or one of the 50 states based on area measurements (1990 revised) provided by the US Bureau of the Census. The smaller entities are compared with Washington, DC (178 sq km, 69 sq mi) or The Mall in Washington, DC (0.59 sq km, 0.23 sq mi, 146 acres).

Background This entry usually highlights major historic events and current issues and may include a statement about one or two key future trends.

Birth rate This entry gives the average annual number of births during a year per 1,000 persons in the population at midyear; also known as crude birth rate. The birth rate is usually the dominant factor in determining the rate of population growth. It depends on both the level of fertility and the age structure of the population.

Budget This entry includes revenues, total expenditures, and capital expenditures. These figures are calculated on an exchange rate basis, i.e., not in purchasing power parity (PPP) terms

Capital
This entry gives the location of the seat of government.

Climate This entry includes a brief description of typical weather regimes throughout the year.

Coastline This entry gives the total length of the boundary between the land area (including islands) and the sea.

Communications This category deals with the means of exchanging information and includes the telephone, radio, television, and Internet service provider entries.

Communications - note This entry includes miscellaneous communications information of significance not included elsewhere.

Constitution This entry includes the dates of adoption, revisions, and major amendments.

Country data codes see Data codes

Country map Most versions of the Factbook provide a country map in color. The maps were produced from the best information available at the time of preparation. Names and/or boundaries may have changed subsequently.

Country name This entry includes all forms of the country's name approved by the US Board on Geographic Names (Italy is used as an example): conventional long form (Italian Republic), conventional short form (Italy), local long form (Repubblica Italiana), local short form (Italia), former (Kingdom of Italy), as well as the abbreviation. Also see the Terminology note.

Crude oil
See entry for oil.

Currency This entry identifies the national medium of exchange and its basic subunit.

Currency code
This entry gives the International Organization for Standardization
(ISO) 4217 alphabetic currency code for each country.

Current account balance This entry records a country's net trade in goods and services, plus net earnings from rents, interest, profits, and dividends, and net transfer payments (such as pension funds and worker remittances) to and from the rest of the world during the period specified.

Data codes This information is presented in Appendix D: Cross-Reference List of Country Data Codes and Appendix E: Cross-Reference List of Hydrographic Data Codes. This appendix includes the US Government approved Federal Information Processing Standards (FIPS) codes, the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) codes, and Internet codes for land entities. The appendix also includes the International Hydrographic Organization (IHO) codes, Aeronautical Chart and Information Center (ACIC; now a part of the National Geospatial- Intelligence Agency or NGA) codes, and Defense Intelligence Agency (DIA) codes for hydrographic entities. The US Government has not yet approved a standard for hydrographic data codes similar to the FIPS 10- 4 standard for country data codes.

Date of information In general, information available as of 1 January 2004, was used in the preparation of this edition.

Death rate This entry gives the average annual number of deaths during a year per 1,000 population at midyear; also known as crude death rate. The death rate, while only a rough indicator of the mortality situation in a country, accurately indicates the current mortality impact on population growth. This indicator is significantly affected by age distribution, and most countries will eventually show a rise in the overall death rate, in spite of continued decline in mortality at all ages, as declining fertility results in an aging population.

Debt - external This entry gives the total public and private debt owed to nonresidents repayable in foreign currency, goods, or services.

Dependency status This entry describes the formal relationship between a particular nonindependent entity and an independent state.

Dependent areas This entry contains an alphabetical listing of all nonindependent entities associated in some way with a particular independent state.

Diplomatic representation The US Government has diplomatic relations with 186 independent states, including 185 of the 191 UN members (excluded UN members are Bhutan, Cuba, Iran, Iraq, North Korea, and the US itself). In addition, the US has diplomatic relations with 1 independent state that is not in the UN - Holy See.

Diplomatic representation in the US This entry includes the chief of mission, chancery, telephone, FAX, consulate general locations, and consulate locations.

Diplomatic representation from the US This entry includes the chief of mission, embassy address, mailing address, telephone number, FAX number, branch office locations, consulate general locations, and consulate locations.

Disputes - international This entry includes a wide variety of situations that range from traditional bilateral boundary disputes to unilateral claims of one sort or another. Information regarding disputes over international terrestrial and maritime boundaries has been reviewed by the US Department of State. References to other situations involving borders or frontiers may also be included, such as resource disputes, geopolitical questions, or irredentist issues; however, inclusion does not necessarily constitute official acceptance or recognition by the US Government.

Distribution of family income - Gini index This index measures the degree of inequality in the distribution of family income in a country. The index is calculated from the Lorenz curve, in which cumulative family income is plotted against the number of families arranged from the poorest to the richest. The index is the ratio of (a) the area between a country's Lorenz curve and the 45 degree helping line to (b) the entire triangular area under the 45 degree line. The more nearly equal a country's income distribution, the closer its Lorenz curve to the 45 degree line and the lower its Gini index, e.g., a Scandinavian country with an index of 25. The more unequal a country's income distribution, the farther its Lorenz curve from the 45 degree line and the higher its Gini index, e.g., a Sub- Saharan country with an index of 50. If income were distributed with perfect equality, the Lorenz curve would coincide with the 45 degree line and the index would be zero; if income were distributed with perfect inequality, the Lorenz curve would coincide with the horizontal axis and the right vertical axis and the index would be 100.

Economic aid - donor This entry refers to net official development assistance (ODA) from Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) nations to developing countries and multilateral organizations. ODA is defined as financial assistance that is concessional in character, has the main objective to promote economic development and welfare of the less developed countries (LDCs), and contains a grant element of at least 25%. The entry does not cover other official flows (OOF) or private flows.

Economic aid - recipient This entry, which is subject to major problems of definition and statistical coverage, refers to the net inflow of Official Development Finance (ODF) to recipient countries. The figure includes assistance from the World Bank, the IMF, and other international organizations and from individual nation donors. Formal commitments of aid are included in the data. Omitted from the data are grants by private organizations. Aid comes in various forms including outright grants and loans. The entry thus is the difference between new inflows and repayments.

Economy This category includes the entries dealing with the size, development, and management of productive resources, i.e., land, labor, and capital.

Economy - overview This entry briefly describes the type of economy, including the degree of market orientation, the level of economic development, the most important natural resources, and the unique areas of specialization. It also characterizes major economic events and policy changes in the most recent 12 months and may include a statement about one or two key future macroeconomic trends.

Electricity - consumption This entry consists of total electricity generated annually plus imports and minus exports, expressed in kilowatt-hours. The discrepancy between the amount of electricity generated and/or imported and the amount consumed and/or exported is accounted for as loss in transmission and distribution.

Electricity - exports
This entry is the total exported electricity in kilowatt-hours.

Electricity - imports
This entry is the total imported electricity in kilowatt-hours.

Electricity - production This entry is the annual electricity generated expressed in kilowatt- hours. The discrepancy between the amount of electricity generated and/or imported and the amount consumed and/or exported is accounted for as loss in transmission and distribution.

Electricity - production by source This entry states the percentage share of electricity generated from each energy source. These are fossil fuel, hydro, nuclear, and other (solar, geothermal, and wind).

Elevation extremes
This entry includes both the highest point and the lowest point.

Entities Some of the independent states, dependencies, areas of special sovereignty, and governments included in this publication are not independent, and others are not officially recognized by the US Government. "Independent state" refers to a people politically organized into a sovereign state with a definite territory. "Dependencies" and "areas of special sovereignty" refer to a broad category of political entities that are associated in some way with an independent state. "Country" names used in the table of contents or for page headings are usually the short-form names as approved by the US Board on Geographic Names and may include independent states, dependencies, and areas of special sovereignty, or other geographic entities. There are a total of 271 separate geographic entities in The World Factbook that may be categorized as follows:

INDEPENDENT STATES
   192 Afghanistan, Albania, Algeria, Andorra, Angola, Antigua and
Barbuda, Argentina, Armenia, Australia, Austria, Azerbaijan, The
Bahamas, Bahrain, Bangladesh, Barbados, Belarus, Belgium, Belize,
Benin, Bhutan, Bolivia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Botswana, Brazil,
Brunei, Bulgaria, Burkina Faso, Burma, Burundi, Cambodia, Cameroon,
Canada, Cape Verde, Central African Republic, Chad, Chile, China,
Colombia, Comoros, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Republic of the
Congo, Costa Rica, Cote d'Ivoire, Croatia, Cuba, Cyprus, Czech
Republic, Denmark, Djibouti, Dominica, Dominican Republic, East Timor,
Ecuador, Egypt, El Salvador, Equatorial Guinea, Eritrea, Estonia,
Ethiopia, Fiji, Finland, France, Gabon, The Gambia, Georgia, Germany,
Ghana, Greece, Grenada, Guatemala, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Guyana,
Haiti, Holy See, Honduras, Hungary, Iceland, India, Indonesia, Iran,
Iraq, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Jamaica, Japan, Jordan, Kazakhstan,
Kenya, Kiribati, North Korea, South Korea, Kuwait, Kyrgyzstan, Laos,
Latvia, Lebanon, Lesotho, Liberia, Libya, Liechtenstein, Lithuania,
Luxembourg, The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Madagascar,
Malawi, Malaysia, Maldives, Mali, Malta, Marshall Islands, Mauritania,
Mauritius, Mexico, Federated States of Micronesia, Moldova, Monaco,
Mongolia, Morocco, Mozambique, Namibia, Nauru, Nepal, Netherlands, NZ,
Nicaragua, Niger, Nigeria, Norway, Oman, Pakistan, Palau, Panama, Papua
New Guinea, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Poland, Portugal, Qatar,
Romania, Russia, Rwanda, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint
Vincent and the Grenadines, Samoa, San Marino, Sao Tome and Principe,
Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Singapore, Slovakia,
Slovenia, Solomon Islands, Somalia, South Africa, Spain, Sri Lanka,
Sudan, Suriname, Swaziland, Sweden, Switzerland, Syria, Tajikistan,
Tanzania, Thailand, Togo, Tonga, Trinidad and Tobago, Tunisia, Turkey,
Turkmenistan, Tuvalu, Uganda, Ukraine, UAE, UK, US, Uruguay,
Uzbekistan, Vanuatu, Venezuela, Vietnam, Yemen, Yugoslavia, Zambia,
Zimbabwe

OTHER
     2 Taiwan, European Union

DEPENDENCIES AND AREAS OF SPECIAL SOVEREIGNTY 6 Australia - Ashmore and Cartier Islands, Christmas Island, Cocos (Keeling) Islands, Coral Sea Islands, Heard Island and McDonald Islands, Norfolk Island 2 China - Hong Kong, Macau 2 Denmark - Faroe Islands, Greenland 16 France - Bassas da India, Clipperton Island, Europa Island, French Guiana, French Polynesia, French Southern and Antarctic Lands, Glorioso Islands, Guadeloupe, Juan de Nova Island, Martinique, Mayotte, New Caledonia, Reunion, Saint Pierre and Miquelon, Tromelin Island, Wallis and Futuna 2 Netherlands - Aruba, Netherlands Antilles 3 New Zealand - Cook Islands, Niue, Tokelau 3 Norway - Bouvet Island, Jan Mayen, Svalbard 17 UK - Akrotiri, Anguilla, Bermuda, British Indian Ocean Territory, British Virgin Islands, Cayman Islands, Dhekelia, Falkland Islands, Gibraltar, Guernsey, Jersey, Isle of Man, Montserrat, Pitcairn Islands, Saint Helena, South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands, Turks and Caicos Islands 14 US - American Samoa, Baker Island, Guam, Howland Island, Jarvis Island, Johnston Atoll, Kingman Reef, Midway Islands, Navassa Island, Northern Mariana Islands, Palmyra Atoll, Puerto Rico, Virgin Islands, Wake Island

MISCELLANEOUS 6 Antarctica, Gaza Strip, Paracel Islands, Spratly Islands, West Bank, Western Sahara

OTHER ENTITIES
     5 oceans - Arctic Ocean, Atlantic Ocean, Indian Ocean, Pacific
Ocean, Southern Ocean
     1 World
   271 total

Environment - current issues This entry lists the most pressing and important environmental problems. The following terms and abbreviations are used throughout the entry: acidification - the lowering of soil and water pH due to acid precipitation and deposition usually through precipitation; this process disrupts ecosystem nutrient flows and may kill freshwater fish and plants dependent on more neutral or alkaline conditions (see acid rain). acid rain - characterized as containing harmful levels of sulfur dioxide or nitrogen oxide; acid rain is damaging and potentially deadly to the earth's fragile ecosystems; acidity is measured using the pH scale where 7 is neutral, values greater than 7 are considered alkaline, and values below 5.6 are considered acid precipitation; note - a pH of 2.4 (the acidity of vinegar) has been measured in rainfall in New England. aerosol - a collection of airborne particles dispersed in a gas, smoke, or fog. afforestation - converting a bare or agricultural space by planting trees and plants; reforestation involves replanting trees on areas that have been cut or destroyed by fire. asbestos - a naturally occurring soft fibrous mineral commonly used in fireproofing materials and considered to be highly carcinogenic in particulate form. biodiversity - also biological diversity; the relative number of species, diverse in form and function, at the genetic, organism, community, and ecosystem level; loss of biodiversity reduces an ecosystem's ability to recover from natural or man-induced disruption. bio-indicators - a plant or animal species whose presence, abundance, and health reveal the general condition of its habitat. biomass - the total weight or volume of living matter in a given area or volume. carbon cycle - the term used to describe the exchange of carbon (in various forms, e.g., as carbon dioxide) between the atmosphere, ocean, terrestrial biosphere, and geological deposits. catchments - assemblages used to capture and retain rainwater and runoff; an important water management technique in areas with limited freshwater resources, such as Gibraltar. DDT (dichloro-diphenyl-trichloro-ethane) - a colorless, odorless insecticide that has toxic effects on most animals; the use of DDT was banned in the US in 1972. defoliants - chemicals which cause plants to lose their leaves artificially; often used in agricultural practices for weed control, and may have detrimental impacts on human and ecosystem health. deforestation - the destruction of vast areas of forest (e.g., unsustainable forestry practices, agricultural and range land clearing, and the over exploitation of wood products for use as fuel) without planting new growth. desertification - the spread of desert-like conditions in arid or semi-arid areas, due to overgrazing, loss of agriculturally productive soils, or climate change. dredging - the practice of deepening an existing waterway; also, a technique used for collecting bottom-dwelling marine organisms (e.g., shellfish) or harvesting coral, often causing significant destruction of reef and ocean-floor ecosystems. drift-net fishing - done with a net, miles in extent, that is generally anchored to a boat and left to float with the tide; often results in an over harvesting and waste of large populations of non- commercial marine species (by-catch) by its effect of "sweeping the ocean clean." ecosystems - ecological units comprised of complex communities of organisms and their specific environments. effluents - waste materials, such as smoke, sewage, or industrial waste which are released into the environment, subsequently polluting it. endangered species - a species that is threatened with extinction either by direct hunting or habitat destruction. freshwater - water with very low soluble mineral content; sources include lakes, streams, rivers, glaciers, and underground aquifers. greenhouse gas - a gas that "traps" infrared radiation in the lower atmosphere causing surface warming; water vapor, carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide, methane, hydrofluorocarbons, and ozone are the primary greenhouse gases in the Earth's atmosphere. groundwater - water sources found below the surface of the earth often in naturally occurring reservoirs in permeable rock strata; the source for wells and natural springs. Highlands Water Project - a series of dams constructed jointly by Lesotho and South Africa to redirect Lesotho's abundant water supply into a rapidly growing area in South Africa; while it is the largest infrastructure project in southern Africa, it is also the most costly and controversial; objections to the project include claims that it forces people from their homes, submerges farmlands, and squanders economic resources. Inuit Circumpolar Conference (ICC) - represents the 145,000 Inuits of Russia, Alaska, Canada, and Greenland in international environmental issues; a General Assembly convenes every three years to determine the focus of the ICC; the most current concerns are long-range transport of pollutants, sustainable development, and climate change. metallurgical plants - industries which specialize in the science, technology, and processing of metals; these plants produce highly concentrated and toxic wastes which can contribute to pollution of ground water and air when not properly disposed. noxious substances - injurious, very harmful to living beings. overgrazing - the grazing of animals on plant material faster than it can naturally regrow leading to the permanent loss of plant cover, a common effect of too many animals grazing limited range land. ozone shield - a layer of the atmosphere composed of ozone gas (O3) that resides approximately 25 miles above the Earth's surface and absorbs solar ultraviolet radiation that can be harmful to living organisms. poaching - the illegal killing of animals or fish, a great concern with respect to endangered or threatened species. pollution - the contamination of a healthy environment by man-made waste. potable water - water that is drinkable, safe to be consumed. salination - the process through which fresh (drinkable) water becomes salt (undrinkable) water; hence, desalination is the reverse process; also involves the accumulation of salts in topsoil caused by evaporation of excessive irrigation water, a process that can eventually render soil incapable of supporting crops. siltation - occurs when water channels and reservoirs become clotted with silt and mud, a side effect of deforestation and soil erosion. slash-and-burn agriculture - a rotating cultivation technique in which trees are cut down and burned in order to clear land for temporary agriculture; the land is used until its productivity declines at which point a new plot is selected and the process repeats; this practice is sustainable while population levels are low and time is permitted for regrowth of natural vegetation; conversely, where these conditions do not exist, the practice can have disastrous consequences for the environment . soil degradation - damage to the land's productive capacity because of poor agricultural practices such as the excessive use of pesticides or fertilizers, soil compaction from heavy equipment, or erosion of topsoil, eventually resulting in reduced ability to produce agricultural products. soil erosion - the removal of soil by the action of water or wind, compounded by poor agricultural practices, deforestation, overgrazing, and desertification. ultraviolet (UV) radiation - a portion of the electromagnetic energy emitted by the sun and naturally filtered in the upper atmosphere by the ozone layer; UV radiation can be harmful to living organisms and has been linked to increasing rates of skin cancer in humans. water-born diseases - those in which the bacteria survive in, and is transmitted through, water; always a serious threat in areas with an untreated water supply.

Environment - international agreements This entry separates country participation in international environmental agreements into two levels - party to and signed but not ratified. Agreements are listed in alphabetical order by the abbreviated form of the full name.

Environmental agreements This information is presented in Appendix C: Selected International Environmental Agreements, which includes the name, abbreviation, date opened for signature, date entered into force, objective, and parties by category.

Ethnic groups This entry provides an ordered listing of ethnic groups starting with the largest and normally includes the percent of total population.

Exchange rates This entry provides the official value of a country's monetary unit at a given date or over a given period of time, as expressed in units of local currency per US dollar and as determined by international market forces or official fiat.

Executive branch This entry includes several subfields. Chief of state includes the name and title of the titular leader of the country who represents the state at official and ceremonial functions but may not be involved with the day-to-day activities of the government. Head of government includes the name and title of the top administrative leader who is designated to manage the day-to-day activities of the government. For example, in the UK, the monarch is the chief of state, and the prime minister is the head of government. In the US, the president is both the chief of state and the head of government. Cabinet includes the official name for this body of high-ranking advisers and the method for selection of members. Elections includes the nature of election process or accession to power, date of the last election, and date of the next election. Election results includes the percent of vote for each candidate in the last election.

Exports This entry provides the total US dollar amount of exports on an f.o.b. (free on board) basis.

Exports - commodities This entry provides a rank ordering of exported products starting with the most important; it sometimes includes the percent of total dollar value.

Exports - partners This entry provides a rank ordering of trading partners starting with the most important; it sometimes includes the percent of total dollar value.

Fiscal year This entry identifies the beginning and ending months for a country's accounting period of 12 months, which often is the calendar year but which may begin in any month. All yearly references are for the calendar year (CY) unless indicated as a noncalendar fiscal year (FY).

Flag description This entry provides a written flag description produced from actual flags or the best information available at the time the entry was written. The flags of independent states are used by their dependencies unless there is an officially recognized local flag. Some disputed and other areas do not have flags.

Flag graphic Most versions of the Factbook include a color flag at the beginning of the country profile. The flag graphics were produced from actual flags or the best information available at the time of preparation. The flags of independent states are used by their dependencies unless there is an officially recognized local flag. Some disputed and other areas do not have flags.

GDP This entry gives the gross domestic product (GDP) or value of all final goods and services produced within a nation in a given year. GDP dollar estimates in the Factbook are derived from purchasing power parity (PPP) calculations. See the note on GDP methodology for more information.

GDP methodology In the Economy category, GDP dollar estimates for all countries are derived from purchasing power parity (PPP) calculations rather than from conversions at official currency exchange rates. The PPP method involves the use of standardized international dollar price weights, which are applied to the quantities of final goods and services produced in a given economy. The data derived from the PPP method provide the best available starting point for comparisons of economic strength and well-being between countries. The division of a GDP estimate in domestic currency by the corresponding PPP estimate in dollars gives the PPP conversion rate. Whereas PPP estimates for OECD countries are quite reliable, PPP estimates for developing countries are often rough approximations. Most of the GDP estimates are based on extrapolation of PPP numbers published by the UN International Comparison Program (UNICP) and by Professors Robert Summers and Alan Heston of the University of Pennsylvania and their colleagues. In contrast, the currency exchange rate method involves a variety of international and domestic financial forces that often have little relation to domestic output. In developing countries with weak currencies the exchange rate estimate of GDP in dollars is typically one-fourth to one-half the PPP estimate. Furthermore, exchange rates may suddenly go up or down by 10% or more because of market forces or official fiat whereas real output has remained unchanged. On 12 January 1994, for example, the 14 countries of the African Financial Community (whose currencies are tied to the French franc) devalued their currencies by 50%. This move, of course, did not cut the real output of these countries by half. One important caution: the proportion of, say, defense expenditures as a percentage of GDP in local currency accounts may differ substantially from the proportion when GDP accounts are expressed in PPP terms, as, for example, when an observer tries to estimate the dollar level of Russian or Japanese military expenditures. Note: the numbers for GDP and other economic data cannot be chained together from successive volumes of the Factbook because of changes in the US dollar measuring rod, revisions of data by statistical agencies, use of new or different sources of information, and changes in national statistical methods and practices.

GDP - composition by sector This entry gives the percentage contribution of agriculture, industry, and services to total GDP.

GDP - per capita This entry shows GDP on a purchasing power parity basis divided by population as of 1 July for the same year.

GDP - real growth rate This entry gives GDP growth on an annual basis adjusted for inflation and expressed as a percent.

Geographic coordinates This entry includes rounded latitude and longitude figures for the purpose of finding the approximate geographic center of an entity and is based on the Gazetteer of Conventional Names, Third Edition, August 1988, US Board on Geographic Names and on other sources.

Geographic names This information is presented in Appendix F: Cross-Reference List of Geographic Names. It includes a listing of various alternate names, former names, local names, and regional names referenced to one or more related Factbook entries. Spellings are normally, but not always, those approved by the US Board on Geographic Names (BGN). Alternate names and additional information are included in parentheses.

Geography This category includes the entries dealing with the natural environment and the effects of human activity.

Geography - note This entry includes miscellaneous geographic information of significance not included elsewhere.

GINI index
See entry for Distribution of family income - Gini index

GNP Gross national product (GNP) is the value of all final goods and services produced within a nation in a given year, plus income earned by its citizens abroad, minus income earned by foreigners from domestic production. The Factbook, following current practice, uses GDP rather than GNP to measure national production. However, the user must realize that in certain countries net remittances from citizens working abroad may be important to national well-being.

Government This category includes the entries dealing with the system for the adoption and administration of public policy.

Government type This entry gives the basic form of government. Definitions of the major governmental terms are as follows: Anarchy - a condition of lawlessness or political disorder brought about by the absence of governmental authority. Commonwealth - a nation, state, or other political entity founded on law and united by a compact of the people for the common good. Communism - a system of government in which the state plans and controls the economy and a single - often authoritarian - party holds power; state controls are imposed with the elimination of private ownership of property or capital while claiming to make progress toward a higher social order in which all goods are equally shared by the people (i.e., a classless society). Confederacy (Confederation) - a union by compact or treaty between states, provinces, or territories, that creates a central government with limited powers; the constituent entities retain supreme authority over all matters except those delegated to the central government. Constitutional - a government by or operating under an authoritative document (constitution) that sets forth the system of fundamental laws and principles that determines the nature, functions, and limits of that government. Constitutional Democracy - a form of government in which the sovereign power of the people is spelled out in a governing constitution. Constitutional Monarchy - a system of government in which a monarch is guided by a constitution whereby his/her rights, duties, and responsibilities are spelled out in written law or by custom. Democracy - a form of government in which the supreme power is retained by the people, but which is usually exercised indirectly through a system of representation and delegated authority periodically renewed. Democratic Republic - a state in which the supreme power rests in the body of citizens entitled to vote for officers and representatives responsible to them. Dictatorship - a form of government in which a ruler or small clique wield absolute power (not restricted by a constitution or laws). Ecclesiastical - a government administrated by a church. Federal (Federative) - a form of government in which sovereign power is formally divided - usually by means of a constitution - between a central authority and a number of constituent regions (states, colonies, or provinces) so that each region retains some management of its internal affairs; differs from a confederacy in that the central government exerts influence directly upon both individuals as well as upon the regional units. Federal Republic - a state in which the powers of the central government are restricted and in which the component parts (states, colonies, or provinces) retain a degree of self-government; ultimate sovereign power rests with the voters who chose their governmental representatives. Maoism - the theory and practice of Marxism-Leninism developed in China by Mao Zedong (Mao Tse-tung), which states that a continuous revolution is necessary if the leaders of a communist state are to keep in touch with the people. Marxism - the political, economic, and social principles espoused by 19th century economist Karl Marx; he viewed the struggle of workers as a progression of historical forces that would proceed from a class struggle of the proletariat (workers) exploited by capitalists (business owners), to a socialist "dictatorship of the proletariat," to, finally, a classless society - communism. Marxism-Leninism - an expanded form of communism developed by Lenin from doctrines of Karl Marx; Lenin saw imperialism as the final stage of capitalism and shifted the focus of workers' struggle from developed to underdeveloped countries. Monarchy - a government in which the supreme power is lodged in the hands of a monarch who reigns over a state or territory, usually for life and by hereditary right; the monarch may be either a sole absolute ruler or a sovereign - such as a king, queen, or prince - with constitutionally limited authority. Oligarchy - a government in which control is exercised by a small group of individuals whose authority generally is based on wealth or power. Parliamentary Democracy - a political system in which the legislature (parliament) selects the government - a prime minister, premier, or chancellor along with the cabinet ministers - according to party strength as expressed in elections; by this system, the government acquires a dual responsibility: to the people as well as to the parliament. Parliamentary Government (Cabinet-Parliamentary Government) - a government in which members of an executive branch (the cabinet and its leader - a prime minister, premier, or chancellor) are nominated to their positions by a legislature or parliament, and are directly responsible to it; this type of government can be dissolved at will by the parliament (legislature) by means of a no confidence vote or the leader of the cabinet may dissolve the parliament if it can no longer function. Parliamentary Monarchy - a state headed by a monarch who is not actively involved in policy formation or implementation (i.e., the exercise of sovereign powers by a monarch in a ceremonial capacity); true governmental leadership is carried out by a cabinet and its head - a prime minister, premier, or chancellor - who are drawn from a legislature (parliament). Republic - a representative democracy in which the people's elected deputies (representatives), not the people themselves, vote on legislation. Socialism - a government in which the means of planning, producing, and distributing goods is controlled by a central government that theoretically seeks a more just and equitable distribution of property and labor; in actuality, most socialist governments have ended up being no more than dictatorships over workers by a ruling elite. Sultanate - similar to a monarchy, but a government in which the supreme power is in the hands of a sultan (the head of a Muslim state); the sultan may be an absolute ruler or a sovereign with constitutionally limited authority. Theocracy - a form of government in which a Deity is recognized as the supreme civil ruler, but the Deity's laws are interpreted by ecclesiastical authorities (bishops, mullahs, etc.); a government subject to religious authority. Totalitarian - a government that seeks to subordinate the individual to the state by controlling not only all political and economic matters, but also the attitudes, values, and beliefs of its population.

Government - note This entry includes miscellaneous government information of significance not included elsewhere.

Gross domestic product see GDP

Gross national product see GNP

Gross world product see GWP

GWP This entry gives the gross world product (GWP) or aggregate value of all final goods and services produced worldwide in a given year.

Heliports This entry gives the total number of established helicopter takeoff and landing sites (which may or may not have fuel or other services).

Highways This entry states the total length of the highway system and the length of the paved and unpaved parts.

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate This entry gives an estimate of the percentage of adults (aged 15-49) living with HIV/AIDS. The adult prevalence rate is calculated by dividing the estimated number of adults living with HIV/AIDS at yearend by the total adult population at yearend.

HIV/AIDS - deaths This entry gives an estimate of the number of adults and children who died of AIDS during a given calendar year.

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS This entry gives an estimate of all people (adults and children) alive at yearend with HIV infection, whether or not they have developed symptoms of AIDS.

Household income or consumption by percentage share Data on household income or consumption come from household surveys, the results adjusted for household size. Nations use different standards and procedures in collecting and adjusting the data. Surveys based on income will normally show a more unequal distribution than surveys based on consumption. The quality of surveys is improving with time, yet caution is still necessary in making inter-country comparisons.

Hydrographic data codes see Data codes

Illicit drugs This entry gives information on the five categories of illicit drugs - narcotics, stimulants, depressants (sedatives), hallucinogens, and cannabis. These categories include many drugs legally produced and prescribed by doctors as well as those illegally produced and sold outside of medical channels. Cannabis (Cannabis sativa) is the common hemp plant, which provides hallucinogens with some sedative properties, and includes marijuana (pot, Acapulco gold, grass, reefer), tetrahydrocannabinol (THC, Marinol), hashish (hash), and hashish oil (hash oil). Coca (mostly Erythroxylum coca) is a bush with leaves that contain the stimulant used to make cocaine. Coca is not to be confused with cocoa, which comes from cacao seeds and is used in making chocolate, cocoa, and cocoa butter. Cocaine is a stimulant derived from the leaves of the coca bush. Depressants (sedatives) are drugs that reduce tension and anxiety and include chloral hydrate, barbiturates (Amytal, Nembutal, Seconal, phenobarbital), benzodiazepines (Librium, Valium), methaqualone (Quaalude), glutethimide (Doriden), and others (Equanil, Placidyl, Valmid). Drugs are any chemical substances that effect a physical, mental, emotional, or behavioral change in an individual. Drug abuse is the use of any licit or illicit chemical substance that results in physical, mental, emotional, or behavioral impairment in an individual. Hallucinogens are drugs that affect sensation, thinking, self- awareness, and emotion. Hallucinogens include LSD (acid, microdot), mescaline and peyote (mexc, buttons, cactus), amphetamine variants (PMA, STP, DOB), phencyclidine (PCP, angel dust, hog), phencyclidine analogues (PCE, PCPy, TCP), and others (psilocybin, psilocyn). Hashish is the resinous exudate of the cannabis or hemp plant (Cannabis sativa). Heroin is a semisynthetic derivative of morphine. Mandrax is a trade name for methaqualone, a pharmaceutical depressant. Marijuana is the dried leaf of the cannabis or hemp plant (Cannabis sativa). Methaqualone is a pharmaceutical depressant, referred to as mandrax in Southwest Asia and Africa. Narcotics are drugs that relieve pain, often induce sleep, and refer to opium, opium derivatives, and synthetic substitutes. Natural narcotics include opium (paregoric, parepectolin), morphine (MS-Contin, Roxanol), codeine (Tylenol with codeine, Empirin with codeine, Robitussan AC), and thebaine. Semisynthetic narcotics include heroin (horse, smack), and hydromorphone (Dilaudid). Synthetic narcotics include meperidine or Pethidine (Demerol, Mepergan), methadone (Dolophine, Methadose), and others (Darvon, Lomotil). Opium is the brown, gummy exudate of the incised, unripe seedpod of the opium poppy. Opium poppy (Papaver somniferum) is the source for the natural and semisynthetic narcotics. Poppy straw is the entire cut and dried opium poppy-plant material, other than the seeds. Opium is extracted from poppy straw in commercial operations that produce the drug for medical use. Qat (kat, khat) is a stimulant from the buds or leaves of Catha edulis that is chewed or drunk as tea. Quaaludes is the North American slang term for methaqualone, a pharmaceutical depressant. Stimulants are drugs that relieve mild depression, increase energy and activity, and include cocaine (coke, snow, crack), amphetamines (Desoxyn, Dexedrine), ephedrine, ecstasy (clarity, essence, doctor, Adam), phenmetrazine (Preludin), methylphenidate (Ritalin), and others (Cylert, Sanorex, Tenuate).

Imports This entry provides the total US dollar amount of imports on a c.i.f. (cost, insurance, and freight) or f.o.b. (free on board) basis.

Imports - commodities This entry provides a rank ordering of imported products starting with the most important; it sometimes includes the percent of total dollar value.

Imports - partners This entry provides a rank ordering of trading partners starting with the most important; it sometimes includes the percent of total dollar value.

Independence For most countries, this entry gives the date that sovereignty was achieved and from which nation, empire, or trusteeship. For the other countries, the date given may not represent "independence" in the strict sense, but rather some significant nationhood event such as the traditional founding date or the date of unification, federation, confederation, establishment, fundamental change in the form of government, or state succession. Dependent areas include the notation "none" followed by the nature of their dependency status. Also see the Terminology note.

Industrial production growth rate This entry gives the annual percentage increase in industrial production (includes manufacturing, mining, and construction).

Industries This entry provides a rank ordering of industries starting with the largest by value of annual output.

Infant mortality rate This entry gives the number of deaths of infants under one year old in a given year per 1,000 live births in the same year; included is the total death rate, and deaths by sex, male and female. This rate is often used as an indicator of the level of health in a country.

Inflation rate (consumer prices) This entry furnishes the annual percent change in consumer prices compared with the previous year's consumer prices.

Internet country code
This entry includes the two-letter codes maintained by the
International Organization for Standardization (ISO) in the ISO 3166
Alpha-2 list and used by the Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA)
to establish country-coded top-level domains (ccTLDs).

Internet hosts This entry lists the number of Internet hosts available within a country. An Internet host is a computer connected directly to the Internet; normally an Internet Service Provider's (ISP) computer is a host. Internet users may use either a hard-wired terminal, at an institution with a mainframe computer connected directly to the Internet, or may connect remotely by way of a modem via telephone line, cable, or satellite to the Internet Service Provider's host computer. The number of hosts is one indicator of the extent of Internet connectivity.

Internet users This entry gives the number of users within a country that access the Internet. Statistics vary from country to country and may include users who access the Internet at least several times a week to those who access it only once within a period of several months.

International disputes see Disputes - international

International organization participation This entry lists in alphabetical order by abbreviation those international organizations in which the subject country is a member or participates in some other way.

International organizations
This information is presented in Appendix B: International
Organizations and Groups which includes the name, abbreviation, date
established, aim, and members by category.

Introduction
This category includes one entry, Background.

Investment (gross fixed) This entry records total business spending on fixed assets, such as factories, machinery, equipment, dwellings, and inventories of raw materials, which provide the basis for future production. It is measured gross of depreciation of the assets, i.e., it includes investment that merely replaces worn-out or scrapped capital.

Irrigated land This entry gives the number of square kilometers of land area that is artificially supplied with water.

Judicial branch This entry contains the name(s) of the highest court(s) and a brief description of the selection process for members.

Labor force
This entry contains the total labor force figure.

Labor force - by occupation This entry contains a rank ordering of component parts of the labor force by occupation.

Land boundaries This entry contains the total length of all land boundaries and the individual lengths for each of the contiguous border countries.

Land use This entry contains the percentage shares of total land area for three different types of land use: arable land - land cultivated for crops like wheat, maize, and rice that are replanted after each harvest; permanent crops - land cultivated for crops like citrus, coffee, and rubber that are not replanted after each harvest; includes land under flowering shrubs, fruit trees, nut trees, and vines, but excludes land under trees grown for wood or timber; other - any land not arable or under permanent crops; includes permanent meadows and pastures, forests and woodlands, built-on areas, roads, barren land, etc.

Languages This entry provides a rank ordering of languages starting with the largest and sometimes includes the percent of total population speaking that language.

Legal system
This entry contains a brief description of the legal system's
historical roots, role in government, and acceptance of International
Court of Justice (ICJ) jurisdiction.

Legislative branch This entry contains information on the structure (unicameral, bicameral, tricameral), formal name, number of seats, and term of office. Elections includes the nature of election process or accession to power, date of the last election, and date of the next election. Election results includes the percent of vote and/or number of seats held by each party in the last election.

Life expectancy at birth This entry contains the average number of years to be lived by a group of people born in the same year, if mortality at each age remains constant in the future. The entry includes total population as well as the male and female components. Life expectancy at birth is also a measure of overall quality of life in a country and summarizes the mortality at all ages. It can also be thought of as indicating the potential return on investment in human capital and is necessary for the calculation of various actuarial measures.

Literacy This entry includes a definition of literacy and Census Bureau percentages for the total population, males, and females. There are no universal definitions and standards of literacy. Unless otherwise specified, all rates are based on the most common definition - the ability to read and write at a specified age. Detailing the standards that individual countries use to assess the ability to read and write is beyond the scope of the Factbook. Information on literacy, while not a perfect measure of educational results, is probably the most easily available and valid for international comparisons. Low levels of literacy, and education in general, can impede the economic development of a country in the current rapidly changing, technology-driven world.

Location This entry identifies the country's regional location, neighboring countries, and adjacent bodies of water.

Map references This entry includes the name of the Factbook reference map on which a country may be found. The entry on Geographic coordinates may be helpful in finding some smaller countries.

Maritime claims This entry includes the following claims, the definitions of which are excerpted from the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS), which alone contains the full and definitive descriptions: territorial sea - the sovereignty of a coastal state extends beyond its land territory and internal waters to an adjacent belt of sea, described as the territorial sea in the UNCLOS (Part II); this sovereignty extends to the air space over the territorial sea as well as its underlying seabed and subsoil; every state has the right to establish the breadth of its territorial sea up to a limit not exceeding 12 nautical miles; the normal baseline for measuring the breadth of the territorial sea is the low-water line along the coast as marked on large-scale charts officially recognized by the coastal state; the UNCLOS describes specific rules for archipelagic states contiguous zone - according to the UNCLOS (Article 33), this is a zone contiguous to a coastal state's territorial sea, over which it may exercise the control necessary to: prevent infringement of its customs, fiscal, immigration, or sanitary laws and regulations within its territory or territorial sea; punish infringement of the above laws and regulations committed within its territory or territorial sea; the contiguous zone may not extend beyond 24 nautical miles from the baselines from which the breadth of the territorial sea is measured (e.g., the US has claimed a 12-nautical mile contiguous zone in addition to its 12-nautical mile territorial sea) exclusive economic zone (EEZ) - the UNCLOS (Part V) defines the EEZ as a zone beyond and adjacent to the territorial sea in which a coastal state has: sovereign rights for the purpose of exploring and exploiting, conserving and managing the natural resources, whether living or non-living, of the waters superjacent to the seabed and of the seabed and its subsoil, and with regard to other activities for the economic exploitation and exploration of the zone, such as the production of energy from the water, currents, and winds; jurisdiction with regard to the establishment and use of artificial islands, installations, and structures; marine scientific research; the protection and preservation of the marine environment; the outer limit of the exclusive economic zone shall not exceed 200 nautical miles from the baselines from which the breadth of the territorial sea is measured continental shelf - the UNCLOS (Article 76) defines the continental shelf of a coastal state as comprising the seabed and subsoil of the submarine areas that extend beyond its territorial sea throughout the natural prolongation of its land territory to the outer edge of the continental margin, or to a distance of 200 nautical miles from the baselines from which the breadth of the territorial sea is measured where the outer edge of the continental margin does not extend up to that distance; the continental margin comprises the submerged prolongation of the landmass of the coastal state, and consists of the seabed and subsoil of the shelf, the slope and the rise; wherever the continental margin extends beyond 200 nautical miles from the baseline, coastal states may extend their claim to a distance not to exceed 350 nautical miles from the baseline or 100 nautical miles from the 2500 meter isobath; it does not include the deep ocean floor with its oceanic ridges or the subsoil thereof exclusive fishing zone - while this term is not used in the UNCLOS, some states (e.g. the United Kingdom) have chosen not to claim an EEZ, but rather to claim jurisdiction over the living resources off their coast; in such cases, the term exclusive fishing zone is often used; the breadth of this zone is normally the same as the EEZ or 200 nautical miles

Median age This entry is the age that divides a population into two numerically equal groups; that is, half the people are younger than this age and half are older. It is a single index that summarizes the age distribution of a population. Currently, the median age ranges from a low of about 15 in Uganda and Gaza Strip to 40 or more in several European countries and Japan. See the entry for "Age structure" for the importance of a young versus an older age structure and, by implication, a low versus a higher median age.

Merchant marine Merchant marine may be defined as all ships engaged in the carriage of goods; or all commercial vessels (as opposed to all nonmilitary ships), which excludes tugs, fishing vessels, offshore oil rigs, etc. This entry contains information in four fields - total, ships by type, foreign-owned, and registered in other countries. Total includes the number of ships (1,000 GRT or over), total DWT for those ships, and total GRT for those ships. DWT or dead weight tonnage is the total weight of cargo, plus bunkers, stores, etc., that a ship can carry when immersed to the appropriate load line. GRT or gross register tonnage is a figure obtained by measuring the entire sheltered volume of a ship available for cargo and passengers and converting it to tons on the basis of 100 cubic feet per ton; there is no stable relationship between GRT and DWT. Ships by type includes a listing of barge carriers, bulk cargo ships, cargo ships, chemical tankers, combination bulk carriers, combination ore/oil carriers, container ships, liquefied gas tankers, livestock carriers, multifunctional large-load carriers, petroleum tankers, passenger ships, passenger/cargo ships, railcar carriers, refrigerated cargo ships, roll-on/roll-off cargo ships, short-sea passenger ships, specialized tankers, and vehicle carriers. Foreign-owned are ships that fly the flag of one country but belong to owners in another. Registered in other countries are ships that belong to owners in one country but fly the flag of another.

Military This category includes the entries dealing with a country's military structure, manpower, and expenditures.

Military branches This entry lists the names of the ground, naval, air, marine, and other defense or security forces.

Military expenditures - dollar figure This entry gives current military expenditures in US dollars; the figure is calculated by multiplying the estimated defense spending in percentage terms by the gross domestic product (GDP) calculated on an exchange rate basis, not purchasing power parity (PPP) terms. Dollar figures for military expenditures should be treated with caution because of different price patterns and accounting methods among nations, as well as wide variations in the strength of their currencies.

Military expenditures - percent of GDP This entry gives current military expenditures as an estimated percent of gross domestic product (GDP).

Military manpower - availability This entry gives the total numbers of males and females age 15-49 and assumes that every individual is fit to serve.

Military manpower - fit for military service This entry gives the number of males and females age 15-49 fit for military service. This is a more refined measure of potential military manpower availability which tries to account for the health situation in the country and reduces the maximum potential number to a more realistic estimate of the actual number fit to serve.

Military manpower - military age This entry gives the minimum age at which an individual may volunteer for military service or be subject to conscription.

Military manpower - reaching military age annually This entry gives the number of draft-age males and females entering the military manpower pool in any given year and is a measure of the availability of draft-age young adults.

Military - note This entry includes miscellaneous military information of significance not included elsewhere.

Money figures All money figures are expressed in contemporaneous US dollars unless otherwise indicated.

National holiday This entry gives the primary national day of celebration - usually independence day.

Nationality This entry provides the identifying terms for citizens - noun and adjective.

Natural gas - production This entry is the total natural gas produced in cubic meters (cu m). The discrepancy between the amount of natural gas produced and/or imported and the amount consumed and/or exported is due to the omission of stock changes and other complicating factors.

Natural gas - consumption This entry is the total natural gas consumed in cubic meters (cu m). The discrepancy between the amount of natural gas produced and/or imported and the amount consumed and/or exported is due to the omission of stock changes and other complicating factors.

Natural gas - exports
This entry is the total natural gas exported in cubic meters (cu m).

Natural gas - imports
This entry is the total natural gas imported in cubic meters (cu m).

Natural gas - proved reserves This entry is the stock of proved reserves of natural gas in cubic meters (cu m). Proved reserves are those quantities of natural gas, which, by analysis of geological and engineering data, can be estimated with a high degree of confidence to be commercially recoverable from a given date forward, from known reservoirs and under current economic conditions.

Natural hazards
This entry lists potential natural disasters.

Natural resources This entry lists a country's mineral, petroleum, hydropower, and other resources of commercial importance.

Net migration rate This entry includes the figure for the difference between the number of persons entering and leaving a country during the year per 1,000 persons (based on midyear population). An excess of persons entering the country is referred to as net immigration (e.g., 3.56 migrants/1,000 population); an excess of persons leaving the country as net emigration (e.g., -9.26 migrants/1,000 population). The net migration rate indicates the contribution of migration to the overall level of population change. High levels of migration can cause problems such as increasing unemployment and potential ethnic strife (if people are coming in) or a reduction in the labor force, perhaps in certain key sectors (if people are leaving).

Oil - production This entry is the total oil produced in barrels per day (bbl/day). The discrepancy between the amount of oil produced and/or imported and the amount consumed and/or exported is due to the omission of stock changes, refinery gains, and other complicating factors.

Oil - consumption This entry is the total oil consumed in barrels per day (bbl/day). The discrepancy between the amount of oil produced and/or imported and the amount consumed and/or exported is due to the omission of stock changes, refinery gains, and other complicating factors.

Oil - exports This entry is the total oil exported in barrels per day (bbl/day), including both crude oil and oil products.

Oil - imports This entry is the total oil imported in barrels per day (bbl/day), including both crude oil and oil products.

Oil - proved reserves This entry is the stock of proved reserves of crude oil in barrels (bbl). Proved reserves are those quantities of petroleum which, by analysis of geological and engineering data, can be estimated with a high degree of confidence to be commercially recoverable from a given date forward, from known reservoirs and under current economic conditions.

People This category includes the entries dealing with the characteristics of the people and their society.

People - note This entry includes miscellaneous demographic information of significance not included elsewhere.

Personal Names - Capitalization The Factbook capitalizes the surname or family name of individuals for the convenience of our users who are faced with a world of different cultures and naming conventions. The need for capitalization, bold type, underlining, italics, or some other indicator of the individual's surname is apparent in the following examples: MAO Zedong, Fidel CASTRO Ruz, George W. BUSH, and TUNKU SALAHUDDIN Abdul Aziz Shah ibni Al-Marhum Sultan Hisammuddin Alam Shah. By knowing the surname, a short form without all capital letters can be used with confidence as in President Castro, Chairman Mao, President Bush, or Sultan Tunku Salahuddin. The same system of capitalization is extended to the names of leaders with surnames that are not commonly used such as Queen ELIZABETH II.

Personal Names - Spelling The romanization of personal names in the Factbook normally follows the same transliteration system used by the US Board on Geographic Names for spelling place names. At times, however, a foreign leader expressly indicates a preference for, or the media or official documents regularly use, a romanized spelling that differs from the transliteration derived from the US Government standard. In such cases, the Factbook uses the alternative spelling.

Personal Names - Titles The Factbook capitalizes any valid title (or short form of it) immediately preceding a person's name. A title standing alone is not capitalized. Examples: President PUTIN and President BUSH are chiefs of state. In Russia, the president is chief of state and the premier is the head of the government, while in the US, the president is both chief of state and head of government.

Petroleum
See entry for "oil."

Petroleum products
See entry for "oil."

Pipelines This entry gives the lengths and types of pipelines for transporting products like natural gas, crude oil, or petroleum products.

Political parties and leaders This entry includes a listing of significant political organizations and their leaders.

Political pressure groups and leaders This entry includes a listing of organizations with leaders involved in politics, but not standing for legislative election.

Population This entry gives an estimate from the US Bureau of the Census based on statistics from population censuses, vital statistics registration systems, or sample surveys pertaining to the recent past and on assumptions about future trends. The total population presents one overall measure of the potential impact of the country on the world and within its region. Note: starting with the 1993 Factbook, demographic estimates for some countries (mostly African) have explicitly taken into account the effects of the growing impact of the HIV/AIDS epidemic. These countries are currently: The Bahamas, Benin, Botswana, Brazil, Burkina Faso, Burma, Burundi, Cambodia, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Republic of the Congo, Cote d'Ivoire, Ethiopia, Gabon, Ghana, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Kenya, Lesotho, Malawi, Mozambique, Namibia, Nigeria, Rwanda, South Africa, Swaziland, Tanzania, Thailand, Togo, Uganda, Zambia, and Zimbabwe.

Population below poverty line National estimates of the percentage of the population falling below the poverty line are based on surveys of sub-groups, with the results weighted by the number of people in each group. Definitions of poverty vary considerably among nations. For example, rich nations generally employ more generous standards of poverty than poor nations.

Population growth rate The average annual percent change in the population, resulting from a surplus (or deficit) of births over deaths and the balance of migrants entering and leaving a country. The rate may be positive or negative. The growth rate is a factor in determining how great a burden would be imposed on a country by the changing needs of its people for infrastructure (e.g., schools, hospitals, housing, roads), resources (e.g., food, water, electricity), and jobs. Rapid population growth can be seen as threatening by neighboring countries.

Ports and harbors This entry lists the major ports and harbors selected on the basis of overall importance to each country. This is determined by evaluating a number of factors (e.g., dollar value of goods handled, gross tonnage, facilities, military significance).

Public debt This entry records the cumulative total of all government borrowings less repayments that are denominated in a country's home currency. Public debt should not be confused with external debt, which reflects the foreign currency liablities of both the private and public sector and must be financed out of foreign exchange earnings.

Radio broadcast stations This entry includes the total number of AM, FM, and shortwave broadcast stations.

Railways This entry states the total route length of the railway network and of its component parts by gauge: broad, standard, narrow, and dual. Other gauges are listed under note.

Reference maps
This section includes world and regional maps.

Refugees and internally displaced persons This entry includes those persons residing in a country as refugees or internally displaced persons (IDPs). The definition of a refugee according to a United Nations Convention is "a person who is outside his/her country of nationality or habitual residence; has a well- founded fear of persecution because of his/her race, religion, nationality, membership in a particular social group or political opinion; and is unable or unwilling to avail himself/herself of the protection of that country, or to return there, for fear of persecution." The UN established the Office of the UN High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) in 1950 to handle refugee matters worldwide. The UN Relief and Works Agency for Palestine Refugees in the Near East (UNRWA) has a different, operational definition for a Palestinian refugee: "a person whose normal place of residence was Palestine during the period 1 June 1946 to 15 May 1948 and who lost both home and means of livelihood as a result of the 1948 conflict." However, UNHCR also assists some 400,000 Palestinian refugees not covered under the UNRWA definition. The term "internally displaced person" is not specifically covered in the UN Convention; it is used to describe people who have fled their homes for reasons similar to refugees, but who remain within their own national territory and are subject to the laws of that state. The United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) estimated that in December 2003 there was a global population of 9.7 million refugees and as many as 25 million IDPs.

Religions This entry is an ordered listing of religions by adherents starting with the largest group and sometimes includes the percent of total population.

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold This entry gives the dollar value for the stock of all financial assets that are available to the central monetary authority for use in meeting a country's balance of payments needs as of the end-date of the period specified. This category includes not only foreign currency and gold, but also a country's holdings of Special Drawing Rights in the International Monetary Fund, and its reserve position in the Fund.

Sex ratio This entry includes the number of males for each female in five age groups - at birth, under 15 years, 15-64 years, 65 years and over, and for the total population. Sex ratio at birth has recently emerged as an indicator of certain kinds of sex discrimination in some countries. For instance, high sex ratios at birth in some Asian countries are now attributed to sex-selective abortion and infanticide due to a strong preference for sons. This will affect future marriage patterns and fertility patterns. Eventually it could cause unrest among young adult males who are unable to find partners.

Suffrage This entry gives the age at enfranchisement and whether the right to vote is universal or restricted.

Telephone numbers All telephone numbers in the Factbook consist of the country code in brackets, the city or area code (where required) in parentheses, and the local number. The one component that is not presented is the international access code, which varies from country to country. For example, an international direct dial telephone call placed from the US to Madrid, Spain, would be as follows:

     011 [34] (1) 577-xxxx, where
     011 is the international access code for station-to-station calls;
01 is for calls other than station-to-station calls,
     [34] is the country code for Spain,
     (1) is the city code for Madrid,
     577 is the local exchange, and
     xxxx is the local telephone number.

An international direct dial telephone call placed from another country
to the US would be as follows:
     international access code + [1] (202) 939-xxxx, where
     [1] is the country code for the US,
     (202) is the area code for Washington, DC,
     939 is the local exchange, and
     xxxx is the local telephone number.

Telephone system This entry includes a brief general assessment of the system with details on the domestic and international components. The following terms and abbreviations are used throughout the entry:

Africa ONE - a fiber-optic submarine cable link encircling the continent of Africa. Arabsat - Arab Satellite Communications Organization (Riyadh, Saudi Arabia). Autodin - Automatic Digital Network (US Department of Defense). CB - citizen's band mobile radio communications. cellular telephone system - the telephones in this system are radio transceivers, with each instrument having its own private radio frequency and sufficient radiated power to reach the booster station in its area (cell), from which the telephone signal is fed to a telephone exchange. Central American Microwave System - a trunk microwave radio relay system that links the countries of Central America and Mexico with each other. coaxial cable - a multichannel communication cable consisting of a central conducting wire, surrounded by and insulated from a cylindrical conducting shell; a large number of telephone channels can be made available within the insulated space by the use of a large number of carrier frequencies. Comsat - Communications Satellite Corporation (US). DSN - Defense Switched Network (formerly Automatic Voice Network or Autovon); basic general-purpose, switched voice network of the Defense Communications System (US Department of Defense). Eutelsat - European Telecommunications Satellite Organization (Paris). fiber-optic cable - a multichannel communications cable using a thread of optical glass fibers as a transmission medium in which the signal (voice, video, etc.) is in the form of a coded pulse of light. GSM - a global system for mobile (cellular) communications devised by the Groupe Special Mobile of the pan-European standardization organization, Conference Europeanne des Posts et Telecommunications (CEPT) in 1982. HF - high frequency; any radio frequency in the 3,000- to 30,000- kHz range. Inmarsat - International Maritime Satellite Organization (London); provider of global mobile satellite communications for commercial, distress, and safety applications at sea, in the air, and on land. Intelsat - International Telecommunications Satellite Organization (Washington, DC). Intersputnik - International Organization of Space Communications (Moscow); first established in the former Soviet Union and the East European countries, it is now marketing its services worldwide with earth stations in North America, Africa, and East Asia. landline - communication wire or cable of any sort that is installed on poles or buried in the ground. Marecs - Maritime European Communications Satellite used in the Inmarsat system on lease from the European Space Agency. Marisat - satellites of the Comsat Corporation that participate in the Inmarsat system. Medarabtel - the Middle East Telecommunications Project of the International Telecommunications Union (ITU) providing a modern telecommunications network, primarily by microwave radio relay, linking Algeria, Djibouti, Egypt, Jordan, Libya, Morocco, Saudi Arabia, Somalia, Sudan, Syria, Tunisia, and Yemen; it was initially started in Morocco in 1970 by the Arab Telecommunications Union (ATU) and was known at that time as the Middle East Mediterranean Telecommunications Network. microwave radio relay - transmission of long distance telephone calls and television programs by highly directional radio microwaves that are received and sent on from one booster station to another on an optical path. NMT - Nordic Mobile Telephone; an analog cellular telephone system that was developed jointly by the national telecommunications authorities of the Nordic countries (Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden). Orbita - a Russian television service; also the trade name of a packet-switched digital telephone network. radiotelephone communications - the two-way transmission and reception of sounds by broadcast radio on authorized frequencies using telephone handsets. PanAmSat - PanAmSat Corporation (Greenwich, CT). SAFE - South African Far East Cable satellite communication system - a communication system consisting of two or more earth stations and at least one satellite that provide long distance transmission of voice, data, and television; the system usually serves as a trunk connection between telephone exchanges; if the earth stations are in the same country, it is a domestic system. satellite earth station - a communications facility with a microwave radio transmitting and receiving antenna and required receiving and transmitting equipment for communicating with satellites. satellite link - a radio connection between a satellite and an earth station permitting communication between them, either one-way (down link from satellite to earth station - television receive-only transmission) or two-way (telephone channels). SHF - super high frequency; any radio frequency in the 3,000- to 30,000-MHz range. shortwave - radio frequencies (from 1.605 to 30 MHz) that fall above the commercial broadcast band and are used for communication over long distances. Solidaridad - geosynchronous satellites in Mexico's system of international telecommunications in the Western Hemisphere. Statsionar - Russia's geostationary system for satellite telecommunications. submarine cable - a cable designed for service under water. TAT - Trans-Atlantic Telephone; any of a number of high-capacity submarine coaxial telephone cables linking Europe with North America. telefax - facsimile service between subscriber stations via the public switched telephone network or the international Datel network. telegraph - a telecommunications system designed for unmodulated electric impulse transmission. telex - a communication service involving teletypewriters connected by wire through automatic exchanges. tropospheric scatter - a form of microwave radio transmission in which the troposphere is used to scatter and reflect a fraction of the incident radio waves back to earth; powerful, highly directional antennas are used to transmit and receive the microwave signals; reliable over-the-horizon communications are realized for distances up to 600 miles in a single hop; additional hops can extend the range of this system for very long distances. trunk network - a network of switching centers, connected by multichannel trunk lines. UHF - ultra high frequency; any radio frequency in the 300- to 3,000-MHz range. VHF - very high frequency; any radio frequency in the 30- to 300- MHz range.

Telephones - main lines in use
This entry gives the total number of main telephone lines in use.

Telephones - mobile cellular
This entry gives the total number of mobile cellular telephones in use.

Television - broadcast stations This entry gives the total number of separate broadcast stations plus any repeater stations.

Terminology Due to the highly structured nature of the Factbook database, some collective generic terms have to be used. For example, the word Country in the Country name entry refers to a wide variety of dependencies, areas of special sovereignty, uninhabited islands, and other entities in addition to the traditional countries or independent states. Military is also used as an umbrella term for various civil defense, security, and defense activities in many entries. The Independence entry includes the usual colonial independence dates and former ruling states as well as other significant nationhood dates such as the traditional founding date or the date of unification, federation, confederation, establishment, or state succession that are not strictly independence dates. Dependent areas have the nature of their dependency status noted in this same entry.

Terrain
This entry contains a brief description of the topography.

Total fertility rate This entry gives a figure for the average number of children that would be born per woman if all women lived to the end of their childbearing years and bore children according to a given fertility rate at each age. The total fertility rate is a more direct measure of the level of fertility than the crude birth rate, since it refers to births per woman. This indicator shows the potential for population growth in the country. High rates will also place some limits on the labor force participation rates for women. Large numbers of children born to women indicate large family sizes that might limit the ability of the families to feed and educate their children.

Transnational Issues This category includes only two entries at the present time - Disputes - international and Illicit drugs - that deal with current issues going beyond national boundaries.

Transportation This category includes the entries dealing with the means for movement of people and goods.

Transportation - note This entry includes miscellaneous transportation information of significance not included elsewhere.

Unemployment rate This entry contains the percent of the labor force that is without jobs. Substantial underemployment might be noted.

Waterways This entry gives the total length of navigable rivers, canals, and other inland bodies of water.

Years All year references are for the calendar year (CY) unless indicated as fiscal year (FY). The calendar year is an accounting period of 12 months from 1 January to 31 December. The fiscal year is an accounting period of 12 months other than 1 January to 31 December.

Note: Information for the US and US dependencies was compiled from material in the public domain and does not represent Intelligence Community estimates.

This page was last updated on 10 December, 2004

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History

A Brief History of Basic Intelligence and The World Factbook

The Intelligence Cycle is the process by which information is acquired, converted into intelligence, and made available to policymakers. Information is raw data from any source, data that may be fragmentary, contradictory, unreliable, ambiguous, deceptive, or wrong. Intelligence is information that has been collected, integrated, evaluated, analyzed, and interpreted. Finished intelligence is the final product of the Intelligence Cycle ready to be delivered to the policymaker.

The three types of finished intelligence are: basic, current, and estimative. Basic intelligence provides the fundamental and factual reference material on a country or issue. Current intelligence reports on new developments. Estimative intelligence judges probable outcomes. The three are mutually supportive: basic intelligence is the foundation on which the other two are constructed; current intelligence continually updates the inventory of knowledge; and estimative intelligence revises overall interpretations of country and issue prospects for guidance of basic and current intelligence. The World Factbook, The President's Daily Brief, and the National Intelligence Estimates are examples of the three types of finished intelligence.

The United States has carried on foreign intelligence activities since the days of George Washington but only since World War II have they been coordinated on a government-wide basis. Three programs have highlighted the development of coordinated basic intelligence since that time: (1) the Joint Army Navy Intelligence Studies (JANIS), (2) the National Intelligence Survey (NIS), and (3) The World Factbook.

During World War II, intelligence consumers realized that the production of basic intelligence by different components of the US Government resulted in a great duplication of effort and conflicting information. The Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor in 1941 brought home to leaders in Congress and the executive branch the need for integrating departmental reports to national policymakers. Detailed and coordinated information was needed not only on such major powers as Germany and Japan, but also on places of little previous interest. In the Pacific Theater, for example, the Navy and Marines had to launch amphibious operations against many islands about which information was unconfirmed or nonexistent. Intelligence authorities resolved that the United States should never again be caught unprepared.

In 1943, Gen. George B. Strong (G-2), Adm. H. C. Train (Office of Naval Intelligence - ONI), and Gen. William J. Donovan (Director of the Office of Strategic Services - OSS) decided that a joint effort should be initiated. A steering committee was appointed on 27 April 1943 that recommended the formation of a Joint Intelligence Study Publishing Board to assemble, edit, coordinate, and publish the Joint Army Navy Intelligence Studies (JANIS). JANIS was the first interdepartmental basic intelligence program to fulfill the needs of the US Government for an authoritative and coordinated appraisal of strategic basic intelligence. Between April 1943 and July 1947, the board published 34 JANIS studies. JANIS performed well in the war effort, and numerous letters of commendation were received, including a statement from Adm. Forrest Sherman, Chief of Staff, Pacific Ocean Areas, which said, "JANIS has become the indispensable reference work for the shore-based planners."

The need for more comprehensive basic intelligence in the postwar world was well expressed in 1946 by George S. Pettee, a noted author on national security. He wrote in The Future of American Secret Intelligence (Infantry Journal Press, 1946, page 46) that world leadership in peace requires even more elaborate intelligence than in war. "The conduct of peace involves all countries, all human activities - not just the enemy and his war production."

The Central Intelligence Agency was established on 26 July 1947 and officially began operating on 18 September 1947. Effective 1 October 1947, the Director of Central Intelligence assumed operational responsibility for JANIS. On 13 January 1948, the National Security Council issued Intelligence Directive (NSCID) No. 3, which authorized the National Intelligence Survey (NIS) program as a peacetime replacement for the wartime JANIS program. Before adequate NIS country sections could be produced, government agencies had to develop more comprehensive gazetteers and better maps. The US Board on Geographic Names (BGN) compiled the names; the Department of the Interior produced the gazetteers; and CIA produced the maps.

The Hoover Commission's Clark Committee, set up in 1954 to study the structure and administration of the CIA, reported to Congress in 1955 that: "The National Intelligence Survey is an invaluable publication which provides the essential elements of basic intelligence on all areas of the world. There will always be a continuing requirement for keeping the Survey up-to-date." The Factbook was created as an annual summary and update to the encyclopedic NIS studies. The first classified Factbook was published in August 1962, and the first unclassified version was published in June 1971. The NIS program was terminated in 1973 except for the Factbook, map, and gazetteer components. The 1975 Factbook was the first to be made available to the public with sales through the US Government Printing Office (GPO). The year 2004 marks the 57th anniversary of the establishment of the Central Intelligence Agency and the 61st year of continuous basic intelligence support to the US Government by The World Factbook and its two predecessor programs.

This page was last updated on 9 December, 2004

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Contributors and Copyright Information

In general, information available as of 1 January, 2004 was used in the preparation of this edition.

The World Factbook is prepared by the Central Intelligence Agency for the use of US Government officials, and the style, format, coverage, and content are designed to meet their specific requirements. Information is provided by Antarctic Information Program (National Science Foundation), Bureau of the Census (Department of Commerce), Bureau of Labor Statistics (Department of Labor), Central Intelligence Agency, Council of Managers of National Antarctic Programs, Defense Intelligence Agency (Department of Defense), Department of State, Fish and Wildlife Service (Department of the Interior), Maritime Administration (Department of Transportation), National Geospatial- Intelligence Agency (Department of Defense), Naval Facilities Engineering Command (Department of Defense), Office of Insular Affairs (Department of the Interior), Office of Naval Intelligence (Department of Defense), US Board on Geographic Names (Department of the Interior), US Transportation Command (Department of Defense), and other public and private sources.

The Factbook is in the public domain. Accordingly, it may be copied freely without permission of the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA). The official seal of the CIA, however, may NOT be copied without permission as required by the CIA Act of 1949 (50 U.S.C. section 403m). Misuse of the official seal of the CIA could result in civil and criminal penalties.

Comments and queries are welcome and may be addressed to:

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Attn.: Office of Public Affairs
Washington, DC 20505
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Purchasing Information

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The World Factbook can be accessed on the Internet at: http://www.cia.gov/cia/publications/factbook/index.html

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Frequently Asked Questions

The World Factbook staff thanks you for your comments, suggestions, updates, kudos, and corrections over the past years. The willingness of readers from around the world to share their observations and specialized knowledge is very helpful as we try to produce the best possible publications. Please feel free to continue to write and e-mail us. At least two Factbook staffers review every item. The sheer volume of correspondence precludes detailed personal replies, but we sincerely appreciate your time and interest in the Factbook. If you include your e-mail address we will at least acknowledge your note. Thank you again.

Answers to many frequently asked questions (FAQs) are explained in the Notes and Definitions section in The World Factbook. Please review this section to see if your question is already answered there. In addition, we have compiled the following list of FAQs to answer other common questions. Select from the following categories to narrow your search:

General
Geography
Spelling and Pronunciation
Policies and Procedures
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Original Data Rounded to whole integer

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                  26.4 26
                  —— —
                 100.0 99

  Example 2 42.8 43
                  31.6 32
                  25.6 26
                  —— —
                 100.0 101

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This page was last updated on 11 January, 2005

=====================================================================

@Afghanistan

Introduction Afghanistan

Background:
  Afghanistan's recent history is a story of war and civil unrest.
  The Soviet Union invaded in 1979, but was forced to withdraw 10
  years later by anti-Communist mujahidin forces. The Communist regime
  in Kabul collapsed in 1992. Fighting that subsequently erupted among
  the various mujahidin factions eventually helped to spawn the
  Taliban, a hardline Pakistani-sponsored movement that fought to end
  the warlordism and civil war which gripped the country. The Taliban
  seized Kabul in 1996 and were able to capture most of the country
  outside of Northern Alliance srongholds primarily in the northeast.
  Following the 11 September 2001 terrorist attacks, a US, Allied, and
  Northern Alliance military action toppled the Taliban for sheltering
  Osama BIN LADIN. In late 2001, a conference in Bonn, Germany,
  established a process for political reconstruction that ultimately
  resulted in the adoption of a new constitution and presidential
  election in 2004. On 9 October 2004, Hamid KARZAI became the first
  democratically elected president of Afghanistan. The new Afghan
  government's next task is to hold National Assembly elections,
  tentatively scheduled for April 2005.

Geography Afghanistan

Location:
  Southern Asia, north and west of Pakistan, east of Iran

Geographic coordinates:
  33 00 N, 65 00 E

Map references:
  Asia

Area:
  total: 647,500 sq km
  water: 0 sq km
  land: 647,500 sq km

Area - comparative:
  slightly smaller than Texas

Land boundaries:
  total: 5,529 km
  border countries: China 76 km, Iran 936 km, Pakistan 2,430 km,
  Tajikistan 1,206 km, Turkmenistan 744 km, Uzbekistan 137 km

Coastline:
  0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims:
  none (landlocked)

Climate:
  arid to semiarid; cold winters and hot summers

Terrain:
  mostly rugged mountains; plains in north and southwest

Elevation extremes:
  lowest point: Amu Darya 258 m
  highest point: Nowshak 7,485 m

Natural resources:
  natural gas, petroleum, coal, copper, chromite, talc, barites,
  sulfur, lead, zinc, iron ore, salt, precious and semiprecious stones

Land use: arable land: 12.13% permanent crops: 0.22% other: 87.65% (2001)

Irrigated land:
  23,860 sq km (1998 est.)

Natural hazards:
  damaging earthquakes occur in Hindu Kush mountains; flooding;
  droughts

Environment - current issues:
  limited natural fresh water resources; inadequate supplies of
  potable water; soil degradation; overgrazing; deforestation (much of
  the remaining forests are being cut down for fuel and building
  materials); desertification; air and water pollution

Environment - international agreements:
  party to: Biodiversity, Desertification, Endangered Species,
  Environmental Modification, Marine Dumping
  signed, but not ratified: Climate Change, Hazardous Wastes, Law of
  the Sea, Marine Life Conservation

Geography - note:
  landlocked; the Hindu Kush mountains that run northeast to
  southwest divide the northern provinces from the rest of the
  country; the highest peaks are in the northern Vakhan (Wakhan
  Corridor)

People Afghanistan

Population:
  28,513,677 (July 2004 est.)

Age structure:
  0-14 years: 44.7% (male 6,525,929; female 6,222,497)
  15-64 years: 52.9% (male 7,733,707; female 7,346,226)
  65 years and over: 2.4% (male 334,427; female 350,891) (2004 est.)

Median age:
  total: 17.5 years
  male: 17.5 years
  female: 17.6 years (2004 est.)

Population growth rate:
  4.92%
  note: this rate does not take into consideration the recent war and
  its continuing impact (2004 est.)

Birth rate:
  47.27 births/1,000 population (2004 est.)

Death rate:
  21.12 deaths/1,000 population (2004 est.)

Net migration rate:
  23.06 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2004 est.)

Sex ratio:
  at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
  under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
  15-64 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
  65 years and over: 0.95 male(s)/female
  total population: 1.05 male(s)/female (2004 est.)

Infant mortality rate:
  total: 165.96 deaths/1,000 live births
  female: 160.82 deaths/1,000 live births (2004 est.)
  male: 170.85 deaths/1,000 live births

Life expectancy at birth:
  total population: 42.46 years
  male: 42.27 years
  female: 42.66 years (2004 est.)

Total fertility rate:
  6.78 children born/woman (2004 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
  0.01% (2001 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
  NA

HIV/AIDS - deaths:
  NA

Nationality:
  noun: Afghan(s)
  adjective: Afghan

Ethnic groups:
  Pashtun 42%, Tajik 27%, Hazara 9%, Uzbek 9%, Aimak 4%, Turkmen 3%,
  Baloch 2%, other 4%

Religions:
  Sunni Muslim 80%, Shi'a Muslim 19%, other 1%

Languages:
  Pashtu (official) 35%, Afghan Persian (Dari) 50%, Turkic languages
  (primarily Uzbek and Turkmen) 11%, 30 minor languages (primarily
  Balochi and Pashai) 4%, much bilingualism

Literacy:
  definition: age 15 and over can read and write
  female: 21% (1999 est.)
  total population: 36%
  male: 51%

People - note:
  of the estimated 4 million refugees in October 2001, 2.3 million
  have returned

Government Afghanistan

Country name:
  conventional long form: Islamic Republic of Afghanistan
  conventional short form: Afghanistan
  local short form: Afghanestan
  former: Republic of Afghanistan
  local long form: Dowlat-e Eslami-ye Afghanestan

Government type:
  Islamic republic

Capital:
  Kabul

Administrative divisions:
  34 provinces (velayat, singular - velayat); Badakhshan, Badghis,
  Baghlan, Balkh, Bamian, Daykondi, Farah, Faryab, Ghazni, Ghowr,
  Helmand, Herat, Jowzjan, Kabol, Kandahar, Kapisa, Khowst, Konar,
  Kondoz, Laghman, Lowgar, Nangarhar, Nimruz, Nurestan, Oruzgan,
  Paktia, Paktika, Panjshir, Parvan, Samangan, Sar-e Pol, Takhar,
  Vardak, and Zabol

Independence:
  19 August 1919 (from UK control over Afghan foreign affairs)

National holiday:
  Independence Day, 19 August (1919)

Constitution:
  new constitution drafted 14 December 2003 - 4 January 2004; signed
  16 January 2004

Legal system:
  according to the new constitution, no law should be "contrary to
  Islam"; the state is obliged to create a prosperous and progressive
  society based on social justice, protection of human dignity,
  protection of human rights, realization of democracy, and to ensure
  national unity and equality among all ethnic groups and tribes; the
  state shall abide by the UN charter, international treaties,
  international conventions that Afghanistan signed, and the Universal
  Declaration of Human Rights

Suffrage:
  18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
  chief of state: President of the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan,
  Hamid KARZAI (since 7 December 2004); note - the president is both
  the chief of state and head of government; former King ZAHIR Shah
  holds the honorific, "Father of the Country," and presides
  symbolically over certain occasions, but lacks any governing
  authority; the honorific is not hereditary
  head of government: President of the Islamic Republic of
  Afghanistan, Hamid KARZAI (since 7 December 2004); note - the
  president is both chief of state and head of government
  cabinet: 27 ministers; note - under the new constitution, ministers
  are appointed by the president and approved by the National Assembly
  elections: the president and two vice presidents are elected by
  direct vote for a five-year term; if no candidate receives 50% or
  more of the vote in the first round of voting, the two candidates
  with the most votes will participate in a second round; a president
  can only be elected for two terms; election last held 9 October 2004
  (next to be held in 2009)
  election results: Hamid KARZAI elected president; percent of vote -
  Hamid KARZAI - 55.4%, Yunus QANOONI - 16.3%, Mohammad MOHAQEQ -
  11.6%, Abdul Rashid DOSTAM 10.0%, Abdul Latif PEDRAM - 1.4%, Masooda
  JALAL - 1.2%

Legislative branch:
  nonfunctioning as of January 2004; government is empowered by the
  constitution to issue legislation by decree until the new assembly
  is seated; under the new constitution, the bicameral National
  Assembly will consist of the Wolesi Jirga or House of People (no
  more than 249 seats), directly elected for a five-year term, and the
  Meshrano Jirga or House of Elders (102 seats, one third elected from
  provincial councils for a four-year term, one third elected from
  local district councils for a three-year term, and one third
  presidential appointees for a five-year term; the presidential
  appointees will include two representatives of Kuchis and two
  representatives of the disabled; half of the presidential appointees
  will be women)
  note: on rare occasions the government may convene the Loya Jirga on
  issues of independence, national sovereignty, and territorial
  integrity; it can amend the provisions of the constitution and
  prosecute the president; it is made up of members of the National
  Assembly and chairpersons of the provincial and district councils
  elections: scheduled for spring 2005

Judicial branch:
  the new constitution establishes a nine-member Stera Mahkama or
  Supreme Court (its nine justices are appointed for 10-year terms by
  the president with approval of the Wolesi Jirga) and subordinate
  High Courts and Appeals Courts; there is also a Minister of Justice;
  a separate Afghan Independent Human Rights Commission established by
  the Bonn Agreement is charged with investigating human rights abuses
  and war crimes

Political parties and leaders:
  note - includes only political parties approved by the Ministry of
  Justice: Afghan Millat [Anwarul Haq AHADI]; De Afghanistan De Solay
  Ghorzang Gond [Shahnawaz TANAI]; De Afghanistan De Solay Mili Islami
  Gond [Shah Mahmood Polal ZAI]; Harakat-e-Islami Afghanistan
  [Mohammad Asif MOHSINEE]; Hezb-e-Aarman-e-Mardum-e-Afghanistan
  [Iihaj Saraj-u-din ZAFAREE]; Hezb-e-Aazadee Afghanistan [Abdul
  MALIK]; Hezb-e-Adalat-e-Islami Afghanistan [Mohammad Kabeer
  MARZBAN]; Hezb-e-Afghanistan-e-Wahid [Mohammad Wasil RAHEEMEE];
  Hezb-e-Afghan Watan Islami Gond [NA leader]; Hezb-e-Congra-e-Mili
  Afghanistan [Lateef PIDRAM]; Hezb-e-Falah-e-Mardum-e-Afghanistan
  [Mohammad ZAREEF]; Hezb-e-Libral-e-Aazadee
  Khwa-e-Mardum-e-Afghanistan [Ajmal SOHAIL]; Hezb-e-Hambastagee Mili
  Jawanan-e-Afghanistan [Mohammad Jamil KARZAI];
  Hezb-e-Hamnbatagee-e-Afghanistan [Abdul Khaleq NEMAT];
  Hezb-e-Harakat-e-Mili Wahdat-e-Afghanistan [Moahammad Nadir AATASH];
  Hezb-e-Harak-e-Islami Mardum-e-Afghanistan [Ilhaj Said Hssain
  ANWARY]; Hezb-e-Ifazat Az Uqoq-e-Bashar Wa Inkishaf-e-Afghanistan
  [Baryalai NASRATEE]; Hezb-e-Istiqlal-e-Afghanistan [Dr. Gh. Farooq
  NIJZRABEE]; Hezb-e-Jamhoree Khwahan [Sibghatullah SANJAR];
  Hezb-e-Kar Wa Tawsiha-e-Afghanistan [Zulfiar OMID]; Hezb-e-Mili
  Afghanistan [Abdul Rasheed AARYAN]; Hezb-e-Mili
  Wahdat-e-Aqwam-e-Islami Afghanistan [Mohammad Shah KHOGYANEE];
  Hezb-e-Nuhzhat-e-Mili Afghanistan [Ahmad Wali MASOUD];
  Hezb-e-Paiwand-e-Mili Afghanistan [Said Mansoor NADIRI];
  Hezb-e-Rastakhaiz-e-Islami Mardum-e-Afghanistan [Said ZAHIR];
  Hezb-e-Refah-e-Mardum-e-Afghanistan [Mia Gul WASEEQ];
  Hezb-e-Risalat-e-Mardum-e-Afghanistan [Noor Aqa ROEEN];
  Hezb-e-Sahadat-e-Mardum-e-Afghanistan [Mohammad Zubair PAIROZ];
  Hezb-e-Sahadat-e-Mili Wa Islami Afghanistan [Mohammad Usman
  SALIGZADA]; Hezb-e-Sulh-e-Mili Islami Aqwam-e-Afghanistan [Abdul
  Qahir SHARYATEE]; Hezb-e-Sulh Wa Wahdat-e-Mili Afghanistan [Abdul
  Qadir IMAMEE]; Hezb-e-Tafahum-e-Wa Democracy Afghanistan [Ahamad
  SHAHEEN]; Hezb-e-Wahdat-e-Islami Afghanistan [Mohammad Karim
  KHALILI]; Hezb-e-Wahdat-e-Islami Mardum-e-Afghanistan [Haji Mohammad
  MUHAQIQ]; Hezb-e-Wahdat-e-Mili Afghanistan [Abdul Rasheed Jalili];
  Jamahat-ul-Dahwat ilal Qurhan-wa-Sunat-ul-Afghanistan [Mawlawee
  Samiullah NAJEEBEE]; Jombesh-e Milli [Abdul Rashjid DOSTUM];
  Mahaz-e-Mili Islami Afghanistan [Said Ahmad GAILANEE]; Majmah-e-Mili
  Fahaleen-e-Sulh-e-Afghanistan [Shams ul Haq Noor SHAMS];
  Nuhzat-e-Aazadee Wa democracy Afghanistan [Abdul Raqeeb Jawid
  KUHISTANEE]; Nuhzat-e-Hambastagee Mili Afghanistan [Peer Said Ishaq
  GAILANEE]; Sazman-e-Islami Afghanistan-e-Jawan [Siad Jawad
  HUSSAINEE]; Tahreek Wahdat-e-Mili [Sultan Mahmood DHAZI] (30 Sep
  2004)

Political pressure groups and leaders:
  Jamiat-e Islami (Society of Islam), [former President Burhanuddin
  RABBANI]; Ittihad-e Islami (Islamic Union for the Liberation of
  Afghanistan), [Abdul Rasul SAYYAF]; there are also small monarchist,
  communist, and democratic groups

International organization participation:
  AsDB, CP, ECO, FAO, G-77, GUUAM, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt, ICRM, IDA,
  IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ITU, MIGA, NAM,
  NATO, OIC, OPCW, OSCE, SACEP, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCO,
  WFTU, WHO, WMO, WTO (observer), WToO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador Said Tayeb JAWAD
  consulate(s) general: New York
  FAX: [1] 202-483-6488
  telephone: [1] 202-483-6410
  chancery: 2118 Kalorama Road NW, Washington, DC 20008

Diplomatic representation from the US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador Zalmay KHALILZAD
  embassy: The Great Masood Road, Kabul
  mailing address: 6180 Kabul Place, Dulles, VA 20189-6180
  telephone: [00] (2) 230-0436
  FAX: [0093] (2) 230-1364

Flag description:
  three equal vertical bands of black (hoist), red, and green, with a
  gold emblem centered on the red band; the emblem features a
  temple-like structure encircled by a wreath on the left and right
  and by a bold Islamic inscription above

Economy Afghanistan

Economy - overview:
  Afghanistan's economic outlook has improved significantly over the
  past two years because of the infusion of over $2 billion in
  international assistance, dramatic improvements in agricultural
  production, and the end of a four-year drought in most of the
  country. However, Afghanistan remains extremely poor, landlocked,
  and highly dependent on foreign aid, farming, and trade with
  neighboring countries. It will probably take the remainder of the
  decade and continuing donor aid and attention to raise Afghanistan's
  living standards up from its current status among the lowest in the
  world. Much of the population continues to suffer from shortages of
  housing, clean water, electricity, medical care, and jobs, but the
  Afghan government and international donors remain committed to
  improving access to these basic necessities by prioritizing
  infrastructure development, education, housing development, jobs
  programs, and economic reform over the next year. Growing political
  stability and continued international commitment to Afghan
  reconstruction create an optimistic outlook for maintaining
  improvements to the Afghan economy in 2004. The replacement of the
  opium trade - which may account for one-third of GDP - is one of
  several potential spoilers for the economy over the long term.

GDP:
  purchasing power parity - $20 billion (2003 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:
  29% (2003 est.)
  : note: this high growth rate reflects the extremely low levels of
  activity between 1999 and 2002, as well as the end of a four-year
  drought and the impact of donor assistance

GDP - per capita:
  purchasing power parity - $700 (2003 est.)

GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 60% industry: 20% services: 20% (1990 est.)

Population below poverty line:
  23% (2002)

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
  lowest 10%: NA
  highest 10%: NA

Inflation rate (consumer prices):
  5.2% (2003)

Labor force:
  11.8 million (2001 est.)

Labor force - by occupation:
  agriculture 80%, industry 10%, services 10% (1990 est.)

Unemployment rate:
  NA (2003)

Budget:
  revenues: $200 million
  expenditures: $550 million, including capital expenditures of NA
  (2003 plan)

Agriculture - products:
  opium, wheat, fruits, nuts, wool, mutton, sheepskins, lambskins

Industries:
  small-scale production of textiles, soap, furniture, shoes,
  fertilizer, cement; handwoven carpets; natural gas, coal, copper

Industrial production growth rate:
  NA

Electricity - production:
  334.8 million kWh (2001)

Electricity - consumption:
  511.4 million kWh (2001)

Electricity - exports:
  0 kWh (2001)

Electricity - imports:
  200 million kWh (2001)

Oil - production:
  0 bbl/day (2001 est.)

Oil - consumption:
  3,500 bbl/day (2001 est.)

Oil - exports:
  NA (2001)

Oil - imports:
  NA (2001)

Oil - proved reserves:
  0 bbl (1 January 2002)

Natural gas - production:
  220 million cu m (2001 est.)

Natural gas - consumption:
  220 million cu m (2001 est.)

Natural gas - exports:
  0 cu m (2001 est.)

Natural gas - imports:
  0 cu m (2001 est.)

Natural gas - proved reserves:
  49.98 billion cu m (1 January 2002)

Exports:
  $98 million (not including illicit exports) (2002 est.)

Exports - commodities:
  opium, fruits and nuts, handwoven carpets, wool, cotton, hides and
  pelts, precious and semi-precious gems

Exports - partners:
  US 27%, France 17.5%, India 16.6%, Pakistan 13.3% (2003)

Imports:
  $1.007 billion (2002 est.)

Imports - commodities:
  capital goods, food, textiles, petroleum products

Imports - partners:
  Pakistan 30.1%, South Korea 9.2%, Japan 7.6%, Germany 6.9%,
  Turkmenistan 5.4%, Kenya 4.6%, US 4.5%, Russia 4% (2003)

Debt - external:
  $8 billion in bilateral debt, mostly to Russia; Afghanistan has
  $500 million in debt to Multilateral Development Banks (2004)

Economic aid - recipient:
  international pledges made by more than 60 countries and
  international financial institutions at the Tokyo Donors Conference
  for Afghan reconstruction in January 2002 reached $4.5 billion
  through 2006, with $1.8 billion allocated for 2002; another $1.7
  billion was pledged for 2003.

Currency:
  afghani (AFA)

Currency code:
  AFA

Exchange rates:
  afghanis per US dollar - 50 (2003), 50 (2002), 3,000 (2001), 3,000
  (2000), 3,000 (1999)
  : note: in 2002, the afghani was revalued and the currency
  stabilized at about 50 afghanis to the dollar; before 2002, the
  market rate varied widely from the official rate

Fiscal year:
  21 March - 20 March

Communications Afghanistan

Telephones - main lines in use:
  33,100 (2002)

Telephones - mobile cellular:
  15,000 (2002)

Telephone system:
  general assessment: very limited telephone and telegraph service
  domestic: telephone service is improving with the establishment of
  two mobile phone operators by 2003; telephone main lines remain weak
  with only .1 line per 10 people
  international: country code - 93; five VSAT's installed in Kabul,
  Herat, Mazar-e-Sharif, Kandahar, and Jalalabad provide international
  and domestic voice and data connectivity

Radio broadcast stations:
  AM 21, FM 23, shortwave 1 (broadcasts in Pashtu, Afghan Persian
  (Dari), Urdu, and English) (2003)

Radios:
  167,000 (1999)

Television broadcast stations: at least 10 (one government-run central television station in Kabul and regional stations in nine of the 32 provinces; the regional stations operate on a reduced schedule; also, in 1997, there was a station in Mazar-e Sharif reaching four northern Afghanistan provinces) (1998)

Televisions:
  100,000 (1999)

Internet country code:
  .af

Internet Service Providers (ISPs):
  1 (2000)

Internet users:
  1,000 (2002)

Communications - note:
  in March 2003 'af' was established as Afghanistan's domain name;
  Internet access is growing through Internet cafes as well as public
  "telekiosks" in Kabul that are part of a nationwide network proposed
  by the Transitional Authority for Internet access (2002)

Transportation Afghanistan

Highways: total: 21,000 km paved: 2,793 km unpaved: 18,207 km (1999 est.)

Waterways: 1,200 km note: chiefly Amu Darya, which handles vessels up to 500 DWT (2004)

Pipelines:
  gas 387 km (2004)

Ports and harbors:
  Kheyrabad, Shir Khan

Airports:
  47 (2003 est.)

Airports - with paved runways: total: 10 over 3,047 m: 3 2,438 to 3,047 m: 4 under 914 m: 1 (2004 est.) 1,524 to 2,437 m: 2

Airports - with unpaved runways: total: 37 under 914 m: 11 (2004 est.) 914 to 1,523 m: 4 over 3,047 m: 1 2,438 to 3,047 m: 7 1,524 to 2,437 m: 14

Heliports: 5 (2003 est.)

Military Afghanistan

Military branches:
  Afghan National Army, currently being trained by the US with the
  assistance of the international community, is 7,000 strong; note -
  the December 2001 Bonn Agreement called for all militia forces to
  come under the authority of the central government, but regional
  leaders have continued to retain their militias and the formation of
  a national army remains a gradual process; Afghanistan's militia
  forces continue to be factionalized, largely along ethnic lines

Military manpower - military age and obligation:
  22 years of age (2004 est.)

Military manpower - availability:
  males age 15-49: 6,785,414 (2004 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:
  males age 15-49: 3,642,659 (2004 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
  males: 263,406 (2004 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure:
  $61 million (2003)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP:
  1% (2003)

Transnational Issues Afghanistan

Disputes - international:
  despite largely successful UN efforts at voluntary repatriation,
  2-3 million Afghan refugees continue to reside in Iran and Pakistan,
  many at their own choosing; Pakistan has sent troops into remote
  tribal areas to control the border and stem organized terrorist and
  other illegal cross-border activites; regular meetings between
  Pakistani and coalition allies aim to resolve periodic claims of
  boundary encroachments; occasional conflicts over water-sharing
  arrangements with Amu Darya and Helmand River states

Refugees and internally displaced persons:
  IDPs: 167,000 - 200,000 (mostly Pashtuns and Kuchis displaced in
  south and west due to drought and instability) (2004)

Illicit drugs:
  world's largest producer of opium; cultivation of opium poppy
  reached unprecedented level of 206,700 hectares in 2004; counterdrug
  efforts largely unsuccessful; potential opium production of 4,950
  metric tons; potential heroin production of 582 metric tons if all
  opium was processed; source of hashish; many narcotics-processing
  labs throughout the country; drug trade source of instability and
  some antigovernment groups profit from the trade; 80-90% of the
  heroin consumed in Europe comes from Afghan opium; vulnerable to
  narcotics money laundering through informal financial networks

This page was last updated on 10 February, 2005

======================================================================

@Akrotiri

Introduction Akrotiri

Background:
  By terms of the 1960 Treaty of Establishment that created the
  independent Republic of Cyprus, the UK retained full sovreignty and
  jurisdiction over two areas of almost 254 square kilometers in
  total: Akrotiri and Dhekelia. The southernmost and smallest of these
  is the Akrotiri Sovereign Base Area, which is also referred to as
  the Western Sovereign Base Area.

Geography Akrotiri

Location:
  peninsula on the southwest coast of Cyprus

Geographic coordinates:
  34 37 N, 32 58 E

Map references:
  Middle East

Area:
  total: 123 sq km
  note: includes a salt lake and wetlands

Area - comparative:
  about 0.7 times the size of Washington, DC

Climate:
  temperate; Mediterranean with hot, dry summers and cool winters

Environment - current issues:
  shooting around the salt lake; note - breeding place for loggerhead
  and green turtles; only remaining colony of griffon vultures is on
  the base

Geography - note:
  British extraterritorial rights also extended to several small
  off-post sites scattered across Cyprus

People Akrotiri

Population:
  no indigenous inhabitants
  note: approximately 1,300 military personnel are on the base; note -
  there are another 5,000 British citizens who are families of
  military personnel or civilian staff on both Akrotiri and Dhekelia;
  Cyprus citizens work on the base, but do not live there

Government Akrotiri

Country name:
  conventional long form: Akrotiri Sovereign Base Area
  conventional short form: Akrotiri

Dependency status:
  overseas territory of UK; administered by an administrator who is
  also the Commander, British Forces Cyprus

Capital:
  Episkopi; also serves as capital of Dhekelia

Legal system:
  the laws of the UK, where applicable, apply

Executive branch:
  chief of state: Queen Elizabeth II (since 6 February 1952)
  elections: none; the monarch is hereditary; the administrator is
  appointed by the monarch
  head of government: Administrator Maj. Gen. Peter Tomas Clayton
  PEARSON (since 9 May 2003) note - reports to the British Ministry of
  Defence

Diplomatic representation in the US:
  none (overseas territory of the UK)

Diplomatic representation from the US:
  none (overseas territory of the UK)

Flag description:
  the flag of the UK is used

Economy Akrotiri

Economy - overview:
  Economic activity is limited to providing services to the military
  and their families located in Akrotiri. All food and manufactured
  goods must be imported.

Military Akrotiri

Military - note:
  Akrotiri has a full RAF base, Headquarters for British Forces on
  Cyprus, and Episkopi Support Unit

This page was last updated on 10 February, 2005

======================================================================

@Albania

Introduction Albania

Background:
  Between 1990 and 1992 Albania ended 46 years of xenophobic
  Communist rule and established a multiparty democracy. The
  transition has proven difficult as successive governments have tried
  to deal with high unemployment, widespread corruption, a dilapidated
  infrastructure, powerful organized crime networks with links to high
  government officials, and disruptive political opponents.
  International observers judged parliamentary elections in 2001 and
  local elections in 2003 to be acceptable and a step toward
  democratic development, but identified serious deficiencies. Many of
  these deficiencies have been addressed through bi-partisan changes
  to the electoral code in 2003 and 2005, but implementation of these
  changes will not be demonstrated until parliamentary elections in
  July 2005.

Geography Albania

Location:
  Southeastern Europe, bordering the Adriatic Sea and Ionian Sea,
  between Greece and Serbia and Montenegro

Geographic coordinates:
  41 00 N, 20 00 E

Map references:
  Europe

Area:
  total: 28,748 sq km
  water: 1,350 sq km
  land: 27,398 sq km

Area - comparative:
  slightly smaller than Maryland

Land boundaries:
  total: 720 km
  border countries: Greece 282 km, Macedonia 151 km, Serbia and
  Montenegro 287 km

Coastline:
  362 km

Maritime claims:
  territorial sea: 12 nm
  continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation

Climate:
  mild temperate; cool, cloudy, wet winters; hot, clear, dry summers;
  interior is cooler and wetter

Terrain:
  mostly mountains and hills; small plains along coast

Elevation extremes:
  lowest point: Adriatic Sea 0 m
  highest point: Maja e Korabit (Golem Korab) 2,764 m

Natural resources:
  petroleum, natural gas, coal, bauxite, chromite, copper, iron ore,
  nickel, salt, timber, hydropower

Land use: arable land: 21.09% permanent crops: 4.42% other: 74.49% (2001)

Irrigated land:
  3,400 sq km (1998 est.)

Natural hazards:
  destructive earthquakes; tsunamis occur along southwestern coast;
  floods; drought

Environment - current issues:
  deforestation; soil erosion; water pollution from industrial and
  domestic effluents

Environment - international agreements:
  party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered
  Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection,
  Wetlands
  signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - note:
  strategic location along Strait of Otranto (links Adriatic Sea to
  Ionian Sea and Mediterranean Sea)

People Albania

Population:
  3,544,808 (July 2004 est.)

Age structure:
  0-14 years: 26.4% (male 489,363; female 446,586)
  15-64 years: 65.3% (male 1,184,670; female 1,130,065)
  65 years and over: 8.3% (male 135,177; female 158,947) (2004 est.)

Median age:
  total: 28.2 years
  male: 27.6 years
  female: 28.7 years (2004 est.)

Population growth rate:
  0.51% (2004 est.)

Birth rate:
  15.08 births/1,000 population (2004 est.)

Death rate:
  5.02 deaths/1,000 population (2004 est.)

Net migration rate:
  -4.93 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2004 est.)

Sex ratio:
  at birth: 1.1 male(s)/female
  under 15 years: 1.1 male(s)/female
  15-64 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
  65 years and over: 0.85 male(s)/female
  total population: 1.04 male(s)/female (2004 est.)

Infant mortality rate:
  total: 22.31 deaths/1,000 live births
  female: 21.54 deaths/1,000 live births (2004 est.)
  male: 23.01 deaths/1,000 live births

Life expectancy at birth:
  total population: 77.06 years
  male: 74.37 years
  female: 80.02 years (2004 est.)

Total fertility rate:
  2.05 children born/woman (2004 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
  NA

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
  NA

HIV/AIDS - deaths:
  NA

Nationality:
  noun: Albanian(s)
  adjective: Albanian

Ethnic groups:
  Albanian 95%, Greek 3%, other 2% (Vlach, Roma (Gypsy), Serb, and
  Macedonian or Bulgarian) (1989 est.)
  note: in 1989, other estimates of the Greek population ranged from
  1% (official Albanian statistics) to 12% (from a Greek organization)

Religions:
  Muslim 70%, Albanian Orthodox 20%, Roman Catholic 10%
  note: percentages are estimates; there are no available current
  statistics on religious affiliation; all mosques and churches were
  closed in 1967 and religious observances prohibited; in November
  1990, Albania began allowing private religious practice

Languages:
  Albanian (official - derived from Tosk dialect), Greek, Vlach,
  Romani, Slavic dialects

Literacy:
  definition: age 9 and over can read and write
  total population: 86.5%
  male: 93.3%
  female: 79.5% (2003 est.)

Government Albania

Country name:
  conventional long form: Republic of Albania
  conventional short form: Albania
  local short form: Shqiperia
  former: People's Socialist Republic of Albania
  local long form: Republika e Shqiperise

Government type:
  emerging democracy

Capital:
  Tirana

Administrative divisions:
  12 counties (qarqe, singular - qark); Qarku i Beratit, Qarku i
  Dibres, Qarku i Durresit, Qarku i Elbasanit, Qarku i Fierit, Qarku i
  Gjirokastres, Qarku i Korces, Qarku i Kukesit, Qarku i Lezhes, Qarku
  i Shkodres, Qarku i Tiranes, Qarku i Vlores

Independence:
  28 November 1912 (from Ottoman Empire)

National holiday:
  Independence Day, 28 November (1912)

Constitution:
  a constitution was adopted by popular referendum on 28 November 1998

Legal system:
  has a civil law system; has not accepted compulsory ICJ
  jurisdiction; has accepted jurisdiction of the International
  Criminal Court for its citizens

Suffrage:
  18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
  chief of state: President of the Republic Alfred MOISIU (since 24
  July 2002)
  head of government: Prime Minister Fatos NANO (since 31 July 2002)
  cabinet: Council of Ministers proposed by the prime minister,
  nominated by the president, and approved by Parliament
  elections: president elected by the People's Assembly for a
  five-year term; election last held 24 June 2002 (next to be held NA
  June 2007); prime minister appointed by the president
  election results: Alfred MOISIU elected president; People's Assembly
  vote by number - total votes 116, for 97, against 19

Legislative branch:
  unicameral People's Assembly or Kuvendi Popullor (140 seats; 100
  are elected by direct popular vote and 40 by proportional vote for
  four-year terms)
  elections: last held 24 June 2001 with subsequent rounds on 8 July,
  22 July, 29 July, 19 August 2001 (next to be held July 2005)
  election results: percent of vote by party - PS 41.5%, PD and
  coalition allies 36.8%, PDR 5.2%, PSD 3.6%, PBDNJ 2.6%, PASH (now
  PAA) 2.6%, PAD 2.5%; seats by party - PS 73, PD and coalition allies
  46, PDR 6, PSD 4, PBDNJ 3, PASH (now PAA) 3, PAD 3, independents 2;
  note - seats by party as of January 2005: PS 65, PD and coalition
  allies 46, LSI 9, PDR 6, PSD 3, PBDNJ 3, PASH (now PAA) 3, PAD 3,
  PDS 1, independents 1

Judicial branch:
  Constitutional Court, Supreme Court (chairman is elected by the
  People's Assembly for a four-year term), and multiple appeals and
  district courts

Political parties and leaders:
  Agrarian Environmentalist Party or PAA [Lufter XHUVELI]; Christian
  Democratic Party or PDK [Nikolle LESI]; Communist Party of Albania
  or PKSH [Hysni MILLOSHI]; Democratic Alliance Party or PAD [Neritan
  CEKA]; Democratic Party or PD [Sali BERISHA]; Legality Movement
  Party or PLL [Ekrem SPAHIU]; Liberal Union Party or PBL [Arjan
  STAROVA]; National Front Party (Balli Kombetar) or PBK [Adriatik
  ALIMADHI]; New Democratic Party or PDR [Genc POLLO]; Party of
  National Unity or PUK [Idajet BEQIRI]; Renewed Democratic Party or
  PDR [Dashamir SHEHI]; Republican Party or PR [Fatmir MEDIU]; Social
  Democracy Party or PDS [Paskal MILO]; Social Democratic Party or PSD
  [Skender GJINUSHI]; Socialist Movement for Integration or LSI [Ilir
  META]; Socialist Party or PS (formerly the Albanian Party of Labor)
  [Fatos NANO]; Union for Human Rights Party or PBDNJ [Vangjel DULE]

Political pressure groups and leaders:
  Confederation of Trade Unions of Albania or KSSH [Kastriot MUCO];
  Front for Albanian National Unification or FBKSH [Gafur ADILI];
  Omonia [Jani JANI]; Union of Independent Trade Unions of Albania or
  BSPSH [Gezim KALAJA]

International organization participation:
  ACCT, BSEC, CE, CEI, EAPC, EBRD, FAO, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt,
  ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol,
  IOC, IOM, ISO (correspondent), ITU, MIGA, OIC, OPCW, OSCE, PFP, UN,
  UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNOMIG, UPU, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO,
  WTO

Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Dr. Fatos TARIFA FAX: [1] (202) 628-7342 telephone: [1] (202) 223-4942 chancery: 2100 S Street NW, Washington, DC 20008

Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Marcie B. RIES embassy: Rruga Elbasanit, Labinoti #103, Tirana mailing address: U. S. Department of State, 9510 Tirana Place, Dulles, VA 20189-9510 telephone: [355] (4) 247285 FAX: [355] (4) 374957 and [355] (4) 232222

Flag description: red with a black two-headed eagle in the center

Economy Albania

Economy - overview:
  Poor and backward by European standards, Albania is making the
  difficult transition to a more modern open-market economy. The
  government has taken measures to curb violent crime and to spur
  economic activity and trade. The economy is bolstered by remittances
  from abroad of $400-$600 million annually, mostly from Greece and
  Italy; this helps offset the sizable trade deficit. Agriculture,
  which accounts for one-half of GDP, is held back because of frequent
  drought and the need to modernize equipment and consolidate small
  plots of land. Severe energy shortages and antiquated and inadequate
  infrastructure make it difficult to attract and sustain foreign
  investment. The government plans to boost energy imports to relieve
  the shortages and is moving slowly to improve the poor national road
  and rail network, a long-standing barrier to sustained economic
  growth.

GDP:
  purchasing power parity - $16.13 billion (2003 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:
  7% (2003 est.)

GDP - per capita:
  purchasing power parity - $4,500 (2003 est.)

GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 47.5% industry: 24.6% services: 27.8% (2003 est.)

Investment (gross fixed):
  18.7% of GDP (2003)

Population below poverty line:
  30% (2001 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
  lowest 10%: NA
  highest 10%: NA

Inflation rate (consumer prices):
  2.4% (2003)

Labor force:
  1.35 million (not including 352,000 emigrant workers) (2003 est.)

Labor force - by occupation: agriculture 57%, non-agricultural private sector 20%, public sector 23% (2003 est.)

Unemployment rate:
  15.8% officially; may be as high as 30% (2003 est.)

Budget:
  revenues: $1.36 billion
  expenditures: $1.627 billion, including capital expenditures of $406
  million (2003 est.)

Agriculture - products:
  wheat, corn, potatoes, vegetables, fruits, sugar beets, grapes;
  meat, dairy products

Industries:
  food processing, textiles and clothing; lumber, oil, cement,
  chemicals, mining, basic metals, hydropower

Industrial production growth rate:
  2.7% (2003 est.)

Electricity - production:
  5.289 billion kWh (2001)

Electricity - consumption:
  5.898 billion kWh (2001)

Electricity - exports:
  221 million kWh (2001)

Electricity - imports:
  1.2 billion kWh (2001)

Oil - production:
  5,952 bbl/day (2001 est.)

Oil - consumption:
  22,400 bbl/day (2001 est.)

Oil - exports:
  NA (2001)

Oil - imports:
  NA (2001)

Oil - proved reserves:
  185.5 million bbl (1 January 2002)

Natural gas - production:
  30 million cu m (2001 est.)

Natural gas - consumption:
  30 million cu m (2001 est.)

Natural gas - exports:
  0 cu m (2001 est.)

Natural gas - imports:
  0 cu m (2001 est.)

Natural gas - proved reserves:
  3.316 billion cu m (1 January 2002)

Current account balance:
  $-407 million (2003)

Exports:
  $425 million f.o.b. (2003 est.)

Exports - commodities:
  textiles and footwear; asphalt, metals and metallic ores, crude
  oil; vegetables, fruits, tobacco

Exports - partners:
  Italy 74.9%, Greece 12.8%, Germany 3.4% (2003)

Imports:
  $1.76 billion f.o.b. (2003 est.)

Imports - commodities:
  machinery and equipment, foodstuffs, textiles, chemicals

Imports - partners:
  Italy 33.6%, Greece 20.2%, Turkey 6.6%, Germany 5.7% (2003)

Reserves of foreign exchange & gold:
  $1.038 billion (2003)

Debt - external:
  $1.41 billion (2003)

Economic aid - recipient:
  ODA: $315 million (top donors were Italy, EU, Germany) (2000 est.)

Currency:
  lek (ALL)

Currency code:
  ALL

Exchange rates:
  leke per US dollar - 121.863 (2003), 140.155 (2002), 143.485
  (2001), 143.709 (2000), 137.691 (1999)

Fiscal year:
  calendar year

Communications Albania

Telephones - main lines in use:
  255,000 (2003)

Telephones - mobile cellular:
  1.1 million (2003)

Telephone system:
  general assessment: Despite new investment in fixed lines, the
  density of main lines remains the lowest in Europe with roughly 8
  lines per 100 people. However, cellular telephone use is widespread
  and generally effective.
  domestic: offsetting the shortage of fixed line capacity, mobile
  phone service has been available since 1996; by 2003 two companies
  were providing mobile services at a greater density than some of
  Albania's Balkan neighbors
  international: country code - 355; inadequate fixed main lines;
  adequate cellular connections; international traffic carried by
  microwave radio relay from the Tirana exchange to Italy and Greece
  (2003)

Radio broadcast stations:
  AM 13, FM 4, shortwave 2 (2001)

Radios:
  1 million (2001)

Television broadcast stations:
  3 (plus 58 repeaters) (2001)

Televisions:
  700,000 (2001)

Internet country code:
  .al

Internet hosts:
  455 (2004)

Internet Service Providers (ISPs):
  10 (2001)

Internet users:
  30,000 (2003)

Transportation Albania

Railways: total: 447 km standard gauge: 447 km 1.435-m gauge (2003)

Highways: total: 18,000 km paved: 5,400 km unpaved: 12,600 km (2000)

Waterways:
  43 km (2004)

Pipelines:
  gas 339 km; oil 207 km (2004)

Ports and harbors:
  Durres, Sarande, Shengjin, Vlore

Merchant marine:
  total: 22 ships (1,000 GRT or over) 40,878 GRT/62,676 DWT
  registered in other countries: 7 (2004 est.)
  by type: bulk 1, cargo 19, petroleum tanker 1, roll on/roll off 1
  foreign-owned: Denmark 1, Honduras 1, Netherlands 1

Airports:
  11 (2003 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
  total: 3
  2,438 to 3,047 m: 3 (2004 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
  total: 8
  1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
  under 914 m: 4 (2004 est.)
  914 to 1,523 m: 2
  over 3,047 m: 1

Heliports:
  1 (2003 est.)

Military Albania

Military branches:
  General Staff Headquarters, Land Forces Command (Army), Naval
  Forces Command, Air Forces Command, Doctrine and Exercises Command,
  Logistics Support Command

Military manpower - military age and obligation:
  19 years of age (2004 est.)

Military manpower - availability:
  males age 15-49: 956,107 (2004 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:
  males age 15-49: 775,422 (2004 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
  males: 36,584 (2004 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure:
  $56.5 million (FY02)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP:
  1.49% (FY02)

Transnational Issues Albania

Disputes - international:
  the Albanian Government calls for the protection of the rights of
  ethnic Albanians in neighboring countries, and the peaceful
  resolution of interethnic disputes; some ethnic Albanian groups in
  neighboring countries advocate for a "greater Albania," but the idea
  has little appeal among Albanian nationals

Illicit drugs:
  increasingly active transshipment point for Southwest Asian
  opiates, hashish, and cannabis transiting the Balkan route and - to
  a far lesser extent - cocaine from South America destined for
  Western Europe; limited opium and growing cannabis production;
  ethnic Albanian narcotrafficking organizations active and expanding
  in Europe; vulnerable to money laundering associated with regional
  trafficking in narcotics, arms, contraband, and illegal aliens

This page was last updated on 10 February, 2005

======================================================================

@Algeria

Introduction Algeria

Background:
  After more than a century of rule by France, Algerians fought
  through much of the 1950s to achieve independence in 1962. Algeria's
  primary political party, the National Liberation Front (FLN), has
  dominated politics ever since. Many Algerians in the subsequent
  generation were not satisfied, however, and moved to counter the
  FLN's centrality in Algerian politics. The surprising first round
  success of the Islamic Salvation Front (FIS) in the December 1991
  balloting spurred the Algerian army to intervene and postpone the
  second round of elections to prevent what the secular elite feared
  would be an extremist-led government from assuming power. The army
  began a crack down on the FIS that spurred FIS supporters to begin
  attacking government targets. The government later allowed elections
  featuring pro-government and moderate religious-based parties, but
  did not appease the activists who progressively widened their
  attacks. The fighting escalated into an insurgency, which saw
  intense fighting between 1992-1998 and which resulted in over
  100,000 deaths - many attributed to indiscriminate massacres of
  villagers by extremists. The government gained the upper hand by the
  late-1990s and FIS's armed wing, the Islamic Salvation Army,
  disbanded in January 2000. However, small numbers of armed militants
  persist in confronting government forces and conducting ambushes and
  occasional attacks on villages. The army placed Abdelaziz BOUTEFLIKA
  in the presidency in 1999 in a fraudulent election but claimed
  neutrality in his 2004 landslide reelection victory. A number of
  longstanding problems continue to face BOUTEFLIKA in his second
  term, including the ethnic minority Berbers' ongoing autonomy
  campaign, large-scale unemployment, a shortage of housing,
  unreliable electrical and water supplies, government inefficiencies
  and corruption, and the continuing - although significantly degraded
  - activities of extremist militants. Algeria must also diversify its
  petroleum-based economy, which has yielded a large cash reserve but
  which has not been used to redress Algeria's many social and
  infrastructure problems. Algeria assumed a two-year seat on the UN
  Security Council in January 2004.

Geography Algeria

Location:
  Northern Africa, bordering the Mediterranean Sea, between Morocco
  and Tunisia

Geographic coordinates:
  28 00 N, 3 00 E

Map references:
  Africa

Area:
  total: 2,381,740 sq km
  water: 0 sq km
  land: 2,381,740 sq km

Area - comparative:
  slightly less than 3.5 times the size of Texas

Land boundaries:
  total: 6,343 km
  border countries: Libya 982 km, Mali 1,376 km, Mauritania 463 km,
  Morocco 1,559 km, Niger 956 km, Tunisia 965 km, Western Sahara 42 km

Coastline:
  998 km

Maritime claims:
  territorial sea: 12 nm
  exclusive fishing zone: 32-52 nm

Climate:
  arid to semiarid; mild, wet winters with hot, dry summers along
  coast; drier with cold winters and hot summers on high plateau;
  sirocco is a hot, dust/sand-laden wind especially common in summer

Terrain:
  mostly high plateau and desert; some mountains; narrow,
  discontinuous coastal plain

Elevation extremes:
  lowest point: Chott Melrhir -40 m
  highest point: Tahat 3,003 m

Natural resources:
  petroleum, natural gas, iron ore, phosphates, uranium, lead, zinc

Land use: arable land: 3.22% permanent crops: 0.25% other: 96.53% (2001)

Irrigated land:
  5,600 sq km (1998 est.)

Natural hazards:
  mountainous areas subject to severe earthquakes; mudslides and
  floods in rainy season

Environment - current issues:
  soil erosion from overgrazing and other poor farming practices;
  desertification; dumping of raw sewage, petroleum refining wastes,
  and other industrial effluents is leading to the pollution of rivers
  and coastal waters; Mediterranean Sea, in particular, becoming
  polluted from oil wastes, soil erosion, and fertilizer runoff;
  inadequate supplies of potable water

Environment - international agreements: party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - note: second-largest country in Africa (after Sudan)

People Algeria

Population:
  32,129,324 (July 2004 est.)

Age structure:
  0-14 years: 29.9% (male 4,893,971; female 4,705,933)
  15-64 years: 65.5% (male 10,593,840; female 10,443,300)
  65 years and over: 4.6% (male 703,420; female 788,860) (2004 est.)

Median age:
  total: 23.8 years
  male: 23.7 years
  female: 24 years (2004 est.)

Population growth rate:
  1.28% (2004 est.)

Birth rate:
  17.76 births/1,000 population (2004 est.)

Death rate:
  4.61 deaths/1,000 population (2004 est.)

Net migration rate:
  -0.39 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2004 est.)

Sex ratio:
  at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
  under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
  15-64 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
  65 years and over: 0.89 male(s)/female
  total population: 1.02 male(s)/female (2004 est.)

Infant mortality rate:
  total: 32.16 deaths/1,000 live births
  female: 28.06 deaths/1,000 live births (2004 est.)
  male: 36.06 deaths/1,000 live births

Life expectancy at birth:
  total population: 72.74 years
  male: 71.22 years
  female: 74.34 years (2004 est.)

Total fertility rate:
  2.04 children born/woman (2004 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
  0.1% note - no country specific models provided (2001 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
  9,100 (2003 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths:
  less than 500 (2003 est.)

Nationality:
  noun: Algerian(s)
  adjective: Algerian

Ethnic groups:
  Arab-Berber 99%, European less than 1%
  note: almost all Algerians are Berber in origin, not Arab; the
  minority who identify themselves as Berber live mostly in the
  mountainous region of Kabylie east of Algeirs; the Berbers are also
  Muslim but identify with their Berber rather than Arab cultural
  heritage; Berbers have long agitated, sometimes violently, for
  autonomy; the government is unlikely to grant autonomy but has
  offered to begin sponsoring teaching Berber language in schools

Religions:
  Sunni Muslim (state religion) 99%, Christian and Jewish 1%

Languages:
  Arabic (official), French, Berber dialects

Literacy:
  definition: age 15 and over can read and write
  total population: 70%
  male: 78.8%
  female: 61% (2003 est.)

Government Algeria

Country name:
  conventional long form: People's Democratic Republic of Algeria
  conventional short form: Algeria
  local short form: Al Jaza'ir
  local long form: Al Jumhuriyah al Jaza'iriyah ad Dimuqratiyah ash
  Sha'biyah

Government type:
  republic

Capital:
  Algiers

Administrative divisions:
  48 provinces (wilayas, singular - wilaya); Adrar, Ain Defla, Ain
  Temouchent, Alger, Annaba, Batna, Bechar, Bejaia, Biskra, Blida,
  Bordj Bou Arreridj, Bouira, Boumerdes, Chlef, Constantine, Djelfa,
  El Bayadh, El Oued, El Tarf, Ghardaia, Guelma, Illizi, Jijel,
  Khenchela, Laghouat, Mascara, Medea, Mila, Mostaganem, M'Sila,
  Naama, Oran, Ouargla, Oum el Bouaghi, Relizane, Saida, Setif, Sidi
  Bel Abbes, Skikda, Souk Ahras, Tamanghasset, Tebessa, Tiaret,
  Tindouf, Tipaza, Tissemsilt, Tizi Ouzou, Tlemcen

Independence:
  5 July 1962 (from France)

National holiday:
  Revolution Day, 1 November (1954)

Constitution:
  19 November 1976, effective 22 November 1976; revised 3 November
  1988, 23 February 1989, and 28 November 1996

Legal system:
  socialist, based on French and Islamic law; judicial review of
  legislative acts in ad hoc Constitutional Council composed of
  various public officials, including several Supreme Court justices;
  has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage:
  18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
  chief of state: President Abdelaziz BOUTEFLIKA (since 28 April 1999)
  head of government: Prime Minister Ahmed OUYAHIA (since 9 May 2003)
  cabinet: Cabinet of Ministers appointed by the president
  elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term;
  election last held 8 April 2004 (next to be held NA April 2009);
  prime minister appointed by the president
  election results: Abdelaziz BOUTEFLIKA reelected president for
  second term; percent of vote - Abdelaziz BOUTEFLIKA 85%, Ali BENFLIS
  6.4%, Abdallah DJABALLAH 5%

Legislative branch:
  bicameral Parliament consists of the National People's Assembly or
  Al-Majlis Ech-Chaabi Al-Watani (389 seats - changed from 380 seats
  in the 2002 elections; members elected by popular vote to serve
  five-year terms) and the Council of Nations (Senate) (144 seats;
  one-third of the members appointed by the president, two-thirds
  elected by indirect vote; members serve six-year terms; the
  constitution requires half the council to be renewed every three
  years)
  elections: National People's Assembly - last held 30 May 2002 (next
  to be held NA 2007); Council of Nations (Senate) - last held 30
  December 2003 (next to be held NA 2009)
  election results: National People's Assembly - percent of vote by
  party - NA; seats by party - FLN 199, RND 48, Islah 43, MSP 38, PT
  21, FNA 8, EnNahda 1, PRA 1, MEN 1, independents 29; Council of
  Nations - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party NA

Judicial branch:
  Supreme Court or Court Supreme

Political parties and leaders:
  Algerian National Front or FNA [Moussa TOUATI]; Democratic National
  Rally or RND [Ahmed OUYAHIA, chairman]; Islamic Salvation Front or
  FIS (outlawed April 1992) [Ali BELHADJ and Dr. Abassi MADANI, Rabeh
  KEBIR (self-exiled in Germany)]; National Entente Movement or MEN
  [Ali BOUKHAZNA]; National Liberation Front or FLN [Abdelaziz
  BELKHADEM, secretary general (also serves as Foreign Minister)];
  National Reform Movement or Islah (formerly MRN) [Abdellah
  DJABALLAH]; National Renewal Party or PRA [Yacine TERKMANE];
  Progressive Republican Party [Khadir DRISS]; Rally for Culture and
  Democracy or RCD [Said SAADI, secretary general]; Renaissance
  Movement or EnNahda Movement [Fatah RABEI]; Social Liberal Party or
  PSL [Ahmed KHELIL]; Socialist Forces Front or FFS [Hocine Ait AHMED,
  secretary general (self-exiled in Switzerland)]; Society of Peace
  Movement or MSP [Boujerra SOLTANI]; Workers Party or PT [Louisa
  HANOUN]
  note: a law banning political parties based on religion was enacted
  in March 1997

Political pressure groups and leaders:
  The Algerian Human Rights League or LADH or LADDH [Yahia Ali
  ABDENOUR]; SOS Disparus [Nacera DUTOUR]; Somoud [Ali MERABET]

International organization participation:
  ABEDA, AfDB, AFESD, AMF, AMU, AU, BIS, FAO, G-15, G-24, G-77, IAEA,
  IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICCt (signatory), ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC,
  IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, LAS, MIGA,
  MONUC, NAM, OAPEC, OAS (observer), OIC, OPCW, OPEC, OSCE (partner),
  UN, UN Security Council (temporary), UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO,
  UNMEE, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO (observer)

Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant) chancery: 2137 Wyoming Ave NW, Washington, DC 20008 FAX: [1] (202) 667-2174 telephone: [1] (202) 265-2800

Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Richard W. ERDMAN embassy: 4 Chemin Cheikh Bachir El-Ibrahimi, Algiers mailing address: B. P. 408, Alger-Gare, 16030 Algiers telephone: [213] (21) 691-425/255/186 FAX: [213] (21) 69-39-79

Flag description:
  two equal vertical bands of green (hoist side) and white; a red,
  five-pointed star within a red crescent centered over the two-color
  boundary; the crescent, star, and color green are traditional
  symbols of Islam (the state religion)

Economy Algeria

Economy - overview:
  The hydrocarbons sector is the backbone of the economy, accounting
  for roughly 60% of budget revenues, 30% of GDP, and over 95% of
  export earnings. Algeria has the seventh-largest reserves of natural
  gas in the world and is the second-largest gas exporter; it ranks
  14th in oil reserves. Economic policy reforms supported by the IMF
  and debt rescheduling from the Paris Club in the past decade have
  helped improve Algeria's financial and macroeconomic indicators.
  Because of sustained high oil prices in the past three years,
  Algeria's finances have further benefited from substantial trade
  surpluses and record foreign exchange reserves. Real GDP has risen
  due to higher oil output and increased government spending. The
  government's continued efforts to diversify the economy by
  attracting foreign and domestic investment outside the energy
  sector, however, has had little success in reducing high
  unemployment and improving living standards. Structural reform
  within the economy moves ahead slowly.

GDP:
  purchasing power parity - $196 billion (2003 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:
  7.4% (2003 est.)

GDP - per capita:
  purchasing power parity - $6,000 (2003 est.)

GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 10.2% industry: 56.5% services: 33.4% (2003)

Investment (gross fixed):
  24.8% of GDP (2003)

Population below poverty line:
  23% (1999 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: 2.8% highest 10%: 26.8% (1995)

Distribution of family income - Gini index:
  35.3 (1995)

Inflation rate (consumer prices):
  3.5% (2003 est.)

Labor force:
  9.6 million (2003)

Labor force - by occupation: agriculture 14%, industry 13.4%, construction and public works 10%, trade 14.6%, government 32%, other 16% (2003 est.)

Unemployment rate:
  26.2% (2003 est.)

Budget:
  revenues: $25.49 billion
  expenditures: $22.87 billion, including capital expenditures of $5.8
  billion (2003 est.)

Public debt:
  41.5% of GDP (2003 est.)

Agriculture - products:
  wheat, barley, oats, grapes, olives, citrus, fruits; sheep, cattle

Industries:
  petroleum, natural gas, light industries, mining, electrical,
  petrochemical, food processing

Industrial production growth rate:
  6% (2003 est.)

Electricity - production:
  24.69 billion kWh (2001)

Electricity - consumption:
  22.9 billion kWh (2001)

Electricity - exports:
  340 million kWh (2001)

Electricity - imports:
  275 million kWh (2001)

Oil - production:
  1.52 million bbl/day (2001 est.)

Oil - consumption:
  209,000 bbl/day (2001 est.)

Oil - exports:
  NA (2001)

Oil - imports:
  NA (2001)

Oil - proved reserves:
  13.1 billion bbl (1 January 2002)

Natural gas - production:
  80.3 billion cu m (2001 est.)

Natural gas - consumption:
  22.32 billion cu m (2001 est.)

Natural gas - exports:
  57.98 billion cu m (2001 est.)

Natural gas - imports:
  0 cu m (2001 est.)

Natural gas - proved reserves:
  4.739 trillion cu m (1 January 2002)

Current account balance:
  $7.836 billion (2003)

Exports:
  $24.96 billion f.o.b. (2003 est.)

Exports - commodities:
  petroleum, natural gas, and petroleum products 97%

Exports - partners:
  Italy 19.5%, US 18.5%, France 13.6%, Spain 11.2%, Canada 6.2%,
  Belgium 5.1%, Brazil 4.9% (2003)

Imports:
  $12.42 billion f.o.b. (2003 est.)

Imports - commodities:
  capital goods, foodstuffs, consumer goods

Imports - partners:
  France 30.9%, Italy 9.6%, Spain 6.1%, Germany 5.5%, China 4.6%,
  Turkey 4.1% (2003)

Reserves of foreign exchange & gold:
  $33.42 billion (2003)

Debt - external:
  $22.71 billion (2003 est.)

Economic aid - recipient:
  $182 million (2001 est.)

Currency:
  Algerian dinar (DZD)

Currency code:
  DZD

Exchange rates:
  Algerian dinars per US dollar - 77.395 (2003), 79.6819 (2002),
  77.215 (2001), 75.2598 (2000), 66.5739 (1999)

Fiscal year:
  calendar year

Communications Algeria

Telephones - main lines in use:
  2,199,600 (2003)

Telephones - mobile cellular:
  1,447,310 (2003)

Telephone system:
  general assessment: telephone density in Algeria is very low, not
  exceeding five telephones per 100 persons; the number of fixed main
  lines increased in the last few years to a little more than
  2,000,000, but only about two-thirds of these have subscribers; much
  of the infrastructure is outdated and inefficient
  domestic: good service in north but sparse in south; domestic
  satellite system with 12 earth stations (20 additional domestic
  earth stations are planned)
  international: country code - 213; 5 submarine cables; microwave
  radio relay to Italy, France, Spain, Morocco, and Tunisia; coaxial
  cable to Morocco and Tunisia; participant in Medarabtel; satellite
  earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Atlantic Ocean and 1 Indian Ocean), 1
  Intersputnik, and 1 Arabsat (1998)

Radio broadcast stations:
  AM 25, FM 1, shortwave 8 (1999)

Radios:
  7.1 million (1997)

Television broadcast stations:
  46 (plus 216 repeaters) (1995)

Televisions:
  3.1 million (1997)

Internet country code:
  .dz

Internet hosts:
  897 (2004)

Internet Service Providers (ISPs):
  2 (2000)

Internet users:
  500,000 (2002)

Transportation Algeria

Railways:
  total: 3,973 km
  standard gauge: 2,888 km 1.435-m gauge (283 km electrified)
  narrow gauge: 1,085 km 1.055-m gauge (2003)

Highways:
  total: 104,000 km
  paved: 71,656 km (including 640 km of expressways)
  unpaved: 32,344 km (1999)

Pipelines:
  condensate 1,344 km; gas 85,946 km; liquid petroleum gas 2,213 km;
  oil 6,496 km (2004)

Ports and harbors:
  Algiers, Annaba, Arzew, Bejaia, Beni Saf, Dellys, Djendjene,
  Ghazaouet, Jijel, Mostaganem, Oran, Skikda, Tenes

Merchant marine:
  total: 59 ships (1,000 GRT or over) 837,676 GRT/929,847 DWT
  by type: bulk 9, cargo 16, chemical tanker 6, liquefied gas 10,
  petroleum tanker 4, roll on/roll off 9, short-sea/passenger 4,
  specialized tanker 1
  foreign-owned: United Kingdom 4
  registered in other countries: 4 (2004 est.)

Airports:
  137 (2003 est.)

Airports - with paved runways: total: 52 over 3,047 m: 10 2,438 to 3,047 m: 27 914 to 1,523 m: 4 under 914 m: 1 (2004 est.) 1,524 to 2,437 m: 10

Airports - with unpaved runways:
  total: 85
  2,438 to 3,047 m: 2
  1,524 to 2,437 m: 26
  under 914 m: 19 (2004 est.)
  914 to 1,523 m: 38

Heliports:
  1 (2003 est.)

Military Algeria

Military branches:
  People's National Army (ANP; includes Ground Forces), Algerian
  National Navy (ANN), Air Force (QJA), Territorial Air Defense

Military manpower - military age and obligation:
  19-30 years of age for compulsory military service; conscript
  service obligation - 18 months (October 2003)

Military manpower - availability:
  males age 15-49: 9,311,747 (2004 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:
  males age 15-49: 5,675,739 (2004 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
  males: 373,235 (2004 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure:
  $2,196.6 million (2003)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP:
  3.5% (2003)

Transnational Issues Algeria

Disputes - international:
  Algeria supports the exiled Sahrawi Polisario Front and rejects
  Moroccan administration of Western Sahara; Algeria's border with
  Morocco remains an irritant to bilateral relations; each nation has
  accused the other of harboring militants and arms smuggling; in an
  attempt to improve relations afer unilaterally imposing a visa
  requirement on Algerians in the early 1990s, Morocco lifted the
  requirement in mid-2004 - a gesture not reciprocated by Algeria;
  Algeria remains concerned about armed bandits operating throughout
  the Sahel who sometimes destabilize southern Algerian towns; dormant
  disputes include Libyan claims of about 32,000 sq km still reflected
  on its maps of southeastern Algeria and the FLN's assertions of a
  claim to Chirac Pastures in southeastern Morocco

Refugees and internally displaced persons: refugees (country of origin): 165,000 (Western Saharan Sahrawi, mostly living in Algerian-sponsored camps in the southeastern Algerian town of Tindouf) IDPs: 100,000 - 200,000 (conflict between government forces, Islamic insurgents) (2004)

This page was last updated on 10 February, 2005

======================================================================

@American Samoa

Introduction American Samoa

Background:
  Settled as early as 1000 B.C., Samoa was "discovered" by European
  explorers in the 18th century. International rivalries in the latter
  half of the 19th century were settled by an 1899 treaty in which
  Germany and the US divided the Samoan archipelago. The US formally
  occupied its portion - a smaller group of eastern islands with the
  excellent harbor of Pago Pago - the following year.

Geography American Samoa

Location:
  Oceania, group of islands in the South Pacific Ocean, about half
  way between Hawaii and New Zealand

Geographic coordinates:
  14 20 S, 170 00 W

Map references:
  Oceania

Area:
  total: 199 sq km
  note: includes Rose Island and Swains Island
  water: 0 sq km
  land: 199 sq km

Area - comparative:
  slightly larger than Washington, DC

Land boundaries:
  0 km

Coastline:
  116 km

Maritime claims:
  territorial sea: 12 nm
  exclusive economic zone: 200 nm

Climate:
  tropical marine, moderated by southeast trade winds; annual
  rainfall averages about 3 m; rainy season from November to April,
  dry season from May to October; little seasonal temperature variation

Terrain:
  five volcanic islands with rugged peaks and limited coastal plains,
  two coral atolls (Rose Island, Swains Island)

Elevation extremes:
  lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m
  highest point: Lata 966 m

Natural resources:
  pumice, pumicite

Land use:
  arable land: 10%
  permanent crops: 15%
  other: 75% (2001)

Irrigated land:
  NA sq km

Natural hazards:
  typhoons common from December to March

Environment - current issues:
  limited natural fresh water resources; the water division of the
  government has spent substantial funds in the past few years to
  improve water catchments and pipelines

Geography - note:
  Pago Pago has one of the best natural deepwater harbors in the
  South Pacific Ocean, sheltered by shape from rough seas and
  protected by peripheral mountains from high winds; strategic
  location in the South Pacific Ocean

People American Samoa

Population:
  57,902 (July 2004 est.)

Age structure:
  0-14 years: 36.6% (male 10,983; female 10,208)
  15-64 years: 60.3% (male 18,010; female 16,933)
  65 years and over: 3.1% (male 699; female 1,069) (2004 est.)

Median age:
  total: 22.4 years
  male: 22.1 years
  female: 22.7 years (2004 est.)

Population growth rate:
  0.04% (2004 est.)

Birth rate:
  24.46 births/1,000 population (2004 est.)

Death rate:
  3.39 deaths/1,000 population (2004 est.)

Net migration rate:
  -20.71 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2004 est.)

Sex ratio:
  at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female
  under 15 years: 1.08 male(s)/female
  15-64 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
  65 years and over: 0.65 male(s)/female
  total population: 1.05 male(s)/female (2004 est.)

Infant mortality rate:
  total: 9.48 deaths/1,000 live births
  female: 8.86 deaths/1,000 live births (2004 est.)
  male: 10.06 deaths/1,000 live births

Life expectancy at birth:
  total population: 75.62 years
  male: 72.05 years
  female: 79.41 years (2004 est.)

Total fertility rate:
  3.41 children born/woman (2004 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
  NA

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
  NA

HIV/AIDS - deaths:
  NA

Nationality:
  noun: American Samoan(s)
  adjective: American Samoan

Ethnic groups:
  Samoan (Polynesian) 89%, Caucasian 2%, Tongan 4%, other 5%

Religions:
  Christian Congregationalist 50%, Roman Catholic 20%, Protestant and
  other 30%

Languages:
  Samoan (closely related to Hawaiian and other Polynesian
  languages), English
  note: most people are bilingual

Literacy:
  definition: age 15 and over can read and write
  total population: 97%
  male: 98%
  female: 97% (1980 est.)

Government American Samoa

Country name:
  conventional long form: Territory of American Samoa
  conventional short form: American Samoa
  abbreviation: AS

Dependency status:
  unincorporated and unorganized territory of the US; administered by
  the Office of Insular Affairs, US Department of the Interior

Government type:
  NA

Capital:
  Pago Pago

Administrative divisions:
  none (territory of the US); there are no first-order administrative
  divisions as defined by the US Government, but there are three
  districts and two islands* at the second order; Eastern, Manu'a,
  Rose Island*, Swains Island*, Western

Independence:
  none (territory of the US)

National holiday:
  Flag Day, 17 April (1900)

Constitution:
  ratified 1966, in effect 1967

Legal system:
  NA

Suffrage:
  18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
  chief of state: President George W. BUSH of the US (since 20
  January 2001) and Vice President Richard B. CHENEY (since 20 January
  2001)
  election results: Togiola TULAFONO elected governor; percent of
  vote: Togiola TULAFONO 55.7%, Afoa Moega LUTU 44.3%
  elections: US president and vice president elected on the same
  ticket for four-year terms; governor and lieutenant governor elected
  on the same ticket by popular vote for four-year terms; election
  last held 2 and 16 November 2004 (next to be held November 2008)
  head of government: Governor Togiola TULAFONO (since 7 April 2003)
  cabinet: NA

Legislative branch:
  bicameral Fono or Legislative Assembly consists of the House of
  Representatives (21 seats - 20 of which are elected by popular vote
  and 1 is an appointed, nonvoting delegate from Swains Island;
  members serve two-year terms) and the Senate (18 seats; members are
  elected from local chiefs and serve four-year terms)
  elections: House of Representatives - last held 7 November 2002
  (next to be held 2 November 2004); Senate - last held 7 November
  2000 (next to be held 2 November 2004)
  note: American Samoa elects one nonvoting representative to the US
  House of Representatives; election last held 7 November 2002 (next
  to be held 2 November 2004); results - Eni F. H. FALEOMAVAEGA
  (Democrat) reelected as delegate
  election results: House of Representatives - percent of vote by
  party - NA; seats by party - NA; Senate - percent of vote by party -
  NA; seats by party - independents 18

Judicial branch:
  High Court (chief justice and associate justices are appointed by
  the US Secretary of the Interior)

Political parties and leaders:
  Democratic Party [leader NA]; Republican Party [leader NA]

Political pressure groups and leaders:
  NA

International organization participation:
  Interpol (subbureau), IOC, UPU

Diplomatic representation in the US:
  none (territory of the US)

Diplomatic representation from the US:
  none (territory of the US)

Flag description:
  blue, with a white triangle edged in red that is based on the outer
  side and extends to the hoist side; a brown and white American bald
  eagle flying toward the hoist side is carrying two traditional
  Samoan symbols of authority, a staff and a war club

Economy American Samoa

Economy - overview:
  This is a traditional Polynesian economy in which more than 90% of
  the land is communally owned. Economic activity is strongly linked
  to the US, with which American Samoa conducts most of its foreign
  trade. Tuna fishing and tuna processing plants are the backbone of
  the private sector, with canned tuna the primary export. Transfers
  from the US Government add substantially to American Samoa's
  economic well-being. Attempts by the government to develop a larger
  and broader economy are restrained by Samoa's remote location, its
  limited transportation, and its devastating hurricanes. Tourism is a
  promising developing sector.

GDP:
  purchasing power parity - $500 million (2000 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:
  NA

GDP - per capita:
  purchasing power parity - $8,000 (2000 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
  agriculture: NA
  industry: NA
  services: NA

Population below poverty line:
  NA

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
  lowest 10%: NA
  highest 10%: NA

Inflation rate (consumer prices):
  NA (2003 est.)

Labor force:
  14,000 (1996)

Labor force - by occupation:
  tuna canneries 34%, government 33%, other 33% (1990)

Unemployment rate:
  6% (2000)

Budget:
  revenues: $121 million (37% in local revenue and 63% in US grants)
  expenditures: $127 million, including capital expenditures of NA
  (FY96/97)

Agriculture - products:
  bananas, coconuts, vegetables, taro, breadfruit, yams, copra,
  pineapples, papayas; dairy products, livestock

Industries:
  tuna canneries (largely supplied by foreign fishing vessels),
  handicrafts

Industrial production growth rate:
  NA

Electricity - production:
  130 million kWh (2001)

Electricity - consumption:
  120.9 million kWh (2001)

Electricity - exports:
  0 kWh (2001)

Electricity - imports:
  0 kWh (2001)

Oil - production:
  0 bbl/day (2001 est.)

Oil - consumption:
  3,800 bbl/day (2001 est.)

Oil - exports:
  NA (2001)

Oil - imports:
  NA (2001)

Exports:
  $30 million (2002)

Exports - commodities:
  canned tuna 93%

Exports - partners:
  Samoa 33.3%, Japan 22.2%, Australia 11.1%, Canada 11.1%, New
  Zealand 11.1% (2003)

Imports:
  $123 million (2002)

Imports - commodities:
  materials for canneries 56%, food 8%, petroleum products 7%,
  machinery and parts 6%

Imports - partners:
  Australia 33.3%, New Zealand 33.3%, Mauritius 9%, Japan 5.1%, South
  Korea 5.1%, UK 5.1% (2003)

Debt - external:
  NA (2002 est.)

Economic aid - recipient:
  important financial support from the US, more than $40 million in
  1994

Currency:
  US dollar (USD)

Currency code:
  USD

Exchange rates:
  the US dollar is used

Fiscal year:
  1 October - 30 September

Communications American Samoa

Telephones - main lines in use:
  15,000 (2001)

Telephones - mobile cellular:
  2,377 (1999)

Telephone system:
  general assessment: NA
  domestic: good telex, telegraph, facsimile and cellular telephone
  services; domestic satellite system with 1 Comsat earth station
  international: country code - 1-684; satellite earth station - 1
  Intelsat (Pacific Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations:
  AM 1, FM 1, shortwave 0 (2004)

Radios:
  57,000 (1997)

Television broadcast stations:
  1 (2004)

Televisions:
  14,000 (1997)

Internet country code:
  .as

Internet Service Providers (ISPs):
  1 (2000)

Internet users:
  NA

Transportation American Samoa

Highways: total: 350 km paved: 150 km unpaved: 200 km

Ports and harbors:
  Aunu'u (new construction), Auasi, Faleosao, Ofu, Pago Pago, Ta'u

Merchant marine:
  none

Airports:
  3 (2003 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
  total: 2
  2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
  under 914 m: 1 (2004 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
  total: 1
  under 914 m: 1 (2004 est.)

Military American Samoa

Military - note: defense is the responsibility of the US

Transnational Issues American Samoa

Disputes - international: none

This page was last updated on 10 February, 2005

======================================================================

@Andorra

Introduction Andorra

Background:
  For 715 years, from 1278 to 1993, Andorrans lived under a unique
  co-principality, ruled by French and Spanish leaders (from 1607
  onward, the French chief of state and the Spanish bishop of Urgel).
  In 1993, this feudal system was modified with the titular heads of
  state retained, but the government transformed into a parliamentary
  democracy. Long isolated and impoverished, mountainous Andorra
  achieved considerable prosperity since World War II through its
  tourist industry. Many immigrants (legal and illegal) are attracted
  to the thriving economy with its lack of income taxes.

Geography Andorra

Location:
  Southwestern Europe, between France and Spain

Geographic coordinates:
  42 30 N, 1 30 E

Map references:
  Europe

Area:
  total: 468 sq km
  water: 0 sq km
  land: 468 sq km

Area - comparative:
  2.5 times the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries: total: 120.3 km border countries: France 56.6 km, Spain 63.7 km

Coastline:
  0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims:
  none (landlocked)

Climate:
  temperate; snowy, cold winters and warm, dry summers

Terrain:
  rugged mountains dissected by narrow valleys

Elevation extremes: lowest point: Riu Runer 840 m highest point: Coma Pedrosa 2,946 m

Natural resources: hydropower, mineral water, timber, iron ore, lead

Land use: arable land: 2.22% permanent crops: 0% other: 97.78% (2001)

Irrigated land:
  NA sq km

Natural hazards:
  avalanches

Environment - current issues:
  deforestation; overgrazing of mountain meadows contributes to soil
  erosion; air pollution; wastewater treatment and solid waste disposal

Environment - international agreements:
  party to: Hazardous Wastes
  signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - note:
  landlocked; straddles a number of important crossroads in the
  Pyrenees

People Andorra

Population:
  69,865 (July 2004 est.)

Age structure:
  0-14 years: 15% (male 5,478; female 4,988)
  15-64 years: 71.6% (male 26,268; female 23,766)
  65 years and over: 13.4% (male 4,659; female 4,706) (2004 est.)

Median age:
  total: 39.7 years
  male: 40 years
  female: 39.4 years (2004 est.)

Population growth rate:
  1% (2004 est.)

Birth rate:
  9.32 births/1,000 population (2004 est.)

Death rate:
  5.9 deaths/1,000 population (2004 est.)

Net migration rate:
  6.6 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2004 est.)

Sex ratio:
  at birth: 1.07 male(s)/female
  under 15 years: 1.1 male(s)/female
  15-64 years: 1.11 male(s)/female
  65 years and over: 0.99 male(s)/female
  total population: 1.09 male(s)/female (2004 est.)

Infant mortality rate:
  total: 4.05 deaths/1,000 live births
  female: 3.7 deaths/1,000 live births (2004 est.)
  male: 4.39 deaths/1,000 live births

Life expectancy at birth:
  total population: 83.5 years
  male: 80.59 years
  female: 86.59 years (2004 est.)

Total fertility rate:
  1.28 children born/woman (2004 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
  NA

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
  NA

HIV/AIDS - deaths:
  NA

Nationality:
  noun: Andorran(s)
  adjective: Andorran

Ethnic groups:
  Spanish 43%, Andorran 33%, Portuguese 11%, French 7%, other 6%
  (1998)

Religions:
  Roman Catholic (predominant)

Languages:
  Catalan (official), French, Castilian, Portuguese

Literacy: definition: NA total population: 100% male: NA female: NA

Government Andorra

Country name:
  conventional long form: Principality of Andorra
  conventional short form: Andorra
  local short form: Andorra
  local long form: Principat d'Andorra

Government type:
  parliamentary democracy (since March 1993) that retains as its
  chiefs of state a coprincipality; the two princes are the president
  of France and bishop of Seo de Urgel, Spain, who are represented
  locally by coprinces' representatives

Capital:
  Andorra la Vella

Administrative divisions:
  7 parishes (parroquies, singular - parroquia); Andorra la Vella,
  Canillo, Encamp, La Massana, Escaldes-Engordany, Ordino, Sant Julia
  de Loria

Independence:
  1278 (was formed under the joint suzerainty of the French count of
  Foix and the Spanish bishop of Urgel)

National holiday:
  Our Lady of Meritxell Day, 8 September (1278)

Constitution:
  Andorra's first written constitution was drafted in 1991; approved
  by referendum 14 March 1993; came into force 4 May 1993

Legal system:
  based on French and Spanish civil codes; no judicial review of
  legislative acts; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage:
  18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
  chief of state: French Coprince Jacques CHIRAC (since 17 May 1995),
  represented by Philippe MASSONI (since 26 July 2002); Spanish
  Coprince Bishop Joan Enric VIVES i SICILIA (since 12 May 2003),
  represented by Nemesi MARQUES i OSTE (since NA)
  elections: Executive Council president elected by the General
  Council and formally appointed by the coprinces for a four-year
  term; election last held 4 March 2001 (next to be held April-May
  2005)
  election results: Marc FORNE Molne elected executive council
  president; percent of General Council vote - NA%
  cabinet: Executive Council or Govern designated by the Executive
  Council president
  head of government: Executive Council President Marc FORNE Molne
  (since 21 December 1994)

Legislative branch:
  unicameral General Council of the Valleys or Consell General de las
  Valls (28 seats; members are elected by direct popular vote, 14 from
  a single national constituency and 14 to represent each of the 7
  parishes; members serve four-year terms)
  elections: last held 4 March 2001 (next to be held NA March-April
  2005)
  election results: percent of vote by party - PLA 46.1%, PSD 30%, PD
  23.8%, other 0.1%; seats by party - PLA 15, PSD 6, PD 5, other 2

Judicial branch:
  Tribunal of Judges or Tribunal de Batlles; Tribunal of the Courts
  or Tribunal de Corts; Supreme Court of Justice of Andorra or
  Tribunal Superior de Justicia d'Andorra; Supreme Council of Justice
  or Consell Superior de la Justicia; Fiscal Ministry or Ministeri
  Fiscal; Constitutional Tribunal or Tribunal Constitucional

Political parties and leaders:
  Andorran Democratic Center Party or CDA (formerly Democratic Party
  or PD) [leader NA]; Liberal Party of Andorra or PLA (formerly
  Liberal Union or UL) [Albert PINTAT]; Social Democratic Party or PS
  (formerly part of National Democratic Group or AND) [leader NA]

Political pressure groups and leaders:
  NA

International organization participation:
  CE, ICAO, ICCt, ICRM, IFRCS, Interpol, IOC, ITU, OPCW, OSCE, UN,
  UNESCO, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WToO, WTrO (observer)

Diplomatic representation in the US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires Jelena V.
  PIA-COMELLA
  chancery: 2 United Nations Plaza, 25th Floor, New York, NY 10017
  telephone: [1] (212) 750-8064
  FAX: [1] (212) 750-6630

Diplomatic representation from the US:
  the US does not have an embassy in Andorra; the US Ambassador to
  Spain is accredited to Andorra; US interests in Andorra are
  represented by the Consulate General's office in Barcelona (Spain);
  mailing address: Paseo Reina Elisenda, 23, 08034 Barcelona, Spain;
  telephone: [34] (93) 280-2227; FAX: [34] (93) 280-6175

Flag description:
  three equal vertical bands of blue (hoist side), yellow, and red
  with the national coat of arms centered in the yellow band; the coat
  of arms features a quartered shield; similar to the flags of Chad
  and Romania, which do not have a national coat of arms in the
  center, and the flag of Moldova, which does bear a national emblem

Economy Andorra

Economy - overview:
  Tourism, the mainstay of Andorra's tiny, well-to-do economy,
  accounts for roughly 80% of GDP. An estimated 9 million tourists
  visit annually, attracted by Andorra's duty-free status and by its
  summer and winter resorts. Andorra's comparative advantage has
  recently eroded as the economies of neighboring France and Spain
  have been opened up, providing broader availability of goods and
  lower tariffs. The banking sector, with its "tax haven" status, also
  contributes substantially to the economy. Agricultural production is
  limited - only 2% of the land is arable - and most food has to be
  imported. The principal livestock activity is sheep raising.
  Manufacturing output consists mainly of cigarettes, cigars, and
  furniture. Andorra is a member of the EU Customs Union and is
  treated as an EU member for trade in manufactured goods (no tariffs)
  and as a non-EU member for agricultural products.

GDP:
  purchasing power parity - $1.3 billion (2000 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:
  3.8% (2000 est.)

GDP - per capita:
  purchasing power parity - $19,000 (2000 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
  agriculture: NA
  industry: NA
  services: NA

Population below poverty line:
  NA

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
  lowest 10%: NA
  highest 10%: NA

Inflation rate (consumer prices):
  4.3% (2000)

Labor force:
  33,000 (2001 est.)

Labor force - by occupation:
  agriculture 1%, industry 21%, services 78% (2000 est.)

Unemployment rate:
  0% (1996 est.)

Budget:
  revenues: $385 million
  expenditures: $342 million, including capital expenditures of NA
  (1997)

Agriculture - products:
  small quantities of rye, wheat, barley, oats, vegetables; sheep

Industries:
  tourism (particularly skiing), cattle raising, timber, banking

Industrial production growth rate:
  NA

Electricity - production:
  NA kWh

Electricity - consumption:
  NA kWh

Electricity - exports:
  0 kWh (2002)

Electricity - imports:
  NA kWh; note - most electricity supplied by Spain and France;
  Andorra generates a small amount of hydropower

Exports:
  $58 million f.o.b. (1998)

Exports - commodities:
  tobacco products, furniture

Exports - partners:
  Spain 58%, France 34% (2000)

Imports:
  $1.077 billion (1998)

Imports - commodities:
  consumer goods, food, electricity

Imports - partners:
  Spain 48%, France 35%, US 2.3% (2000)

Debt - external:
  NA

Economic aid - recipient:
  none

Currency:
  euro (EUR)

Currency code:
  EUR

Exchange rates:
  euros per US dollar - 0.886 (2003), 1.0626 (2002), 1.12 (2001),
  1.09 (2000), 0.94 (1999)

Fiscal year:
  calendar year

Communications Andorra

Telephones - main lines in use:
  35,000 (2001)

Telephones - mobile cellular:
  23,500 (2001)

Telephone system:
  general assessment: NA
  domestic: modern system with microwave radio relay connections
  between exchanges
  international: country code - 376; landline circuits to France and
  Spain

Radio broadcast stations:
  AM 0, FM 15, shortwave 0 (1998)

Radios:
  16,000 (1997)

Television broadcast stations:
  0 (1997)

Televisions:
  27,000 (1997)

Internet country code:
  .ad

Internet hosts:
  4,144 (2004)

Internet Service Providers (ISPs):
  1 (2000)

Internet users:
  24,500 (2001)

Transportation Andorra

Highways: total: 269 km paved: 198 km unpaved: 71 km (1994)

Ports and harbors:
  none

Airports:
  none

Military Andorra

Military branches:
  no regular military forces, Police Service of Andorra

Military - note:
  defense is the responsibility of France and Spain

Transnational Issues Andorra

Disputes - international: none

This page was last updated on 10 February, 2005

======================================================================

@Angola

Introduction Angola

Background:
  Angola has begun to enjoy the fruits of peace since the end of a
  27-year civil war in 2002. Fighting between the Popular Movement for
  the Liberation of Angola (MPLA), led by Jose Eduardo DOS SANTOS, and
  the National Union for the Total Independence of Angola (UNITA), led
  by Jonas SAVIMBI, followed independence from Portugal in 1975. Peace
  seemed imminent in 1992 when Angola held national elections, but
  UNITA renewed fighting after being beaten by the MPLA at the polls.
  Up to 1.5 million lives may have been lost - and 4 million people
  displaced - in the quarter century of fighting. SAVIMBI's death in
  2002 ended UNITA's insurgency and strengthened the MPLA's hold on
  power. DOS SANTOS has pledged to hold national elections in 2006.

Geography Angola

Location:
  Southern Africa, bordering the South Atlantic Ocean, between
  Namibia and Democratic Republic of the Congo

Geographic coordinates:
  12 30 S, 18 30 E

Map references:
  Africa

Area:
  total: 1,246,700 sq km
  water: 0 sq km
  land: 1,246,700 sq km

Area - comparative:
  slightly less than twice the size of Texas

Land boundaries:
  total: 5,198 km
  border countries: Democratic Republic of the Congo 2,511 km (of
  which 225 km is the boundary of discontiguous Cabinda Province),
  Republic of the Congo 201 km, Namibia 1,376 km, Zambia 1,110 km

Coastline:
  1,600 km

Maritime claims:
  territorial sea: 12 nm
  contiguous zone: 24 nm
  exclusive economic zone: 200 nm

Climate:
  semiarid in south and along coast to Luanda; north has cool, dry
  season (May to October) and hot, rainy season (November to April)

Terrain:
  narrow coastal plain rises abruptly to vast interior plateau

Elevation extremes:
  lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m
  highest point: Morro de Moco 2,620 m

Natural resources:
  petroleum, diamonds, iron ore, phosphates, copper, feldspar, gold,
  bauxite, uranium

Land use: arable land: 2.41% permanent crops: 0.24% other: 97.35% (2001)

Irrigated land:
  750 sq km (1998 est.)

Natural hazards:
  locally heavy rainfall causes periodic flooding on the plateau

Environment - current issues:
  overuse of pastures and subsequent soil erosion attributable to
  population pressures; desertification; deforestation of tropical
  rain forest, in response to both international demand for tropical
  timber and to domestic use as fuel, resulting in loss of
  biodiversity; soil erosion contributing to water pollution and
  siltation of rivers and dams; inadequate supplies of potable water

Environment - international agreements:
  party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Law of the
  Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution
  signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - note:
  the province of Cabinda is an exclave, separated from the rest of
  the country by the Democratic Republic of the Congo

People Angola

Population:
  10,978,552 (July 2004 est.)

Age structure:
  0-14 years: 43.5% (male 2,410,326; female 2,363,368)
  15-64 years: 53.7% (male 2,998,892; female 2,897,837)
  65 years and over: 2.8% (male 137,340; female 170,789) (2004 est.)

Median age:
  total: 18.1 years
  male: 18.1 years
  female: 18.1 years (2004 est.)

Population growth rate:
  1.93% (2004 est.)

Birth rate:
  45.14 births/1,000 population (2004 est.)

Death rate:
  25.86 deaths/1,000 population (2004 est.)

Net migration rate:
  0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2004 est.)

Sex ratio:
  at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
  under 15 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
  15-64 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
  65 years and over: 0.8 male(s)/female
  total population: 1.02 male(s)/female (2004 est.)

Infant mortality rate:
  total: 192.5 deaths/1,000 live births
  female: 179.41 deaths/1,000 live births (2004 est.)
  male: 204.97 deaths/1,000 live births

Life expectancy at birth:
  total population: 36.79 years
  male: 36.06 years
  female: 37.55 years (2004 est.)

Total fertility rate:
  6.33 children born/woman (2004 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
  3.9% (2003 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
  240,000 (2003 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths:
  21,000 (2003 est.)

Major infectious diseases:
  typhoid fever, malaria, trypanosomiasis, schistosomiasis
  overall degree of risk: very high (2004)

Nationality:
  noun: Angolan(s)
  adjective: Angolan

Ethnic groups:
  Ovimbundu 37%, Kimbundu 25%, Bakongo 13%, mestico (mixed European
  and Native African) 2%, European 1%, other 22%

Religions:
  indigenous beliefs 47%, Roman Catholic 38%, Protestant 15% (1998
  est.)

Languages:
  Portuguese (official), Bantu and other African languages

Literacy:
  definition: age 15 and over can read and write
  total population: 42%
  male: 56%
  female: 28% (1998 est.)

Government Angola

Country name:
  conventional long form: Republic of Angola
  conventional short form: Angola
  local short form: Angola
  former: People's Republic of Angola
  local long form: Republica de Angola

Government type:
  republic, nominally a multiparty democracy with a strong
  presidential system

Capital:
  Luanda

Administrative divisions:
  18 provinces (provincias, singular - provincia); Bengo, Benguela,
  Bie, Cabinda, Cuando Cubango, Cuanza Norte, Cuanza Sul, Cunene,
  Huambo, Huila, Luanda, Lunda Norte, Lunda Sul, Malanje, Moxico,
  Namibe, Uige, Zaire

Independence:
  11 November 1975 (from Portugal)

National holiday:
  Independence Day, 11 November (1975)

Constitution:
  11 November 1975; revised 7 January 1978, 11 August 1980, 6 March
  1991, and 26 August 1992; note - new constitution has not yet been
  approved

Legal system:
  based on Portuguese civil law system and customary law; recently
  modified to accommodate political pluralism and increased use of
  free markets

Suffrage:
  18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
  chief of state: President Jose Eduardo DOS SANTOS (since 21
  September 1979); note - the president is both chief of state and
  head of government
  head of government: President Jose Eduardo DOS SANTOS (since 21
  September 1979); note - the president is both chief of state and
  head of government; Fernando de Piedade Dias DOS SANTOS was
  appointed Prime Minister on 6 December 2002, but this is not a
  position of real power
  cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president
  elections: president elected by universal ballot for a NA-year term;
  President DOS SANTOS originally elected (in 1979) without opposition
  under a one-party system and stood for reelection in Angola's first
  multiparty elections 29-30 September 1992 (next to be held NA)
  election results: DOS SANTOS 49.6%, Jonas SAVIMBI 40.1%, making a
  run-off election necessary; the run-off was not held and SAVIMBI's
  National Union for the Total Independence of Angola (UNITA)
  repudiated the results of the first election; the civil war resumed

Legislative branch:
  unicameral National Assembly or Assembleia Nacional (220 seats;
  members elected by proportional vote to serve four-year terms)
  elections: last held 29-30 September 1992 (next to be held NA)
  election results: percent of vote by party - MPLA 54%, UNITA 34%,
  others 12%; seats by party - MPLA 129, UNITA 70, PRS 6, FNLA 5, PLD
  3, others 7

Judicial branch:
  Supreme Court or Tribunal da Relacao (judges are appointed by the
  president)

Political parties and leaders:
  Liberal Democratic Party or PLD [Analia de Victoria PEREIRA];
  National Front for the Liberation of Angola or FNLA [disputed
  leadership: Lucas NGONDA, Holden ROBERTO]; National Union for the
  Total Independence of Angola or UNITA [Isaias SAMAKUVA], largest
  opposition party has engaged in years of armed resistance; Popular
  Movement for the Liberation of Angola or MPLA [Jose Eduardo DOS
  SANTOS], ruling party in power since 1975; Social Renewal Party or
  PRS [disputed leadership: Eduardo KUANGANA, Antonio MUACHICUNGO]
  note: about a dozen minor parties participated in the 1992 elections
  but only won a few seats and have little influence in the National
  Assembly

Political pressure groups and leaders:
  Front for the Liberation of the Enclave of Cabinda or FLEC [N'zita
  Henriques TIAGO; Antonio Bento BEMBE]
  note: FLEC is waging a small-scale, highly factionalized, armed
  struggle for the independence of Cabinda Province

International organization participation:
  ACP, AfDB, AU, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt (signatory),
  ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC,
  IOM, ISO (correspondent), ITU, MIGA, NAM, OAS (observer), SADC, UN,
  UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTO

Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Josefina Perpetua Pitra DIAKIDI FAX: [1] (202) 785-1258 consulate(s) general: Houston and New York telephone: [1] (202) 785-1156 chancery: 2108 16th Street NW, Washington, DC 20009

Diplomatic representation from the US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador Christopher William DELL
  embassy: number 32 Rua Houari Boumedienne (in the Miramar area of
  Luanda), Luanda
  mailing address: international mail: Caixa Postal 6468, Luanda;
  pouch: American Embassy Luanda, Department of State, Washington, DC
  20521-2550
  telephone: [244] (2) 445-481, 447-028, 446-224
  FAX: [244] (2) 446-924

Flag description:
  two equal horizontal bands of red (top) and black with a centered
  yellow emblem consisting of a five-pointed star within half a
  cogwheel crossed by a machete (in the style of a hammer and sickle)

Economy Angola

Economy - overview:
  Angola has been an economy in disarray because of a quarter century
  of nearly continuous warfare. An apparently durable peace was
  established after the death of rebel leader Jonas SAVIMBI on
  February 22, 2002, but consequences from the conflict continue
  including the impact of wide-spread land mines. Subsistence
  agriculture provides the main livelihood for 85% of the population.
  Oil production and the supporting activities are vital to the
  economy, contributing about 45% to GDP and more than half of
  exports. Much of the country's food must still be imported. To fully
  take advantage of its rich natural resources - gold, diamonds,
  extensive forests, Atlantic fisheries, and large oil deposits -
  Angola will need to continue reforming government policies and to
  reduce corruption. While Angola made progress in bringing inflation
  down further, from 325% in 2000 to about 106% in 2002, the
  government has failed to make sufficient progress on reforms
  recommended by the IMF such as increasing foreign exchange reserves
  and promoting greater transparency in government spending. Increased
  oil production supported 7% GDP growth in 2003.

GDP:
  purchasing power parity - $20.42 billion (2003 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:
  1.5% (2003 est.)

GDP - per capita:
  purchasing power parity - $1,900 (2003 est.)

GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 8% industry: 67% services: 25% (2001 est.)

Investment (gross fixed):
  31.7% of GDP (2003)

Population below poverty line:
  70% (2003 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
  lowest 10%: NA
  highest 10%: NA

Inflation rate (consumer prices):
  76.6% (2003 est.)

Labor force:
  5.57 million (2003 est.)

Labor force - by occupation:
  agriculture 85%, industry and services 15% (2003 est.)

Unemployment rate:
  extensive unemployment and underemployment affecting more than half
  the population (2001 est.)

Budget:
  revenues: $4.874 billion
  expenditures: $6.012 billion, including capital expenditures of $963
  million (2003 est.)

Agriculture - products:
  bananas, sugarcane, coffee, sisal, corn, cotton, manioc (tapioca),
  tobacco, vegetables, plantains; livestock; forest products; fish

Industries:
  petroleum; diamonds, iron ore, phosphates, feldspar, bauxite,
  uranium, and gold; cement; basic metal products; fish processing;
  food processing; brewing; tobacco products; sugar; textiles

Industrial production growth rate:
  1% (2000)

Electricity - production:
  1.45 billion kWh (2001)

Electricity - consumption:
  1.348 billion kWh (2001)

Electricity - exports:
  0 kWh (2001)

Electricity - imports:
  0 kWh (2001)

Oil - production:
  742,400 bbl/day (2001 est.)

Oil - consumption:
  31,000 bbl/day (2001 est.)

Oil - exports:
  NA (2001)

Oil - imports:
  NA (2001)

Oil - proved reserves:
  5.691 billion bbl (1 January 2002)

Natural gas - production:
  530 million cu m (2001 est.)

Natural gas - consumption:
  530 million cu m (2001 est.)

Natural gas - exports:
  0 cu m (2001 est.)

Natural gas - imports:
  0 cu m (2001 est.)

Natural gas - proved reserves:
  79.57 billion cu m (1 January 2002)

Current account balance:
  $-475 million (2003)

Exports:
  $9.669 billion f.o.b. (2003 est.)

Exports - commodities:
  crude oil, diamonds, refined petroleum products, gas, coffee,
  sisal, fish and fish products, timber, cotton

Exports - partners:
  US 47.7%, China 23.4%, Taiwan 8%, France 7.4% (2003)

Imports:
  $4.08 billion f.o.b. (2003 est.)

Imports - commodities:
  machinery and electrical equipment, vehicles and spare parts;
  medicines, food, textiles, military goods

Imports - partners:
  Portugal 18.2%, South Africa 12.4%, US 12.2%, Netherlands 11.6%,
  France 6.5%, Brazil 6.1%, UK 4.2% (2003)

Reserves of foreign exchange & gold:
  $638.4 million (2003)

Debt - external:
  $9.164 billion (2003 est.)

Economic aid - recipient:
  $383.5 million (1999)

Currency:
  kwanza (AOA)

Currency code:
  AOA

Exchange rates:
  kwanza per US dollar - 74.6063 (2003), 43.5302 (2002), 22.0579
  (2001), 10.041 (2000), 2.791 (1999), 0.393 (1998); note - in
  December 1999 the kwanza was revalued with six zeroes dropped off
  the old value

Fiscal year:
  calendar year

Communications Angola

Telephones - main lines in use:
  96,300 (2003)

Telephones - mobile cellular:
  130,000 (2002)

Telephone system:
  general assessment: telephone service limited mostly to government
  and business use; HF radiotelephone used extensively for military
  links
  domestic: limited system of wire, microwave radio relay, and
  tropospheric scatter
  international: country code - 244; satellite earth stations - 2
  Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean); fiber optic submarine cable (SAT-3/WASC)
  provides connectivity to Europe and Asia

Radio broadcast stations:
  AM 21, FM 6, shortwave 7 (2000)

Radios:
  815,000 (2000)

Television broadcast stations:
  6 (2000)

Televisions:
  196,000 (2000)

Internet country code:
  .ao

Internet hosts:
  17 (2003)

Internet Service Providers (ISPs):
  1 (2000)

Internet users:
  41,000 (2002)

Transportation Angola

Railways: total: 2,761 km narrow gauge: 2,638 km 1.067-m gauge; 123 km 0.600-m gauge (2003)

Highways: total: 51,429 km paved: 5,349 km unpaved: 46,080 km (1999)

Waterways:
  1,300 km (2004)

Pipelines:
  gas 214 km; liquid natural gas 14 km; liquid petroleum gas 30 km;
  oil 837 km; refined products 56 km (2004)

Ports and harbors:
  Ambriz, Cabinda, Lobito, Luanda, Malongo, Namibe (Mocamedes), Porto
  Amboim, Soyo

Merchant marine:
  total: 7 ships (1,000 GRT or over) 26,123 GRT/42,879 DWT
  by type: cargo 6, petroleum tanker 1
  registered in other countries: 4 (2004 est.)

Airports:
  244 (2003 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
  total: 32
  over 3,047 m: 4
  2,438 to 3,047 m: 8
  1,524 to 2,437 m: 14
  914 to 1,523 m: 5
  under 914 m: 1 (2004 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
  total: 211
  over 3,047 m: 2
  2,438 to 3,047 m: 4
  1,524 to 2,437 m: 30
  914 to 1,523 m: 95
  under 914 m: 80 (2004 est.)

Military Angola

Military branches:
  Army, Navy (Marinha de Guerra, MdG), Air and Air Defense Forces
  (FANA)

Military manpower - military age and obligation:
  17 years of age for compulsory military service; conscript service
  obligation - 2 years plus time for training (2001)

Military manpower - availability:
  males age 15-49: 2,620,219 (2004 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:
  males age 15-49: 1,317,328 (2004 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
  males: 113,103 (2004 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure:
  $265.1 million (2003)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP:
  1.9% (2003)

Transnational Issues Angola

Disputes - international:
  continues to give shelter to refugees from the Democratic Republic
  of the Congo while many Angolan refugees and Cabinda exclave
  secessionists reside in neighboring states

Refugees and internally displaced persons:
  IDPs: 40,000 - 60,000 (27-year civil war ending in 2002; 4 million
  IDPs already have returned) (2004)

Illicit drugs:
  used as a transshipment point for cocaine destined for Western
  Europe and other African states

This page was last updated on 10 February, 2005

======================================================================

@Anguilla

Introduction Anguilla

Background:
  Colonized by English settlers from Saint Kitts in 1650, Anguilla
  was administered by Great Britain until the early 19th century, when
  the island - against the wishes of the inhabitants - was
  incorporated into a single British dependency, along with Saint
  Kitts and Nevis. Several attempts at separation failed. In 1971, two
  years after a revolt, Anguilla was finally allowed to secede; this
  arrangement was formally recognized in 1980, with Anguilla becoming
  a separate British dependency.

Geography Anguilla

Location:
  Caribbean, islands between the Caribbean Sea and North Atlantic
  Ocean, east of Puerto Rico

Geographic coordinates:
  18 15 N, 63 10 W

Map references:
  Central America and the Caribbean

Area:
  total: 102 sq km
  water: 0 sq km
  land: 102 sq km

Area - comparative:
  about half the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries:
  0 km

Coastline:
  61 km

Maritime claims: territorial sea: 3 nm exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm

Climate:
  tropical; moderated by northeast trade winds

Terrain:
  flat and low-lying island of coral and limestone

Elevation extremes: lowest point: Caribbean Sea 0 m highest point: Crocus Hill 65 m

Natural resources:
  salt, fish, lobster

Land use:
  arable land: 0%
  permanent crops: 0%
  other: 100% (mostly rock with sparse scrub oak, few trees, some
  commercial salt ponds) (2001)

Irrigated land:
  NA sq km

Natural hazards:
  frequent hurricanes and other tropical storms (July to October)

Environment - current issues: supplies of potable water sometimes cannot meet increasing demand largely because of poor distribution system

Geography - note: the most northerly of the Leeward Islands in the Lesser Antilles

People Anguilla

Population:
  13,008 (July 2004 est.)

Age structure:
  0-14 years: 23.8% (male 1,569; female 1,523)
  15-64 years: 69.4% (male 4,641; female 4,385)
  65 years and over: 6.8% (male 396; female 494) (2004 est.)

Median age:
  total: 30.4 years
  male: 30.4 years
  female: 30.3 years (2004 est.)

Population growth rate:
  1.98% (2004 est.)

Birth rate:
  14.45 births/1,000 population (2004 est.)

Death rate:
  5.46 deaths/1,000 population (2004 est.)

Net migration rate:
  10.76 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2004 est.)

Sex ratio:
  at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
  under 15 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
  15-64 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
  65 years and over: 0.8 male(s)/female
  total population: 1.03 male(s)/female (2004 est.)

Infant mortality rate:
  total: 21.91 deaths/1,000 live births
  female: 14.91 deaths/1,000 live births (2004 est.)
  male: 28.72 deaths/1,000 live births

Life expectancy at birth:
  total population: 76.9 years
  male: 73.99 years
  female: 79.91 years (2004 est.)

Total fertility rate:
  1.74 children born/woman (2004 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
  NA

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
  NA

HIV/AIDS - deaths:
  NA

Nationality: noun: Anguillan(s) adjective: Anguillan

Ethnic groups:
  black (predominant), mulatto, white

Religions:
  Anglican 40%, Methodist 33%, Seventh-Day Adventist 7%, Baptist 5%,
  Roman Catholic 3%, other 12%

Languages:
  English (official)

Literacy:
  definition: age 12 and over can read and write
  total population: 95%
  male: 95%
  female: 95% (1984 est.)

Government Anguilla

Country name: conventional long form: none conventional short form: Anguilla

Dependency status:
  overseas territory of the UK

Government type:
  NA

Capital:
  The Valley

Administrative divisions:
  none (overseas territory of the UK)

Independence:
  none (overseas territory of the UK)

National holiday:
  Anguilla Day, 30 May

Constitution:
  Anguilla Constitutional Order 1 April 1982; amended 1990

Legal system:
  based on English common law

Suffrage:
  18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
  chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952);
  represented by Governor Alan Eden HUCKLE (since 28 May 2004)
  elections: none; the monarch is hereditary; governor appointed by
  the monarch; following legislative elections, the leader of the
  majority party or the leader of the majority coalition is usually
  appointed chief minister by the governor
  head of government: Chief Minister Osbourne FLEMING (since 3 March
  2000)
  cabinet: Executive Council appointed by the governor from among the
  elected members of the House of Assembly

Legislative branch:
  unicameral House of Assembly (11 seats total, 7 elected by direct
  popular vote, 2 ex officio members, and 2 appointed; members serve
  five-year terms)
  elections: last held 3 March 2000 (next to be held NA June 2005)
  election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party -
  ANA 3, AUM 2, ADP 1, independent 1

Judicial branch:
  High Court (judge provided by Eastern Caribbean Supreme Court)

Political parties and leaders:
  Anguilla United Movement or AUM [Hubert HUGHES]; The United Front
  or UF [Osbourne FLEMING, Victor BANKS], a coalition of the Anguilla
  Democratic Party or ADP and the Anguilla National Alliance or ANA;
  Anguilla Patriotic Movement or APM [Quincy GUMBS]; Movement for
  Grassroots Democracy or MFGD [Joyce KENTISH, John BENJAMIN]

Political pressure groups and leaders:
  NA

International organization participation:
  Caricom (associate), CDB, Interpol (subbureau), OECS (associate),
  UPU

Diplomatic representation in the US:
  none (overseas territory of the UK)

Diplomatic representation from the US:
  none (overseas territory of the UK)

Flag description:
  blue, with the flag of the UK in the upper hoist-side quadrant and
  the Anguillan coat of arms centered in the outer half of the flag;
  the coat of arms depicts three orange dolphins in an interlocking
  circular design on a white background with blue wavy water below

Economy Anguilla

Economy - overview:
  Anguilla has few natural resources, and the economy depends heavily
  on luxury tourism, offshore banking, lobster fishing, and
  remittances from emigrants. Increased activity in the tourism
  industry, which has spurred the growth of the construction sector,
  has contributed to economic growth. Anguillan officials have put
  substantial effort into developing the offshore financial sector,
  which is small, but growing. In the medium term, prospects for the
  economy will depend largely on the tourism sector and, therefore, on
  revived income growth in the industrialized nations as well as on
  favorable weather conditions.

GDP:
  purchasing power parity - $104 million (2001 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:
  2.8% (2001 est.)

GDP - per capita:
  purchasing power parity - $8,600 (2001 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
  agriculture: 4%
  industry: 18%
  services: 78% (1997 est.)

Population below poverty line:
  NA

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
  lowest 10%: NA
  highest 10%: NA

Inflation rate (consumer prices):
  2.3%

Labor force:
  6,049 (2001)

Labor force - by occupation: agriculture/fishing/forestry/mining 4%, manufacturing 3%, construction 18%, transportation and utilities 10%, commerce 36%, services 29% (2000 est.)

Unemployment rate:
  6.7% (2001)

Budget:
  revenues: $22.8 million
  expenditures: $22.5 million, including capital expenditures of NA
  (2000 est.)

Agriculture - products:
  small quantities of tobacco, vegetables; cattle raising

Industries:
  tourism, boat building, offshore financial services

Industrial production growth rate:
  3.1% (1997 est.)

Electricity - production:
  NA

Electricity - consumption:
  42.6 million kWh

Exports:
  $2.6 million (1999)

Exports - commodities:
  lobster, fish, livestock, salt, concrete blocks, rum

Exports - partners:
  UK, US, Puerto Rico, Saint-Martin (2000)

Imports:
  $80.9 million (1999)

Imports - commodities:
  fuels, foodstuffs, manufactures, chemicals, trucks, textiles

Imports - partners:
  US, Puerto Rico, UK (2000)

Debt - external:
  $8.8 million (1998)

Economic aid - recipient:
  $3.5 million (1995)

Currency:
  East Caribbean dollar (XCD)

Currency code:
  XCD

Exchange rates:
  East Caribbean dollars per US dollar - 2.70 (fixed rate since 1976)

Fiscal year:
  1 April - 31 March

Communications Anguilla

Telephones - main lines in use:
  6,200 (2002)

Telephones - mobile cellular:
  1,800 (2002)

Telephone system:
  general assessment: NA
  domestic: modern internal telephone system
  international: country code - 1-264; microwave radio relay to island
  of Saint Martin (Guadeloupe and Netherlands Antilles)

Radio broadcast stations:
  AM 5, FM 6, shortwave 1 (1998)

Radios:
  3,000 (1997)

Television broadcast stations:
  1 (1997)

Televisions:
  1,000 (1997)

Internet country code:
  .ai

Internet Service Providers (ISPs):
  16 (2000)

Internet users:
  3,000 (2002)

Transportation Anguilla

Highways: total: 105 km paved: 65 km unpaved: 40 km (1997)

Ports and harbors:
  Blowing Point, Road Bay

Merchant marine:
  none

Airports:
  3 (2003 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
  total: 1
  914 to 1,523 m: 1 (2004 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
  total: 2
  under 914 m: 2 (2004 est.)

Military Anguilla

Military - note: defense is the responsibility of the UK

Transnational Issues Anguilla

Disputes - international:
  none

Illicit drugs:
  transshipment point for South American narcotics destined for the
  US and Europe

This page was last updated on 10 February, 2005

======================================================================

@Antarctica

Introduction Antarctica

Background:
  Speculation over the existence of a "southern land" was not
  confirmed until the early 1820s when British and American commercial
  operators and British and Russian national expeditions began
  exploring the Antarctic Peninsula region and other areas south of
  the Antarctic Circle. Not until 1840 was it established that
  Antarctica was indeed a continent and not just a group of islands.
  Several exploration "firsts" were achieved in the early 20th
  century. Following World War II, there was an upsurge in scientific
  research on the continent. A number of countries have set up
  year-round research stations on Antarctica. Seven have made
  territorial claims, but not all countries recognize these claims. In
  order to form a legal framework for the activities of nations on the
  continent, an Antarctic Treaty was negotiated that neither denies
  nor gives recognition to existing territorial claims; signed in
  1959, it entered into force in 1961.

Geography Antarctica

Location:
  continent mostly south of the Antarctic Circle

Geographic coordinates:
  90 00 S, 0 00 E

Map references:
  Antarctic Region

Area:
  total: 14 million sq km
  note: fifth-largest continent, following Asia, Africa, North
  America, and South America, but larger than Australia and the
  subcontinent of Europe
  land: 14 million sq km (280,000 sq km ice-free, 13.72 million sq km
  ice-covered) (est.)

Area - comparative:
  slightly less than 1.5 times the size of the US

Land boundaries: 0 km note: see entry on Disputes - international

Coastline:
  17,968 km

Maritime claims:
  Australia, Chile, and Argentina claim Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ)
  rights or similar over 200 nm extensions seaward from their
  continental claims, but like the claims themselves, these zones are
  not accepted by other countries; 20 of 27 Antarctic consultative
  nations have made no claims to Antarctic territory (although Russia
  and the US have reserved the right to do so) and do not recognize
  the claims of the other nations; also see the Disputes -
  international entry

Climate:
  severe low temperatures vary with latitude, elevation, and distance
  from the ocean; East Antarctica is colder than West Antarctica
  because of its higher elevation; Antarctic Peninsula has the most
  moderate climate; higher temperatures occur in January along the
  coast and average slightly below freezing

Terrain:
  about 98% thick continental ice sheet and 2% barren rock, with
  average elevations between 2,000 and 4,000 meters; mountain ranges
  up to nearly 5,000 meters; ice-free coastal areas include parts of
  southern Victoria Land, Wilkes Land, the Antarctic Peninsula area,
  and parts of Ross Island on McMurdo Sound; glaciers form ice shelves
  along about half of the coastline, and floating ice shelves
  constitute 11% of the area of the continent

Elevation extremes:
  lowest point: Bentley Subglacial Trench -2,555 m
  highest point: Vinson Massif 4,897 m
  note: the lowest known land point in Antarctica is hidden in the
  Bentley Subglacial Trench; at its surface is the deepest ice yet
  discovered and the world's lowest elevation not under seawater

Natural resources:
  iron ore, chromium, copper, gold, nickel, platinum and other
  minerals, and coal and hydrocarbons have been found in small
  uncommercial quantities; none presently exploited; krill, finfish,
  and crab have been taken by commercial fisheries

Land use: arable land: 0% permanent crops: 0% other: 100% (ice 98%, barren rock 2%) (2001)

Irrigated land:
  0 sq km

Natural hazards:
  katabatic (gravity-driven) winds blow coastward from the high
  interior; frequent blizzards form near the foot of the plateau;
  cyclonic storms form over the ocean and move clockwise along the
  coast; volcanism on Deception Island and isolated areas of West
  Antarctica; other seismic activity rare and weak; large icebergs may
  calve from ice shelf

Environment - current issues:
  in 1998, NASA satellite data showed that the antarctic ozone hole
  was the largest on record, covering 27 million square kilometers;
  researchers in 1997 found that increased ultraviolet light coming
  through the hole damages the DNA of icefish, an antarctic fish
  lacking hemoglobin; ozone depletion earlier was shown to harm
  one-celled antarctic marine plants; in 2002, significant areas of
  ice shelves disintegrated in response to regional warming

Geography - note:
  the coldest, windiest, highest (on average), and driest continent;
  during summer, more solar radiation reaches the surface at the South
  Pole than is received at the Equator in an equivalent period; mostly
  uninhabitable

People Antarctica

Population:
  no indigenous inhabitants, but there are both permanent and
  summer-only staffed research stations
  note: 26 nations, all signatory to the Antarctic Treaty, operate
  seasonal (summer) and year-round research stations on the continent
  and in its surrounding oceans; the population of persons doing and
  supporting science on the continent and its nearby islands south of
  60 degrees south latitude (the region covered by the Antarctic
  Treaty) varies from approximately 4,000 in summer to 1,000 in
  winter; in addition, approximately 1,000 personnel including ship's
  crew and scientists doing onboard research are present in the waters
  of the treaty region; summer (January) population - 3,687 total;
  Argentina 302, Australia 201, Belgium 13, Brazil 80, Bulgaria 16,
  Chile 352, China 70, Finland 11, France 100, Germany 51, India 60,
  Italy 106, Japan 136, South Korea 14, Netherlands 10, NZ 60, Norway
  40, Peru 28, Poland 70, Russia 254, South Africa 80, Spain 43,
  Sweden 20, UK 192, US 1,378 (1998-99); winter (July) population -
  964 total; Argentina 165, Australia 75, Brazil 12, Chile 129, China
  33, France 33, Germany 9, India 25, Japan 40, South Korea 14, NZ 10,
  Poland 20, Russia 102, South Africa 10, UK 39, US 248 (1998-99);
  research stations operated within the Antarctic Treaty area (south
  of 60 degrees south) by members of the Council of Managers of
  National Antarctic Programs (COMNAP): year-round stations - 37
  total; Argentina 6, Australia 3, Brazil 1, Chile 4, China 2, France
  1, Germany 1, India 1, Japan 1, South Korea 1, NZ 1, Poland 1,
  Russia 6, South Africa 1, Ukraine 1, UK 2, US 3, Uruguay 1 (2004);
  summer-only stations - 36 total; Argentina 8, Australia 2, Bulgaria
  1, Chile 5, Ecuador 1, Finland 1, Germany 1, India 1, Italy 1, Japan
  3, Norway 2, Peru 1, Russia 2, South Africa 1, Spain 2, Sweden 2, UK
  1, Italy and France jointly 1 (2003-2004); in addition, during the
  austral summer some nations have numerous occupied locations such as
  tent camps, summer-long temporary facilities, and mobile traverses
  in support of research

Government Antarctica

Country name: conventional long form: none conventional short form: Antarctica

Government type: Antarctic Treaty Summary - the Antarctic Treaty, signed on 1 December 1959 and entered into force on 23 June 1961, establishes the legal framework for the management of Antarctica; the 26th Antarctic Treaty Consultative Meeting was held in Madrid, Spain in June 2003; at these periodic meetings, decisions are made by consensus (not by vote) of all consultative member nations; at the end of 2003, there were 45 treaty member nations: 27 consultative and 18 non-consultative; consultative (decision-making) members include the seven nations that claim portions of Antarctica as national territory (some claims overlap) and 20 non-claimant nations; the US and Russia have reserved the right to make claims; the US does not recognize the claims of others; Antarctica is administered through meetings of the consultative member nations; decisions from these meetings are carried out by these member nations (with respect to their own nationals and operations) in accordance with their own national laws; the year in parentheses indicates when an acceding nation was accepted as a consultative member, while no date indicates the country was an original 1959 treaty signatory; claimant nations are - Argentina, Australia, Chile, France, New Zealand, Norway, and the UK. Nonclaimant consultative nations are - Belgium, Brazil (1983), Bulgaria (1998) China (1985), Ecuador (1990), Finland (1989), Germany (1981), India (1983), Italy (1987), Japan, South Korea (1989), Netherlands (1990), Peru (1989), Poland (1977), Russia, South Africa, Spain (1988), Sweden (1988), Uruguay (1985), and the US; non-consultative members, with year of accession in parentheses, are - Austria (1987), Canada (1988), Colombia (1989), Cuba (1984), Czech Republic (1993), Denmark (1965), Estonia (2001), Greece (1987), Guatemala (1991), Hungary (1984), North Korea (1987), Papua New Guinea (1981), Romania (1971), Slovakia (1993), Switzerland (1990), Turkey (1995), Ukraine (1992), and Venezuela (1999); Article 1 - area to be used for peaceful purposes only; military activity, such as weapons testing, is prohibited, but military personnel and equipment may be used for scientific research or any other peaceful purpose; Article 2 - freedom of scientific investigation and cooperation shall continue; Article 3 - free exchange of information and personnel, cooperation with the UN and other international agencies; Article 4 - does not recognize, dispute, or establish territorial claims and no new claims shall be asserted while the treaty is in force; Article 5 - prohibits nuclear explosions or disposal of radioactive wastes; Article 6 - includes under the treaty all land and ice shelves south of 60 degrees 00 minutes south and reserves high seas rights; Article 7 - treaty-state observers have free access, including aerial observation, to any area and may inspect all stations, installations, and equipment; advance notice of all expeditions and of the introduction of military personnel must be given; Article 8 - allows for jurisdiction over observers and scientists by their own states; Article 9 - frequent consultative meetings take place among member nations; Article 10 - treaty states will discourage activities by any country in Antarctica that are contrary to the treaty; Article 11 - disputes to be settled peacefully by the parties concerned or, ultimately, by the ICJ; Articles 12, 13, 14 - deal with upholding, interpreting, and amending the treaty among involved nations; other agreements - some 200 recommendations adopted at treaty consultative meetings and ratified by governments include - Agreed Measures for Fauna and Flora (1964) which were later incorporated into the Environmental Protocol; Convention for the Conservation of Antarctic Seals (1972); Convention on the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources (1980); a mineral resources agreement was signed in 1988 but remains unratified; the Protocol on Environmental Protection to the Antarctic Treaty was signed 4 October 1991 and entered into force 14 January 1998; this agreement provides for the protection of the Antarctic environment through five specific annexes: 1) environmental impact assessment, 2) conservation of Antarctic fauna and flora, 3) waste disposal and waste management, 4) prevention of marine pollution, and 5) area protection and management; it prohibits all activities relating to mineral resources except scientific research

Legal system:
  Antarctica is administered through meetings of the consultative
  member nations; decisions from these meetings are carried out by
  these member nations (with respect to their own nationals and
  operations) in accordance with their own national laws; US law,
  including certain criminal offenses by or against US nationals, such
  as murder, may apply extra-territorially; some US laws directly
  apply to Antarctica; for example, the Antarctic Conservation Act, 16
  U.S.C. section 2401 et seq., provides civil and criminal penalties
  for the following activities, unless authorized by regulation of
  statute: the taking of native mammals or birds; the introduction of
  nonindigenous plants and animals; entry into specially protected
  areas; the discharge or disposal of pollutants; and the importation
  into the US of certain items from Antarctica; violation of the
  Antarctic Conservation Act carries penalties of up to $10,000 in
  fines and one year in prison; the National Science Foundation and
  Department of Justice share enforcement responsibilities; Public Law
  95-541, the US Antarctic Conservation Act of 1978, as amended in
  1996, requires expeditions from the US to Antarctica to notify, in
  advance, the Office of Oceans, Room 5805, Department of State,
  Washington, DC 20520, which reports such plans to other nations as
  required by the Antarctic Treaty; for more information, contact
  Permit Office, Office of Polar Programs, National Science
  Foundation, Arlington, Virginia 22230; telephone: (703) 292-8030, or
  visit their website at www.nsf.gov

Economy Antarctica

Economy - overview:
  Fishing off the coast and tourism, both based abroad, account for
  the limited economic activity. Antarctic fisheries in 2000-01 (1
  July-30 June) reported landing 112,934 metric tons. Unregulated
  fishing, particularly of Patagonian toothfish, is a serious problem.
  The Convention on the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living
  Resources determines the recommended catch limits for marine
  species. A total of 13,571 tourists visited in the 2002-03 antarctic
  summer, up from the 11,588 who visited the previous year. Nearly all
  of them were passengers on commercial (nongovernmental) ships and
  several yachts that make trips during the summer. Most tourist trips
  last approximately two weeks.

Communications Antarctica

Telephones - main lines in use:
  0
  note: information for US bases only (2001)

Telephones - mobile cellular:
  NA

Telephone system:
  general assessment: local systems at some research stations
  domestic: NA
  international: country code - 672; via satellite (mobile Inmarsat
  and Iridium system) from some research stations

Radio broadcast stations:
  AM NA, FM 2, shortwave 1
  note: information for US bases only (2002)

Radios:
  NA

Television broadcast stations:
  1 (cable system with six channels; American Forces Antarctic
  Network-McMurdo)
  note: information for US bases only (2002)

Televisions:
  several hundred at McMurdo Station (US)
  note: information for US bases only (2001)

Internet country code:
  .aq

Internet Service Providers (ISPs):
  NA

Transportation Antarctica

Ports and harbors:
  there are no developed ports and harbors in Antarctica; most
  coastal stations have offshore anchorages, and supplies are
  transferred from ship to shore by small boats, barges, and
  helicopters; a few stations have a basic wharf facility; US coastal
  stations include McMurdo (77 51 S, 166 40 E), Palmer (64 43 S, 64 03
  W); government use only except by permit (see Permit Office under
  "Legal System"); all ships at port are subject to inspection in
  accordance with Article 7, Antarctic Treaty; offshore anchorage is
  sparse and intermittent

Airports:
  there are no developed public access airports or landing
  facilities; 30 stations, operated by 16 national governments party
  to the Antarctic Treaty, have restricted aircraft landing facilities
  for either helicopters and/or fixed-wing aircraft; commercial
  enterprises operate two additional aircraft landing facilities;
  helicopter pads are available at 27 stations; runways at 15
  locations are gravel, sea-ice, blue-ice, or compacted snow suitable
  for landing wheeled, fixed-wing aircraft; of these, 1 is greater
  than 3 km in length, 6 are between 2 km and 3 km in length, 3 are
  between 1 km and 2 km in length, 3 are less than 1 km in length, and
  2 are of unknown length; snow surface skiways, limited to use by
  ski-equipped, fixed-wing aircraft, are available at another 15
  locations; of these, 4 are greater than 3 km in length, 3 are
  between 2 km and 3 km in length, 2 are between 1 km and 2 km in
  length, 2 are less than 1 km in length, and 4 are of unknown length;
  aircraft landing facilities generally subject to severe restrictions
  and limitations resulting from extreme seasonal and geographic
  conditions; aircraft landing facilities do not meet ICAO standards;
  advance approval from the respective governmental or nongovernmental
  operating organization required for landing; landed aircraft are
  subject to inspection in accordance with Article 7, Antarctic Treaty
  (2003 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways: total: 20 over 3,047 m: 6 2,438 to 3,047 m: 3 914 to 1,523 m: 4 under 914 m: 6 (2004 est.) 1,524 to 2,437 m: 1

Heliports:
  27 stations have restricted helicopter landing facilities
  (helipads) (2003 est.)

Military Antarctica

Military - note:
  the Antarctic Treaty prohibits any measures of a military nature,
  such as the establishment of military bases and fortifications, the
  carrying out of military maneuvers, or the testing of any type of
  weapon; it permits the use of military personnel or equipment for
  scientific research or for any other peaceful purposes

Transnational Issues Antarctica

Disputes - international:
  Antarctic Treaty freezes claims (see Antarctic Treaty Summary in
  Government type entry); sections (some overlapping) claimed by
  Argentina, Australia, Chile, France, NZ, Norway, and UK; the US and
  most other states do not recognize the territorial claims of other
  states and have made no claims themselves (the US and Russia reserve
  the right to do so); no claims have been made in the sector between
  90 degrees west and 150 degrees west; several states with land
  claims in Antarctica have expressed their intention to submit data
  to the UN Commission on the Limits of the Continental Shelf to
  extend their continental shelf claims to adjoining undersea ridges

This page was last updated on 10 February, 2005

======================================================================

@Antigua and Barbuda

Introduction Antigua and Barbuda

Background:
  The Siboney were the first to inhabit the islands of Antigua and
  Barbuda in 2400 B.C., but Arawak and Carib Indians populated the
  islands when Columbus landed on his second voyage in 1493. Early
  settlements by the Spanish and French were succeeded by the English
  who formed a colony in 1667. Slavery, established to run the sugar
  plantations on Antigua, was abolished in 1834. The islands became an
  independent state within the British Commonwealth of Nations in 1981.

Geography Antigua and Barbuda

Location:
  Caribbean, islands between the Caribbean Sea and the North Atlantic
  Ocean, east-southeast of Puerto Rico

Geographic coordinates:
  17 03 N, 61 48 W

Map references:
  Central America and the Caribbean

Area:
  total: 443 sq km (Antigua 280 sq km; Barbuda 161 sq km)
  water: 0 sq km
  note: includes Redonda, 1.6 sq km
  land: 443 sq km

Area - comparative:
  2.5 times the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries:
  0 km

Coastline:
  153 km

Maritime claims:
  territorial sea: 12 nm
  continental shelf: 200 nm or to the edge of the continental margin
  exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
  contiguous zone: 24 nm

Climate:
  tropical; little seasonal temperature variation

Terrain:
  mostly low-lying limestone and coral islands, with some higher
  volcanic areas

Elevation extremes:
  lowest point: Caribbean Sea 0 m
  highest point: Boggy Peak 402 m

Natural resources:
  NEGL; pleasant climate fosters tourism

Land use:
  arable land: 18.18%
  permanent crops: 4.55%
  other: 77.27% (2001)

Irrigated land:
  NA sq km

Natural hazards:
  hurricanes and tropical storms (July to October); periodic droughts

Environment - current issues: water management - a major concern because of limited natural fresh water resources - is further hampered by the clearing of trees to increase crop production, causing rainfall to run off quickly

Environment - international agreements: party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Whaling signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - note:
  Antigua has a deeply indented shoreline with many natural harbors
  and beaches; Barbuda has a very large western harbor

People Antigua and Barbuda

Population:
  68,320 (July 2004 est.)

Age structure:
  0-14 years: 28.1% (male 9,761; female 9,429)
  15-64 years: 67.6% (male 23,179; female 23,023)
  65 years and over: 4.3% (male 1,151; female 1,777) (2004 est.)

Median age:
  total: 29.4 years
  male: 28.9 years
  female: 29.9 years (2004 est.)

Population growth rate:
  0.6% (2004 est.)

Birth rate:
  17.7 births/1,000 population (2004 est.)

Death rate:
  5.55 deaths/1,000 population (2004 est.)

Net migration rate:
  -6.15 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2004 est.)

Sex ratio:
  at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
  under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
  15-64 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
  65 years and over: 0.65 male(s)/female
  total population: 1 male(s)/female (2004 est.)

Infant mortality rate:
  total: 20.18 deaths/1,000 live births
  female: 15.87 deaths/1,000 live births (2004 est.)
  male: 24.29 deaths/1,000 live births

Life expectancy at birth:
  total population: 71.6 years
  male: 69.26 years
  female: 74.07 years (2004 est.)

Total fertility rate:
  2.27 children born/woman (2004 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
  NA

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
  NA

HIV/AIDS - deaths:
  NA

Nationality: noun: Antiguan(s), Barbudan(s) adjective: Antiguan, Barbudan

Ethnic groups:
  black, British, Portuguese, Lebanese, Syrian

Religions:
  Christian, (predominantly Anglican with other Protestant, and some
  Roman Catholic)

Languages:
  English (official), local dialects

Literacy:
  definition: age 15 and over has completed five or more years of
  schooling
  total population: 89%
  male: 90%
  female: 88% (1960 est.)

Government Antigua and Barbuda

Country name: conventional long form: none conventional short form: Antigua and Barbuda

Government type:
  constitutional monarchy with UK-style parliament

Capital:
  Saint John's (Antigua)

Administrative divisions:
  6 parishes and 2 dependencies*; Barbuda*, Redonda*, Saint George,
  Saint John, Saint Mary, Saint Paul, Saint Peter, Saint Philip

Independence:
  1 November 1981 (from UK)

National holiday:
  Independence Day (National Day), 1 November (1981)

Constitution:
  1 November 1981

Legal system:
  based on English common law

Suffrage:
  18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
  chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952),
  represented by Governor General James B. CARLISLE (since 10 June
  1993)
  elections: none; the monarch is hereditary; governor general chosen
  by the monarch on the advice of the prime minister; following
  legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or the
  leader of the majority coalition is usually appointed prime minister
  by the governor general
  cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the governor general on
  the advice of the prime minister
  head of government: Prime Minister Baldwin SPENCER (since 24 March
  2004)

Legislative branch:
  bicameral Parliament consists of the Senate (17-member body
  appointed by the governor general) and the House of Representatives
  (17 seats; members are elected by proportional representation to
  serve five-year terms)
  election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party -
  ALP 4, UPP 12, contested 1; note - new election will decide the
  contested seat
  elections: House of Representatives - last held 23 March 2004 (next
  to be held NA 2009)

Judicial branch:
  Eastern Caribbean Supreme Court (based in Saint Lucia; one judge of
  the Supreme Court is a resident of the islands and presides over the
  Court of Summary Jurisdiction)

Political parties and leaders:
  Antigua Labor Party or ALP [Lester Bryant BIRD]; Barbuda People's
  Movement or BPM [Thomas H. FRANK]; United Progressive Party or UPP
  [Baldwin SPENCER] (a coalition of three opposition parties - United
  National Democratic Party or UNDP, Antigua Caribbean Liberation
  Movement or ACLM, and Progressive Labor Movement or PLM)

Political pressure groups and leaders:
  Antigua Trades and Labor Union or ATLU [William ROBINSON]; People's
  Democratic Movement or PDM [Hugh MARSHALL]

International organization participation:
  ACP, C, Caricom, CDB, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt, ICFTU, ICRM,
  IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, ISO (subscriber),
  ITU, OAS, OECS, OPANAL, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO,
  WIPO, WMO, WTO

Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Lionel A. HURST chancery: 3216 New Mexico Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20016 telephone: [1] (202) 362-5122 FAX: [1] (202) 362-5225 consulate(s) general: Miami

Diplomatic representation from the US: the US does not have an embassy in Antigua and Barbuda (embassy closed 30 June 1994); the US Ambassador to Barbados, Ambassador Mary E. KRAMER, is accredited to Antigua and Barbuda

Flag description:
  red, with an inverted isosceles triangle based on the top edge of
  the flag; the triangle contains three horizontal bands of black
  (top), light blue, and white, with a yellow rising sun in the black
  band

Economy Antigua and Barbuda

Economy - overview:
  Tourism continues to dominate the economy, accounting for more than
  half of GDP. Weak tourist arrival numbers since early 2000 have
  slowed the economy, however, and pressed the government into a tight
  fiscal corner. The dual-island nation's agricultural production is
  focused on the domestic market and constrained by a limited water
  supply and a labor shortage stemming from the lure of higher wages
  in tourism and construction. Manufacturing comprises enclave-type
  assembly for export with major products being bedding, handicrafts,
  and electronic components. Prospects for economic growth in the
  medium term will continue to depend on income growth in the
  industrialized world, especially in the US, which accounts for
  slightly more than one-third of tourist arrivals.

GDP:
  purchasing power parity - $750 million (2002 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:
  3% (2002 est.)

GDP - per capita:
  purchasing power parity - $11,000 (2002 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
  agriculture: 3.9%
  industry: 19.2%
  services: 76.8% (2002)

Population below poverty line:
  NA

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
  lowest 10%: NA
  highest 10%: NA

Inflation rate (consumer prices):
  0.4% (2000 est.)

Labor force:
  30,000

Labor force - by occupation:
  agriculture 7%, industry 11%, services 82% (1983)

Unemployment rate:
  11% (2001 est.)

Budget:
  revenues: $123.7 million
  expenditures: $145.9 million, including capital expenditures of NA
  (2000 est.)

Agriculture - products:
  cotton, fruits, vegetables, bananas, coconuts, cucumbers, mangoes,
  sugarcane; livestock

Industries:
  tourism, construction, light manufacturing (clothing, alcohol,
  household appliances)

Industrial production growth rate:
  6% (1997 est.)

Electricity - production:
  105.3 million kWh (2001)

Electricity - consumption:
  97.89 million kWh (2001)

Electricity - exports:
  0 kWh (2001)

Electricity - imports:
  0 kWh (2001)

Oil - production:
  0 bbl/day (2001 est.)

Oil - consumption:
  3,600 bbl/day (2001 est.)

Oil - exports:
  NA (2001)

Oil - imports:
  NA (2001)

Exports:
  $689 million (2002)

Exports - commodities:
  petroleum products 48%, manufactures 23%, machinery and transport
  equipment 17%, food and live animals 4%, other 8%

Exports - partners:
  Germany 84.9%, UK 3.8%, US 3.3% (2003)

Imports:
  $692 million (2002 est.)

Imports - commodities:
  food and live animals, machinery and transport equipment,
  manufactures, chemicals, oil

Imports - partners:
  US 26.5%, Singapore 10%, Poland 7%, Germany 6.1%, UK 6.1%, Trinidad
  and Tobago 4.4% (2003)

Debt - external:
  $231 million (1999)

Economic aid - recipient:
  $2.3 million (1995)

Currency:
  East Caribbean dollar (XCD)

Currency code:
  XCD

Exchange rates:
  East Caribbean dollars per US dollar - 2.7 (2003), 2.7 (2002), 2.7
  (2001), 2.7 (2000), 2.7 (1999), 2.7 (1998) (fixed rate since 1976)

Fiscal year:
  1 April - 31 March

Communications Antigua and Barbuda

Telephones - main lines in use:
  38,000 (2002)

Telephones - mobile cellular:
  38,200 (2002)

Telephone system:
  general assessment: NA
  domestic: good automatic telephone system
  international: country code - 1-268; 1 coaxial submarine cable;
  satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean); tropospheric
  scatter to Saba (Netherlands Antilles) and Guadeloupe

Radio broadcast stations:
  AM 4, FM 2, shortwave 0 (1998)

Radios:
  36,000 (1997)

Television broadcast stations:
  2 (1997)

Televisions:
  31,000 (1997)

Internet country code:
  .ag

Internet hosts:
  1,665 (2003)

Internet Service Providers (ISPs):
  16 (2000)

Internet users:
  10,000 (2002)

Transportation Antigua and Barbuda

Highways:
  total: 250 km (1999 est.)

Ports and harbors:
  Saint John's

Merchant marine:
  total: 867 ships (1,000 GRT or over) 5,873,626 GRT/7,683,143 DWT
  by type: bulk 25, cargo 477, chemical tanker 13, container 284,
  liquefied gas 10, multi-functional large load carrier 15,
  refrigerated cargo 10, roll on/roll off 32, vehicle carrier 1
  registered in other countries: 2 (2004 est.)
  foreign-owned: Australia 1, Bahamas 1, Bangladesh 2, Belgium 3,
  Colombia 1, Cuba 1, Cyprus 1, Estonia 3, France 1, Germany 818,
  Greece 2, Iceland 5, Latvia 1, Lebanon 1, Lithuania 2, Malaysia 1,
  Netherlands 19, New Zealand 1, Norway 2, Portugal 1, Slovenia 5,
  Sweden 2, Switzerland 5, Turkey 3, United States 10

Airports:
  3 (2003 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
  total: 2
  2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
  under 914 m: 1 (2004 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
  total: 1
  under 914 m: 1 (2004 est.)

Military Antigua and Barbuda

Military branches:
  Royal Antigua and Barbuda Defense Force (including Coast Guard)

Military manpower - military age and obligation:
  18 years of age (est.); no conscription (2001)

Military expenditures - dollar figure:
  NA

Military expenditures - percent of GDP:
  NA

Transnational Issues Antigua and Barbuda

Disputes - international:
  none

Illicit drugs:
  considered a minor transshipment point for narcotics bound for the
  US and Europe; more significant as an offshore financial center

This page was last updated on 10 February, 2005

======================================================================

@Arctic Ocean

Introduction Arctic Ocean

Background:
  The Arctic Ocean is the smallest of the world's five oceans (after
  the Pacific Ocean, Atlantic Ocean, Indian Ocean, and the recently
  delimited Southern Ocean). The Northwest Passage (US and Canada) and
  Northern Sea Route (Norway and Russia) are two important seasonal
  waterways. A sparse network of air, ocean, river, and land routes
  circumscribes the Arctic Ocean.

Geography Arctic Ocean

Location:
  body of water between Europe, Asia, and North America, mostly north
  of the Arctic Circle

Geographic coordinates:
  90 00 N, 0 00 E

Map references:
  Arctic Region

Area:
  total: 14.056 million sq km
  note: includes Baffin Bay, Barents Sea, Beaufort Sea, Chukchi Sea,
  East Siberian Sea, Greenland Sea, Hudson Bay, Hudson Strait, Kara
  Sea, Laptev Sea, Northwest Passage, and other tributary water bodies

Area - comparative:
  slightly less than 1.5 times the size of the US

Coastline:
  45,389 km

Climate:
  polar climate characterized by persistent cold and relatively
  narrow annual temperature ranges; winters characterized by
  continuous darkness, cold and stable weather conditions, and clear
  skies; summers characterized by continuous daylight, damp and foggy
  weather, and weak cyclones with rain or snow

Terrain:
  central surface covered by a perennial drifting polar icepack that
  averages about 3 meters in thickness, although pressure ridges may
  be three times that size; clockwise drift pattern in the Beaufort
  Gyral Stream, but nearly straight-line movement from the New
  Siberian Islands (Russia) to Denmark Strait (between Greenland and
  Iceland); the icepack is surrounded by open seas during the summer,
  but more than doubles in size during the winter and extends to the
  encircling landmasses; the ocean floor is about 50% continental
  shelf (highest percentage of any ocean) with the remainder a central
  basin interrupted by three submarine ridges (Alpha Cordillera,
  Nansen Cordillera, and Lomonosov Ridge)

Elevation extremes:
  lowest point: Fram Basin -4,665 m
  highest point: sea level 0 m

Natural resources:
  sand and gravel aggregates, placer deposits, polymetallic nodules,
  oil and gas fields, fish, marine mammals (seals and whales)

Natural hazards:
  ice islands occasionally break away from northern Ellesmere Island;
  icebergs calved from glaciers in western Greenland and extreme
  northeastern Canada; permafrost in islands; virtually ice locked
  from October to June; ships subject to superstructure icing from
  October to May

Environment - current issues:
  endangered marine species include walruses and whales; fragile
  ecosystem slow to change and slow to recover from disruptions or
  damage; thinning polar icepack

Geography - note:
  major chokepoint is the southern Chukchi Sea (northern access to
  the Pacific Ocean via the Bering Strait); strategic location between
  North America and Russia; shortest marine link between the extremes
  of eastern and western Russia; floating research stations operated
  by the US and Russia; maximum snow cover in March or April about 20
  to 50 centimeters over the frozen ocean; snow cover lasts about 10
  months

Economy Arctic Ocean

Economy - overview:
  Economic activity is limited to the exploitation of natural
  resources, including petroleum, natural gas, fish, and seals.

Transportation Arctic Ocean

Ports and harbors:
  Churchill (Canada), Murmansk (Russia), Prudhoe Bay (US)

Transportation - note:
  sparse network of air, ocean, river, and land routes; the Northwest
  Passage (North America) and Northern Sea Route (Eurasia) are
  important seasonal waterways

Transnational Issues Arctic Ocean

Disputes - international: some maritime disputes (see littoral states)

This page was last updated on 10 February, 2005

======================================================================

@Argentina

Introduction Argentina

Background:
  Following independence from Spain in 1816, Argentina experienced
  periods of internal political conflict between conservatives and
  liberals and between civilian and military factions. After World War
  II, a long period of Peronist authoritarian rule and interference in
  subsequent governments was followed by a military junta that took
  power in 1976. Democracy returned in 1983, and numerous elections
  since then have underscored Argentina's progress in democratic
  consolidation.

Geography Argentina

Location:
  Southern South America, bordering the South Atlantic Ocean, between
  Chile and Uruguay

Geographic coordinates:
  34 00 S, 64 00 W

Map references:
  South America

Area:
  total: 2,766,890 sq km
  land: 2,736,690 sq km
  water: 30,200 sq km

Area - comparative:
  slightly less than three-tenths the size of the US

Land boundaries:
  total: 9,665 km
  border countries: Bolivia 832 km, Brazil 1,224 km, Chile 5,150 km,
  Paraguay 1,880 km, Uruguay 579 km

Coastline:
  4,989 km

Maritime claims:
  territorial sea: 12 nm
  continental shelf: 200 nm or to the edge of the continental margin
  exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
  contiguous zone: 24 nm

Climate:
  mostly temperate; arid in southeast; subantarctic in southwest

Terrain:
  rich plains of the Pampas in northern half, flat to rolling plateau
  of Patagonia in south, rugged Andes along western border

Elevation extremes:
  lowest point: Laguna del Carbon -105 m (located between Puerto San
  Julian and Comandante Luis Piedra Buena in the province of Santa
  Cruz)
  highest point: Cerro Aconcagua 6,960 m (located in the northwestern
  corner of the province of Mendoza)

Natural resources:
  fertile plains of the pampas, lead, zinc, tin, copper, iron ore,
  manganese, petroleum, uranium

Land use: arable land: 12.31% permanent crops: 0.48% other: 87.21% (2001)

Irrigated land:
  15,610 sq km (1998 est.)

Natural hazards:
  San Miguel de Tucuman and Mendoza areas in the Andes subject to
  earthquakes; pamperos are violent windstorms that can strike the
  pampas and northeast; heavy flooding

Environment - current issues: environmental problems (urban and rural) typical of an industrializing economy such as deforestation, soil degradation, desertification, air pollution, and water pollution note: Argentina is a world leader in setting voluntary greenhouse gas targets

Environment - international agreements:
  party to: Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living
  Resources, Antarctic Seals, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate
  Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered
  Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the
  Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution,
  Wetlands, Whaling
  signed, but not ratified: Marine Life Conservation

Geography - note:
  second-largest country in South America (after Brazil); strategic
  location relative to sea lanes between the South Atlantic and the
  South Pacific Oceans (Strait of Magellan, Beagle Channel, Drake
  Passage); Cerro Aconcagua is South America's tallest mountain, while
  Laguna del Carbon is the lowest point in the Western Hemisphere

People Argentina

Population:
  39,144,753 (July 2004 est.)

Age structure:
  0-14 years: 25.9% (male 5,179,236; female 4,947,234)
  15-64 years: 63.6% (male 12,452,566; female 12,457,451)
  65 years and over: 10.5% (male 1,685,371; female 2,422,895) (2004
  est.)

Median age: total: 29.2 years male: 28.3 years female: 30.1 years (2004 est.)

Population growth rate:
  1.02% (2004 est.)

Birth rate:
  17.19 births/1,000 population (2004 est.)

Death rate:
  7.57 deaths/1,000 population (2004 est.)

Net migration rate:
  0.61 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2004 est.)

Sex ratio:
  at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
  under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
  15-64 years: 1 male(s)/female
  65 years and over: 0.7 male(s)/female
  total population: 0.97 male(s)/female (2004 est.)

Infant mortality rate:
  total: 15.66 deaths/1,000 live births
  female: 13.63 deaths/1,000 live births (2004 est.)
  male: 17.6 deaths/1,000 live births

Life expectancy at birth:
  total population: 75.7 years
  male: 71.95 years
  female: 79.65 years (2004 est.)

Total fertility rate:
  2.24 children born/woman (2004 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
  0.7% (2001 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
  130,000 (2001 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths:
  1,500 (2001 est.)

Nationality:
  noun: Argentine(s)
  adjective: Argentine

Ethnic groups:
  white (mostly Spanish and Italian) 97%, mestizo, Amerindian, or
  other nonwhite groups 3%

Religions:
  nominally Roman Catholic 92% (less than 20% practicing), Protestant
  2%, Jewish 2%, other 4%

Languages:
  Spanish (official), English, Italian, German, French

Literacy:
  definition: age 15 and over can read and write
  total population: 97.1%
  male: 97.1%
  female: 97.1% (2003 est.)

Government Argentina

Country name:
  conventional long form: Argentine Republic
  conventional short form: Argentina
  local short form: Argentina
  local long form: Republica Argentina

Government type:
  republic

Capital:
  Buenos Aires

Administrative divisions:
  23 provinces (provincias, singular - provincia), and 1 autonomous
  city* (distrito federal); Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires Capital
  Federal*, Catamarca, Chaco, Chubut, Cordoba, Corrientes, Entre Rios,
  Formosa, Jujuy, La Pampa, La Rioja, Mendoza, Misiones, Neuquen, Rio
  Negro, Salta, San Juan, San Luis, Santa Cruz, Santa Fe, Santiago del
  Estero, Tierra del Fuego - Antartida e Islas del Atlantico Sur,
  Tucuman
  note: the US does not recognize any claims to Antarctica

Independence:
  9 July 1816 (from Spain)

National holiday:
  Revolution Day, 25 May (1810)

Constitution:
  1 May 1853; revised August 1994

Legal system:
  mixture of US and West European legal systems; has not accepted
  compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage:
  18 years of age; universal and compulsory

Executive branch:
  chief of state: President Nestor KIRCHNER (since 25 May 2003); Vice
  President Daniel SCIOLI (since 25 May 2003); note - the president is
  both the chief of state and head of government
  head of government: President Nestor KIRCHNER (since 25 May 2003);
  Vice President Daniel SCIOLI (since 25 May 2003); note - the
  president is both the chief of state and head of government
  cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president
  election results: results of the presidential primary of 27 April
  2003: Carlos Saul MENEM 24.3%, Nestor KIRCHNER 22%, Ricardo Lopez
  MURPHY 16.4%, Adolfo Rodriguez SAA 14.4%, Elisa CARRIO 14.2%, other
  8.7%; the subsequent runoff election slated for 25 May 2003 was
  awarded to KIRCHNER by default after MENEM withdrew his candidacy on
  the eve of the election
  elections: president and vice president elected on the same ticket
  by popular vote for four-year terms; the last election held was the
  presidential primary election of 27 April 2003 (next election to be
  held NA 2007)

Legislative branch:
  bicameral National Congress or Congreso Nacional consists of the
  Senate (72 seats; members are elected by direct vote; presently
  one-third of the members elected every two years to a six-year term)
  and the Chamber of Deputies (257 seats; members are elected by
  direct vote; one-half of the members elected every two years to a
  four-year term)
  election results: Senate - percent of vote by bloc or party - NA;
  seats by bloc or party - PJ 41, UCR 16, provincial parties 15;
  Chamber of Deputies - percent of vote by bloc or party - NA; seats
  by bloc or party - PJ 133, UCR 46, IF 23, ARI 11, Socialist 6,
  other/provincial parties 38
  elections: Senate - last held intermittently by province during the
  2nd half of 2003 (next to be held NA 2005); Chamber of Deputies -
  last held intermittently by province during the 2nd half of 2003
  (next to be held NA 2005)

Judicial branch:
  Supreme Court or Corte Suprema (the nine Supreme Court judges are
  appointed by the president with approval by the Senate)

Political parties and leaders:
  Action for the Republic or AR [Domingo CAVALLO]; Alternative for a
  Republic of Equals or ARI [Elisa CARRIO]; Front for a Country in
  Solidarity or Frepaso (a four-party coalition) [Dario Pedro
  ALESSANDRO]; Interbloque Federal or IF (a broad coalition of
  approximately 12 parties including RECREAR) [leader NA];
  Justicialist Party or PJ [leader NA] (Peronist umbrella political
  organization); Radical Civic Union or UCR [Angel ROZAS]; Federal
  Recreate Movement or RECREAR [Ricardo LOPEZ MURPHY]; Socialist Party
  or PS [Ruben GIUSTINIANI]; Union For All [Patricia BULLRICH];
  several provincial parties

Political pressure groups and leaders:
  Argentine Association of Pharmaceutical Labs (CILFA); Argentine
  Industrial Union (manufacturers' association); Argentine Rural
  Society (large landowners' association); business organizations;
  General Confederation of Labor or CGT (Peronist-leaning umbrella
  labor organization); Central of Argentine Workers or CTA (a radical
  union for employed and unemployed workers); Peronist-dominated labor
  movement; Roman Catholic Church; students

International organization participation:
  AfDB, Australia Group, BCIE, BIS, FAO, G-6, G-15, G-24, G-77, IADB,
  IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICCt, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS,
  IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, LAES, LAIA,
  Mercosur, MIGA, MINURSO, MINUSTAH, NSG, OAS, OPANAL, OPCW, PCA, RG,
  UN, UN Security Council (temporary), UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNFICYP, UNHCR,
  UNIDO, UNMIK, UNMOVIC, UNTSO, UPU, WCL, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO,
  WToO, WTO, ZC

Diplomatic representation in the US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador Jose Octavio BORDON
  chancery: 1600 New Hampshire Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20009
  consulate(s) general: Atlanta, Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, Miami,
  New York
  FAX: [1] (202) 332-3171
  telephone: [1] (202) 238-6400

Diplomatic representation from the US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador Lino GUTIERREZ
  embassy: Avenida Colombia 4300, C1425GMN Buenos Aires
  mailing address: international mail: use street address; APO
  address: Unit 4334, APO AA 34034
  telephone: [54] (11) 5777-4533
  FAX: [54] (11) 5777-4240

Flag description:
  three equal horizontal bands of light blue (top), white, and light
  blue; centered in the white band is a radiant yellow sun with a
  human face known as the Sun of May

Economy Argentina

Economy - overview:
  Argentina benefits from rich natural resources, a highly literate
  population, an export-oriented agricultural sector, and a
  diversified industrial base. Over the past decade, however, the
  country has suffered recurring economic problems of inflation,
  external debt, capital flight, and budget deficits. Growth in 2000
  was a negative 0.8%, as both domestic and foreign investors remained
  skeptical of the government's ability to pay debts and maintain the
  peso's fixed exchange rate with the US dollar. The economic
  situation worsened in 2001 with the widening of spreads on Argentine
  bonds, massive withdrawals from the banks, and a further decline in
  consumer and investor confidence. Government efforts to achieve a
  "zero deficit," to stabilize the banking system, and to restore
  economic growth proved inadequate in the face of the mounting
  economic problems. The peso's peg to the dollar was abandoned in
  January 2002, and the peso was floated in February; the exchange
  rate plunged and inflation picked up rapidly, but by mid-2002 the
  economy had stabilized, albeit at a lower level. Strong demand for
  the peso compelled the Central Bank to intervene in foreign exchange
  markets to curb its appreciation in 2003. Led by record exports, the
  economy began to recover with output up 8% in 2003, unemployment
  falling, and inflation reduced to under 4% at year-end.

GDP:
  purchasing power parity - $435.5 billion (2003 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:
  8.7% (2003 est.)

GDP - per capita:
  purchasing power parity - $11,200 (2003 est.)

GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 11.1% industry: 34.8% services: 54.1% (2003 est.)

Investment (gross fixed):
  15.1% of GDP (2003)

Population below poverty line:
  51.7% (May 2003)

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
  lowest 10%: NA
  highest 10%: NA

Inflation rate (consumer prices):
  13.4% (2003)

Labor force:
  14.92 million (2003)

Labor force - by occupation:
  agriculture NA, industry NA, services NA

Unemployment rate:
  17.3% (2003)

Budget:
  revenues: $26.62 billion
  expenditures: $26 billion, including capital expenditures of NA
  (2003 est.)

Public debt:
  65.7% of GDP (2003 est.)

Agriculture - products:
  sunflower seeds, lemons, soybeans, grapes, corn, tobacco, peanuts,
  tea, wheat; livestock

Industries:
  food processing, motor vehicles, consumer durables, textiles,
  chemicals and petrochemicals, printing, metallurgy, steel

Industrial production growth rate:
  16.2% (2003 est.)

Electricity - production:
  97.17 billion kWh (2001)

Electricity - consumption:
  92.12 billion kWh (2001)

Electricity - exports:
  5.662 billion kWh (2001)

Electricity - imports:
  7.417 billion kWh (2001)

Oil - production:
  828,600 bbl/day (2001 est.)

Oil - consumption:
  486,000 bbl/day (2001 est.)

Oil - exports:
  NA (2001)

Oil - imports:
  NA (2001)

Oil - proved reserves:
  2.927 billion bbl (1 January 2002)

Natural gas - production:
  37.15 billion cu m (2001 est.)

Natural gas - consumption:
  31.1 billion cu m (2001 est.)

Natural gas - exports:
  6.05 billion cu m (2001 est.)

Natural gas - imports:
  0 cu m (2001 est.)

Natural gas - proved reserves:
  768 billion cu m (1 January 2002)

Current account balance:
  $7.855 billion (2003)

Exports:
  $29.57 billion f.o.b. (2003 est.)

Exports - commodities:
  edible oils, fuels and energy, cereals, feed, motor vehicles

Exports - partners:
  Brazil 15.8%, Chile 12%, US 10.6%, China 8.4%, Spain 4.7% (2003)

Imports:
  $13.27 billion f.o.b. (2003 est.)

Imports - commodities:
  machinery and equipment, motor vehicles, chemicals, metal
  manufactures, plastics

Imports - partners:
  Brazil 34%, US 16.4%, Germany 5.6%, China 5.2% (2003)

Reserves of foreign exchange & gold:
  $14.16 billion (2003)

Debt - external:
  $145.6 billion (2003 est.)

Economic aid - recipient:
  $10 billion (2001 est.)

Currency:
  Argentine peso (ARS)

Currency code:
  ARS

Exchange rates:
  Argentine pesos per US dollar - 2.9003 (2003), 3.0633 (2002),
  0.9995 (2001), 0.9995 (2000), 0.9995 (1999)

Fiscal year:
  calendar year

Communications Argentina

Telephones - main lines in use:
  8,009,400 (2002)

Telephones - mobile cellular:
  6.5 million (2002)

Telephone system:
  general assessment: by opening the telecommunications market to
  competition and foreign investment with the "Telecommunications
  Liberalization Plan of 1998," Argentina encouraged the growth of
  modern telecommunication technology; fiber-optic cable trunk lines
  are being installed between all major cities; the major networks are
  entirely digital and the availability of telephone service is being
  improved; however, telephone density is presently minimal, and
  making telephone service universally available will take time
  domestic: microwave radio relay, fiber-optic cable, and a domestic
  satellite system with 40 earth stations serve the trunk network;
  more than 110,000 pay telephones are installed and mobile telephone
  use is rapidly expanding
  international: country code - 54; satellite earth stations - 8
  Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean); Atlantis II and Unisur submarine cables;
  two international gateways near Buenos Aires (1999)

Radio broadcast stations:
  AM 260 (including 10 inactive stations), FM NA (probably more than
  1,000, mostly unlicensed), shortwave 6 (1998)

Radios:
  24.3 million (1997)

Television broadcast stations:
  42 (plus 444 repeaters) (1997)

Televisions:
  7.95 million (1997)

Internet country code:
  .ar

Internet hosts:
  742,358 (2003)

Internet Service Providers (ISPs):
  33 (2000)

Internet users:
  4.1 million (2002)

Transportation Argentina

Railways:
  total: 34,091 km (167 km electrified)
  broad gauge: 20,594 km 1.676-m gauge (141 km electrified)
  standard gauge: 2,885 km 1.435-m gauge (26 km electrified)
  narrow gauge: 10,375 km 1.000-m gauge; 237 km 0.750-m gauge (2003)

Highways:
  total: 215,471 km
  paved: 63,348 km (including 734 km of expressways)
  unpaved: 152,123 km (1999)

Waterways:
  11,000 km (2004)

Pipelines:
  gas 27,166 km; liquid petroleum gas 41 km; oil 3,668 km; refined
  products 2,945 km; unknown (oil/water) 13 km (2004)

Ports and harbors:
  Bahia Blanca, Buenos Aires, Comodoro Rivadavia, Concepcion del
  Uruguay, La Plata, Mar del Plata, Necochea, Rio Gallegos, Rosario,
  Santa Fe, Ushuaia

Merchant marine:
  total: 45 ships (1,000 GRT or over) 149,007 GRT/212,620 DWT
  by type: cargo 9, petroleum tanker 9, rail car carrier 1,
  refrigerated cargo 2, roll on/roll off 1, short-sea/passenger 1,
  specialized tanker 1
  foreign-owned: Uruguay 1
  registered in other countries: 26 (2004 est.)

Airports:
  1,335 (2003 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
  total: 144
  over 3,047 m: 4
  2,438 to 3,047 m: 26
  1,524 to 2,437 m: 62
  914 to 1,523 m: 44
  under 914 m: 8 (2004 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
  total: 1,190
  over 3,047 m: 2
  2,438 to 3,047 m: 2
  1,524 to 2,437 m: 50
  914 to 1,523 m: 569
  under 914 m: 567 (2004 est.)

Military Argentina

Military branches:
  Argentine Army, Navy of the Argentine Republic (includes Naval
  Aviation and Marines), Argentine Air Force (Fuerza Aerea Argentina,
  FAA)

Military manpower - military age and obligation: 18 years of age for voluntary military service; no conscription (2001)

Military manpower - availability:
  males age 15-49: 9,901,352 (2004 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:
  males age 15-49: 8,042,304 (2004 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
  males: 327,738 (2004 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure:
  $4.3 billion (FY99)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP:
  1.3% (FY00)

Transnational Issues Argentina

Disputes - international:
  UK continues to reject sovereignty talks requested by Argentina,
  whose constitution still claims UK-administered Falkland Islands
  (Islas Malvinas) and South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands,
  but in 1995 ceded the right to settle the dispute by force; Beagle
  Channel islands dispute resolved through Papal mediation in 1984,
  but armed incidents persist since 1992 oil discovery; territorial
  claim in Antarctica partially overlaps UK and Chilean claims (see
  Antarctic disputes); unruly region at convergence of
  Argentina-Brazil-Paraguay borders is locus of money laundering,
  smuggling, arms and drug trafficking, and fundraising for extremist
  organizations; uncontested dispute between Brazil and Uruguay over
  Braziliera Island in the Quarai/Cuareim River leaves the tripoint
  with Argentina in question

Illicit drugs:
  used as a transshipment country for cocaine headed for Europe and
  the US; some money-laundering activity, especially in the Tri-Border
  Area; domestic consumption of drugs in urban centers is increasing

This page was last updated on 10 February, 2005

======================================================================

@Armenia

Introduction Armenia

Background:
  Armenia prides itself on being the first nation to formally adopt
  Christianity (early 4th century). Despite periods of autonomy, over
  the centuries Armenia came under the sway of various empires
  including the Roman, Byzantine, Arab, Persian, and Ottoman. It was
  incorporated into Russia in 1828 and the USSR in 1920. Armenian
  leaders remain preoccupied by the long conflict with Muslim
  Azerbaijan over Nagorno-Karabakh, a primarily Armenian-populated
  region, assigned to Soviet Azerbaijan in the 1920s by Moscow.
  Armenia and Azerbaijan began fighting over the area in 1988; the
  struggle escalated after both countries attained independence from
  the Soviet Union in 1991. By May 1994, when a cease-fire took hold,
  Armenian forces held not only Nagorno-Karabakh but also a
  significant portion of Azerbaijan proper. The economies of both
  sides have been hurt by their inability to make substantial progress
  toward a peaceful resolution. Turkey imposed an economic blockade on
  Armenia and closed the common border because of the Armenian
  occupation of Nagorno-Karabakh and surrounding areas.

Geography Armenia

Location:
  Southwestern Asia, east of Turkey

Geographic coordinates:
  40 00 N, 45 00 E

Map references:
  Asia

Area:
  total: 29,800 sq km
  water: 1,400 sq km
  land: 28,400 sq km

Area - comparative:
  slightly smaller than Maryland

Land boundaries:
  total: 1,254 km
  border countries: Azerbaijan-proper 566 km, Azerbaijan-Naxcivan
  exclave 221 km, Georgia 164 km, Iran 35 km, Turkey 268 km

Coastline:
  0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims:
  none (landlocked)

Climate:
  highland continental, hot summers, cold winters

Terrain:
  Armenian Highland with mountains; little forest land; fast flowing
  rivers; good soil in Aras River valley

Elevation extremes:
  lowest point: Debed River 400 m
  highest point: Aragats Lerrnagagat' 4,090 m

Natural resources:
  small deposits of gold, copper, molybdenum, zinc, alumina

Land use: arable land: 17.55% permanent crops: 2.3% other: 80.15% (2001)

Irrigated land:
  2,870 sq km (1998 est.)

Natural hazards:
  occasionally severe earthquakes; droughts

Environment - current issues:
  soil pollution from toxic chemicals such as DDT; the energy crisis
  of the 1990s led to deforestation when citizens scavenged for
  firewood; pollution of Hrazdan (Razdan) and Aras Rivers; the
  draining of Sevana Lich (Lake Sevan), a result of its use as a
  source for hydropower, threatens drinking water supplies; restart of
  Metsamor nuclear power plant in spite of its location in a
  seismically active zone

Environment - international agreements:
  party to: Air Pollution, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate
  Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the
  Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands
  signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants

Geography - note:
  landlocked in the Lesser Caucasus Mountains; Sevana Lich (Lake
  Sevan) is the largest lake in this mountain range

People Armenia

Population:
  2,991,360
  note: Armenia's first census since independence was conducted in
  October 2001 (July 2004 est.)

Age structure:
  0-14 years: 22.7% (male 357,094; female 323,396)
  15-64 years: 66.7% (male 929,719; female 1,065,505)
  65 years and over: 10.6% (male 128,027; female 187,619) (2004 est.)

Median age:
  total: 29.7 years
  male: 27.1 years
  female: 32.4 years (2004 est.)

Population growth rate:
  -0.32% (2004 est.)

Birth rate:
  11.43 births/1,000 population (2004 est.)

Death rate:
  8.12 deaths/1,000 population (2004 est.)

Net migration rate:
  -6.47 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2004 est.)

Sex ratio:
  at birth: 1.18 male(s)/female
  under 15 years: 1.1 male(s)/female
  15-64 years: 0.87 male(s)/female
  65 years and over: 0.68 male(s)/female
  total population: 0.9 male(s)/female (2004 est.)

Infant mortality rate:
  total: 24.16 deaths/1,000 live births
  female: 18.06 deaths/1,000 live births (2004 est.)
  male: 29.32 deaths/1,000 live births

Life expectancy at birth:
  total population: 71.23 years
  male: 67.73 years
  female: 75.36 years (2004 est.)

Total fertility rate:
  1.31 children born/woman (2004 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
  0.1% (2003 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
  2,600 (2003 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths:
  less than 200 (2003 est.)

Nationality:
  noun: Armenian(s)
  adjective: Armenian

Ethnic groups:
  Armenian 93%, Azeri 1%, Russian 2%, other (mostly Yezidi Kurds) 4%
  (2002)
  note: as of the end of 1993, virtually all Azeris had emigrated from
  Armenia

Religions:
  Armenian Apostolic 94%, other Christian 4%, Yezidi
  (Zoroastrian/animist) 2%

Languages:
  Armenian 96%, Russian 2%, other 2%

Literacy:
  definition: age 15 and over can read and write
  total population: 98.6%
  male: 99.4%
  female: 98% (2003 est.)

Government Armenia

Country name:
  conventional long form: Republic of Armenia
  conventional short form: Armenia
  local short form: Hayastan
  former: Armenian Soviet Socialist Republic; Armenian Republic
  local long form: Hayastani Hanrapetut'yun

Government type:
  republic

Capital:
  Yerevan

Administrative divisions:
  11 provinces (marzer, singular - marz); Aragatsotn, Ararat,
  Armavir, Geghark'unik', Kotayk', Lorri, Shirak, Syunik', Tavush,
  Vayots' Dzor, Yerevan

Independence:
  21 September 1991 (from Soviet Union)

National holiday:
  Independence Day, 21 September (1991)

Constitution:
  adopted by nationwide referendum 5 July 1995

Legal system:
  based on civil law system

Suffrage:
  18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
  chief of state: President Robert KOCHARIAN (since 30 March 1998)
  head of government: Prime Minister Andranik MARKARYAN (since 12 May
  2000)
  cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the prime minister
  elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term;
  election last held 19 February and 5 March 2003 (next to be held NA
  2008); prime minister appointed by the president; the prime minister
  and Council of Ministers must resign if the National Assembly
  refuses to accept their program
  election results: Robert KOCHARIAN reelected president; percent of
  vote - Robert KOCHARIAN 67.5%, Stepan DEMIRCHYAN 32.5%

Legislative branch:
  unicameral National Assembly (Parliament) or Azgayin Zhoghov (131
  seats; members elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms; 75
  members elected by party list, 56 by direct vote)
  elections: last held 25 May 2003 (next to be held in the spring of
  2007)
  note: percent of vote by party - Republican Party 23.5%, Justice
  Bloc 13.6%, Rule of Law 12.3%, ARF (Dashnak) 11.4%, National Unity
  Party 8.8%, United Labor Party 5.7%; seats by party - Republican
  Party 23, Justice Bloc 14, Rule of Law 12, ARF (Dashnak) 11,
  National Unity 9, United Labor 6; note - seats by party change
  frequently as deputies switch parties or announce themselves
  independent

Judicial branch:
  Constitutional Court; Court of Cassation (Appeals Court)

Political parties and leaders:
  Agro-Industrial Party [Vladimir BADALIAN]; Armenia Party [Myasnik
  MALKHASYAN]; Armenian National Movement or ANM [Alex ARZUMANYAN,
  chairman]; Armenian Ramkavar Liberal Party or HRAK [Harutyun
  MIRZAKHANYAN, chairman]; Armenian Revolutionary Federation
  ("Dashnak" Party) or ARF [Vahan HOVHANISSIAN]; Democratic Party
  [Aram SARKISYAN]; Justice Bloc (comprised of the Democratic Party,
  National Democratic Party, National Democratic Union, and the
  People's Party); National Democratic Party [Shavarsh KOCHARIAN];
  National Democratic Union or NDU [Vazgen MANUKIAN]; National Unity
  Party [Artashes GEGAMIAN, chairman]; People's Party of Armenia
  [Stepan DEMIRCHYAN]; Republic Party [Albert BAZEYAN and Aram
  SARKISYAN, chairmen]; Republican Party or RPA [Andranik MARKARYAN];
  Rule of Law Party [Artur BAGDASARIAN, chairman]; Union of
  Constitutional Rights [Hrant KHACHATURYAN]; United Labor Party
  [Gurgen ARSENIAN]

Political pressure groups and leaders:
  Yerkrapah Union [Manvel GRIGORIAN]

International organization participation:
  BSEC, CE, CIS, EAPC, EBRD, FAO, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt (signatory),
  ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU,
  MIGA, NAM (observer), OAS (observer), OPCW, OSCE, PFP, UN, UNCTAD,
  UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTO

Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Arman KIRAKOSSIAN consulate(s) general: Los Angeles FAX: [1] (202) 319-2982 telephone: [1] (202) 319-1976 chancery: 2225 R Street NW, Washington, DC 20008

Diplomatic representation from the US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador John M. EVANS
  embassy: 18 Baghramyan Ave., Yerevan 375019
  mailing address: American Embassy Yerevan, Department of State, 7020
  Yerevan Place, Washington, DC 20521-7020
  telephone: [374](1) 521-611, 520-791, 542-117, 542-132, 524-661,
  527-001, 524-840
  FAX: [374](1) 520-800

Flag description:
  three equal horizontal bands of red (top), blue, and orange

Economy Armenia

Economy - overview:
  Under the old Soviet central planning system, Armenia had developed
  a modern industrial sector, supplying machine tools, textiles, and
  other manufactured goods to sister republics in exchange for raw
  materials and energy. Since the implosion of the USSR in December
  1991, Armenia has switched to small-scale agriculture away from the
  large agroindustrial complexes of the Soviet era. The agricultural
  sector has long-term needs for more investment and updated
  technology. The privatization of industry has been at a slower pace,
  but has been given renewed emphasis by the current administration.
  Armenia is a food importer, and its mineral deposits (copper, gold,
  bauxite) are small. The ongoing conflict with Azerbaijan over the
  ethnic Armenian-dominated region of Nagorno-Karabakh and the breakup
  of the centrally directed economic system of the former Soviet Union
  contributed to a severe economic decline in the early 1990s. By
  1994, however, the Armenian Government had launched an ambitious
  IMF-sponsored economic liberalization program that resulted in
  positive growth rates in 1995-2003. Armenia joined the WTrO in
  January 2003. Armenia also has managed to slash inflation, stabilize
  the local currency (the dram), and privatize most small- and
  medium-sized enterprises. The chronic energy shortages Armenia
  suffered in the early and mid-1990s have been offset by the energy
  supplied by one of its nuclear power plants at Metsamor. Armenia is
  now a net energy exporter, although it does not have sufficient
  generating capacity to replace Metsamor, which is under
  international pressure to close. The electricity distribution system
  was privatized in 2002. Armenia's severe trade imbalance has been
  offset somewhat by international aid and foreign direct investment.
  Economic ties with Russia remain close, especially in the energy
  sector.

GDP:
  purchasing power parity - $11.79 billion (2003 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:
  9.9% (2003 est.)

GDP - per capita:
  purchasing power parity - $3,500 (2003 est.)

GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 23.4% industry: 35.1% services: 41.5% (2003 est.)

Investment (gross fixed):
  19.8% of GDP (2003)

Population below poverty line:
  50% (2002 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: 2.3% highest 10%: 46.2% (1999)

Distribution of family income - Gini index:
  44.4 (1996)

Inflation rate (consumer prices):
  4.8% (2003 est.)

Labor force:
  1.4 million (2001)

Labor force - by occupation:
  agriculture 45%, industry 25%, services 30% (2002 est.)

Unemployment rate:
  20% (2001 est.)

Budget:
  revenues: $425.9 million
  expenditures: $460.3 million, including capital expenditures of $NA
  (2003)

Agriculture - products:
  fruit (especially grapes), vegetables; livestock

Industries:
  diamond-processing, metal-cutting machine tools, forging-pressing
  machines, electric motors, tires, knitted wear, hosiery, shoes, silk
  fabric, chemicals, trucks, instruments, microelectronics, jewelry
  manufacturing, software development, food processing, brandy

Industrial production growth rate:
  15% (2002 est.)

Electricity - production:
  6.479 billion kWh (2001)

Electricity - consumption:
  5.784 billion kWh (2001)

Electricity - exports: 704 million kWh; note - exports an unknown quantity to Georgia; includes exports to Nagorno-Karabakh region in Azerbaijan (2001)

Electricity - imports:
  463 million kWh; note - imports an unknown quantity from Iran (2001)

Oil - production:
  0 bbl/day (2001 est.)

Oil - consumption:
  5,700 bbl/day (2001 est.)

Oil - exports:
  NA (2001)

Oil - imports:
  NA (2001)

Natural gas - production:
  0 cu m (2001 est.)

Natural gas - consumption:
  1.4 billion cu m (2001 est.)

Natural gas - exports:
  0 cu m (2001 est.)

Natural gas - imports:
  1.4 billion cu m (2001 est.)

Current account balance:
  $-210 million (2003)

Exports:
  $735 million f.o.b. (2003 est.)

Exports - commodities:
  diamonds, mineral products, foodstuffs, energy

Exports - partners:
  Belgium 18.2%, UK 16.8%, Israel 15.7%, Russia 12.1%, Iran 7.9%, US
  6.3%, Germany 5% (2003)

Imports:
  $1.18 billion f.o.b. (2003 est.)

Imports - commodities:
  natural gas, petroleum, tobacco products, foodstuffs, diamonds

Imports - partners:
  Belgium 11.6%, Russia 11.6%, Israel 11.3%, US 9.5%, Iran 8.8%,
  Germany 6.7%, UAE 5.4%, Italy 4.7%, Ukraine 4.6% (2003)

Reserves of foreign exchange & gold:
  $509.4 million (2003)

Debt - external:
  $905 million (June 2001)

Economic aid - recipient:
  ODA $170 million (2000)

Currency:
  dram (AMD)

Currency code:
  AMD

Exchange rates:
  drams per US dollar - 578.763 (2002), 555.078 (2001), 539.526
  (2000), 535.062 (1999)

Fiscal year:
  calendar year

Communications Armenia

Telephones - main lines in use:
  562,600 (2003)

Telephones - mobile cellular:
  114,400 (2003)

Telephone system:
  general assessment: system inadequate; now 90% privately owned and
  undergoing modernization and expansion
  domestic: the majority of subscribers and the most modern equipment
  are in Yerevan (this includes paging and mobile cellular service)
  international: country code - 374; Yerevan is connected to the
  Trans-Asia-Europe fiber-optic cable through Iran; additional
  international service is available by microwave radio relay and
  landline connections to the other countries of the Commonwealth of
  Independent States and through the Moscow international switch and
  by satellite to the rest of the world; satellite earth stations - 1
  Intelsat (2000)

Radio broadcast stations:
  AM 9, FM 6, shortwave 1 (1998)

Radios:
  850,000 (1997)

Television broadcast stations:
  3 (plus an unknown number of repeaters); (1998)

Televisions:
  825,000 (1997)

Internet country code:
  .am

Internet hosts:
  2,206 (2004)

Internet Service Providers (ISPs):
  9 (2001)

Internet users:
  150,000 (2003)

Transportation Armenia

Railways:
  total: 845 km
  broad gauge: 845 km 1.520-m gauge (828 km electrified)
  note: some lines are out of service (2003)

Highways:
  total: 15,918 km
  paved: 15,329 km (includes 7,527 km of expressways)
  unpaved: 589 km (2000)

Pipelines:
  gas 1,871 km (2004)

Ports and harbors:
  none

Airports:
  17 (2003 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
  total: 11
  over 3,047 m: 2
  2,438 to 3,047: 1
  1,524 to 2,437 m: 5
  914 to 1,523 m: 3 (2003 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
  total: 6
  over 3,047 m: 1
  1,524 to 2,437 m: 2
  914 to 1,523 m: 2
  under 914 m: 1 (2003 est.)

Military Armenia

Military branches:
  Army, Air Force and Air Defense Force

Military manpower - military age and obligation: 18-27 years of age for compulsory military service, conscript service obligation - 12 months; 18 years of age for voluntary military service (May 2004)

Military manpower - availability:
  males age 15-49: 812,140 (2004 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:
  males age 15-49: 649,568 (2004 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
  males: 31,926 (2004 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure:
  $135 million (FY01)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP:
  6.5% (FY01)

Transnational Issues Armenia

Disputes - international:
  Armenia supports ethnic Armenian secessionists in Nagorno-Karabakh
  and militarily occupies 16% of Azerbaijan - Organization for
  Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE) continues to mediate
  dispute; border with Turkey remains closed over Nagorno-Karabakh
  dispute; traditional demands regarding former Armenian lands in
  Turkey have subsided; ethnic Armenian groups in Javakheti region of
  Georgia seek greater autonomy from the new Georgian Government

Refugees and internally displaced persons:
  refugees (country of origin): 236,306 (Azerbaijan)
  IDPs: 50,000 (conflict with Azerbaijan over Nagorno-Karabakh) (2004)

Illicit drugs:
  illicit cultivation of small amount of cannabis for domestic
  consumption; used as a transit point for illicit drugs - mostly
  opium and hashish - moving from Southwest Asia to Russia and to a
  lesser extent the rest of Europe

This page was last updated on 10 February, 2005

======================================================================

@Aruba

Introduction Aruba

Background:
  Discovered and claimed for Spain in 1499, Aruba was acquired by the
  Dutch in 1636. The island's economy has been dominated by three main
  industries. A 19th century gold rush was followed by prosperity
  brought on by the opening in 1924 of an oil refinery. The last
  decades of the 20th century saw a boom in the tourism industry.
  Aruba seceded from the Netherlands Antilles in 1986 and became a
  separate, autonomous member of the Kingdom of the Netherlands.
  Movement toward full independence was halted at Aruba's request in
  1990.

Geography Aruba

Location:
  Caribbean, island in the Caribbean Sea, north of Venezuela

Geographic coordinates:
  12 30 N, 69 58 W

Map references:
  Central America and the Caribbean

Area:
  total: 193 sq km
  water: 0 sq km
  land: 193 sq km

Area - comparative:
  slightly larger than Washington, DC

Land boundaries:
  0 km

Coastline:
  68.5 km

Maritime claims:
  territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate:
  tropical marine; little seasonal temperature variation

Terrain:
  flat with a few hills; scant vegetation

Elevation extremes:
  lowest point: Caribbean Sea 0 m
  highest point: Mount Jamanota 188 m

Natural resources:
  NEGL; white sandy beaches

Land use:
  arable land: 10.53% (including aloe 0.01%)
  permanent crops: 0%
  other: 89.47% (2001)

Irrigated land:
  0.01 sq km (1998 est.)

Natural hazards:
  lies outside the Caribbean hurricane belt

Environment - current issues:
  NA

Geography - note:
  a flat, riverless island renowned for its white sand beaches; its
  tropical climate is moderated by constant trade winds from the
  Atlantic Ocean; the temperature is almost constant at about 27
  degrees Celsius (81 degrees Fahrenheit)

People Aruba

Population:
  71,218 (July 2004 est.)

Age structure:
  0-14 years: 20.3% (male 7,429; female 7,051)
  15-64 years: 68.2% (male 23,587; female 25,007)
  65 years and over: 11.4% (male 3,347; female 4,797) (2004 est.)

Median age:
  total: 37.5 years
  male: 35.7 years
  female: 39.1 years (2004 est.)

Population growth rate:
  0.51% (2004 est.)

Birth rate:
  11.53 births/1,000 population (2004 est.)

Death rate:
  6.47 deaths/1,000 population (2004 est.)

Net migration rate:
  0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2004 est.)

Sex ratio:
  at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
  under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
  15-64 years: 0.94 male(s)/female
  65 years and over: 0.7 male(s)/female
  total population: 0.93 male(s)/female (2004 est.)

Infant mortality rate:
  total: 6.02 deaths/1,000 live births
  female: 5.14 deaths/1,000 live births (2004 est.)
  male: 6.85 deaths/1,000 live births

Life expectancy at birth:
  total population: 78.98 years
  male: 75.64 years
  female: 82.49 years (2004 est.)

Total fertility rate:
  1.79 children born/woman (2004 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
  NA

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
  NA

HIV/AIDS - deaths:
  NA

Nationality: noun: Aruban(s) adjective: Aruban; Dutch

Ethnic groups:
  mixed white/Caribbean Amerindian 80%

Religions:
  Roman Catholic 82%, Protestant 8%, Hindu, Muslim, Confucian, Jewish

Languages:
  Dutch (official), Papiamento (a Spanish, Portuguese, Dutch, English
  dialect), English (widely spoken), Spanish

Literacy: definition: total population: 97% male: NA female: NA

Government Aruba

Country name: conventional long form: none conventional short form: Aruba

Dependency status:
  part of the Kingdom of the Netherlands; full autonomy in internal
  affairs obtained in 1986 upon separation from the Netherlands
  Antilles; Dutch Government responsible for defense and foreign
  affairs

Government type:
  parliamentary democracy

Capital:
  Oranjestad

Administrative divisions:
  none (part of the Kingdom of the Netherlands)

Independence:
  none (part of the Kingdom of the Netherlands)

National holiday:
  Flag Day, 18 March

Constitution:
  1 January 1986

Legal system:
  based on Dutch civil law system, with some English common law
  influence

Suffrage:
  18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
  chief of state: Queen BEATRIX of the Netherlands (since 30 April
  1980), represented by Governor General Fredis REFUNJOL (since 11 May
  2004)
  election results: Nelson O. ODUBER elected prime minister; percent
  of legislative vote - NA
  elections: the monarch is hereditary; governor general appointed for
  a six-year term by the monarch; prime minister and deputy prime
  minister elected by the Staten for four-year terms; election last
  held 28 September 2001 (next to be held by December 2005)
  head of government: Prime Minister Nelson O. ODUBER (since 30
  October 2001)
  cabinet: Council of Ministers (elected by the Staten)

Legislative branch:
  unicameral Legislature or Staten (21 seats; members elected by
  direct, popular vote to serve four-year terms)
  elections: last held 28 September 2001 (next to be held by NA 2005)
  election results: percent of vote by party - MEP 52.4%, AVP 26.7%,
  PPA 9.6%, OLA 5.7%, Aliansa 3.5%, other 2.1%; seats by party - MEP
  12, AVP 6, PPA 2, OLA 1

Judicial branch:
  Joint High Court of Justice (judges are appointed by the monarch)

Political parties and leaders:
  Aruba Solidarity Movement or MAS [leader NA]; Aruban Democratic
  Alliance or Aliansa [leader NA]; Aruban Democratic Party or PDA [Leo
  BERLINSKI]; Aruban Liberal Party or OLA [Glenbert CROES]; Aruban
  Patriotic Party or PPA [Benny NISBET]; Aruban People's Party or AVP
  [Jan (Henny) H. EMAN]; Concentration for the Liberation of Aruba or
  CLA [leader NA]; People's Electoral Movement Party or MEP [Nelson O.
  ODUBER]; For a Restructured Aruba Now or PARA [Urbana LOPEZ];
  National Democratic Action or ADN [Pedro Charro KELLY]

Political pressure groups and leaders:
  NA

International organization participation:
  ILO, IMF, Interpol, IOC, UNESCO (associate), UPU, WCL, WToO
  (associate)

Diplomatic representation in the US:
  none (represented by the Kingdom of the Netherlands)

Diplomatic representation from the US:
  the US does not have an embassy in Aruba; the Consul General to
  Netherlands Antilles, Robert E. SORENSON, is accredited to Aruba

Flag description:
  blue, with two narrow, horizontal, yellow stripes across the lower
  portion and a red, four-pointed star outlined in white in the upper
  hoist-side corner

Economy Aruba

Economy - overview:
  Tourism is the mainstay of the small, open Aruban economy, with
  offshore banking and oil refining and storage also important. The
  rapid growth of the tourism sector over the last decade has resulted
  in a substantial expansion of other activities. Construction has
  boomed, with hotel capacity five times the 1985 level. In addition,
  the reopening of the country's oil refinery in 1993, a major source
  of employment and foreign exchange earnings, has further spurred
  growth. Aruba's small labor force and low unemployment rate have led
  to a large number of unfilled job vacancies, despite sharp rises in
  wage rates in recent years. Tourist arrivals have declined in the
  aftermath of the 11 September 2001 terrorist attacks on the US. The
  government now must deal with a budget deficit and a negative trade
  balance.

GDP:
  purchasing power parity - $1.94 billion (2002 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:
  -1.5% (2002 est.)

GDP - per capita:
  purchasing power parity - $28,000 (2002 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
  agriculture: NA
  industry: NA
  services: NA

Population below poverty line:
  NA

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
  lowest 10%: NA
  highest 10%: NA

Inflation rate (consumer prices):
  3.2% (2002 est.)

Labor force:
  41,500 (1997 est.)

Labor force - by occupation: most employment is in wholesale and retail trade and repair, followed by hotels and restaurants; oil refining

Unemployment rate:
  0.6% (2003 est.)

Budget:
  revenues: $135.8 million
  expenditures: $147 million, including capital expenditures of NA
  (2000)

Agriculture - products:
  aloes; livestock; fish

Industries:
  tourism, transshipment facilities, oil refining

Industrial production growth rate:
  NA (2002 est.)

Electricity - production:
  531.9 million kWh (2001)

Electricity - consumption:
  494.7 million kWh (2001)

Electricity - exports:
  0 kWh (2001)

Electricity - imports:
  0 kWh (2001)

Oil - production:
  0 bbl/day (2001 est.)

Oil - consumption:
  6,500 bbl/day (2001 est.)

Oil - exports:
  NA (2001)

Oil - imports:
  NA (2001)

Exports:
  $128 million f.o.b. (including oil reexports) (2002 est.)

Exports - commodities:
  live animals and animal products, art and collectibles, machinery
  and electrical equipment, transport equipment

Exports - partners:
  Netherlands 33.7%, Colombia 12%, Netherlands Antilles 12%, Panama
  12%, Venezuela 10.8%, US 9.6% (2003)

Imports:
  $841 million f.o.b. (2002 est.)

Imports - commodities:
  machinery and electrical equipment, crude oil for refining and
  reexport, chemicals; foodstuffs

Imports - partners:
  US 55.3%, Netherlands 13%, Netherlands Antilles 3.1% (2003)

Debt - external:
  $285 million (1996)

Economic aid - recipient:
  $26 million (1995); note - the Netherlands provided a $127 million
  aid package to Aruba and Suriname in 1996

Currency:
  Aruban guilder/florin (AWG)

Currency code:
  AWG

Exchange rates:
  Aruban guilders/florins per US dollar - 1.79 (2003), 1.79 (2002),
  1.79 (2001), 1.79 (2000), 1.79 (1999)

Fiscal year:
  calendar year

Communications Aruba

Telephones - main lines in use:
  37,100 (2002)

Telephones - mobile cellular:
  53,000 (2001)

Telephone system:
  general assessment: NA
  domestic: more than adequate
  international: country code - 297; 1 submarine cable to Sint Maarten
  (Netherlands Antilles); extensive interisland microwave radio relay
  links

Radio broadcast stations:
  AM 4, FM 6, shortwave 0 (1998)

Radios:
  50,000 (1997)

Television broadcast stations:
  1 (1997)

Televisions:
  20,000 (1997)

Internet country code:
  .aw

Internet hosts:
  923 (2001)

Internet Service Providers (ISPs):
  NA

Internet users:
  24,000 (2002)

Transportation Aruba

Highways:
  total: 800 km
  paved: 513 km
  note: most coastal roads are paved, while unpaved roads serve large
  tracts of the interior (1995)
  unpaved: 287 km

Ports and harbors:
  Barcadera, Oranjestad, Sint Nicolaas

Merchant marine:
  total: 3 ships (1,000 GRT or over) 5,772 GRT/7,068 DWT
  foreign-owned: Germany 1, Russia 1
  registered in other countries: 1 (2003 est.)
  by type: cargo 1, petroleum tanker 2

Airports:
  1 (2003 est.)

Airports - with paved runways: total: 1 2,438 to 3,047 m: 1 (2004 est.)

Military Aruba

Military branches:
  no regular indigenous military forces; Royal Dutch Navy and
  Marines, Coast Guard

Military - note:
  defense is the responsibility of the Kingdom of the Netherlands

Transnational Issues Aruba

Disputes - international:
  none

Illicit drugs:
  transit point for US- and Europe-bound narcotics with some
  accompanying money-laundering activity

This page was last updated on 10 February, 2005

======================================================================

@Ashmore and Cartier Islands

Introduction Ashmore and Cartier Islands

Background:
  These uninhabited islands came under Australian authority in 1931;
  formal administration began two years later. Ashmore Reef supports a
  rich and diverse avian and marine habitat; in 1983, it became a
  National Nature Reserve. Cartier Island, a former bombing range, is
  now a marine reserve.

Geography Ashmore and Cartier Islands

Location:
  Southeastern Asia, islands in the Indian Ocean, midway between
  north-western Australia and Timor island

Geographic coordinates:
  12 14 S, 123 05 E

Map references:
  Southeast Asia

Area:
  total: 5 sq km
  note: includes Ashmore Reef (West, Middle, and East Islets) and
  Cartier Island
  water: 0 sq km
  land: 5 sq km

Area - comparative:
  about eight times the size of The Mall in Washington, DC

Land boundaries:
  0 km

Coastline:
  74.1 km

Maritime claims: territorial sea: 12 nm contiguous zone: 12 nm exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation

Climate:
  tropical

Terrain:
  low with sand and coral

Elevation extremes: lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m highest point: unnamed location 3 m

Natural resources: fish

Land use: arable land: 0% permanent crops: 0% other: 100% (all grass and sand) (2001)

Irrigated land:
  0 sq km (1998 est.)

Natural hazards:
  surrounded by shoals and reefs that can pose maritime hazards

Environment - current issues:
  NA

Geography - note:
  Ashmore Reef National Nature Reserve established in August 1983

People Ashmore and Cartier Islands

Population:
  no indigenous inhabitants
  note: Indonesian fishermen are allowed access to the lagoon and
  fresh water at Ashmore Reef's West Island (July 2004 est.)

People - note:
  the landing of illegal immigrants from Indonesia's Rote Island has
  become an ongoing problem

Government Ashmore and Cartier Islands

Country name:
  conventional long form: Territory of Ashmore and Cartier Islands
  conventional short form: Ashmore and Cartier Islands

Dependency status:
  territory of Australia; administered by the Australian Department
  of Transport and Regional Services

Legal system:
  the laws of the Commonwealth of Australia and the laws of the
  Northern Territory of Australia, where applicable, apply

Diplomatic representation in the US:
  none (territory of Australia)

Diplomatic representation from the US:
  none (territory of Australia)

Flag description:
  the flag of Australia is used

Economy Ashmore and Cartier Islands

Economy - overview: no economic activity

Transportation Ashmore and Cartier Islands

Ports and harbors: none; offshore anchorage only

Military Ashmore and Cartier Islands

Military - note:
  defense is the responsibility of Australia; periodic visits by the
  Royal Australian Navy and Royal Australian Air Force

Transnational Issues Ashmore and Cartier Islands

Disputes - international:
  Indonesian groups challenge Australia's claim to Ashmore Reef;
  Australia has closed the surrounding waters to Indonesian
  traditional fishing and has created a national park in the region
  while continuing to prospect for hydrocarbons in the vicinity

This page was last updated on 10 February, 2005

======================================================================

@Atlantic Ocean

Introduction Atlantic Ocean

Background:
  The Atlantic Ocean is the second largest of the world's five oceans
  (after the Pacific Ocean, but larger than the Indian Ocean, Southern
  Ocean, and Arctic Ocean). The Kiel Canal (Germany), Oresund
  (Denmark-Sweden), Bosporus (Turkey), Strait of Gibraltar
  (Morocco-Spain), and the Saint Lawrence Seaway (Canada-US) are
  important strategic access waterways. The decision by the
  International Hydrographic Organization in the spring of 2000 to
  delimit a fifth world ocean, the Southern Ocean, removed the portion
  of the Atlantic Ocean south of 60 degrees south.

Geography Atlantic Ocean

Location:
  body of water between Africa, Europe, the Southern Ocean, and the
  Western Hemisphere

Geographic coordinates:
  0 00 N, 25 00 W

Map references:
  Political Map of the World

Area:
  total: 76.762 million sq km
  note: includes Baltic Sea, Black Sea, Caribbean Sea, Davis Strait,
  Denmark Strait, part of the Drake Passage, Gulf of Mexico, Labrador
  Sea, Mediterranean Sea, North Sea, Norwegian Sea, almost all of the
  Scotia Sea, and other tributary water bodies

Area - comparative:
  slightly less than 6.5 times the size of the US

Coastline:
  111,866 km

Climate:
  tropical cyclones (hurricanes) develop off the coast of Africa near
  Cape Verde and move westward into the Caribbean Sea; hurricanes can
  occur from May to December, but are most frequent from August to
  November

Terrain:
  surface usually covered with sea ice in Labrador Sea, Denmark
  Strait, and coastal portions of the Baltic Sea from October to June;
  clockwise warm-water gyre (broad, circular system of currents) in
  the northern Atlantic, counterclockwise warm-water gyre in the
  southern Atlantic; the ocean floor is dominated by the Mid-Atlantic
  Ridge, a rugged north-south centerline for the entire Atlantic basin

Elevation extremes:
  lowest point: Milwaukee Deep in the Puerto Rico Trench -8,605 m
  highest point: sea level 0 m

Natural resources:
  oil and gas fields, fish, marine mammals (seals and whales), sand
  and gravel aggregates, placer deposits, polymetallic nodules,
  precious stones

Natural hazards:
  icebergs common in Davis Strait, Denmark Strait, and the
  northwestern Atlantic Ocean from February to August and have been
  spotted as far south as Bermuda and the Madeira Islands; ships
  subject to superstructure icing in extreme northern Atlantic from
  October to May; persistent fog can be a maritime hazard from May to
  September; hurricanes (May to December)

Environment - current issues:
  endangered marine species include the manatee, seals, sea lions,
  turtles, and whales; drift net fishing is hastening the decline of
  fish stocks and contributing to international disputes; municipal
  sludge pollution off eastern US, southern Brazil, and eastern
  Argentina; oil pollution in Caribbean Sea, Gulf of Mexico, Lake
  Maracaibo, Mediterranean Sea, and North Sea; industrial waste and
  municipal sewage pollution in Baltic Sea, North Sea, and
  Mediterranean Sea

Geography - note:
  major chokepoints include the Dardanelles, Strait of Gibraltar,
  access to the Panama and Suez Canals; strategic straits include the
  Strait of Dover, Straits of Florida, Mona Passage, The Sound
  (Oresund), and Windward Passage; the Equator divides the Atlantic
  Ocean into the North Atlantic Ocean and South Atlantic Ocean

Economy Atlantic Ocean

Economy - overview:
  The Atlantic Ocean provides some of the world's most heavily
  trafficked sea routes, between and within the Eastern and Western
  Hemispheres. Other economic activity includes the exploitation of
  natural resources, e.g., fishing, the dredging of aragonite sands
  (The Bahamas), and production of crude oil and natural gas
  (Caribbean Sea, Gulf of Mexico, and North Sea).

Transportation Atlantic Ocean

Ports and harbors:
  Alexandria (Egypt), Algiers (Algeria), Antwerp (Belgium), Barcelona
  (Spain), Buenos Aires (Argentina), Casablanca (Morocco), Colon
  (Panama), Copenhagen (Denmark), Dakar (Senegal), Gdansk (Poland),
  Hamburg (Germany), Helsinki (Finland), Las Palmas (Canary Islands,
  Spain), Le Havre (France), Lisbon (Portugal), London (UK), Marseille
  (France), Montevideo (Uruguay), Montreal (Canada), Naples (Italy),
  New Orleans (US), New York (US), Oran (Algeria), Oslo (Norway),
  Peiraiefs or Piraeus (Greece), Rio de Janeiro (Brazil), Rotterdam
  (Netherlands), Saint Petersburg (Russia), Stockholm (Sweden)

Transportation - note:
  Kiel Canal and Saint Lawrence Seaway are two important waterways;
  significant domestic commercial and recreational use of Intracoastal
  Waterway on central and south Atlantic seaboard and Gulf of Mexico
  coast of US

Transnational Issues Atlantic Ocean

Disputes - international: some maritime disputes (see littoral states)

This page was last updated on 10 February, 2005

======================================================================

@Australia

Introduction Australia

Background:
  Aboriginal settlers arrived on the continent from Southeast Asia
  about 40,000 years before the first Europeans began exploration in
  the 17th century. No formal territorial claims were made until 1770,
  when Capt. James COOK took possession in the name of Great Britain.
  Six colonies were created in the late 18th and 19th centuries; they
  federated and became the Commonwealth of Australia in 1901. The new
  country took advantage of its natural resources to rapidly develop
  its agricultural and manufacturing industries and to make a major
  contribution to the British effort in World Wars I and II. In recent
  decades, Australia has transformed itself into an internationally
  competitive, advanced market economy. Long-term concerns include
  pollution, particularly depletion of the ozone layer, and management
  and conservation of coastal areas, especially the Great Barrier
  Reef. A referendum to change Australia's status, from a commonwealth
  headed by the British monarch to a republic, was defeated in 1999.

Geography Australia

Location:
  Oceania, continent between the Indian Ocean and the South Pacific
  Ocean

Geographic coordinates:
  27 00 S, 133 00 E

Map references:
  Oceania

Area:
  total: 7,686,850 sq km
  water: 68,920 sq km
  note: includes Lord Howe Island and Macquarie Island
  land: 7,617,930 sq km

Area - comparative:
  slightly smaller than the US contiguous 48 states

Land boundaries:
  0 km

Coastline:
  25,760 km

Maritime claims:
  territorial sea: 12 nm
  continental shelf: 200 nm or to the edge of the continental margin
  exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
  contiguous zone: 24 nm

Climate:
  generally arid to semiarid; temperate in south and east; tropical
  in north

Terrain:
  mostly low plateau with deserts; fertile plain in southeast

Elevation extremes:
  lowest point: Lake Eyre -15 m
  highest point: Mount Kosciuszko 2,229 m

Natural resources:
  bauxite, coal, iron ore, copper, tin, gold, silver, uranium,
  nickel, tungsten, mineral sands, lead, zinc, diamonds, natural gas,
  petroleum

Land use:
  arable land: 6.55% (includes about 27 million hectares of
  cultivated grassland)
  permanent crops: 0.04%
  other: 93.41% (2001)

Irrigated land:
  24,000 sq km (1998 est.)

Natural hazards:
  cyclones along the coast; severe droughts; forest fires

Environment - current issues:
  soil erosion from overgrazing, industrial development,
  urbanization, and poor farming practices; soil salinity rising due
  to the use of poor quality water; desertification; clearing for
  agricultural purposes threatens the natural habitat of many unique
  animal and plant species; the Great Barrier Reef off the northeast
  coast, the largest coral reef in the world, is threatened by
  increased shipping and its popularity as a tourist site; limited
  natural fresh water resources

Environment - international agreements:
  party to: Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living
  Resources, Antarctic Seals, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate
  Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental
  Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping,
  Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution,
  Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling
  signed, but not ratified: Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol

Geography - note:
  world's smallest continent but sixth-largest country; population
  concentrated along the eastern and southeastern coasts; regular,
  tropical, invigorating, sea breeze known as "the Doctor" occurs
  along the west coast in the summer

People Australia

Population:
  19,913,144 (July 2004 est.)

Age structure:
  0-14 years: 20.1% (male 2,044,449; female 1,948,574)
  15-64 years: 67.2% (male 6,747,687; female 6,623,995)
  65 years and over: 12.8% (male 1,121,522; female 1,426,917) (2004
  est.)

Median age: total: 36.3 years male: 35.5 years female: 37.1 years (2004 est.)

Population growth rate:
  0.9% (2004 est.)

Birth rate:
  12.4 births/1,000 population (2004 est.)

Death rate:
  7.38 deaths/1,000 population (2004 est.)

Net migration rate:
  3.98 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2004 est.)

Sex ratio:
  at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
  under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
  15-64 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
  65 years and over: 0.79 male(s)/female
  total population: 0.99 male(s)/female (2004 est.)

Infant mortality rate:
  total: 4.76 deaths/1,000 live births
  female: 4.34 deaths/1,000 live births (2004 est.)
  male: 5.16 deaths/1,000 live births

Life expectancy at birth:
  total population: 80.26 years
  male: 77.4 years
  female: 83.27 years (2004 est.)

Total fertility rate:
  1.76 children born/woman (2004 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
  0.1% (2003 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
  14,000 (2003 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths:
  less than 200 (2003 est.)

Nationality:
  noun: Australian(s)
  adjective: Australian

Ethnic groups:
  Caucasian 92%, Asian 7%, aboriginal and other 1%

Religions:
  Anglican 26.1%, Roman Catholic 26%, other Christian 24.3%,
  non-Christian 11%, other 12.6%

Languages:
  English, native languages

Literacy:
  definition: age 15 and over can read and write
  total population: 100%
  male: 100%
  female: 100% (1980 est.)

Government Australia

Country name:
  conventional long form: Commonwealth of Australia
  conventional short form: Australia

Government type:
  democratic, federal-state system recognizing the British monarch as
  sovereign

Capital:
  Canberra

Administrative divisions:
  6 states and 2 territories*; Australian Capital Territory*, New
  South Wales, Northern Territory*, Queensland, South Australia,
  Tasmania, Victoria, Western Australia

Dependent areas:
  Ashmore and Cartier Islands, Christmas Island, Cocos (Keeling)
  Islands, Coral Sea Islands, Heard Island and McDonald Islands,
  Norfolk Island

Independence:
  1 January 1901 (federation of UK colonies)

National holiday:
  Australia Day, 26 January (1788)

Constitution:
  9 July 1900, effective 1 January 1901

Legal system:
  based on English common law; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction,
  with reservations

Suffrage:
  18 years of age; universal and compulsory

Executive branch:
  chief of state: Queen of Australia ELIZABETH II (since 6 February
  1952), represented by Governor General Maj. Gen. (Ret.) Michael
  JEFFERY (since 11 August 2003)
  head of government: Prime Minister John Winston HOWARD (since 11
  March 1996); Deputy Prime Minister John ANDERSON (since 20 July 1999)
  cabinet: Parliament nominates and selects, from among its members, a
  list of candidates to serve as government ministers; from this list,
  the governor general swears in the final selections for the Cabinet
  elections: none; the monarch is hereditary; governor general
  appointed by the monarch on the recommendation of the prime
  minister; following legislative elections, the leader of the
  majority party or leader of a majority coalition is sworn in as
  prime minister by the governor general
  note: government coalition - Liberal Party and National Party

Legislative branch:
  bicameral Federal Parliament consists of the Senate (76 seats - 12
  from each of the six states and two from each of the two mainland
  territories; one-half of the members elected every three years by
  popular vote to serve six-year terms) and the House of
  Representatives (150 seats - this is up from 148 seats in 2001
  election; members elected by popular vote on the basis of
  preferential representation to serve three-year terms; no state can
  have fewer than five representatives)
  elections: Senate - last held 9 October 2004 (next to be held not
  later than June 2008); House of Representatives - last held 9
  October 2004 (next to be held not later than November 2007)
  election results: Senate - percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by
  party (as of 1 July 2003) - Liberal Party-National Party coalition
  34, Australian Labor Party 28, Australian Democrats 7, Green Party
  2, One Nation Party 1, Country Liberal Party 1, Australian
  Progressive Alliance 1, independent 2; House of Representatives -
  percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - Liberal
  Party-National Party coalition 86, Australian Labor Party 60,
  Country Liberal Party 1, independent and other 3

Judicial branch:
  High Court (the chief justice and six other justices are appointed
  by the governor general)

Political parties and leaders:
  Australian Democrats [Andrew BARTLETT]; Australian Labor Party
  [Mark LATHAM]; Australian Progressive Alliance [Meg LEES]; Country
  Liberal Party [Terry MILLS]; Australian Greens [Bob BROWN]; Liberal
  Party [John Winston HOWARD]; The Nationals [John ANDERSON]; One
  Nation Party [Len HARRIS]

Political pressure groups and leaders:
  Australian Monarchist League [leader NA]; Australian Republican
  Movement [leader NA]

International organization participation:
  ANZUS, APEC, ARF, AsDB, ASEAN (dialogue partner), Australia Group,
  BIS, C, CP, EBRD, FAO, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICCt, ICFTU, ICRM,
  IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM,
  ISO, ITU, MIGA, NAM (guest), NEA, NSG, OECD, OPCW, Paris Club, PCA,
  PIF, Sparteca, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNMEE, UNMISET, UNTSO,
  UPU, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, WToO, ZC

Diplomatic representation in the US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador Michael J. THAWLEY
  consulate(s) general: Atlanta, Chicago, Honolulu, Los Angeles, New
  York, and San Francisco
  FAX: [1] (202) 797-3168
  telephone: [1] (202) 797-3000
  chancery: 1601 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20036

Diplomatic representation from the US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador J. Thomas SCHIEFFER
  embassy: Moonah Place, Yarralumla, Canberra, Australian Capital
  Territory 2600
  mailing address: APO AP 96549
  telephone: [61] (02) 6214-5600
  FAX: [61] (02) 6214-5970
  consulate(s) general: Melbourne, Perth, Sydney

Flag description:
  blue with the flag of the UK in the upper hoist-side quadrant and a
  large seven-pointed star in the lower hoist-side quadrant known as
  the Commonwealth Star, representing the federation of the colonies
  of Australia in 1901; the star depicts one point for each of the six
  original states and one representing all of Australia's internal and
  external territories; the remaining half is a representation of the
  Southern Cross constellation in white with one small five-pointed
  star and four larger, seven-pointed stars

Economy Australia

Economy - overview:
  Australia has an enviable Western-style capitalist economy, with a
  per capita GDP on par with the four dominant West European
  economies. Rising output in the domestic economy has been offsetting
  the global slump, and business and consumer confidence remains
  robust. Australia's emphasis on reforms, low inflation, and growing
  ties with China are other key factors behind the economy's strength.
  The impact of drought, weak foreign demand, and strong import demand
  pushed the trade deficit up to $18 billion in 2003 and to $20
  billion in 2004 from $8 billion in 2002. One other concern is the
  domestic housing bubble.

GDP:
  purchasing power parity - $571.4 billion (2003 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:
  3% (2003 est.)

GDP - per capita:
  purchasing power parity - $29,000 (2003 est.)

GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 3.5% industry: 26.3% services: 70.2% (2003 est.)

Investment (gross fixed):
  24.8% of GDP (2003)

Population below poverty line:
  NA

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
  lowest 10%: 2%
  highest 10%: 25.4% (1994)

Distribution of family income - Gini index:
  35.2 (1994)

Inflation rate (consumer prices):
  2.8% (2003 est.)

Labor force:
  10.19 million (37256)

Labor force - by occupation:
  agriculture 5%, industry 22%, services 73% (1997 est.)

Unemployment rate:
  6% (2003)

Budget:
  revenues: $185 billion
  expenditures: $181 billion, including capital expenditures of NA
  (2003)

Public debt:
  18.2% of GDP (2003)

Agriculture - products:
  wheat, barley, sugarcane, fruits; cattle, sheep, poultry

Industries:
  mining, industrial and transportation equipment, food processing,
  chemicals, steel

Industrial production growth rate:
  -0.1% (2003 est.)

Electricity - production:
  198.2 billion kWh (2001)

Electricity - consumption:
  184.4 billion kWh (2001)

Electricity - exports:
  0 kWh (2001)

Electricity - imports:
  0 kWh (2001)

Oil - production:
  731,000 bbl/day (2001 est.)

Oil - consumption:
  796,500 bbl/day (2001 est.)

Oil - exports:
  523,400 bbl/day (2001)

Oil - imports:
  530,800 bbl/day (2001)

Oil - proved reserves:
  3.664 billion bbl (1 January 2002)

Natural gas - production:
  33.08 billion cu m (2001 est.)

Natural gas - consumption:
  23.33 billion cu m (2001 est.)

Natural gas - exports:
  9.744 billion cu m (2001 est.)

Natural gas - imports:
  0 cu m (2001 est.)

Natural gas - proved reserves:
  2.407 trillion cu m (1 January 2002)

Current account balance:
  $-30.14 billion (2003)

Exports:
  $68.67 billion (2003 est.)

Exports - commodities:
  coal, gold, meat, wool, alumina, iron ore, wheat, machinery and
  transport equipment

Exports - partners:
  Japan 18.1%, US 8.7%, China 8.4%, South Korea 7.4%, New Zealand
  7.4%, UK 6.7% (2003)

Imports:
  $82.91 billion (2003 est.)

Imports - commodities:
  machinery and transport equipment, computers and office machines,
  telecommunication equipment and parts; crude oil and petroleum
  products

Imports - partners:
  US 16%, Japan 12.5%, China 11%, Germany 6.1%, UK 4.2% (2003)

Reserves of foreign exchange & gold:
  $33.26 billion (2003)

Debt - external:
  $233.5 billion (2003 est.)

Economic aid - donor:
  ODA, $894 million (FY99/00)

Currency:
  Australian dollar (AUD)

Currency code:
  AUD

Exchange rates:
  Australian dollars per US dollar - 1.5419 (2003), 1.8406 (2002),
  1.9334 (2001), 1.7248 (2000), 1.55 (1999)

Fiscal year:
  1 July - 30 June

Communications Australia

Telephones - main lines in use:
  10.815 million (2003)

Telephones - mobile cellular:
  14.347 million (2003)

Telephone system:
  general assessment: excellent domestic and international service
  domestic: domestic satellite system; much use of radiotelephone in
  areas of low population density; rapid growth of mobile cellular
  telephones
  international: country code - 61; submarine cables to New Zealand,
  Papua New Guinea, and Indonesia; satellite earth stations - 10
  Intelsat (4 Indian Ocean and 6 Pacific Ocean), 2 Inmarsat (Indian
  and Pacific Ocean regions) (1998)

Radio broadcast stations:
  AM 262, FM 345, shortwave 1 (1998)

Radios:
  25.5 million (1997)

Television broadcast stations:
  104 (1997)

Televisions:
  10.15 million (1997)

Internet country code:
  .au

Internet hosts:
  2,847,763 (2003)

Internet Service Providers (ISPs):
  571 (2002)

Internet users:
  9.472 million (2002)

Transportation Australia

Railways:
  total: 44,015 km (5,290 km electrified)
  broad gauge: 1,957 km 1.600-m gauge
  standard gauge: 27,095 km 1.435-m gauge (2,828 km electrified)
  dual gauge: 213 km dual gauge (2003)
  narrow gauge: 14,957 km 1.067-m gauge (2,462 km electrified)

Highways:
  total: 811,603 km
  paved: 314,090 km (including 18,619 km of expressways)
  unpaved: 497,513 km (1999 est.)

Waterways:
  2,000 km (mainly used for recreation on Murray and Murray-Darling
  river systems) (2004)

Pipelines:
  condensate/gas 492 km; gas 28,680 km; liquid petroleum gas 240 km;
  oil 4,773 km; oil/gas/water 110 km (2004)

Ports and harbors:
  Adelaide, Brisbane, Cairns, Darwin, Devonport (Tasmania),
  Fremantle, Geelong, Hobart (Tasmania), Launceston (Tasmania),
  Mackay, Melbourne, Sydney, Townsville

Merchant marine:
  total: 52 ships (1,000 GRT or over) 1,531,461 GRT/1,999,409 DWT
  foreign-owned: United Kingdom 2, United States 12
  registered in other countries: 60 (2004 est.)
  by type: bulk 20, cargo 5, chemical tanker 3, combination bulk 2,
  container 3, liquefied gas 4, passenger 2, petroleum tanker 7, roll
  on/roll off 6

Airports:
  444 (2003 est.)

Airports - with paved runways: total: 305 over 3,047 m: 10 2,438 to 3,047 m: 12 1,524 to 2,437 m: 131 914 to 1,523 m: 139 under 914 m: 13 (2004 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways: total: 143 1,524 to 2,437 m: 17 914 to 1,523 m: 112 under 914 m: 14 (2004 est.)

Military Australia

Military branches:
  Australian Army, Royal Australian Navy, Royal Australian Air Force,
  new Special Operations Command (announced in December 2002)

Military manpower - military age and obligation:
  16 years of age for voluntary service (2001)

Military manpower - availability:
  males age 15-49: 5,061,810 (2004 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:
  males age 15-49: 4,356,671 (2004 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
  males: 140,182 (2004 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure:
  $14,120.1 million (2003)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP:
  2.8% (2003)

Transnational Issues Australia

Disputes - international:
  the 1999 maritime delimitation established partial maritime
  boundaries with East Timor over part of the Timor Gap but temporary
  resource-sharing agreements over an unreconciled area grant
  Australia 90% share of exploited gas reserves and hamper creation of
  a southern maritime boundary with Indonesia (see Ashmore and Cartier
  Islands disputes); Australia asserts a territorial claim to
  Antarctica and to its continental shelf (see Antarctica)

Illicit drugs:
  Tasmania is one of the world's major suppliers of licit opiate
  products; government maintains strict controls over areas of opium
  poppy cultivation and output of poppy straw concentrate

This page was last updated on 10 February, 2005

======================================================================

@Austria

Introduction Austria

Background:
  Once the center of power for the large Austro-Hungarian Empire,
  Austria was reduced to a small republic after its defeat in World
  War I. Following annexation by Nazi Germany in 1938 and subsequent
  occupation by the victorious Allies in 1945, Austria's status
  remained unclear for a decade. A State Treaty signed in 1955 ended
  the occupation, recognized Austria's independence, and forbade
  unification with Germany. A constitutional law that same year
  declared the country's "perpetual neutrality" as a condition for
  Soviet military withdrawal. Following the Soviet Union's collapse in
  1991 and Austria's entry into the European Union in 1995, some
  Austrian's have called into question this neutrality. A prosperous,
  democratic country, Austria entered the European Monetary Union in
  1999.

Geography Austria

Location:
  Central Europe, north of Italy and Slovenia

Geographic coordinates:
  47 20 N, 13 20 E

Map references:
  Europe

Area:
  total: 83,870 sq km
  water: 1,426 sq km
  land: 82,444 sq km

Area - comparative:
  slightly smaller than Maine

Land boundaries:
  total: 2,562 km
  border countries: Czech Republic 362 km, Germany 784 km, Hungary 366
  km, Italy 430 km, Liechtenstein 35 km, Slovakia 91 km, Slovenia 330
  km, Switzerland 164 km

Coastline:
  0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims:
  none (landlocked)

Climate:
  temperate; continental, cloudy; cold winters with frequent rain and
  some snow in lowlands and snow in mountains; moderate summers with
  occasional showers

Terrain:
  in the west and south mostly mountains (Alps); along the eastern
  and northern margins mostly flat or gently sloping

Elevation extremes:
  lowest point: Neusiedler See 115 m
  highest point: Grossglockner 3,798 m

Natural resources:
  oil, coal, lignite, timber, iron ore, copper, zinc, antimony,
  magnesite, tungsten, graphite, salt, hydropower

Land use: arable land: 16.91% permanent crops: 0.86% other: 82.23% (2001)

Irrigated land:
  457 sq km (2000 est.)

Natural hazards:
  landslides; avalanches; earthquakes

Environment - current issues: some forest degradation caused by air and soil pollution; soil pollution results from the use of agricultural chemicals; air pollution results from emissions by coal- and oil-fired power stations and industrial plants and from trucks transiting Austria between northern and southern Europe

Environment - international agreements:
  party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air
  Pollution-Sulfur 85, Air Pollution-Sulphur 94, Air
  Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Antarctic Treaty,
  Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol,
  Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification,
  Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship
  Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling
  signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants

Geography - note:
  landlocked; strategic location at the crossroads of central Europe
  with many easily traversable Alpine passes and valleys; major river
  is the Danube; population is concentrated on eastern lowlands
  because of steep slopes, poor soils, and low temperatures elsewhere

People Austria

Population:
  8,174,762 (July 2004 est.)

Age structure:
  0-14 years: 15.9% (male 665,680; female 633,560)
  15-64 years: 68.1% (male 2,799,411; female 2,764,426)
  65 years and over: 16% (male 518,748; female 792,937) (2004 est.)

Median age:
  total: 40 years
  male: 38.8 years
  female: 41.2 years (2004 est.)

Population growth rate:
  0.14% (2004 est.)

Birth rate:
  8.9 births/1,000 population (2004 est.)

Death rate:
  9.56 deaths/1,000 population (2004 est.)

Net migration rate:
  2 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2004 est.)

Sex ratio:
  at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
  under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
  15-64 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
  65 years and over: 0.65 male(s)/female
  total population: 0.95 male(s)/female (2004 est.)

Infant mortality rate:
  total: 4.68 deaths/1,000 live births
  female: 3.55 deaths/1,000 live births (2004 est.)
  male: 5.76 deaths/1,000 live births

Life expectancy at birth:
  total population: 78.87 years
  male: 76 years
  female: 81.89 years (2004 est.)

Total fertility rate:
  1.35 children born/woman (2004 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
  0.3% (2003 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
  10,000 (2003 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths:
  less than 100 (2003 est.)

Nationality:
  noun: Austrian(s)
  adjective: Austrian

Ethnic groups:
  German 88.5%, indigenous minorities 1.5% (includes Croatians,
  Slovenes, Hungarians, Czechs, Slovaks, Roma), recent immigrant
  groups 10% (includes Turks, Bosnians, Serbians, Croatians) (2001)

Religions:
  Roman Catholic 73.6%, Protestant 4.7%, Muslim 4.2%, other 0.1%,
  none 17.4%

Languages:
  German (official nationwide), Slovene (official in Carinthia),
  Croatian (official in Burgenland), Hungarian (official in Burgenland)

Literacy:
  definition: age 15 and over can read and write
  total population: 98%
  male: NA
  female: NA

Government Austria

Country name:
  conventional long form: Republic of Austria
  conventional short form: Austria
  local short form: Oesterreich
  local long form: Republik Oesterreich

Government type:
  federal republic

Capital:
  Vienna

Administrative divisions:
  9 states (Bundeslaender, singular - Bundesland); Burgenland,
  Kaernten, Niederoesterreich, Oberoesterreich, Salzburg, Steiermark,
  Tirol, Vorarlberg, Wien

Independence:
  1156 (Duchy of Austria founded); 12 November 1918 (republic
  proclaimed)

National holiday:
  National Day, 26 October (1955); note - commemorates the State
  Treaty restoring national sovereignty and the end of occupation and
  the passage of the law on permanent neutrality

Constitution:
  1920; revised 1929 (reinstated 1 May 1945)

Legal system:
  civil law system with Roman law origin; judicial review of
  legislative acts by the Constitutional Court; separate
  administrative and civil/penal supreme courts; accepts compulsory
  ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage:
  18 years of age; universal; compulsory for presidential elections

Executive branch:
  chief of state: President Heinz FISCHER (since 8 July 2004)
  head of government: Chancellor Wolfgang SCHUESSEL (OeVP)(since 4
  February 2000); Vice Chancellor Hubert GORBACH (since 21 October
  2003)
  cabinet: Council of Ministers chosen by the president on the advice
  of the chancellor
  elections: president elected by direct popular vote for a six-year
  term; presidential election last held 25 April 2004 (next to be held
  NA April 2010); chancellor traditionally chosen by the president
  from the plurality party in the National Council; vice chancellor
  chosen by the president on the advice of the chancellor
  note: government coalition - OeVP and FPOe
  election results: Heinz FISCHER elected president; percent of vote -
  Heinz FISCHER (SPOe) 52.4%, Benita FERRERO-WALDNER (OeVP) 47.6%

Legislative branch:
  bicameral Federal Assembly or Bundesversammlung consists of Federal
  Council or Bundesrat (62 members; members represent each of the
  states on the basis of population, but with each state having at
  least three representatives; members serve a five- or six-year term)
  and the National Council or Nationalrat (183 seats; members elected
  by direct popular vote to serve four-year terms)
  election results: National Council - percent of vote by party - OeVP
  42.3%, SPOe 36.5%, FPOe 10.0%, Greens 9.5%; seats by party - OeVP
  79, SPOe 69, FPOe 18, Greens 17
  elections: National Council - last held 24 November 2002 (next to be
  held in the fall of 2006)

Judicial branch:
  Supreme Judicial Court or Oberster Gerichtshof; Administrative
  Court or Verwaltungsgerichtshof; Constitutional Court or
  Verfassungsgerichtshof

Political parties and leaders:
  Austrian People's Party or OeVP [Wolfgang SCHUESSEL]; Freedom Party
  of Austria or FPOe [Ursula HAUBNER]; Social Democratic Party of
  Austria or SPOe [Alfred GUSENBAUER]; The Greens [Alexander VAN DER
  BELLEN]

Political pressure groups and leaders:
  Austrian Trade Union Federation (nominally independent but
  primarily Socialist) or OeGB; Federal Economic Chamber;
  OeVP-oriented League of Austrian Industrialists or VOeI; Roman
  Catholic Church, including its chief lay organization, Catholic
  Action; three composite leagues of the Austrian People's Party or
  OeVP representing business, labor, and farmers and other
  non-government organizations in the areas of environment and human
  rights

International organization participation:
  AfDB, AsDB, Australia Group, BIS, BSEC (observer), CE, CEI, CERN,
  EAPC, EBRD, EIB, EMU, ESA, EU, FAO, G- 9, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO,
  ICC, ICCt, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO,
  Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, MIGA, MINURSO, NAM (guest), NEA, NSG,
  OAS (observer), OECD, OPCW, OSCE, Paris Club, PCA, PFP, UN, UNCTAD,
  UNDOF, UNESCO, UNFICYP, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNITAR, UNMEE, UNMIK, UNOMIG,
  UNTSO, UPU, WCL, WCO, WEU (observer), WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO,
  WTO, ZC

Diplomatic representation in the US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador Eva NOWOTNY
  chancery: 3524 International Court NW, Washington, DC 20008-3035
  consulate(s) general: Chicago, Los Angeles, and New York
  FAX: [1] (202) 895-6750
  telephone: [1] (202) 895-6700

Diplomatic representation from the US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador William Lee LYONS BROWN, Jr.
  embassy: Boltzmanngasse 16, A-1090, Vienna
  mailing address: use embassy street address
  telephone: [43] (1) 31339-0, 31375, 31335
  FAX: [43] (1) 3100682

Flag description:
  three equal horizontal bands of red (top), white, and red

Economy Austria

Economy - overview:
  Austria, with its well-developed market economy and high standard
  of living, is closely tied to other EU economies, especially
  Germany's. Membership in the EU has drawn an influx of foreign
  investors attracted by Austria's access to the single European
  market and proximity to EU aspirant economies. Slow growth in
  Germany and elsewhere in the world held the economy to 0.7% growth
  in 2001, 1.4% in 2002, and again less than 1% in 2003. However,
  recent data signal that the recovery has started. The government
  estimates economic growth in 2004 of 1.7-2.1% and of 2.5% in 2005.
  The government is planning a EURO 500 billion income tax cut in
  2004, though some economists doubt it will have stimulative effects
  in 2004, because it will be offset by higher health insurance
  contributions and higher taxes on energy. For 2005, Austria plans a
  tax cut of EURO 2.5 billion and harmonization of the various pension
  schemes. To meet increased competition from both EU and Central
  European countries, particularly the new EU members, Austria will
  need to emphasize knowledge-based sectors of the economy, continue
  to deregulate the service sector, and lower its tax burden. A key
  issue is the encouragement of much greater participation in the
  labor market by its aging population.

GDP:
  purchasing power parity - $245.3 billion (2003 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:
  0.7% (2003 est.)

GDP - per capita:
  purchasing power parity - $30,000 (2003 est.)

GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 3.5% industry: 25.7% services: 70.9% (2003 est.)

Investment (gross fixed):
  22.5% of GDP (2003)

Population below poverty line:
  3.9% (1999)

Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: 2.5% highest 10%: 22.5% (1995)

Distribution of family income - Gini index:
  31 (1995)

Inflation rate (consumer prices):
  1.4% (2003 est.)

Labor force:
  3.425 million (2003)

Labor force - by occupation: agriculture and forestry 4%, industry and crafts 29%, services 67% (2001 est.)

Unemployment rate:
  4.4% (2003 est.)

Budget:
  revenues: $67 billion
  expenditures: $70 billion, including capital expenditures of NA
  (2004 est.)

Public debt:
  67.6% of GDP (2003)

Agriculture - products:
  grains, potatoes, sugar beets, wine, fruit; dairy products, cattle,
  pigs, poultry; lumber

Industries:
  construction, machinery, vehicles and parts, food, chemicals,
  lumber and wood processing, paper and paperboard, communications
  equipment, tourism

Industrial production growth rate:
  1.9% (2003 est.)

Electricity - production:
  58.75 billion kWh (2001)

Electricity - consumption:
  54.85 billion kWh (2001)

Electricity - exports:
  14.25 billion kWh (2001)

Electricity - imports:
  14.47 billion kWh (2001)

Oil - production:
  20,670 bbl/day (2001 est.)

Oil - consumption:
  262,400 bbl/day (2001 est.)

Oil - exports:
  35,470 bbl/day (2001)

Oil - imports:
  262,000 bbl/day (2001)

Oil - proved reserves:
  85.69 million bbl (1 January 2002)

Natural gas - production:
  1.731 billion cu m (2001 est.)

Natural gas - consumption:
  7.81 billion cu m (2001 est.)

Natural gas - exports:
  403 million cu m (2001 est.)

Natural gas - imports:
  6.033 billion cu m (2001 est.)

Natural gas - proved reserves:
  24.9 billion cu m (1 January 2002)

Current account balance:
  $-1.353 billion (2003)

Exports:
  $83.45 billion f.o.b. (2003 est.)

Exports - commodities:
  machinery and equipment, motor vehicles and parts, paper and
  paperboard, metal goods, chemicals, iron and steel; textiles,
  foodstuffs

Exports - partners:
  Germany 31.9%, Italy 9.6%, Switzerland 5.2%, US 4.9%, France 4.8%,
  UK 4.7% (2003)

Imports:
  $81.59 billion f.o.b. (2003 est.)

Imports - commodities:
  machinery and equipment, motor vehicles, chemicals, metal goods,
  oil and oil products; foodstuffs

Imports - partners:
  Germany 43.2%, Italy 6.7%, Hungary 5.4%, Switzerland 5%,
  Netherlands 4.2% (2003)

Reserves of foreign exchange & gold:
  $12.73 billion (2003)

Debt - external:
  $15.5 billion (2003 est.)

Economic aid - donor:
  ODA, $520 million (2002)

Currency:
  euro (EUR)
  note: on 1 January 1999, the European Monetary Union introduced the
  euro as a common currency to be used by the financial institutions
  of member countries; as of 1 January 2002, the euro became the only
  legal tender in EMU member countries, including Austria

Currency code:
  EUR

Exchange rates:
  euros per US dollar - 0.886 (2003), 1.0626 (2002), 1.1175 (2001),
  1.0854 (2000), 0.9386 (1999)

Fiscal year:
  calendar year

Communications Austria

Telephones - main lines in use:
  3.881 million (2003)

Telephones - mobile cellular:
  7,094,500 (2003)

Telephone system:
  general assessment: highly developed and efficient
  domestic: there are 48 main lines for every 100 persons; the fiber
  optic net is very extensive; all telephone applications and Internet
  services are available
  international: country code - 43; satellite earth stations - 2
  Intelsat (1 Atlantic Ocean and 1 Indian Ocean) and 1 Eutelsat; in
  addition, there are about 600 VSAT (very small aperture terminals)
  (2002)

Radio broadcast stations:
  AM 2, FM 65 (plus several hundred repeaters), shortwave 1 (2001)

Radios:
  6.08 million (1997)

Television broadcast stations:
  10 (plus more than 1,000 repeaters) (2001)

Televisions:
  4.25 million (1997)

Internet country code:
  .at

Internet hosts:
  387,006 (2004)

Internet Service Providers (ISPs):
  37 (2000)

Internet users:
  3.73 million (2003)

Transportation Austria

Railways:
  total: 6,021 km (3,552 km electrified)
  standard gauge: 5,565 km 1.435-m gauge (3,430 km electrified)
  narrow gauge: 34 km 1.000-m gauge (28 km electrified); 422 km
  0.760-m gauge (94 km electrified) (2003)

Highways:
  total: 200,000 km
  paved: 200,000 km (including 1,633 km of expressways)
  unpaved: 0 km (2000)

Waterways:
  358 km (2003)

Pipelines:
  gas 2,722 km; oil 663 km; refined products 149 km (2004)

Ports and harbors:
  Enns, Krems, Linz, Vienna

Merchant marine:
  total: 6 ships (1,000 GRT or over) 29,624 GRT/37,425 DWT
  by type: cargo 4, container 2
  registered in other countries: 34 (2004 est.)
  foreign-owned: Netherlands 1

Airports:
  55 (2003 est.)

Airports - with paved runways: total: 24 over 3,047 m: 1 2,438 to 3,047 m: 5 914 to 1,523 m: 3 under 914 m: 14 (2004 est.) 1,524 to 2,437 m: 1

Airports - with unpaved runways: total: 31 1,524 to 2,437 m: 1 914 to 1,523 m: 3 under 914 m: 27 (2004 est.)

Heliports: 1 (2003 est.)

Military Austria

Military branches:
  Land Forces (KdoLdSK), Air Forces (KdoLuSK)

Military manpower - military age and obligation: 18 years of age for compulsory military service; 16 years of age for voluntary service; from 2007, at the earliest, compulsory military service obligation will be reduced from 8 months to 6 (June 2004)

Military manpower - availability:
  males age 15-49: 2,066,467 (2004 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:
  males age 15-49: 1,699,384 (2004 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
  males: 48,981 (2004 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure:
  $1.497 billion (FY01/02)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP:
  0.85% (June 2004)

Transnational Issues Austria

Disputes - international:
  minor disputes with the Czech Republic over the Temelin Nuclear
  Power Plant

Illicit drugs:
  transshipment point for Southwest Asian heroin and South American
  cocaine destined for Western Europe

This page was last updated on 10 February, 2005

======================================================================

@Azerbaijan

Introduction Azerbaijan

Background:
  Azerbaijan - a nation with a Turkic and majority-Muslim population
  - regained its independence after the collapse of the Soviet Union
  in 1991. Despite a 1994 cease-fire, Azerbaijan has yet to resolve
  its conflict with Armenia over the Azerbaijani Nagorno-Karabakh
  enclave (largely Armenian populated). Azerbaijan has lost 16% of its
  territory and must support some 800,000 refugees and internally
  displaced persons as a result of the conflict. Corruption is
  ubiquitous and the promise of widespread wealth from Azerbaijan's
  undeveloped petroleum resources remains largely unfulfilled.

Geography Azerbaijan

Location:
  Southwestern Asia, bordering the Caspian Sea, between Iran and
  Russia, with a small European portion north of the Caucasus range

Geographic coordinates:
  40 30 N, 47 30 E

Map references:
  Asia

Area:
  total: 86,600 sq km
  note: includes the exclave of Naxcivan Autonomous Republic and the
  Nagorno-Karabakh region; the region's autonomy was abolished by
  Azerbaijani Supreme Soviet on 26 November 1991
  water: 500 sq km
  land: 86,100 sq km

Area - comparative:
  slightly smaller than Maine

Land boundaries:
  total: 2,013 km
  border countries: Armenia (with Azerbaijan-proper) 566 km, Armenia
  (with Azerbaijan-Naxcivan exclave) 221 km, Georgia 322 km, Iran
  (with Azerbaijan-proper) 432 km, Iran (with Azerbaijan-Naxcivan
  exclave) 179 km, Russia 284 km, Turkey 9 km

Coastline:
  0 km (landlocked); note - Azerbaijan borders the Caspian Sea (800
  km, est.)

Climate:
  dry, semiarid steppe

Terrain:
  large, flat Kur-Araz Ovaligi (Kura-Araks Lowland) (much of it below
  sea level) with Great Caucasus Mountains to the north, Qarabag
  Yaylasi (Karabakh Upland) in west; Baku lies on Abseron Yasaqligi
  (Apsheron Peninsula) that juts into Caspian Sea

Elevation extremes: lowest point: Caspian Sea -28 m highest point: Bazarduzu Dagi 4,485 m

Natural resources: petroleum, natural gas, iron ore, nonferrous metals, alumina

Land use: arable land: 19.63% permanent crops: 2.71% other: 77.66% (2001)

Irrigated land:
  14,550 sq km (1998 est.)

Natural hazards:
  droughts

Environment - current issues:
  local scientists consider the Abseron Yasaqligi (Apsheron
  Peninsula) (including Baku and Sumqayit) and the Caspian Sea to be
  the ecologically most devastated area in the world because of severe
  air, soil, and water pollution; soil pollution results from oil
  spills, from the use of DDT as a pesticide, and from toxic
  defoliants used in the production of cotton

Environment - international agreements:
  party to: Air Pollution, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate
  Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species,
  Hazardous Wastes, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands
  signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - note:
  both the main area of the country and the Naxcivan exclave are
  landlocked

People Azerbaijan

Population:
  7,868,385 (July 2004 est.)

Age structure:
  0-14 years: 27% (male 1,081,579; female 1,046,270)
  15-64 years: 65.2% (male 2,499,618; female 2,630,386)
  65 years and over: 7.8% (male 242,253; female 368,279) (2004 est.)

Median age:
  total: 27.3 years
  male: 25.9 years
  female: 28.8 years (2004 est.)

Population growth rate:
  0.52% (2004 est.)

Birth rate:
  19.81 births/1,000 population (2004 est.)

Death rate:
  9.76 deaths/1,000 population (2004 est.)

Net migration rate:
  -4.9 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2004 est.)

Sex ratio:
  at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
  under 15 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
  15-64 years: 0.95 male(s)/female
  65 years and over: 0.66 male(s)/female
  total population: 0.95 male(s)/female (2004 est.)

Infant mortality rate:
  total: 82.07 deaths/1,000 live births
  female: 80.06 deaths/1,000 live births (2004 est.)
  male: 83.99 deaths/1,000 live births

Life expectancy at birth:
  total population: 63.25 years
  male: 59.09 years
  female: 67.62 years (2004 est.)

Total fertility rate:
  2.39 children born/woman (2004 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
  less than 0.1% (2003 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
  1,400 (2003 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths:
  less than 100 (2001 est.)

Nationality:
  noun: Azerbaijani(s)
  adjective: Azerbaijani

Ethnic groups:
  Azeri 90%, Dagestani 3.2%, Russian 2.5%, Armenian 2%, other 2.3%
  (1998 est.)
  note: almost all Armenians live in the separatist Nagorno-Karabakh
  region

Religions:
  Muslim 93.4%, Russian Orthodox 2.5%, Armenian Orthodox 2.3%, other
  1.8% (1995 est.)
  note: religious affiliation is still nominal in Azerbaijan;
  percentages for actual practicing adherents are much lower

Languages:
  Azerbaijani (Azeri) 89%, Russian 3%, Armenian 2%, other 6% (1995
  est.)

Literacy:
  definition: age 15 and over can read and write
  total population: 97%
  male: 99%
  female: 96% (1989 est.)

Government Azerbaijan

Country name:
  conventional long form: Republic of Azerbaijan
  conventional short form: Azerbaijan
  local long form: Azarbaycan Respublikasi
  former: Azerbaijan Soviet Socialist Republic
  local short form: none

Government type:
  republic

Capital:
  Baku (Baki)

Administrative divisions:
  59 rayons (rayonlar; rayon - singular), 11 cities* (saharlar; sahar
  - singular), 1 autonomous republic** (muxtar respublika)
  : rayons: Abseron Rayonu, Agcabadi Rayonu, Agdam Rayonu, Agdas
  Rayonu, Agstafa Rayonu, Agsu Rayonu, Astara Rayonu, Balakan Rayonu,
  Barda Rayonu, Beylaqan Rayonu, Bilasuvar Rayonu, Cabrayil Rayonu,
  Calilabad Rayonu, Daskasan Rayonu, Davaci Rayonu, Fuzuli Rayonu,
  Gadabay Rayonu, Goranboy Rayonu, Goycay Rayonu, Haciqabul Rayonu,
  Imisli Rayonu, Ismayilli Rayonu, Kalbacar Rayonu, Kurdamir Rayonu,
  Lacin Rayonu, Lankaran Rayonu, Lerik Rayonu, Masalli Rayonu,
  Neftcala Rayonu, Oguz Rayonu, Qabala Rayonu, Qax Rayonu, Qazax
  Rayonu, Qobustan Rayonu, Quba Rayonu, Qubadli Rayonu, Qusar Rayonu,
  Saatli Rayonu, Sabirabad Rayonu, Saki Rayonu, Salyan Rayonu, Samaxi
  Rayonu, Samkir Rayonu, Samux Rayonu, Siyazan Rayonu, Susa Rayonu,
  Tartar Rayonu, Tovuz Rayonu, Ucar Rayonu, Xacmaz Rayonu, Xanlar
  Rayonu, Xizi Rayonu, Xocali Rayonu, Xocavand Rayonu, Yardimli
  Rayonu, Yevlax Rayonu, Zangilan Rayonu, Zaqatala Rayonu, Zardab
  Rayonu
  : cities: Ali Bayramli Sahari, Baki Sahari, Ganca Sahari, Lankaran
  Sahari, Mingacevir Sahari, Naftalan Sahari, Saki Sahari, Sumqayit
  Sahari, Susa Sahari, Xankandi Sahari, Yevlax Sahari
  : autonomous republic: Naxcivan Muxtar Respublikasi

Independence:
  30 August 1991 (from Soviet Union)

National holiday:
  Founding of the Democratic Republic of Azerbaidzhan, 28 May (1918)

Constitution:
  adopted 12 November 1995

Legal system:
  based on civil law system

Suffrage:
  18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
  chief of state: President Ilham ALIYEV (since 31 October 2003)
  cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president and
  confirmed by the National Assembly
  election results: Ilham ALIYEV elected president; percent of vote -
  Ilham ALIYEV 76.8%, Isa GAMBAR 14%
  elections: president elected by popular vote to a five-year term;
  election last held 15 October 2003 (next to be held NA October
  2008); prime minister and first deputy prime ministers appointed by
  the president and confirmed by the National Assembly
  head of government: Prime Minister Artur RASIZADE (since 4 November
  2003); First Deputy Prime Minister Abbas ABBASOV (since 10 November
  2003)

Legislative branch:
  unicameral National Assembly or Milli Mejlis (125 seats; members
  elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms)
  election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party -
  NAP and allies 108, APF "Reform" 6, CSP 3, PNIA 2, Musavat Party 2,
  CPA 2, APF "Classic" 1, Compatriot Party 1
  elections: last held 4 November 2000 (next to be held NA November
  2005)
  note: 100 members of the current parliament were elected on the
  basis of single mandate constituencies, while 25 were elected based
  on proportional balloting; as a result of a 24 August 2002 national
  referendum on changes to the constitution, all 125 members of the
  next parliament will be elected from single mandate constituencies
  note: PNIA, Musavat, and APF "Classic" parties refused to take their
  seats

Judicial branch:
  Supreme Court

Political parties and leaders:
  Azerbaijan Popular Front or APF [Ali KARIMLI, leader of "Reform"
  faction; Mirmahmud MIRALI-OGLU, leader of "Classic" faction]; Civic
  Solidarity Party or CSP [Sabir RUSTAMKHANLY]; Civic Union Party
  [Ayaz MUTALIBOV]; Communist Party of Azerbaijan or CPA [Ramiz
  AHMADOV]; Compatriot Party [Mais SAFARLI]; Democratic Party for
  Azerbaijan or DPA [Rasul QULIYEV, chairman]; Justice Party [Ilyas
  ISMAILOV]; Liberal Party of Azerbaijan [Lala Shovkat HACIYEVA];
  Musavat [Isa GAMBAR, chairman]; New Azerbaijan Party or NAP
  [vacant]; Party for National Independence of Azerbaijan or PNIA
  [Etibar MAMMADLI, chairman]; Social Democratic Party of Azerbaijan
  or SDP [Araz ALIZADE and Ayaz MUTALIBOV]
  note: opposition parties regularly factionalize and form new parties

Political pressure groups and leaders:
  Sadval, Lezgin movement; self-proclaimed Armenian Nagorno-Karabakh
  Republic; Talysh independence movement; Union of Pro-Azerbaijani
  Forces (UPAF)

International organization participation:
  AsDB, BSEC, CE, CIS, EAPC, EBRD, ECO, FAO, GUUAM, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO,
  ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol,
  IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, MIGA, OAS (observer), OIC, OPCW, OSCE, PFP, UN,
  UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO
  (observer)

Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Hafiz PASHAYEV chancery: 2741 34th Street NW, Washington, DC 20008 FAX: [1] (202) 337-5911 telephone: [1] (202) 337-3500

Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Reno L. HARNISH III embassy: 83 Azadlyg Prospecti, Baku AZ1007 mailing address: American Embassy Baku, Department of State, 7050 Baku Place, Washington, DC 20521-7050 telephone: [9] (9412) 98-03-35, 36, 37 FAX: [9] (9412) 656-671

Flag description:
  three equal horizontal bands of blue (top), red, and green; a
  crescent and eight-pointed star in white are centered in red band

Economy Azerbaijan

Economy - overview:
  Azerbaijan's number one export is oil. Azerbaijan's oil production
  declined through 1997 but has registered an increase every year
  since. Negotiation of production-sharing arrangements (PSAs) with
  foreign firms, which have thus far committed $60 billion to
  long-term oilfield development, should generate the funds needed to
  spur future industrial development. Oil production under the first
  of these PSAs, with the Azerbaijan International Operating Company,
  began in November 1997. Azerbaijan shares all the formidable
  problems of the former Soviet republics in making the transition
  from a command to a market economy, but its considerable energy
  resources brighten its long-term prospects. Baku has only recently
  begun making progress on economic reform, and old economic ties and
  structures are slowly being replaced. One obstacle to economic
  progress is the need for stepped up foreign investment in the
  non-energy sector. A second obstacle is the continuing conflict with
  Armenia over the Nagorno-Karabakh region. Trade with Russia and the
  other former Soviet republics is declining in importance while trade
  is building with Turkey and the nations of Europe. Long-term
  prospects will depend on world oil prices, the location of new
  pipelines in the region, and Azerbaijan's ability to manage its oil
  wealth.

GDP:
  purchasing power parity - $26.65 billion (2003 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:
  11.2% (2003 est.)

GDP - per capita:
  purchasing power parity - $3,400 (2003 est.)

GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 14.1% industry: 45.7% services: 40.2% (2002 est.)

Investment (gross fixed):
  50.4% of GDP (2003)

Population below poverty line:
  49% (2002 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: 2.8% highest 10%: 27.8% (1995)

Distribution of family income - Gini index:
  36 (1995)

Inflation rate (consumer prices):
  2.1% (2003 est.)

Labor force:
  4.99 million (2003)

Labor force - by occupation:
  agriculture and forestry 41%, industry 7%, services 52% (2001)

Unemployment rate:
  1.1% (official rate is 1.2%) (2003 est.)

Budget:
  revenues: $2.063 billion
  expenditures: $2.202 billion, including capital expenditures of NA
  (2003)

Public debt:
  16.3% of GDP (2003 est.)

Agriculture - products:
  cotton, grain, rice, grapes, fruit, vegetables, tea, tobacco;
  cattle, pigs, sheep, goats

Industries:
  petroleum and natural gas, petroleum products, oilfield equipment;
  steel, iron ore, cement; chemicals and petrochemicals; textiles

Industrial production growth rate:
  6.1% (2003 est.)

Electricity - production:
  18.23 billion kWh (2001)

Electricity - consumption:
  16.65 billion kWh (2001)

Electricity - exports:
  700 million kWh (2001)

Electricity - imports:
  400 million kWh (2001)

Oil - production:
  307,200 bbl/day (2001 est.)

Oil - consumption:
  140,000 bbl/day (2001 est.)

Oil - exports:
  NA (2001)

Oil - imports:
  NA (2001)

Oil - proved reserves:
  589 million bbl (1 January 2002)

Natural gas - production:
  5.72 billion cu m (2001 est.)

Natural gas - consumption:
  6.72 billion cu m (2001 est.)

Natural gas - exports:
  0 cu m (2001 est.)

Natural gas - imports:
  1 billion cu m (2001 est.)

Natural gas - proved reserves:
  62.3 billion cu m (1 January 2002)

Current account balance:
  $-2.021 billion (2003)

Exports:
  $2.605 billion f.o.b. (2003 est.)

Exports - commodities:
  oil and gas 90%, machinery, cotton, foodstuffs

Exports - partners:
  Italy 34.1%, Czech Republic 11.4%, Germany 10.5%, France 8.2%,
  Turkey 5.9%, Georgia 4.5%, Russia 4.5% (2003)

Imports:
  $2.498 billion f.o.b. (2003 est.)

Imports - commodities:
  machinery and equipment, oil products, foodstuffs, metals, chemicals

Imports - partners:
  Russia 15.5%, Turkey 12%, UK 8.7%, Germany 8.1%, China 7.8%,
  Ukraine 5.4%, Italy 4.6%, US 4.6%, Kazakhstan 4.3% (2003)

Reserves of foreign exchange & gold:
  $820.9 million (2003)

Debt - external:
  $1.575 billion (2003)

Economic aid - recipient:
  ODA, $140 million (2000 est.)

Currency:
  Azerbaijani manat (AZM)

Currency code:
  AZM

Exchange rates:
  Azerbaijani manats per US dollar - 4,910.73 (2003), 4,860.82
  (2002), 4,656.58 (2001), 4,474.15 (2000), 4,120.17 (1999)

Fiscal year:
  calendar year

Communications Azerbaijan

Telephones - main lines in use:
  923,800 (2002)

Telephones - mobile cellular:
  870,000 (2002)

Telephone system:
  general assessment: inadequate; requires considerable expansion and
  modernization; teledensity of 10 main lines per 100 persons is low
  (2002)
  domestic: the majority of telephones are in Baku and other
  industrial centers - about 700 villages still without public
  telephone service; satellite service connects Baku to a modern
  switch in its exclave of Naxcivan
  international: country code - 994; the old Soviet system of cable
  and microwave is still serviceable; a satellite connection to Turkey
  enables Baku to reach about 200 additional countries, some of which
  are directly connected to Baku by satellite providers other than
  Turkey (1997)

Radio broadcast stations:
  AM 10, FM 17, shortwave 1 (1998)

Radios:
  175,000 (1997)

Television broadcast stations:
  2 (1997)

Televisions:
  170,000 (1997)

Internet country code:
  .az

Internet hosts:
  586 (2004)

Internet Service Providers (ISPs):
  2 (2000)

Internet users:
  300,000 (2002)

Transportation Azerbaijan

Railways: total: 2,957 km broad gauge: 2,957 km 1.520-m gauge (1,278 km electrified) (2003)

Highways: total: 24,981 km paved: 23,057 km unpaved: 1,924 km (2000)

Pipelines:
  gas 4,451 km; oil 1,518 km (2004)

Ports and harbors:
  Baku (Baki)

Merchant marine:
  total: 56 ships (1,000 GRT or over) 253,004 GRT/318,922 DWT
  by type: cargo 14, petroleum tanker 40, roll on/roll off 2
  foreign-owned: Russia 1 (2004 est.)

Airports:
  67 (2003 est.)

Airports - with paved runways: total: 27 over 3,047 m: 2 2,438 to 3,047 m: 6 914 to 1,523 m: 3 under 914 m: 1 (2003 est.) 1,524 to 2,437 m: 15

Airports - with unpaved runways:
  total: 40
  2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
  1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
  under 914 m: 32 (2003 est.)
  914 to 1,523 m: 6

Heliports:
  2 (2003 est.)

Military Azerbaijan

Military branches:
  Army, Navy, Air and Air Defense Forces

Military manpower - military age and obligation: 18 years of age for compulsory and voluntary military service; law passed December 2001 raises maximum conscription age from 28 to 35 (December 2001)

Military manpower - availability:
  males age 15-49: 2,187,847 (2004 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:
  males age 15-49: 1,748,567 (2004 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
  males: 83,131 (2004 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure:
  $121 million (FY99)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP:
  2.6% (FY99)

Transnational Issues Azerbaijan

Disputes - international:
  Armenia supports ethnic Armenian secessionists in Nagorno-Karabakh
  and militarily occupies about one-sixth of Azerbaijan - Organization
  for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE) continues to mediate
  dispute; Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, and Russia ratify Caspian seabed
  delimitation treaties based on equidistance, while Iran continues to
  insist on an even one-fifth allocation and challenges Azerbaijan's
  hydrocarbon exploration in disputed waters; talks resume with
  Turkmenistan on dividing the seabed in 2004 as both sides await an
  ICJ decision on contested oilfields in the middle of the Caspian;
  Azerbaijan protests Georgian constructions at the Red Bridge
  crossing and several other small segments of boundary, which remain
  unresolved until delimitation

Refugees and internally displaced persons:
  IDPs: 571,000 (conflict with Armenia over Nagorno-Karabakh) (2004)

Illicit drugs:
  limited illicit cultivation of cannabis and opium poppy, mostly for
  CIS consumption; small government eradication program; transit point
  for Southwest Asian opiates bound for Russia and to a lesser extent
  the rest of Europe

This page was last updated on 10 February, 2005

======================================================================

@Bahamas, The

Introduction Bahamas, The

Background:
  Arawak Indians inhabited the islands when Christopher Columbus
  first set foot in the New World on San Salvador in 1492. British
  settlement of the islands began in 1647; the islands became a colony
  in 1783. Since attaining independence from the UK in 1973, The
  Bahamas have prospered through tourism and international banking and
  investment management. Because of its geography, the country is a
  major transshipment point for illegal drugs, particularly shipments
  to the US, and its territory is used for smuggling illegal migrants
  into the US.

Geography Bahamas, The

Location:
  Caribbean, chain of islands in the North Atlantic Ocean, southeast
  of Florida, northeast of Cuba

Geographic coordinates:
  24 15 N, 76 00 W

Map references:
  Central America and the Caribbean

Area:
  total: 13,940 sq km
  water: 3,870 sq km
  land: 10,070 sq km

Area - comparative:
  slightly smaller than Connecticut

Land boundaries:
  0 km

Coastline:
  3,542 km

Maritime claims: territorial sea: 12 nm exclusive economic zone: 200 nm

Climate:
  tropical marine; moderated by warm waters of Gulf Stream

Terrain:
  long, flat coral formations with some low rounded hills

Elevation extremes: lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m highest point: Mount Alvernia, on Cat Island 63 m

Natural resources: salt, aragonite, timber, arable land

Land use: arable land: 0.8% permanent crops: 0.4% other: 98.8% (2001)

Irrigated land:
  NA sq km

Natural hazards:
  hurricanes and other tropical storms cause extensive flood and wind
  damage

Environment - current issues:
  coral reef decay; solid waste disposal

Environment - international agreements:
  party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto
  Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law
  of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
  signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - note:
  strategic location adjacent to US and Cuba; extensive island chain
  of which 30 are inhabited

People Bahamas, The

Population:
  299,697
  note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the
  effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower
  life expectancy, higher infant mortality and death rates, lower
  population and growth rates, and changes in the distribution of
  population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (July
  2004 est.)

Age structure:
  0-14 years: 28.3% (male 42,474; female 42,423)
  15-64 years: 65.7% (male 96,825; female 99,985)
  65 years and over: 6% (male 7,351; female 10,639) (2004 est.)

Median age:
  total: 27.3 years
  male: 26.5 years
  female: 28 years (2004 est.)

Population growth rate:
  0.72% (2004 est.)

Birth rate:
  18.22 births/1,000 population (2004 est.)

Death rate:
  8.82 deaths/1,000 population (2004 est.)

Net migration rate:
  -2.2 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2004 est.)

Sex ratio:
  at birth: 1.02 male(s)/female
  under 15 years: 1 male(s)/female
  15-64 years: 0.97 male(s)/female
  65 years and over: 0.69 male(s)/female
  total population: 0.96 male(s)/female (2004 est.)

Infant mortality rate:
  total: 25.7 deaths/1,000 live births
  female: 19.55 deaths/1,000 live births (2004 est.)
  male: 31.73 deaths/1,000 live births

Life expectancy at birth:
  total population: 65.63 years
  male: 62.21 years
  female: 69.11 years (2004 est.)

Total fertility rate:
  2.23 children born/woman (2004 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
  3% (2003 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
  5,600 (2003 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths:
  less than 200 (2003 est.)

Nationality: noun: Bahamian(s) adjective: Bahamian

Ethnic groups:
  black 85%, white 12%, Asian and Hispanic 3%

Religions:
  Baptist 32%, Anglican 20%, Roman Catholic 19%, Methodist 6%, Church
  of God 6%, other Protestant 12%, none or unknown 3%, other 2%

Languages:
  English (official), Creole (among Haitian immigrants)

Literacy:
  definition: age 15 and over can read and write
  total population: 95.6%
  male: 94.7%
  female: 96.5% (2003 est.)

Government Bahamas, The

Country name:
  conventional long form: Commonwealth of The Bahamas
  conventional short form: The Bahamas

Government type:
  constitutional parliamentary democracy

Capital:
  Nassau

Administrative divisions:
  21 districts; Acklins and Crooked Islands, Bimini, Cat Island,
  Exuma, Freeport, Fresh Creek, Governor's Harbour, Green Turtle Cay,
  Harbour Island, High Rock, Inagua, Kemps Bay, Long Island, Marsh
  Harbour, Mayaguana, New Providence, Nichollstown and Berry Islands,
  Ragged Island, Rock Sound, Sandy Point, San Salvador and Rum Cay

Independence:
  10 July 1973 (from UK)

National holiday:
  Independence Day, 10 July (1973)

Constitution:
  10 July 1973

Legal system:
  based on English common law

Suffrage:
  18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
  chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952),
  represented by Governor General Dame Ivy DUMONT (since NA May 2002)
  head of government: Prime Minister Perry CHRISTIE (since 3 May 2002)
  and Deputy Prime Minister Cynthia PRATT (since 7 May 2002)
  cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the governor general on the prime
  minister's recommendation
  elections: none; the monarch is hereditary; governor general
  appointed by the monarch; following legislative elections, the
  leader of the majority party or the leader of the majority coalition
  is usually appointed prime minister by the governor general; the
  prime minister recommends the deputy prime minister

Legislative branch:
  bicameral Parliament consists of the Senate (16-member body
  appointed by the governor general upon the advice of the prime
  minister and the opposition leader for five-year terms) and the
  House of Assembly (40 seats; members elected by direct popular vote
  to serve five-year terms); the government may dissolve the
  parliament and call elections at any time
  elections: last held 1 May 2002 (next to be held by May 2007)
  election results: percent of vote by party - PLP 50.8%, FNM 41.1%,
  independents 5.2%; seats by party - PLP 29, FNM 7, independents 4

Judicial branch:
  Supreme Court; Court of Appeal; magistrates courts

Political parties and leaders:
  Free National Movement or FNM [Tommy TURNQUEST]; Progressive
  Liberal Party or PLP [Perry CHRISTIE]

Political pressure groups and leaders:
  NA

International organization participation:
  ACP, C, Caricom, CDB, FAO, G-77, IADB, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt
  (signatory), ICFTU, ICRM, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOM,
  IOC, ITU, LAES, MIGA, NAM, OAS, OPANAL, OPCW (signatory), UN,
  UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO (observer)

Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Joshua SEARS consulate(s) general: Miami and New York FAX: [1] (202) 319-2668 telephone: [1] (202) 319-2660 chancery: 2220 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008

Diplomatic representation from the US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador John D. ROOD
  embassy: 42 Queen Street, Nassau
  mailing address: local or express mail address: P. O. Box N-8197,
  Nassau; Department of State, 3370 Nassau Place, Washington, DC
  20521-3370
  telephone: [1] (242) 322-1181, 328-2206 (after hours)
  FAX: [1] (242) 356-0222

Flag description:
  three equal horizontal bands of aquamarine (top), gold, and
  aquamarine, with a black equilateral triangle based on the hoist side

Economy Bahamas, The

Economy - overview:
  The Bahamas is a stable, developing nation with an economy heavily
  dependent on tourism and offshore banking. Tourism alone accounts
  for more than 60% of GDP and directly or indirectly employs half of
  the archipelago's labor force. Steady growth in tourism receipts and
  a boom in construction of new hotels, resorts, and residences had
  led to solid GDP growth in recent years, but the slowdown in the US
  economy and the attacks of 11 September 2001 held back growth in
  these sectors in 2001-03. Financial services constitute the
  second-most important sector of the Bahamian economy, accounting for
  about 15% of GDP. However, since December 2000, when the government
  enacted new regulations on the financial sector, many international
  businesses have left The Bahamas. Manufacturing and agriculture
  together contribute approximately a tenth of GDP and show little
  growth, despite government incentives aimed at those sectors.
  Overall growth prospects in the short run rest heavily on the
  fortunes of the tourism sector, which depends on growth in the US,
  the source of more than 80% of the visitors. In addition to tourism
  and banking, the government supports the development of a "third
  pillar," e-commerce.

GDP:
  purchasing power parity - $5.049 billion (2003 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:
  0% (2003 est.)

GDP - per capita:
  purchasing power parity - $16,700 (2003 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
  agriculture: 3%
  industry: 7%
  services: 90% (2001 est.)

Population below poverty line:
  NA

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
  lowest 10%: NA
  highest 10%: NA

Inflation rate (consumer prices):
  1.7% (2002 est.)

Labor force:
  156,000 (1999)

Labor force - by occupation: agriculture 5%, industry 5%, tourism 50%, other services 40% (1999 est.)

Unemployment rate:
  6.9% (2001 est.)

Budget:
  revenues: $918.5 million
  expenditures: $956.5 million, including capital expenditures of
  $106.7 million (FY99/00)

Agriculture - products:
  citrus, vegetables; poultry

Industries:
  tourism, banking, e-commerce, cement, oil refining and
  transshipment, salt, rum, aragonite, pharmaceuticals, spiral-welded
  steel pipe

Industrial production growth rate:
  NA (2002 est.)

Electricity - production:
  1.56 billion kWh (2001)

Electricity - consumption:
  1.451 billion kWh (2001)

Electricity - exports:
  0 kWh (2001)

Electricity - imports:
  0 kWh (2001)

Oil - production:
  0 bbl/day (2001 est.)

Oil - consumption:
  23,000 bbl/day (2001 est.)

Oil - exports:
  NA (2001)

Oil - imports:
  NA (2001)

Exports:
  $617 million (2002 est.)

Exports - commodities:
  fish and crawfish; rum, salt, chemicals; fruit and vegetables

Exports - partners:
  US 35%, Spain 9.6%, Germany 7.8%, France 7.6%, Poland 5.3%,
  Switzerland 4.8%, Peru 4.2%, Paraguay 4.2% (2003)

Imports:
  $1.614 billion (2002 est.)

Imports - commodities:
  machinery and transport equipment, manufactures, chemicals, mineral
  fuels; food and live animals

Imports - partners:
  US 20.8%, South Korea 17.4%, Italy 11.4%, France 9.1%, Brazil 7.5%,
  Japan 5.6%, Venezuela 5.3% (2003)

Debt - external:
  $308.5 million (2002)

Economic aid - recipient:
  $9.8 million (1995)

Currency:
  Bahamian dollar (BSD)

Currency code:
  BSD

Exchange rates:
  Bahamian dollars per US dollar - 1 (2003), 1 (2002), 1 (2001), 1
  (2000), 1 (1999)

Fiscal year:
  1 July - 30 June

Communications Bahamas, The

Telephones - main lines in use:
  131,700 (2003)

Telephones - mobile cellular:
  121,800 (2002)

Telephone system:
  general assessment: modern facilities
  domestic: totally automatic system; highly developed
  international: country code - 1-242; tropospheric scatter and
  submarine cable to Florida; 3 coaxial submarine cables; satellite
  earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean) (1997)

Radio broadcast stations:
  AM 3, FM 5, shortwave 0 (2004)

Radios:
  215,000 (1997)

Television broadcast stations:
  2 (2004)

Televisions:
  67,000 (1997)

Internet country code:
  .bs

Internet hosts:
  302 (2003)

Internet Service Providers (ISPs):
  19 (2000)

Internet users:
  84,000 (2003)

Transportation Bahamas, The

Highways: total: 2,693 km paved: 1,546 km unpaved: 1,147 km (1999 est.)

Ports and harbors:
  Freeport, Matthew Town, Nassau

Merchant marine:
  total: 1,035 ships (1,000 GRT or over) 31,631,252 GRT/43,025,977 DWT
  by type: bulk 165, cargo 188, chemical tanker 45, combination bulk
  10, combination ore/oil 17, container 97, liquefied gas 27,
  livestock carrier 2, multi-functional large load carrier 4,
  passenger 108, passenger/cargo 1, petroleum tanker 163, refrigerated
  cargo 133, roll on/roll off 34, short-sea/passenger 18, specialized
  tanker 3, vehicle carrier 20
  foreign-owned: Algeria 1, Australia 7, Belgium 14, Bermuda 1, Canada
  4, Chile 1, China 4, Croatia 1, Cuba 3, Cyprus 14, Denmark 49,
  Estonia 1, Faroe Islands 1, Finland 9, France 21, Germany 13,
  Gibraltar 1, Greece 163, Hong Kong 9, India 1, Indonesia 3, Ireland
  1, Israel 3, Italy 7, Japan 35, Kenya 2, South Korea 1, Latvia 1,
  Liberia 1, Malaysia 11, Malta 1, Monaco 68, Netherlands 29, New
  Zealand 1, Norway 231, Panama 2, Philippines 3, Poland 14, Reunion
  1, Russia 1, Saudi Arabia 9, Singapore 13, Slovenia 1, Spain 6,
  Sweden 9, Switzerland 1, Thailand 1, Trinidad and Tobago 2
  registered in other countries: 11 (2004 est.)

Airports:
  63 (2003 est.)

Airports - with paved runways: total: 29 over 3,047 m: 2 2,438 to 3,047 m: 3 914 to 1,523 m: 9 under 914 m: 1 (2004 est.) 1,524 to 2,437 m: 14

Airports - with unpaved runways: total: 34 1,524 to 2,437 m: 3 914 to 1,523 m: 10 under 914 m: 21 (2004 est.)

Heliports: 1 (2003 est.)

Military Bahamas, The

Military branches:
  Royal Bahamas Defense Force (including Coast Guard)

Military manpower - military age and obligation:
  18 years of age (est.); no conscription (2001)

Military expenditures - dollar figure:
  NA

Military expenditures - percent of GDP:
  NA

Transnational Issues Bahamas, The

Disputes - international:
  concerned about migrants fleeing Haiti's deteriorated economic and
  political conditions

Illicit drugs:
  transshipment point for cocaine and marijuana bound for US and
  Europe; offshore financial center

This page was last updated on 10 February, 2005

======================================================================

@Bahrain

Introduction Bahrain

Background:
  Bahrain's small size and central location among Persian Gulf
  countries require it to play a delicate balancing act in foreign
  affairs among its larger neighbors. Facing declining oil reserves,
  Bahrain has turned to petroleum processing and refining and has
  transformed itself into an international banking center. The new
  amir, installed in 1999, has pushed economic and political reforms
  and has worked to improve relations with the Shi'a community. In
  February 2001, Bahraini voters approved a referendum on the National
  Action Charter - the centerpiece of the amir's political
  liberalization program. In February 2002, Amir HAMAD bin Isa Al
  Khalifa proclaimed himself king. In October 2002, Bahrainis elected
  members of the lower house of Bahrain's reconstituted bicameral
  legislature, the National Assembly.

Geography Bahrain

Location:
  Middle East, archipelago in the Persian Gulf, east of Saudi Arabia

Geographic coordinates:
  26 00 N, 50 33 E

Map references:
  Middle East

Area:
  total: 665 sq km
  water: 0 sq km
  land: 665 sq km

Area - comparative:
  3.5 times the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries:
  0 km

Coastline:
  161 km

Maritime claims:
  territorial sea: 12 nm
  continental shelf: extending to boundaries to be determined
  contiguous zone: 24 nm

Climate:
  arid; mild, pleasant winters; very hot, humid summers

Terrain:
  mostly low desert plain rising gently to low central escarpment

Elevation extremes: lowest point: Persian Gulf 0 m highest point: Jabal ad Dukhan 122 m

Natural resources: oil, associated and nonassociated natural gas, fish, pearls

Land use: arable land: 2.82% permanent crops: 5.63% other: 91.55% (2001)

Irrigated land:
  50 sq km (1998 est.)

Natural hazards:
  periodic droughts; dust storms

Environment - current issues:
  desertification resulting from the degradation of limited arable
  land, periods of drought, and dust storms; coastal degradation
  (damage to coastlines, coral reefs, and sea vegetation) resulting
  from oil spills and other discharges from large tankers, oil
  refineries, and distribution stations; lack of freshwater resources,
  groundwater and seawater are the only sources for all water needs

Environment - international agreements:
  party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Hazardous
  Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands
  signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - note:
  close to primary Middle Eastern petroleum sources; strategic
  location in Persian Gulf, through which much of the Western world's
  petroleum must transit to reach open ocean

People Bahrain

Population: 677,886 note: includes 235,108 non-nationals (July 2004 est.)

Age structure:
  0-14 years: 28.4% (male 97,179; female 95,043)
  15-64 years: 68.4% (male 271,015; female 192,342)
  65 years and over: 3.3% (male 11,426; female 10,881) (2004 est.)

Median age:
  total: 29 years
  male: 31.9 years
  female: 25.3 years (2004 est.)

Population growth rate:
  1.56% (2004 est.)

Birth rate:
  18.54 births/1,000 population (2004 est.)

Death rate:
  4.03 deaths/1,000 population (2004 est.)

Net migration rate:
  1.05 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2004 est.)

Sex ratio:
  at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
  under 15 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
  15-64 years: 1.41 male(s)/female
  65 years and over: 1.05 male(s)/female
  total population: 1.27 male(s)/female (2004 est.)

Infant mortality rate:
  total: 17.91 deaths/1,000 live births
  female: 14.8 deaths/1,000 live births (2004 est.)
  male: 20.93 deaths/1,000 live births

Life expectancy at birth:
  total population: 73.98 years
  male: 71.52 years
  female: 76.51 years (2004 est.)

Total fertility rate:
  2.67 children born/woman (2004 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
  0.3% (2001 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
  less than 600 (2003 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths:
  less than 200 (2003 est.)

Nationality:
  noun: Bahraini(s)
  adjective: Bahraini

Ethnic groups:
  Bahraini 63%, Asian 19%, other Arab 10%, Iranian 8%

Religions:
  Shi'a Muslim 70%, Sunni Muslim 30%

Languages:
  Arabic, English, Farsi, Urdu

Literacy:
  definition: age 15 and over can read and write
  total population: 89.1%
  male: 91.9%
  female: 85% (2003 est.)

Government Bahrain

Country name:
  conventional long form: Kingdom of Bahrain
  conventional short form: Bahrain
  local short form: Al Bahrayn
  former: Dilmun
  local long form: Mamlakat al Bahrayn

Government type:
  constitutional hereditary monarchy

Capital:
  Manama

Administrative divisions:
  12 municipalities (manatiq, singular - mintaqah); Al Hadd, Al
  Manamah, Al Mintaqah al Gharbiyah, Al Mintaqah al Wusta, Al Mintaqah
  ash Shamaliyah, Al Muharraq, Ar Rifa' wa al Mintaqah al Janubiyah,
  Jidd Hafs, Madinat Hamad, Madinat 'Isa, Juzur Hawar, Sitrah
  note: all municipalities administered from Manama

Independence:
  15 August 1971 (from UK)

National holiday:
  National Day, 16 December (1971); note - 15 August 1971 is the date
  of independence from the UK, 16 December 1971 is the date of
  independence from British protection

Constitution:
  adopted late December 2000; Bahrani voters approved on 13-14
  February 2001 a referendum on legislative changes (revised
  constitution calls for a partially elected legislature, a
  constitutional monarchy, and an independent judiciary)

Legal system:
  based on Islamic law and English common law

Suffrage:
  18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
  chief of state: King HAMAD bin Isa Al Khalifa (since 6 March 1999);
  Heir Apparent Crown Prince SALMAN bin Hamad (son of the monarch,
  born 21 October 1969)
  head of government: Prime Minister KHALIFA bin Salman Al Khalifa
  (since NA 1971)
  cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the monarch
  elections: none; the monarchy is hereditary; prime minister
  appointed by the monarch

Legislative branch:
  bicameral Parliament consists of Shura Council (40 members
  appointed by the King) and House of Deputies (40 members directly
  elected to serve four-year terms)
  elections: House of Deputies - last held 31 October 2002 (next
  election to be held NA 2006)
  note: first elections since 7 December 1973; unicameral National
  Assembly dissolved 26 August 1975; National Action Charter created
  bicameral legislature on 23 December 2000; approved by referendum 14
  February 2001; first legislative session of Parliament held on 25
  December 2002
  election results: House of Deputies - percent of vote by party - NA;
  seats by party - independents 21, Sunni Islamists 9, other 10

Judicial branch:
  High Civil Appeals Court

Political parties and leaders: political parties prohibited but politically oriented societies are allowed

Political pressure groups and leaders:
  Shi'a activists fomented unrest sporadically in 1994-97, demanding
  the return of an elected National Assembly and an end to
  unemployment; several small, clandestine leftist and Islamic
  fundamentalist groups are active

International organization participation:
  ABEDA, AFESD, AMF, ESCWA, FAO, G-77, GCC, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICCt
  (signatory), ICRM, IDB, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol,
  IOC, ISO, ITU, LAS, MIGA, NAM, OAPEC, OIC, OPCW, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO,
  UNIDO, UPU, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTO

Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador KHALIFA bin ALI bin Rashid Al Khalifa chancery: 3502 International Drive NW, Washington, DC 20008 consulate(s) general: New York FAX: [1] (202) 362-2192 telephone: [1] (202) 342-1111

Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador William T. MONROE embassy: Building #979, Road 3119 (next to Al-Ahli Sports Club), Block 331, Zinj District, Manama mailing address: American Embassy Manama, PSC 451, FPO AE 09834-5100; international mail: American Embassy, Box 26431, Manama telephone: [973] 1724-2700 FAX: [973] 1725-6242 (consular)

Flag description:
  red, the traditional color for flags of Persian Gulf states, with a
  white serrated band (five white points) on the hoist side; the five
  points represent the five pillars of Islam

Economy Bahrain

Economy - overview:
  In well-to-do Bahrain, petroleum production and refining account
  for about 60% of export receipts, 60% of government revenues, and
  30% of GDP. With its highly developed communication and transport
  facilities, Bahrain is home to numerous multinational firms with
  business in the Gulf. Bahrain is dependent on Saudi Arabia for oil
  granted as aid. A large share of exports consist of petroleum
  products made from refining imported crude. Construction proceeds on
  several major industrial projects. Unemployment, especially among
  the young, and the depletion of oil and underground water resources
  are major long-term economic problems.

GDP:
  purchasing power parity - $11.29 billion (2003 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:
  4.9% (2003 est.)

GDP - per capita:
  purchasing power parity - $16,900 (2003 est.)

GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 0.7% industry: 42.1% services: 57.2% (2003 est.)

Investment (gross fixed):
  11.9% of GDP (2003)

Population below poverty line:
  NA

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
  lowest 10%: NA
  highest 10%: NA

Inflation rate (consumer prices):
  -0.2% (2003 est.)

Labor force:
  350,000
  note: 44% of the population in the 15-64 age group is non-national
  (2003 est.)

Labor force - by occupation: agriculture 1%, industry, commerce, and services 79%, government 20% (1997 est.)

Unemployment rate:
  15% (1998 est.)

Budget:
  revenues: $2.981 billion
  expenditures: $3.019 billion, including capital expenditures of $700
  million (2003 est.)

Public debt:
  57.5% of GDP (2003)

Agriculture - products:
  fruit, vegetables; poultry, dairy products; shrimp, fish

Industries:
  petroleum processing and refining, aluminum smelting, offshore
  banking, ship repairing; tourism

Industrial production growth rate:
  2% (2000 est.)

Electricity - production:
  6.257 billion kWh (2001)

Electricity - consumption:
  5.819 billion kWh (2001)

Electricity - exports:
  0 kWh (2001)

Electricity - imports:
  0 kWh (2001)

Oil - production:
  43,000 bbl/day (2001 est.)

Oil - consumption:
  31,000 bbl/day (2001 est.)

Oil - exports:
  NA (2001)

Oil - imports:
  NA (2001)

Oil - proved reserves:
  125 million bbl (1 January 2003)

Natural gas - production:
  8.9 billion cu m (2001 est.)

Natural gas - consumption:
  8.9 billion cu m (2001 est.)

Natural gas - exports:
  0 cu m (2001 est.)

Natural gas - imports:
  0 cu m (2001 est.)

Natural gas - proved reserves:
  46 billion cu m (1 January 2003)

Current account balance:
  $53 million (2003)

Exports:
  $6.492 billion (2003 est.)

Exports - commodities:
  petroleum and petroleum products, aluminum, textiles

Exports - partners:
  US 3.5%, India 3.3%, South Korea 2.2% (2003)

Imports:
  $5.126 billion (2003 est.)

Imports - commodities:
  crude oil, machinery, chemicals

Imports - partners:
  Saudi Arabia 30.7%, US 11.4%, Japan 7.8%, UK 5.7%, Germany 5.4%
  (2003)

Reserves of foreign exchange & gold:
  $1.785 billion (2003)

Debt - external:
  $4.682 billion (2003)

Economic aid - recipient:
  $150 million; note - $50 million annually since 1992 from each of
  Saudi Arabia, UAE, and Kuwait (2002)

Currency:
  Bahraini dinar (BHD)

Currency code:
  BHD

Exchange rates:
  Bahraini dinars per US dollar - 0.376 (2003), 0.376 (2002), 0.376
  (2001), 0.376 (2000), 0.376 (1999)

Fiscal year:
  calendar year

Communications Bahrain

Telephones - main lines in use:
  185,800 (2003)

Telephones - mobile cellular:
  443,100 (2003)

Telephone system:
  general assessment: modern system
  domestic: modern fiber-optic integrated services; digital network
  with rapidly growing use of mobile cellular telephones
  international: country code - 973; tropospheric scatter to Qatar and
  UAE; microwave radio relay to Saudi Arabia; submarine cable to
  Qatar, UAE, and Saudi Arabia; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat
  (1 Atlantic Ocean and 1 Indian Ocean) and 1 Arabsat (1997)

Radio broadcast stations:
  AM 2, FM 3, shortwave 0 (1998)

Radios:
  338,000 (1997)

Television broadcast stations:
  4 (1997)

Televisions:
  275,000 (1997)

Internet country code:
  .bh

Internet hosts:
  1,334 (2003)

Internet Service Providers (ISPs):
  1 (2000)

Internet users:
  195,700 (2003)

Transportation Bahrain

Highways: total: 3,261 km paved: 2,531 km unpaved: 730 km (2000)

Pipelines:
  gas 20 km; oil 53 km (2004)

Ports and harbors:
  Manama, Mina' Salman, Sitrah

Merchant marine:
  total: 6 ships (1,000 GRT or over) 219,083 GRT/312,638 DWT
  registered in other countries: 2 (2004 est.)
  foreign-owned: Hong Kong 1, Kuwait 1
  by type: bulk 3, container 2, petroleum tanker 1

Airports:
  4 (2003 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
  total: 3
  over 3,047 m: 2
  1524 to 2437 m: 1 (2004 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
  total: 1
  1,524 to 2,437 m: 1 (2004 est.)

Heliports:
  1 (2003 est.)

Military Bahrain

Military branches:
  Bahrain Defense Forces (BDF): Ground Force (includes Air Defense),
  Navy, Air Force, National Guard

Military manpower - military age and obligation:
  18 years of age for voluntary military service (2001)

Military manpower - availability:
  males age 15-49: 221,661 (2004 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:
  males age 15-49: 121,484 (2004 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
  males: 6,396 (2004 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure:
  $618.1 million (2003)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP:
  7.5% (2003)

Transnational Issues Bahrain

Disputes - international: none

This page was last updated on 10 February, 2005

======================================================================

@Baker Island

Introduction Baker Island

Background:
  The US took possession of the island in 1857, and its guano
  deposits were mined by US and British companies during the second
  half of the 19th century. In 1935, a short-lived attempt at
  colonization was begun on this island - as well as on nearby Howland
  Island - but was disrupted by World War II and thereafter abandoned.
  Presently the island is a National Wildlife Refuge run by the US
  Department of the Interior; a day beacon is situated near the middle
  of the west coast.

Geography Baker Island

Location:
  Oceania, atoll in the North Pacific Ocean, about half way between
  Hawaii and Australia

Geographic coordinates:
  0 13 N, 176 31 W

Map references:
  Oceania

Area:
  total: 1.4 sq km
  water: 0 sq km
  land: 1.4 sq km

Area - comparative:
  about 2.5 times the size of The Mall in Washington, DC

Land boundaries:
  0 km

Coastline:
  4.8 km

Maritime claims: territorial sea: 12 nm exclusive economic zone: 200 nm

Climate:
  equatorial; scant rainfall, constant wind, burning sun

Terrain:
  low, nearly level coral island surrounded by a narrow fringing reef

Elevation extremes: lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m highest point: unnamed location 8 m

Natural resources: guano (deposits worked until 1891), terrestrial and aquatic wildlife

Land use: arable land: 0% permanent crops: 0% other: 100% (2001)

Irrigated land:
  0 sq km (1998 est.)

Natural hazards:
  the narrow fringing reef surrounding the island can be a maritime
  hazard

Environment - current issues:
  no natural fresh water resources

Geography - note:
  treeless, sparse, and scattered vegetation consisting of grasses,
  prostrate vines, and low growing shrubs; primarily a nesting,
  roosting, and foraging habitat for seabirds, shorebirds, and marine
  wildlife

People Baker Island

Population:
  uninhabited
  note: American civilians evacuated in 1942 after Japanese air and
  naval attacks during World War II; occupied by US military during
  World War II, but abandoned after the war; public entry is by
  special-use permit from US Fish and Wildlife Service only and
  generally restricted to scientists and educators; a cemetery and
  remnants of structures from early settlement are located near the
  middle of the west coast; visited annually by US Fish and Wildlife
  Service (2004 est.)

Government Baker Island

Country name: conventional long form: none conventional short form: Baker Island

Dependency status:
  unincorporated territory of the US; administered from Washington,
  DC, by the Fish and Wildlife Service of the US Department of the
  Interior as part of the National Wildlife Refuge system

Legal system:
  the laws of the US, where applicable, apply

Flag description:
  the flag of the US is used

Economy Baker Island

Economy - overview: no economic activity

Transportation Baker Island

Ports and harbors:
  none; offshore anchorage only; note - there is one small boat
  landing area along the middle of the west coast

Airports:
  1 abandoned World War II runway of 1,665 m, completely covered with
  vegetation and unusable (2003 est.)

Transportation - note:
  there is a day beacon near the middle of the west coast

Military Baker Island

Military - note:
  defense is the responsibility of the US; visited annually by the US
  Coast Guard

Transnational Issues Baker Island

Disputes - international: none

This page was last updated on 10 February, 2005

======================================================================

@Bangladesh

Introduction Bangladesh

Background:
  Bangladesh came into existence in 1971 when Bengali East Pakistan
  seceded from its union with West Pakistan. About a third of this
  extremely poor country floods annually during the monsoon rainy
  season, hampering economic development.

Geography Bangladesh

Location:
  Southern Asia, bordering the Bay of Bengal, between Burma and India

Geographic coordinates:
  24 00 N, 90 00 E

Map references:
  Asia

Area:
  total: 144,000 sq km
  land: 133,910 sq km
  water: 10,090 sq km

Area - comparative:
  slightly smaller than Iowa

Land boundaries: total: 4,246 km border countries: Burma 193 km, India 4,053 km

Coastline:
  580 km

Maritime claims:
  territorial sea: 12 nm
  continental shelf: up to the outer limits of the continental margin
  contiguous zone: 18 nm
  exclusive economic zone: 200 nm

Climate:
  tropical; mild winter (October to March); hot, humid summer (March
  to June); humid, warm rainy monsoon (June to October)

Terrain:
  mostly flat alluvial plain; hilly in southeast

Elevation extremes: lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m highest point: Keokradong 1,230 m

Natural resources: natural gas, arable land, timber, coal

Land use: arable land: 62.11% permanent crops: 3.07% other: 34.82% (2001)

Irrigated land:
  38,440 sq km (1998 est.)

Natural hazards:
  droughts, cyclones; much of the country routinely inundated during
  the summer monsoon season

Environment - current issues:
  many people are landless and forced to live on and cultivate
  flood-prone land; water-borne diseases prevalent in surface water;
  water pollution, especially of fishing areas, results from the use
  of commercial pesticides; ground water contaminated by naturally
  occurring arsenic; intermittent water shortages because of falling
  water tables in the northern and central parts of the country; soil
  degradation and erosion; deforestation; severe overpopulation

Environment - international agreements:
  party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto
  Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental
  Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer
  Protection, Wetlands
  signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - note:
  most of the country is situated on deltas of large rivers flowing
  from the Himalayas: the Ganges unites with the Jamuna (main channel
  of the Brahmaputra) and later joins the Meghna to eventually empty
  into the Bay of Bengal

People Bangladesh

Population:
  141,340,476 (July 2004 est.)

Age structure:
  0-14 years: 33.5% (male 24,359,149; female 23,013,811)
  15-64 years: 63.1% (male 45,557,963; female 43,626,950)
  65 years and over: 3.4% (male 2,575,519; female 2,207,084) (2004
  est.)

Median age: total: 21.5 years male: 21.5 years female: 21.5 years (2004 est.)

Population growth rate:
  2.08% (2004 est.)

Birth rate:
  30.03 births/1,000 population (2004 est.)

Death rate:
  8.52 deaths/1,000 population (2004 est.)

Net migration rate:
  -0.71 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2004 est.)

Sex ratio:
  at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female
  under 15 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
  15-64 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
  65 years and over: 1.17 male(s)/female
  total population: 1.05 male(s)/female (2004 est.)

Infant mortality rate:
  total: 64.32 deaths/1,000 live births
  female: 63.16 deaths/1,000 live births (2004 est.)
  male: 65.41 deaths/1,000 live births

Life expectancy at birth:
  total population: 61.71 years
  male: 61.8 years
  female: 61.61 years (2004 est.)

Total fertility rate:
  3.15 children born/woman (2004 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
  less than 0.1% (2001 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
  13,000 (2001 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths:
  650 (2001 est.)

Nationality:
  noun: Bangladeshi(s)
  adjective: Bangladeshi

Ethnic groups:
  Bengali 98%, tribal groups, non-Bengali Muslims (1998)

Religions:
  Muslim 83%, Hindu 16%, other 1% (1998)

Languages:
  Bangla (official, also known as Bengali), English

Literacy:
  definition: age 15 and over can read and write
  total population: 43.1%
  male: 53.9%
  female: 31.8% (2003 est.)

Government Bangladesh

Country name:
  conventional long form: People's Republic of Bangladesh
  conventional short form: Bangladesh
  former: East Pakistan

Government type:
  parliamentary democracy

Capital:
  Dhaka

Administrative divisions:
  6 divisions; Barisal, Chittagong, Dhaka, Khulna, Rajshahi, and
  Sylhet

Independence:
  16 December 1971 (from West Pakistan); note - 26 March 1971 is the
  date of independence from West Pakistan, 16 December 1971 is known
  as Victory Day and commemorates the official creation of the state
  of Bangladesh

National holiday:
  Independence Day, 26 March (1971); note - 26 March 1971 is the date
  of independence from West Pakistan, 16 December 1971 is Victory Day
  and commemorates the official creation of the state of Bangladesh

Constitution:
  4 November 1972, effective 16 December 1972, suspended following
  coup of 24 March 1982, restored 10 November 1986, amended many times

Legal system:
  based on English common law

Suffrage:
  18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
  chief of state: President Iajuddin AHMED (since 6 September 2002);
  note - the president's duties are normally ceremonial, but with the
  13th amendment to the constitution ("Caretaker Government
  Amendment"), the president's role becomes significant at times when
  Parliament is dissolved and a caretaker government is installed - at
  presidential direction - to supervise the elections
  head of government: Prime Minister Khaleda ZIA (since 10 October
  2001)
  cabinet: Cabinet selected by the prime minister and appointed by the
  president
  elections: president elected by National Parliament for a five-year
  term; election scheduled for 16 September 2002 was not held since
  Iajuddin AHMED was the only presidential candidate; he was sworn in
  on 6 September 2002 (next election to be held by NA 2007); following
  legislative elections, the leader of the party that wins the most
  seats is usually appointed prime minister by the president
  election results: Iajuddin AHMED declared by the Election Commission
  elected unopposed as president; percent of National Parliament vote
  - NA

Legislative branch:
  unicameral National Parliament or Jatiya Sangsad; 300 seats elected
  by popular vote from single territorial constituencies (the
  constitutional amendment reserving 30 seats for women over and above
  the 300 regular parliament seats expired in May 2001); members serve
  five-year terms
  elections: last held 1 October 2001 (next to be held before October
  2006)
  election results: percent of vote by party - BNP and alliance
  partners 47%, AL 40%; seats by party - BNP 195, AL 58, JI 17, JP
  (Ershad faction) 14, IOJ 3, JP (Naziur) 4, other 9; note - the
  election of October 2001 brought a majority BNP government aligned
  with three other smaller parties - Jamaat-i-Islami, Islami Oikya
  Jote, and Jatiya Party (Manzur)

Judicial branch:
  Supreme Court (the chief justices and other judges are appointed by
  the president)

Political parties and leaders:
  Awami League or AL [Sheikh HASINA]; Bangladesh Communist Party or
  BCP [Saifuddin Ahmed MANIK]; Bangladesh Nationalist Party or BNP
  [Khaleda ZIA, chairperson]; Islami Oikya Jote or IOJ [Mufti Fazlul
  Haq AMINI]; Jamaat-e-Islami or JI [Motiur Rahman NIZAMI]; Jatiya
  Party or JP (Ershad faction) [Hussain Mohammad ERSHAD]; Jatiya Party
  (Manzur faction) [Naziur Rahman MANZUR]

Political pressure groups and leaders:
  NA

International organization participation:
  AsDB, C, CP, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICCt (signatory),
  ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO,
  Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, MIGA, MINURSO, MONUC, NAM, OIC, ONUB,
  OPCW, SAARC, SACEP, UN, UNAMSIL, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO,
  UNMEE, UNMIK, UNMIL, UNMISET, UNOCI, UNOMIG, UPU, WCL, WCO, WFTU,
  WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador Syed Hasan AHMAD
  consulate(s) general: Los Angeles and New York
  FAX: [1] (202) 244-5366
  telephone: [1] (202) 244-0183
  chancery: 3510 International Drive NW, Washington, DC 20008

Diplomatic representation from the US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador Harry K. THOMAS, Jr.
  embassy: Madani Avenue, Baridhara, Dhaka 1212
  mailing address: G. P. O. Box 323, Dhaka 1000
  telephone: [880] (2) 885-5500
  FAX: [880] (2) 882-3744

Flag description:
  green with a large red disk slightly to the hoist side of center;
  the red sun of freedom represents the blood shed to achieve
  independence; the green field symbolizes the lush countryside, and
  secondarily, the traditional color of Islam

Economy Bangladesh

Economy - overview:
  Despite sustained domestic and international efforts to improve
  economic and demographic prospects, Bangladesh remains a poor,
  overpopulated, and ill-governed nation. Although half of GDP is
  generated through the service sector, nearly two-thirds of
  Bangladeshis are employed in the agriculture sector, with rice as
  the single-most-important product. Major impediments to growth
  include frequent cyclones and floods, inefficient state-owned
  enterprises, inadequate port facilities, a rapidly growing labor
  force that cannot be absorbed by agriculture, delays in exploiting
  energy resources (natural gas), insufficient power supplies, and
  slow implementation of economic reforms. Economic reform is stalled
  in many instances by political infighting and corruption at all
  levels of government. Progress also has been blocked by opposition
  from the bureaucracy, public sector unions, and other vested
  interest groups. The BNP government, led by Prime Minister Khaleda
  ZIA, has the parliamentary strength to push through needed reforms,
  but the party's political will to do so has been lacking in key
  areas. One encouraging note: growth has been a steady 5% for the
  past several years.

GDP:
  purchasing power parity - $258.8 billion (2003 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:
  5.3% (2003 est.)

GDP - per capita:
  purchasing power parity - $1,900 (2003 est.)

GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 21.7% industry: 26.6% services: 51.7% (2003 est.)

Investment (gross fixed):
  23.2% of GDP (2003)

Population below poverty line:
  35.6% (FY95/96 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: 3.9% highest 10%: 28.6% (1995-96 est.)

Distribution of family income - Gini index:
  33.6 (FY95/96)

Inflation rate (consumer prices):
  5.6% (2003 est.)

Labor force:
  64.02 million
  note: extensive export of labor to Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, UAE, Oman,
  Qatar, and Malaysia; workers' remittances estimated at $1.71 billion
  in 1998-99 (2003)

Labor force - by occupation:
  agriculture 63%, industry 11%, services 26% (FY95/96)

Unemployment rate:
  40% (includes underemployment) (2002 est.)

Budget:
  revenues: $5.352 billion
  expenditures: $7.55 billion, including capital expenditures of NA
  (2003)

Public debt:
  43.3% of GDP (2003)

Agriculture - products:
  rice, jute, tea, wheat, sugarcane, potatoes, tobacco, pulses,
  oilseeds, spices, fruit; beef, milk, poultry

Industries:
  cotton textiles, jute, garments, tea processing, paper newsprint,
  cement, chemical fertilizer, light engineering, sugar

Industrial production growth rate:
  1.9% (2003 est.)

Electricity - production:
  15.33 billion kWh (2001)

Electricity - consumption:
  14.25 billion kWh (2001)

Electricity - exports:
  0 kWh (2001)

Electricity - imports:
  0 kWh (2001)

Oil - production:
  3,581 bbl/day (2001 est.)

Oil - consumption:
  71,000 bbl/day (2001 est.)

Oil - exports:
  NA (2001)

Oil - imports:
  NA (2001)

Oil - proved reserves:
  28.45 million bbl (1 January 2002)

Natural gas - production:
  9.9 billion cu m (2001 est.)

Natural gas - consumption:
  9.9 billion cu m (2001 est.)

Natural gas - exports:
  0 cu m (2001 est.)

Natural gas - imports:
  0 cu m (2001 est.)

Natural gas - proved reserves:
  150.3 billion cu m (1 January 2002)

Current account balance:
  $393 million (2003)

Exports:
  $6.713 billion (2003 est.)

Exports - commodities:
  garments, jute and jute goods, leather, frozen fish and seafood
  (2001)

Exports - partners:
  US 23.9%, Germany 13.6%, UK 9.7%, France 5.9% (2003)

Imports:
  $9.459 billion (2003 est.)

Imports - commodities:
  machinery and equipment, chemicals, iron and steel, textiles,
  foodstuffs, petroleum products, cement (2000)

Imports - partners:
  India 15.4%, China 11.3%, Singapore 10.8%, Japan 5.9%, Hong Kong
  4.5% (2003)

Reserves of foreign exchange & gold:
  $2.624 billion (2003)

Debt - external:
  $18.06 billion (2003)

Economic aid - recipient:
  $1.575 billion (2000 est.)

Currency:
  taka (BDT)

Currency code:
  BDT

Exchange rates:
  taka per US dollar - 58.15 (2003), 57.888 (2002), 55.8067 (2001),
  52.1417 (2000), 49.0854 (1999)

Fiscal year:
  1 July - 30 June

Communications Bangladesh

Telephones - main lines in use:
  740,000 (2003)

Telephones - mobile cellular:
  1.365 million (2003)

Telephone system:
  general assessment: totally inadequate for a modern country
  domestic: modernizing; introducing digital systems; trunk systems
  include VHF and UHF microwave radio relay links, and some
  fiber-optic cable in cities
  international: country code - 880; satellite earth stations - 2
  Intelsat (Indian Ocean); international radiotelephone communications
  and landline service to neighboring countries (2000)

Radio broadcast stations:
  AM 12, FM 12, shortwave 2 (1999)

Radios:
  6.15 million (1997)

Television broadcast stations:
  15 (1999)

Televisions:
  770,000 (1997)

Internet country code:
  .bd

Internet hosts:
  1 (2003)

Internet Service Providers (ISPs):
  10 (2000)

Internet users:
  243,000 (2003)

Transportation Bangladesh

Railways:
  total: 2,706 km
  broad gauge: 884 km 1.676-m gauge
  narrow gauge: 1,822 km 1.000-m gauge (2003)

Highways:
  total: 207,486 km
  paved: 19,773 km
  unpaved: 187,713 km (1999)

Waterways: 8,372 km note: includes 2,575 km main cargo routes (2004)

Pipelines:
  gas 2,012 km (2004)

Ports and harbors:
  Chittagong, Dhaka, Mongla Port, Narayanganj

Merchant marine:
  total: 40 ships (1,000 GRT or over) 319,897 GRT/440,575 DWT
  by type: bulk 2, cargo 24, container 10, passenger 1, petroleum
  tanker 2, refrigerated cargo 1
  foreign-owned: China 1, Singapore 9
  registered in other countries: 10 (2004 est.)

Airports:
  16 (2003 est.)

Airports - with paved runways: total: 15 over 3,047 m: 1 2,438 to 3,047 m: 3 1,524 to 2,437 m: 4 914 to 1,523 m: 1 under 914 m: 6 (2004 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
  total: 1
  1,524 to 2,437 m: 1 (2004 est.)

Military Bangladesh

Military branches:
  Army, Navy, Air Force

Military manpower - military age and obligation: 16 years of age for voluntary military service; no conscription (2001)

Military manpower - availability:
  males age 15-49: 39,523,128 (2004 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:
  males age 15-49: 23,441,482 (2004 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure:
  $606.8 million (2003)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP:
  1.2% (2003)

Transnational Issues Bangladesh

Disputes - international:
  discussions with India remain stalled to delimit a small section of
  river boundary, exchange 162 miniscule enclaves in both countries,
  allocate divided villages, and stop illegal cross-border trade,
  migration, and violence; Bangladesh protests India's attempts to
  fence off high-traffic sections of the porous boundary; dispute with
  India over New Moore/South Talpatty/Purbasha Island in the Bay of
  Bengal deters maritime boundary delimitation; Burmese Muslim
  refugees strain Bangladesh's meager resources

Refugees and internally displaced persons:
  IDPs: 61,000 (land conflicts, religious persecution) (2004)

Illicit drugs:
  transit country for illegal drugs produced in neighboring countries

This page was last updated on 10 February, 2005

======================================================================

@Barbados

Introduction Barbados

Background:
  The island was uninhabited when first settled by the British in
  1627. Slaves worked the sugar plantations established on the island
  until 1834 when slavery was abolished. The economy remained heavily
  dependent on sugar, rum, and molasses production through most of the
  20th century. The gradual introduction of social and political
  reforms in the 1940s and 1950s led to complete independence from the
  UK in 1966. In the 1990s, tourism and manufacturing surpassed the
  sugar industry in economic importance.

Geography Barbados

Location:
  Caribbean, island in the North Atlantic Ocean, northeast of
  Venezuela

Geographic coordinates:
  13 10 N, 59 32 W

Map references:
  Central America and the Caribbean

Area:
  total: 431 sq km
  water: 0 sq km
  land: 431 sq km

Area - comparative:
  2.5 times the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries:
  0 km

Coastline:
  97 km

Maritime claims: territorial sea: 12 nm exclusive economic zone: 200 nm

Climate:
  tropical; rainy season (June to October)

Terrain:
  relatively flat; rises gently to central highland region

Elevation extremes: lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m highest point: Mount Hillaby 336 m

Natural resources: petroleum, fish, natural gas

Land use: arable land: 37.21% permanent crops: 2.33% other: 60.46% (2001)

Irrigated land:
  10 sq km (1998 est.)

Natural hazards:
  infrequent hurricanes; periodic landslides

Environment - current issues: pollution of coastal waters from waste disposal by ships; soil erosion; illegal solid waste disposal threatens contamination of aquifers

Environment - international agreements: party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - note: easternmost Caribbean island

People Barbados

Population:
  278,289 (July 2004 est.)

Age structure:
  0-14 years: 21% (male 29,294; female 29,020)
  15-64 years: 70.3% (male 95,675; female 99,864)
  65 years and over: 8.8% (male 9,370; female 15,066) (2004 est.)

Median age:
  total: 33.7 years
  male: 32.6 years
  female: 34.9 years (2004 est.)

Population growth rate:
  0.36% (2004 est.)

Birth rate:
  12.98 births/1,000 population (2004 est.)

Death rate:
  9.08 deaths/1,000 population (2004 est.)

Net migration rate:
  -0.31 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2004 est.)

Sex ratio:
  at birth: 1.01 male(s)/female
  under 15 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
  15-64 years: 0.96 male(s)/female
  65 years and over: 0.62 male(s)/female
  total population: 0.93 male(s)/female (2004 est.)

Infant mortality rate:
  total: 12.61 deaths/1,000 live births
  female: 10.94 deaths/1,000 live births (2004 est.)
  male: 14.26 deaths/1,000 live births

Life expectancy at birth:
  total population: 71.64 years
  male: 69.51 years
  female: 73.81 years (2004 est.)

Total fertility rate:
  1.65 children born/woman (2004 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
  1.5% (2003 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
  2,500 (2003 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths:
  less than 200 (2003 est.)

Nationality:
  noun: Barbadian(s) or Bajan (colloquial)
  adjective: Barbadian or Bajan (colloquial)

Ethnic groups:
  black 90%, white 4%, Asian and mixed 6%

Religions:
  Protestant 67% (Anglican 40%, Pentecostal 8%, Methodist 7%, other
  12%), Roman Catholic 4%, none 17%, other 12%

Languages:
  English

Literacy:
  definition: age 15 and over has ever attended school
  total population: 97.4%
  male: 98%
  female: 96.8% (1995 est.)

Government Barbados

Country name:
  conventional long form: none
  conventional short form: Barbados

Government type:
  parliamentary democracy; independent sovereign state within the
  Commonwealth

Capital:
  Bridgetown

Administrative divisions:
  11 parishes; Christ Church, Saint Andrew, Saint George, Saint
  James, Saint John, Saint Joseph, Saint Lucy, Saint Michael, Saint
  Peter, Saint Philip, Saint Thomas; note - the city of Bridgetown may
  be given parish status

Independence:
  30 November 1966 (from UK)

National holiday:
  Independence Day, 30 November (1966)

Constitution:
  30 November 1966

Legal system:
  English common law; no judicial review of legislative acts

Suffrage:
  18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
  chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952),
  represented by Governor General Sir Clifford Straughn HUSBANDS
  (since 1 June 1996)
  head of government: Prime Minister Owen Seymour ARTHUR (since 6
  September 1994); Deputy Prime Minister Mia MOTTLEY (since 26 May
  2003)
  cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the governor general on the advice of
  the prime minister
  elections: none; the monarch is hereditary; governor general
  appointed by the monarch; following legislative elections, the
  leader of the majority party or the leader of the majority coalition
  is usually appointed prime minister by the governor general; the
  prime minister recommends the deputy prime minister

Legislative branch:
  bicameral Parliament consists of the Senate (21-member body
  appointed by the governor general) and the House of Assembly (30
  seats; members are elected by direct popular vote to serve five-year
  terms)
  elections: House of Assembly - last held 21 May 2003 (next to be
  held by May 2008)
  election results: House of Assembly - percent of vote by party - NA;
  seats by party - BLP 23, DLP 7

Judicial branch:
  Supreme Court of Judicature (judges are appointed by the Service
  Commissions for the Judicial and Legal Services)

Political parties and leaders:
  Barbados Labor Party or BLP [Owen ARTHUR]; Democratic Labor Party
  or DLP [Clyde Mascoll]

Political pressure groups and leaders:
  Barbados Workers Union [Leroy TROTMAN]; Clement Payne Labor Union
  [David COMMISSIONG]; People's Progressive Movement [Eric SEALY];
  Worker's Party of Barbados [Dr. George BELLE]

International organization participation:
  ACP, C, Caricom, CDB, FAO, G-77, IADB, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt, ICFTU,
  ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, ISO, ITU,
  LAES, MIGA, NAM, OAS, OPANAL, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCO,
  WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador Michael Ian KING
  consulate(s): Los Angeles
  consulate(s) general: Miami and New York
  FAX: [1] (202) 332-7467
  telephone: [1] (202) 339-9200
  chancery: 2144 Wyoming Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008

Diplomatic representation from the US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador Mary E. KRAMER
  embassy: Canadian Imperial Bank of Commerce Building, Broad Street,
  Bridgetown; (courier) ALICO Building-Cheapside, Bridgetown
  mailing address: P. O. Box 302, Bridgetown; CMR 1014, APO AA 34055
  telephone: [1] (246) 436-4950
  FAX: [1] (246) 429-5246, 429-3379

Flag description:
  three equal vertical bands of blue (hoist side), gold, and blue
  with the head of a black trident centered on the gold band; the
  trident head represents independence and a break with the past (the
  colonial coat of arms contained a complete trident)

Economy Barbados

Economy - overview:
  Historically, the Barbadian economy had been dependent on sugarcane
  cultivation and related activities, but production in recent years
  has diversified into light industry and tourism. Offshore finance
  and information services are important foreign exchange earners. The
  government continues its efforts to reduce unemployment, to
  encourage direct foreign investment, and to privatize remaining
  state-owned enterprises. The economy contracted in 2002-03 mainly
  due to a decline in tourism. Growth should be positive in 2004, the
  precise level largely dependent on economic conditions in the US and
  Europe.

GDP:
  purchasing power parity - $4.355 billion (2003 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:
  2.2% (2003 est.)

GDP - per capita:
  purchasing power parity - $15,700 (2003 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
  agriculture: 6%
  industry: 16%
  services: 78% (2000 est.)

Population below poverty line:
  NA

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
  lowest 10%: NA
  highest 10%: NA

Inflation rate (consumer prices):
  -0.5% (2003 est.)

Labor force:
  128,500 (2001 est.)

Labor force - by occupation:
  agriculture 10%, industry 15%, services 75% (1996 est.)

Unemployment rate:
  10.7% (2003 est.)

Budget:
  revenues: $847 million (including grants)
  expenditures: $886 million, including capital expenditures of NA
  (2000 est.)

Agriculture - products:
  sugarcane, vegetables, cotton

Industries:
  tourism, sugar, light manufacturing, component assembly for export

Industrial production growth rate:
  -3.2% (2000 est.)

Electricity - production:
  780 million kWh (2001)

Electricity - consumption:
  725.4 million kWh (2001)

Electricity - exports:
  0 kWh (2001)

Electricity - imports:
  0 kWh (2001)

Oil - production:
  1,271 bbl/day (2001 est.)

Oil - consumption:
  10,900 bbl/day (2001 est.)

Oil - exports:
  NA (2001)

Oil - imports:
  NA (2001)

Oil - proved reserves:
  1.254 million bbl (1 January 2002)

Natural gas - production:
  29.17 million cu m (2001 est.)

Natural gas - consumption:
  29.17 million cu m (2001 est.)

Natural gas - exports:
  0 cu m (2001 est.)

Natural gas - imports:
  0 cu m (2001 est.)

Natural gas - proved reserves:
  70.79 million cu m (1 January 2002)

Exports:
  $206 million (2002)

Exports - commodities:
  sugar and molasses, rum, other foods and beverages, chemicals,
  electrical components

Exports - partners:
  US 18.7%, Trinidad and Tobago 14.5%, UK 14%, Jamaica 7.8%, Saint
  Lucia 6.2%, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 4.7% (2003)

Imports:
  $1.039 billion (2002)

Imports - commodities:
  consumer goods, machinery, foodstuffs, construction materials,
  chemicals, fuel, electrical components

Imports - partners:
  US 37.7%, Trinidad and Tobago 19.6%, UK 6.2%, Japan 4.4% (2003)

Debt - external:
  $668 million (2003)

Economic aid - recipient:
  $9.1 million (1995)

Currency:
  Barbadian dollar (BBD)

Currency code:
  BBD

Exchange rates:
  Barbadian dollars per US dollar - 2 (2003), 2 (2002), 2 (2001), 2
  (2000), 2 (1999)

Fiscal year:
  1 April - 31 March

Communications Barbados

Telephones - main lines in use:
  134,000 (2003)

Telephones - mobile cellular:
  140,000 (2003)

Telephone system:
  general assessment: NA
  domestic: island-wide automatic telephone system
  international: country code - 1-246; satellite earth stations - 4
  Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean); tropospheric scatter to Trinidad and
  Saint Lucia

Radio broadcast stations:
  AM 2, FM 3, shortwave 0 (1998)

Radios:
  237,000 (1997)

Television broadcast stations:
  1 (plus two cable channels) (1997)

Televisions:
  76,000 (1997)

Internet country code:
  .bb

Internet hosts:
  204 (2003)

Internet Service Providers (ISPs):
  19 (2000)

Internet users:
  100,000 (2003)

Transportation Barbados

Highways: total: 1,793 km paved: 1,719 km unpaved: 74 km (1999)

Ports and harbors:
  Bridgetown, Speightstown (Port Charles Marina)

Merchant marine:
  total: 42 ships (1,000 GRT or over) 427,465 GRT/668,195 DWT
  by type: bulk 11, cargo 20, chemical tanker 1, combination bulk 3,
  petroleum tanker 6, roll on/roll off 1
  registered in other countries: 3 (2004 est.)
  foreign-owned: Australia 1, Bahamas 1, Bangladesh 1, Canada 5,
  Greece 7, Hong Kong 7, Italy 2, Lebanon 1, Norway 9, United Kingdom
  10

Airports:
  1 (2003 est.)

Airports - with paved runways: total: 1 over 3,047 m: 1 (2004 est.)

Military Barbados

Military branches:
  Royal Barbados Defense Force (Troops Command and Coast Guard)

Military manpower - military age and obligation: 18 years of age for voluntary military service; volunteers at earlier age with parental consent; no conscription (2001)

Military manpower - availability:
  males age 15-49: 77,714 (2004 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:
  males age 15-49: 53,127 (2004 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure:
  NA

Military expenditures - percent of GDP:
  NA

Transnational Issues Barbados

Disputes - international:
  Barbados intends to take its claim before UNCLOS arbitration that
  the northern limit of Trinidad and Tobago's maritime boundary with
  Venezuela extends into its waters; joins other Caribbean states to
  counter Venezuela's claim that Aves Island sustains human
  habitation, a criterion under UNCLOS, which permits Venezuela to
  extend its EEZ/continental shelf over a large portion of the
  Caribbean Sea

Illicit drugs:
  one of many Caribbean transshipment points for narcotics bound for
  Europe and the US; offshore financial center

This page was last updated on 10 February, 2005

======================================================================

@Bassas da India

Introduction Bassas da India

Background:
  This atoll is a volcanic rock surrounded by reefs and is awash at
  high tide. A French possession since 1897, it was placed under the
  administration of a commissioner residing in Reunion in 1968.

Geography Bassas da India

Location:
  Southern Africa, islands in the southern Mozambique Channel, about
  one-half of the way from Madagascar to Mozambique

Geographic coordinates:
  21 30 S, 39 50 E

Map references:
  Africa

Area:
  total: 0.2 sq km
  water: 0 sq km
  land: 0.2 sq km

Area - comparative:
  about one-third the size of The Mall in Washington, DC

Land boundaries:
  0 km

Coastline:
  35.2 km

Maritime claims: territorial sea: 12 nm exclusive economic zone: 200 nm

Climate:
  tropical

Terrain:
  volcanic rock

Elevation extremes: lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m highest point: unnamed location 2.4 m

Natural resources: none

Land use: arable land: 0% permanent crops: 0% other: 100% (all rock) (2001)

Irrigated land:
  0 sq km (1998 est.)

Natural hazards:
  maritime hazard since it is usually under water during high tide
  and surrounded by reefs; subject to periodic cyclones

Environment - current issues:
  NA

Geography - note:
  the islands emerge from a circular reef that sits atop a
  long-extinct, submerged volcano

People Bassas da India

Population: uninhabited (July 2004 est.)

Government Bassas da India

Country name:
  conventional long form: none
  conventional short form: Bassas da India

Dependency status:
  possession of France; administered by a high commissioner of the
  Republic, resident in Reunion

Legal system:
  the laws of France, where applicable, apply

Flag description:
  the flag of France is used

Economy Bassas da India

Economy - overview: no economic activity

Transportation Bassas da India

Ports and harbors: none; offshore anchorage only

Military Bassas da India

Military - note: defense is the responsibility of France

Transnational Issues Bassas da India

Disputes - international: claimed by Madagascar

This page was last updated on 10 February, 2005

======================================================================

@Belarus

Introduction Belarus

Background:
  After seven decades as a constituent republic of the USSR, Belarus
  attained its independence in 1991. It has retained closer political
  and economic ties to Russia than any of the other former Soviet
  republics. Belarus and Russia signed a treaty on a two-state union
  on 8 December 1999 envisioning greater political and economic
  integration. Although Belarus agreed to a framework to carry out the
  accord, serious implementation has yet to take place.

Geography Belarus

Location:
  Eastern Europe, east of Poland

Geographic coordinates:
  53 00 N, 28 00 E

Map references:
  Europe

Area:
  total: 207,600 sq km
  water: 0 sq km
  land: 207,600 sq km

Area - comparative:
  slightly smaller than Kansas

Land boundaries:
  total: 2,900 km
  border countries: Latvia 141 km, Lithuania 502 km, Poland 407 km,
  Russia 959 km, Ukraine 891 km

Coastline:
  0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims:
  none (landlocked)

Climate:
  cold winters, cool and moist summers; transitional between
  continental and maritime

Terrain:
  generally flat and contains much marshland

Elevation extremes:
  lowest point: Nyoman River 90 m
  highest point: Dzyarzhynskaya Hara 346 m

Natural resources:
  forests, peat deposits, small quantities of oil and natural gas,
  granite, dolomitic limestone, marl, chalk, sand, gravel, clay

Land use: arable land: 29.55% permanent crops: 0.6% other: 69.85% (2001)

Irrigated land:
  1,150 sq km (1998 est.)

Natural hazards:
  NA

Environment - current issues: soil pollution from pesticide use; southern part of the country contaminated with fallout from 1986 nuclear reactor accident at Chornobyl' in northern Ukraine

Environment - international agreements: party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Sulfur 85, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands signed, but not ratified: Law of the Sea

Geography - note:
  landlocked; glacial scouring accounts for the flatness of
  Belarusian terrain and for its 11,000 lakes; the country is
  geologically well endowed with extensive deposits of granite,
  dolomitic limestone, marl, chalk, sand, gravel, and clay

People Belarus

Population:
  10,310,520 (July 2004 est.)

Age structure:
  0-14 years: 16.3% (male 859,219; female 823,839)
  15-64 years: 69.2% (male 3,469,926; female 3,662,203)
  65 years and over: 14.5% (male 496,204; female 999,129) (2004 est.)

Median age:
  total: 36.9 years
  male: 34.2 years
  female: 39.5 years (2004 est.)

Population growth rate:
  -0.11% (2004 est.)

Birth rate:
  10.52 births/1,000 population (2004 est.)

Death rate:
  14.1 deaths/1,000 population (2004 est.)

Net migration rate:
  2.54 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2004 est.)

Sex ratio:
  at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
  under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
  15-64 years: 0.95 male(s)/female
  65 years and over: 0.5 male(s)/female
  total population: 0.88 male(s)/female (2004 est.)

Infant mortality rate:
  total: 13.62 deaths/1,000 live births
  female: 12.47 deaths/1,000 live births (2004 est.)
  male: 14.71 deaths/1,000 live births

Life expectancy at birth:
  total population: 68.57 years
  male: 62.79 years
  female: 74.65 years (2004 est.)

Total fertility rate:
  1.36 children born/woman (2004 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
  0.3% (2001 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
  15,000 (2001 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths:
  1,000 (2001 est.)

Nationality:
  noun: Belarusian(s)
  adjective: Belarusian

Ethnic groups:
  Belarusian 81.2%, Russian 11.4%, Polish, Ukrainian, and other 7.4%

Religions:
  Eastern Orthodox 80%, other (including Roman Catholic, Protestant,
  Jewish, and Muslim) 20% (1997 est.)

Languages:
  Belarusian, Russian, other

Literacy:
  definition: age 15 and over can read and write
  total population: 99.6%
  male: 99.8%
  female: 99.5% (2003 est.)

Government Belarus

Country name:
  conventional long form: Republic of Belarus
  conventional short form: Belarus
  local short form: none
  former: Belorussian (Byelorussian) Soviet Socialist Republic
  local long form: Respublika Byelarus'

Government type:
  republic in name, although in fact a dictatorship

Capital:
  Minsk

Administrative divisions:
  6 provinces (voblastsi, singular - voblasts') and 1 municipality*
  (horad); Brest, Homyel', Horad Minsk*, Hrodna, Mahilyow, Minsk,
  Vitsyebsk
  note: administrative divisions have the same names as their
  administrative centers

Independence:
  25 August 1991 (from Soviet Union)

National holiday:
  Independence Day, 3 July (1944); note - 3 July 1944 was the date
  Minsk was liberated from German troops, 25 August 1991 was the date
  of independence from the Soviet Union

Constitution:
  30 March 1994; revised by national referendum of 24 November 1996
  giving the presidency greatly expanded powers and became effective
  27 November 1996; revised again 17 October 2004 removing
  presidential term limits

Legal system:
  based on civil law system

Suffrage:
  18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
  chief of state: President Aleksandr LUKASHENKO (since 20 July 1994)
  head of government: Prime Minister Sergei SIDORSKY (since 19
  December 2003); First Deputy Prime Minister Vladimir SEMASHKO (since
  December 2003); Deputy Prime Ministers Andrei KOBYAKOV (since
  December 2003), Vladimir DRAZHIN (since 24 September 2001), Ivan
  BAMBIZA (since 25 May 2004), Anatoly TYUTYUNOV (since July 2002)
  cabinet: Council of Ministers
  election results: Aleksandr LUKASHENKO reelected president; percent
  of vote - Aleksandr LUKASHENKO 75.6%, Vladimir GONCHARIK 15.4%
  elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term;
  first election took place 23 June and 10 July 1994; according to the
  1994 constitution, the next election should have been held in 1999,
  however LUKASHENKO extended his term to 2001 via a November 1996
  referendum; new election held 9 September 2001; October 2004
  referendum ended presidential term limits allowing president to run
  for a third term in September 2006; prime minister and deputy prime
  ministers appointed by the president

Legislative branch:
  bicameral Parliament or Natsionalnoye Sobranie consists of the
  Council of the Republic or Soviet Respubliki (64 seats; 56 members
  elected by regional councils and 8 members appointed by the
  president, all for 4-year terms) and the Chamber of Representatives
  or Palata Predstaviteliy (110 seats; members elected by universal
  adult suffrage to serve 4-year terms)
  election results: Soviet Respubliki - percent of vote by party -
  NA%; seats by party - NA; Palata Pretsaviteley - percent of vote by
  party - NA%; seats by party - NA
  elections: last held 18 March and 1 April 2001 and 17 and 31 October
  2004 (bi-election will be held March 2005 to fill one unfilled seat
  in the Palata Predstaviteliy); international observers widely
  denounced the October 2004 elections as flawed and undemocratic,
  based on massive government falsification; pro-Lukashenko candidates
  won every seat, after many opposition candidates were disqualified
  for technical reasons

Judicial branch:
  Supreme Court (judges are appointed by the president);
  Constitutional Court (half of the judges appointed by the president
  and half appointed by the Chamber of Representatives)

Political parties and leaders:
  Pro-government parties: Agrarian Party or AP; Belarusian Communist
  Party or KPB; Belarusian Patriotic Movement (Belarusian Patriotic
  Party) or BPR [Anatoliy BARANKEVICH, chairman]; Liberal Democratic
  Party of Belarus [Sergei GAYDUKEVICH]; Social-Sports Party;
  Opposition parties: Belarusian Popular Front or BNF [Vintsuk
  VYACHORKA]; Belarusian Social-Democrat Party Narodnaya Gromada or
  BSDP NG [Nikolay STATKEVICH, chairman]; Belarusian Social-Democratic
  Party Hromada [Stanislav SHUSHKEVICH, chairman]; United Civic Party
  or UCP [Anatol LEBEDKO]; Party of Communists Belarusian or PKB
  [Sergei KALYAKIN, chairman]; Women's Party "Nadezhda" [Valentina
  MATUSEVICH, chairperson]
  note: the opposition Belarusian Party of Labor [Aleksandr
  BUKHVOSTOV] was liquidated in August 2004, but remains active

Political pressure groups and leaders:
  NA

International organization participation:
  CEI, CIS, EAPC, EBRD, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IFC, IFRCS,
  ILO, IMF, Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), ISO, ITU, MIGA, NAM, NSG,
  OPCW, OSCE, PCA, PFP, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCO, WFTU,
  WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTrO (observer)

Diplomatic representation in the US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador Mikhail KHVOSTOV
  FAX: [1] (202) 986-1805
  consulate(s) general: New York
  telephone: [1] (202) 986-1604
  chancery: 1619 New Hampshire Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20009

Diplomatic representation from the US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador George A. KROL
  embassy: 46 Starovilenskaya St., Minsk 220002
  mailing address: PSC 78, Box B Minsk, APO 09723
  telephone: [375] (17) 210-12-83, 217-7347, 217-7348
  FAX: [375] (17) 234-7853

Flag description:
  red horizontal band (top) and green horizontal band one-half the
  width of the red band; a white vertical stripe on the hoist side
  bears Belarusian national ornamention in red

Economy Belarus

Economy - overview:
  Belarus' economy in 2003 posted 6.1 percent growth and is likely to
  continue expanding through 2004, albeit at a slower growth rate. The
  Belarusian economy in 2004 is likely to be hampered by high
  inflation, persistent trade deficits, and ongoing rocky relations
  with Russia, Belarus' largest trading partner and energy supplier.
  Belarus has seen little structural reform since 1995, when President
  LUKASHENKO launched the country on the path of "market socialism."
  In keeping with this policy, LUKASHENKO reimposed administrative
  controls over prices and currency exchange rates and expanded the
  state's right to intervene in the management of private enterprises.
  In addition, businesses have been subject to pressure on the part of
  central and local governments, e.g., arbitrary changes in
  regulations, numerous rigorous inspections, retroactive application
  of new business regulations, and arrests of "disruptive" businessmen
  and factory owners. A wide range of redistributive policies has
  helped those at the bottom of the ladder. For the time being,
  Belarus remains self-isolated from the West and its open-market
  economies.

GDP:
  purchasing power parity - $62.56 billion (2003 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:
  6.8% (2003 est.)

GDP - per capita:
  purchasing power parity - $6,100 (2003 est.)

GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 11.1% industry: 36.4% services: 52.5% (2003 est.)

Investment (gross fixed):
  21.7% of GDP (2003)

Population below poverty line:
  22% (1995 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: 5.1% highest 10%: 20% (1998)

Distribution of family income - Gini index:
  21.7 (1998)

Inflation rate (consumer prices):
  28.2% (2003 est.)

Labor force:
  4.8 million (2000 est.)

Labor force - by occupation:
  NA

Unemployment rate:
  2.1% officially registered unemployed (December 2000); large number
  of underemployed workers (2003 est.)

Budget:
  revenues: $2.976 billion
  expenditures: $3.211 billion, including capital expenditures of $180
  million (2003 est.)

Agriculture - products:
  grain, potatoes, vegetables, sugar beets, flax; beef, milk

Industries:
  metal-cutting machine tools, tractors, trucks, earthmovers,
  motorcycles, television sets, chemical fibers, fertilizer, textiles,
  radios, refrigerators

Industrial production growth rate:
  5% (2003 est.)

Electricity - production:
  24.4 billion kWh (2001)

Electricity - consumption:
  26.69 billion kWh (2001)

Electricity - exports:
  300 million kWh (2001)

Electricity - imports:
  4.3 billion kWh (2001)

Oil - production:
  37,000 bbl/day (2001 est.)

Oil - consumption:
  230,000 bbl/day (2001 est.)

Oil - exports:
  NA (2001)

Oil - imports:
  NA (2001)

Natural gas - production:
  200 million cu m (2001 est.)

Natural gas - consumption:
  18 billion cu m (2001 est.)

Natural gas - exports:
  0 cu m (2001 est.)

Natural gas - imports:
  17.8 billion cu m (2001 est.)

Current account balance:
  $-945 million (2003)

Exports:
  $9.413 billion f.o.b. (2003 est.)

Exports - commodities:
  machinery and equipment, mineral products, chemicals, metals;
  textiles, foodstuffs

Exports - partners:
  Russia 49.1%, UK 9.4%, Poland 4.4%, Germany 4.2%, Netherlands 4.2%
  (2003)

Imports:
  $11.09 billion f.o.b. (2003 est.)

Imports - commodities:
  mineral products, machinery and equipment, chemicals, foodstuffs,
  metals

Imports - partners:
  Russia 65.8%, Germany 7.1%, Ukraine 3.1% (2003)

Reserves of foreign exchange & gold:
  $637 million (2003)

Debt - external:
  $851 million (2001 est.)

Economic aid - recipient:
  $194.3 million (1995)

Currency:
  Belarusian ruble (BYB/BYR)

Currency code:
  BYB/BYR

Exchange rates:
  Belarusian rubles per US dollar - 1,790.92 (2003), 1,920 (2002),
  1,390 (2001), 876.75 (2000), 248.795 (1999)

Fiscal year:
  calendar year

Communications Belarus

Telephones - main lines in use:
  3,071,300 (2003)

Telephones - mobile cellular:
  1.118 million (2003)

Telephone system:
  general assessment: the Ministry of Telecommunications controls all
  telecommunications through its carrier (a joint stock company)
  Beltelcom which is a monopoly
  domestic: local - Minsk has a digital metropolitan network and a
  cellular NMT-450 network; waiting lists for telephones are long;
  local service outside Minsk is neglected and poor; intercity -
  Belarus has a partly developed fiber-optic backbone system presently
  serving at least 13 major cities (1998); Belarus' fiber optics form
  synchronous digital hierarchy rings through other countries'
  systems; an inadequate analog system remains operational
  international: country code - 375; Belarus is a member of the
  Trans-European Line (TEL), Trans-Asia-Europe (TAE) fiber-optic line,
  and has access to the Trans-Siberia Line (TSL); three fiber-optic
  segments provide connectivity to Latvia, Poland, Russia, and
  Ukraine; worldwide service is available to Belarus through this
  infrastructure; additional analog lines to Russia; Intelsat,
  Eutelsat, and Intersputnik earth stations

Radio broadcast stations:
  AM 28, FM 37, shortwave 11 (1998)

Radios:
  3.02 million (1997)

Television broadcast stations:
  47 (plus 27 repeaters) (1995)

Televisions:
  2.52 million (1997)

Internet country code:
  .by

Internet hosts:
  5,308 (2004)

Internet Service Providers (ISPs):
  23 (2002)

Internet users:
  1,391,900 (2003)

Transportation Belarus

Railways: total: 5,523 km broad gauge: 5,523 km 1.520-m gauge (875 km electrified) (2003)

Highways: total: 74,385 km paved: 66,203 km unpaved: 8,182 km (2000)

Waterways:
  2,500 km (use limited by location on perimeter of country and by
  shallowness) (2003)

Pipelines:
  gas 5,223 km; oil 2,443 km; refined products 1,686 km (2004)

Ports and harbors:
  Mazyr

Airports:
  135 (2003 est.)

Airports - with paved runways: total: 50 over 3,047 m: 2 2,438 to 3,047 m: 21 under 914 m: 21 (2003 est.) 1,524 to 2,437 m: 6

Airports - with unpaved runways: total: 85 under 914 m: 64 (2003 est.) 914 to 1,523 m: 11 over 3,047 m: 3 2,438 to 3,047 m: 2 1,524 to 2,437 m: 5

Heliports: 1 (2003 est.)

Military Belarus

Military branches:
  Army, Air and Air Defense Force

Military manpower - military age and obligation: 18-27 years of age for compulsory military service; conscript service obligation - 18 months (May 2004)

Military manpower - availability:
  males age 15-49: 2,764,856 (2004 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:
  males age 15-49: 2,164,923 (2004 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
  males: 86,716 (2004 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure:
  $176.1 million (FY02)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP:
  1.4% (FY02)

Transnational Issues Belarus

Disputes - international:
  1997 boundary treaty with Ukraine remains unratified over
  unresolved financial claims, preventing demarcation and diminishing
  border security; boundaries with Latvia and Lithuania remain
  undemarcated despite European Union financial support

Illicit drugs:
  limited cultivation of opium poppy and cannabis, mostly for the
  domestic market; transshipment point for illicit drugs to and via
  Russia, and to the Baltics and Western Europe; a small and lightly
  regulated financial center; new anti-money-laundering legislation
  does not meet international standards; few investigations or
  prosecutions of money-laundering activities

This page was last updated on 10 February, 2005

======================================================================

@Belgium

Introduction Belgium

Background:
  Belgium became independent from the Netherlands in 1830 and was
  occupied by Germany during World Wars I and II. It has prospered in
  the past half century as a modern, technologically advanced European
  state and member of NATO and the EU. Tensions between the
  Dutch-speaking Flemings of the north and the French-speaking
  Walloons of the south have led in recent years to constitutional
  amendments granting these regions formal recognition and autonomy.

Geography Belgium

Location:
  Western Europe, bordering the North Sea, between France and the
  Netherlands

Geographic coordinates:
  50 50 N, 4 00 E

Map references:
  Europe

Area:
  total: 30,528 sq km
  land: 30,278 sq km
  water: 250 sq km

Area - comparative:
  about the size of Maryland

Land boundaries:
  total: 1,385 km
  border countries: France 620 km, Germany 167 km, Luxembourg 148 km,
  Netherlands 450 km

Coastline:
  66.5 km

Maritime claims: territorial sea: 12 nm continental shelf: median line with neighbors exclusive economic zone: geographic coordinates define outer limit

Climate:
  temperate; mild winters, cool summers; rainy, humid, cloudy

Terrain:
  flat coastal plains in northwest, central rolling hills, rugged
  mountains of Ardennes Forest in southeast

Elevation extremes:
  lowest point: North Sea 0 m
  highest point: Signal de Botrange 694 m

Natural resources:
  coal, natural gas, construction materials, silica sand, carbonates

Land use:
  arable land: 23.28%
  permanent crops: 0.4%
  note: includes Luxembourg (2001)
  other: 76.32%

Irrigated land:
  40 sq km (includes Luxembourg) (1998 est.)

Natural hazards:
  flooding is a threat along rivers and in areas of reclaimed coastal
  land, protected from the sea by concrete dikes

Environment - current issues:
  the environment is exposed to intense pressures from human
  activities: urbanization, dense transportation network, industry,
  extensive animal breeding and crop cultivation; air and water
  pollution also have repercussions for neighboring countries;
  uncertainties regarding federal and regional responsibilities (now
  resolved) have slowed progress in tackling environmental challenges

Environment - international agreements:
  party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air
  Pollution-Sulfur 85, Air Pollution-Sulfur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile
  Organic Compounds, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol,
  Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Seals, Antarctic
  Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol,
  Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification,
  Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Marine Life
  Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical
  Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands
  signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants

Geography - note:
  crossroads of Western Europe; majority of West European capitals
  within 1,000 km of Brussels, the seat of both the European Union and
  NATO

People Belgium

Population:
  10,348,276 (July 2004 est.)

Age structure:
  0-14 years: 17.1% (male 901,486; female 863,092)
  15-64 years: 65.6% (male 3,424,438; female 3,364,057)
  65 years and over: 17.3% (male 739,479; female 1,055,724) (2004 est.)

Median age:
  total: 40.2 years
  male: 38.9 years
  female: 41.5 years (2004 est.)

Population growth rate:
  0.16% (2004 est.)

Birth rate:
  10.59 births/1,000 population (2004 est.)

Death rate:
  10.2 deaths/1,000 population (2004 est.)

Net migration rate:
  1.23 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2004 est.)

Sex ratio:
  at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
  under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
  15-64 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
  65 years and over: 0.7 male(s)/female
  total population: 0.96 male(s)/female (2004 est.)

Infant mortality rate:
  total: 4.76 deaths/1,000 live births
  female: 4.12 deaths/1,000 live births (2004 est.)
  male: 5.36 deaths/1,000 live births

Life expectancy at birth:
  total population: 78.44 years
  male: 75.26 years
  female: 81.75 years (2004 est.)

Total fertility rate:
  1.64 children born/woman (2004 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
  0.2% (2003 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
  10,000 (2003 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths:
  less than 100 (2003 est.)

Nationality:
  noun: Belgian(s)
  adjective: Belgian

Ethnic groups:
  Fleming 58%, Walloon 31%, mixed or other 11%

Religions:
  Roman Catholic 75%, Protestant or other 25%

Languages:
  Dutch (official) 60%, French (official) 40%, German (official) less
  than 1%, legally bilingual (Dutch and French)

Literacy:
  definition: age 15 and over can read and write
  total population: 98%
  male: NA
  female: NA

Government Belgium

Country name:
  conventional long form: Kingdom of Belgium
  conventional short form: Belgium
  local short form: Belgique/Belgie
  local long form: Royaume de Belgique/Koninkrijk Belgie

Government type:
  federal parliamentary democracy under a constitutional monarch

Capital:
  Brussels

Administrative divisions:
  10 provinces (French: provinces, singular - province; Dutch:
  provincies, singular - provincie) and 3 regions* (French: regions;
  Dutch: gewesten); Antwerpen, Brabant Wallon, Brussels* (Bruxelles),
  Flanders*, Hainaut, Liege, Limburg, Luxembourg, Namur,
  Oost-Vlaanderen, Vlaams-Brabant, Wallonia*, West-Vlaanderen
  note: as a result of the 1993 constitutional revision that furthered
  devolution into a federal state, there are now three levels of
  government (federal, regional, and linguistic community) with a
  complex division of responsibilities

Independence:
  4 October 1830 (a provisional government declares independence from
  the Netherlands); 21 July 1831 (King Leopold I ascends to the throne)

National holiday:
  21 July (1831) ascension to the Throne of King Leopold I

Constitution:
  7 February 1831, last revised 14 July 1993; parliament approved a
  constitutional package creating a federal state

Legal system:
  civil law system influenced by English constitutional theory;
  judicial review of legislative acts; accepts compulsory ICJ
  jurisdiction, with reservations

Suffrage:
  18 years of age; universal and compulsory

Executive branch:
  chief of state: King ALBERT II (since 9 August 1993); Heir Apparent
  Prince PHILIPPE, son of the monarch
  head of government: Prime Minister Guy VERHOFSTADT (since 13 July
  1999)
  cabinet: Council of Ministers formally appointed by the monarch
  note: government coalition - VLD, MR, PS, SP.A-Spirit
  elections: none; the monarchy is hereditary; following legislative
  elections, the leader of the majority party or the leader of the
  majority coalition is usually appointed prime minister by the
  monarch and then approved by Parliament

Legislative branch:
  bicameral Parliament consists of a Senate or Senaat in Dutch, Senat
  in French (71 seats; 40 members are directly elected by popular
  vote, 31 are indirectly elected; members serve four-year terms) and
  a Chamber of Deputies or Kamer van Volksvertegenwoordigers in Dutch,
  Chambre des Representants in French (150 seats; members are directly
  elected by popular vote on the basis of proportional representation
  to serve four-year terms)
  election results: Senate - percent of vote by party - SP.A-Spirit
  15.5%, VLD 15.4%, CD & V 12.7%, PS 12.8%, MR 12.1%, VB 9.4%, CDH
  5.6%; seats by party - SP.A-Spirit 7, VLD 7, CD & V 6, PS 6, MR 5,
  VB 5, CDH 2, other 2 (note - there are also 31 indirectly elected
  senators); Chamber of Deputies - percent of vote by party - VLD
  15.4%, SP.A-Spirit 14.9%, CD & V 13.3%, PS 13.0%, VB 11.6%, MR
  11.4%, CDH 5.5%, Ecolo 3.1%; seats by party - VLD 25, SP.A-Spirit
  23, CD & V 21, PS 25, VB 18, MR 24, CDH 8 Ecolo 4, other 2
  note: as a result of the 1993 constitutional revision that furthered
  devolution into a federal state, there are now three levels of
  government (federal, regional, and linguistic community) with a
  complex division of responsibilities; this reality leaves six
  governments each with its own legislative assembly; for other
  acronyms of the listed parties see the Political parties and leaders
  entry
  elections: Senate and Chamber of Deputies - last held 18 May 2003
  (next to be held no later than May 2007)

Judicial branch:
  Supreme Court of Justice or Hof van Cassatie (in Dutch) or Cour de
  Cassation (in French) (judges are appointed for life by the
  Government; candidacies have to be submitted by the High Justice
  Council)

Political parties and leaders:
  Christian Democrats and Flemish or CD & V [Jo VANDEURZEN]; Ecolo
  (Francophone Greens) [Jean-Michel JAVAUX, Evelyne HUYTEBROECK,
  Claude BROUIR]; Flemish Liberal Democrats or VLD [Bart SOMERS];
  Flemish Socialist Party.Alternative or SP.A [Steve STEVAERT];
  Francophone Humanist and Democratic Center of CDH [Joelle MILQUET];
  Francophone Reformist Movement or MR [Didier REYNDERS]; Francophone
  Socialist Party or PS [Elio DI RUPO]; GROEN! (formerly AGALEV,
  Flemish Greens) [Vera DUA]; National Front or FN [Daniel FERET]; New
  Flemish Alliance or NVA [Bart DE WEVER]; Spirit [Els VAN WEERT];
  note - new party now associated with SP.A; Vlaams Belang or VB
  [Frank VANHECKE]; other minor parties

Political pressure groups and leaders:
  Christian, Socialist, and Liberal Trade Unions; Federation of
  Belgian Industries; numerous other associations representing
  bankers, manufacturers, middle-class artisans, and the legal and
  medical professions; various organizations represent the cultural
  interests of Flanders and Wallonia; various peace groups such as Pax
  Christi and groups representing immigrants

International organization participation:
  ACCT, AfDB, AsDB, Australia Group, Benelux, BIS, CE, CERN, EAPC,
  EBRD, EIB, EMU, ESA, EU, FAO, G- 9, G-10, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO,
  ICC, ICCt, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF,
  IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, MIGA, MONUC, NATO, NEA, NSG, OAS
  (observer), OECD, ONUB, OPCW, OSCE, Paris Club, PCA, UN, UNCTAD,
  UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNMIK, UNMOGIP, UNRWA, UNTSO, UPU, WADB
  (nonregional), WCL, WCO, WEU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC

Diplomatic representation in the US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador Franciskus VAN DAELE
  FAX: [1] (202) 333-3079
  consulate(s) general: Atlanta, Los Angeles, and New York
  telephone: [1] (202) 333-6900
  chancery: 3330 Garfield Street NW, Washington, DC 20008

Diplomatic representation from the US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador Tom C. KOROLOGOS
  embassy: Regentlaan 27 Boulevard du Regent, B-1000 Brussels
  mailing address: PSC 82, Box 002, APO AE 09710
  telephone: [32] (2) 508-2111
  FAX: [32] (2) 511-2725

Flag description:
  three equal vertical bands of black (hoist side), yellow, and red;
  the design was based on the flag of France

Economy Belgium

Economy - overview:
  This modern private enterprise economy has capitalized on its
  central geographic location, highly developed transport network, and
  diversified industrial and commercial base. Industry is concentrated
  mainly in the populous Flemish area in the north. With few natural
  resources, Belgium must import substantial quantities of raw
  materials and export a large volume of manufactures, making its
  economy unusually dependent on the state of world markets. Roughly
  three-quarters of its trade is with other EU countries. Public debt
  is about 100% of GDP, and the government has succeeded in balancing
  its budget. Belgium, together with 11 of its EU partners, began
  circulating the euro currency in January 2002. Economic growth in
  2001-03 dropped sharply because of the global economic slowdown.
  Prospects for 2004 again depend largely on recovery in the EU and
  the US.

GDP:
  purchasing power parity - $299.1 billion (2003 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:
  1.1% (2003 est.)

GDP - per capita:
  purchasing power parity - $29,100 (2003 est.)

GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 1.9% industry: 26.3% services: 71.8% (2003)

Investment (gross fixed):
  19.7% of GDP (2003)

Population below poverty line:
  4% (1989 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: 3.2% highest 10%: 23% (1996)

Distribution of family income - Gini index:
  28.7 (1996)

Inflation rate (consumer prices):
  1.6% (2003 est.)

Labor force:
  4.73 million (2003)

Labor force - by occupation:
  agriculture 1.3%, industry 24.5%, services 74.2% (2003 est.)

Unemployment rate:
  8.1% (2003 est.)

Budget:
  revenues: $151.6 billion
  expenditures: $151.1 billion, including capital expenditures of
  $1.56 billion (2003)

Public debt:
  102% of GDP (2003 est.)

Agriculture - products:
  sugar beets, fresh vegetables, fruits, grain, tobacco; beef, veal,
  pork, milk

Industries:
  engineering and metal products, motor vehicle assembly, processed
  food and beverages, chemicals, basic metals, textiles, glass,
  petroleum

Industrial production growth rate:
  -1.5% (2003 est.)

Electricity - production:
  74.28 billion kWh (2001)

Electricity - consumption:
  78.18 billion kWh (2001)

Electricity - exports:
  6.712 billion kWh (2001)

Electricity - imports:
  15.82 billion kWh (2001)

Oil - production:
  0 bbl/day (2001 est.)

Oil - consumption:
  595,100 bbl/day (2001 est.)

Oil - exports:
  450,000 bbl/day (2001)

Oil - imports:
  1.042 million bbl/day (2001)

Natural gas - production:
  0 cu m (2001 est.)

Natural gas - consumption:
  15.5 billion cu m (2001 est.)

Natural gas - exports:
  0 cu m (2001 est.)

Natural gas - imports:
  15.4 billion cu m (2001 est.)

Current account balance:
  $10.69 billion (2003)

Exports:
  $182.9 billion f.o.b. (2003 est.)

Exports - commodities:
  machinery and equipment, chemicals, diamonds, metals and metal
  products, foodstuffs

Exports - partners:
  Germany 19.5%, France 17.4%, Netherlands 11.7%, UK 9%, US 6.7%,
  Italy 5.4% (2003)

Imports:
  $173 billion f.o.b. (2003 est.)

Imports - commodities:
  machinery and equipment, chemicals, diamonds, pharmaceuticals,
  foodstuffs, transportation equipment, oil products

Imports - partners:
  Germany 17.7%, Netherlands 16.5%, France 13.2%, UK 7.5%, US 5.9%,
  Ireland 5.7% (2003)

Reserves of foreign exchange & gold:
  $14.45 billion (2003)

Debt - external:
  $28.3 billion (1999 est.)

Economic aid - donor:
  ODA, $1.072 billion (2002)

Currency:
  euro (EUR)
  note: on 1 January 1999, the European Monetary Union introduced the
  euro as a common currency to be used by financial institutions of
  member countries; on 1 January 2002, the euro became the sole
  currency for everyday transactions within the member countries

Currency code:
  EUR

Exchange rates:
  euros per US dollar - 0.886 (2003), 1.0626 (2002), 1.1175 (2001),
  1.0854 (2000), 0.9386 (1999)

Fiscal year:
  calendar year

Communications Belgium

Telephones - main lines in use:
  5,120,400 (2002)

Telephones - mobile cellular:
  8,135,500 (2002)

Telephone system:
  general assessment: highly developed, technologically advanced, and
  completely automated domestic and international telephone and
  telegraph facilities
  domestic: nationwide cellular telephone system; extensive cable
  network; limited microwave radio relay network
  international: country code - 32; 5 submarine cables; satellite
  earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean) and 1 Eutelsat

Radio broadcast stations:
  FM 79, AM 7, shortwave 1 (1998)

Radios:
  8.075 million (1997)

Television broadcast stations:
  25 (plus 10 repeaters) (1997)

Televisions:
  4.72 million (1997)

Internet country code:
  .be

Internet hosts:
  166,799 (2004)

Internet Service Providers (ISPs):
  61 (2000)

Internet users:
  3.4 million (2002)

Transportation Belgium

Railways: total: 3,518 km standard gauge: 3,518 km 1.435-m gauge (2,631 km electrified) (2003)

Highways:
  total: 148,216 km
  paved: 116,687 km (including 1,727 km of expressways)
  unpaved: 31,529 km (2000)

Waterways:
  2,043 km (1,528 km in regular commercial use) (2003)

Pipelines:
  gas 1,485 km; oil 158 km; refined products 535 km (2004)

Ports and harbors:
  Antwerp (one of the world's busiest ports), Brugge, Gent, Hasselt,
  Liege, Mons, Namur, Oostende, Zeebrugge

Merchant marine:
  total: 50 ships (1,000 GRT or over) 1,146,301 GRT/1,588,184 DWT
  foreign-owned: Denmark 6, Finland 1, France 2, Netherlands 3
  registered in other countries: 69 (2004 est.)
  by type: bulk 1, cargo 8, chemical tanker 11, container 6, liquefied
  gas 18, petroleum tanker 6

Airports:
  42 (2003 est.)

Airports - with paved runways: total: 25 over 3,047 m: 6 2,438 to 3,047 m: 8 914 to 1,523 m: 1 under 914 m: 7 (2004 est.) 1,524 to 2,437 m: 3

Airports - with unpaved runways: total: 18 914 to 1,523 m: 2 under 914 m: 16 (2004 est.)

Heliports: 1 (2003 est.)

Military Belgium

Military branches:
  Army, Naval, and Air Operations Commands

Military manpower - military age and obligation:
  16 years of age for voluntary military service (2001)

Military manpower - availability:
  males age 15-49: 2,509,538 (2004 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:
  males age 15-49: 2,068,221 (2004 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
  males: 61,270 (2004 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure:
  $3.999 billion (2003)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP:
  1.3% (2003)

Transnational Issues Belgium

Disputes - international:
  none

Illicit drugs:
  growing producer of synthetic drugs; transit point for US-bound
  ecstasy; source of precursor chemicals for South American cocaine
  processors; transshipment point for cocaine, heroin, hashish, and
  marijuana entering Western Europe; despite a strengthening of
  legislation, the country remains vulnerable to money laundering
  related to narcotics, automobiles, alcohol and tobacco

This page was last updated on 10 February, 2005

======================================================================

@Belize

Introduction Belize

Background:
  Territorial disputes between the UK and Guatemala delayed the
  independence of Belize (formerly British Honduras) until 1981.
  Guatemala refused to recognize the new nation until 1992. Tourism
  has become the mainstay of the economy. The country remains plagued
  by high unemployment, growing involvement in the South American drug
  trade, and increased urban crime.

Geography Belize

Location:
  Central America, bordering the Caribbean Sea, between Guatemala and
  Mexico

Geographic coordinates:
  17 15 N, 88 45 W

Map references:
  Central America and the Caribbean

Area:
  total: 22,966 sq km
  water: 160 sq km
  land: 22,806 sq km

Area - comparative:
  slightly smaller than Massachusetts

Land boundaries: total: 516 km border countries: Guatemala 266 km, Mexico 250 km

Coastline:
  386 km

Maritime claims:
  territorial sea: 12 nm in the north, 3 nm in the south; note - from
  the mouth of the Sarstoon River to Ranguana Cay, Belize's
  territorial sea is 3 nm; according to Belize's Maritime Areas Act,
  1992, the purpose of this limitation is to provide a framework for
  the negotiation of a definitive agreement on territorial differences
  with Guatemala
  exclusive economic zone: 200 nm

Climate:
  tropical; very hot and humid; rainy season (May to November); dry
  season (February to May)

Terrain:
  flat, swampy coastal plain; low mountains in south

Elevation extremes: lowest point: Caribbean Sea 0 m highest point: Victoria Peak 1,160 m

Natural resources: arable land potential, timber, fish, hydropower

Land use: arable land: 2.85% permanent crops: 1.71% other: 95.44% (2001)

Irrigated land:
  30 sq km (1998 est.)

Natural hazards:
  frequent, devastating hurricanes (June to November) and coastal
  flooding (especially in south)

Environment - current issues:
  deforestation; water pollution from sewage, industrial effluents,
  agricultural runoff; solid and sewage waste disposal

Environment - international agreements:
  party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto
  Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law
  of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
  signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - note:
  only country in Central America without a coastline on the North
  Pacific Ocean

People Belize

Population:
  272,945 (July 2004 est.)

Age structure:
  0-14 years: 40.6% (male 56,530; female 54,322)
  15-64 years: 55.8% (male 77,118; female 75,309)
  65 years and over: 3.5% (male 4,674; female 4,992) (2004 est.)

Median age:
  total: 19.1 years
  male: 19 years
  female: 19.3 years (2004 est.)

Population growth rate:
  2.39% (2004 est.)

Birth rate:
  29.89 births/1,000 population (2004 est.)

Death rate:
  6.04 deaths/1,000 population (2004 est.)

Net migration rate:
  0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2004 est.)

Sex ratio:
  at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
  under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
  15-64 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
  65 years and over: 0.94 male(s)/female
  total population: 1.03 male(s)/female (2004 est.)

Infant mortality rate:
  total: 26.37 deaths/1,000 live births
  female: 22.82 deaths/1,000 live births (2004 est.)
  male: 29.75 deaths/1,000 live births

Life expectancy at birth:
  total population: 67.43 years
  male: 65.11 years
  female: 69.86 years (2004 est.)

Total fertility rate:
  3.77 children born/woman (2004 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
  2.4% (2003 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
  3,600 (2003 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths:
  less than 200 (2003 est.)

Nationality: noun: Belizean(s) adjective: Belizean

Ethnic groups:
  mestizo 48.7%, Creole 24.9%, Maya 10.6%, Garifuna 6.1%, other 9.7%

Religions:
  Roman Catholic 49.6%, Protestant 27% (Anglican 5.3%, Methodist
  3.5%, Mennonite 4.1%, Seventh-Day Adventist 5.2%, Pentecostal 7.4%,
  Jehovah's Witnesses 1.5%), none 9.4%, other 14% (2000)

Languages:
  English (official), Spanish, Mayan, Garifuna (Carib), Creole

Literacy:
  definition: age 15 and over can read and write
  total population: 94.1%
  male: 94.1%
  female: 94.1% (2003 est.)

Government Belize

Country name: conventional long form: none conventional short form: Belize former: British Honduras

Government type:
  parliamentary democracy

Capital:
  Belmopan

Administrative divisions:
  6 districts; Belize, Cayo, Corozal, Orange Walk, Stann Creek, Toledo

Independence:
  21 September 1981 (from UK)

National holiday:
  Independence Day, 21 September (1981)

Constitution:
  21 September 1981

Legal system:
  English law

Suffrage:
  18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
  chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952),
  represented by Governor General Sir Colville YOUNG, Sr. (since 17
  November 1993)
  head of government: Prime Minister Said Wilbert MUSA (since 28
  August 1998); Deputy Prime Minister John BRICENO (since 1 September
  1998)
  cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the governor general on the advice of
  the prime minister
  elections: none; the monarch is hereditary; governor general
  appointed by the monarch; following legislative elections, the
  leader of the majority party or the leader of the majority coalition
  is usually appointed prime minister by the governor general; prime
  minister recommends the deputy prime minister

Legislative branch:
  bicameral National Assembly consists of the Senate (12 members
  appointed by the governor general - six on the advice of the prime
  minister, three on the advice of the leader of the opposition, and
  one each on the advice of the Belize Council of Churches and
  Evangelical Association of Churches, the Belize Chamber of Commerce
  and Industry and the Belize Better Business Bureau, and the National
  Trade Union Congress and the Civil Society Steering Committee;
  members are appointed for five-year terms) and the House of
  Representatives (29 seats; members are elected by direct popular
  vote to serve five-year terms)
  elections: House of Representatives - last held 5 March 2003 (next
  to be held NA March 2008)
  election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party -
  PUP 21, UDP 8

Judicial branch:
  Supreme Court (the chief justice is appointed by the governor
  general on the advice of the prime minister)

Political parties and leaders:
  People's United Party or PUP [Said MUSA]; United Democratic Party
  or UDP [Dean BARROW, party leader; Douglas SINGH, party chairman]

Political pressure groups and leaders:
  Society for the Promotion of Education and Research or SPEAR [Adele
  CATZIM]

International organization participation:
  ACP, C, Caricom, CDB, FAO, G-77, IADB, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt, ICFTU,
  ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ITU,
  LAES, MIGA, NAM, OAS, OPANAL, OPCW, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO,
  UPU, WCL, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador Lisa M. SHOMAN
  consulate(s) general: Los Angeles
  FAX: [1] (202) 332-6888
  telephone: [1] (202) 332-9636
  chancery: 2535 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008

Diplomatic representation from the US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador Russell F. FREEMAN
  embassy: 29 Gabourel Lane, Belize City
  mailing address: P. O. Box 286, Belize City
  telephone: [501] 227-7161 through 7163
  FAX: [501] 2-30802

Flag description:
  blue with a narrow red stripe along the top and the bottom edges;
  centered is a large white disk bearing the coat of arms; the coat of
  arms features a shield flanked by two workers in front of a mahogany
  tree with the related motto SUB UMBRA FLOREO (I Flourish in the
  Shade) on a scroll at the bottom, all encircled by a green garland

Economy Belize

Economy - overview:
  In this small, essentially private enterprise economy the tourism
  industry is the number one foreign exchange earner followed by cane
  sugar, citrus, marine products, bananas, and garments. The
  government's expansionary monetary and fiscal policies, initiated in
  September 1998, led to GDP growth of 6.5% in 1999, 10.8% in 2000,
  4.6% in 2001, and 3.7% in 2002. Major concerns continue to be the
  sizable trade deficit and foreign debt. A key short-term objective
  remains the reduction of poverty with the help of international
  donors.

GDP:
  purchasing power parity - $1.28 billion (2002 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:
  3.7% (2002 est.)

GDP - per capita:
  purchasing power parity - $4,900 (2002 est.)

GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 22.7% industry: 24.5% services: 52.8% (2003 est.)

Investment (gross fixed):
  33% of GDP (2003)

Population below poverty line:
  33% (1999 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
  lowest 10%: NA
  highest 10%: NA

Inflation rate (consumer prices):
  2.6% (2003 est.)

Labor force:
  90,000
  note: shortage of skilled labor and all types of technical personnel
  (2001 est.)

Labor force - by occupation:
  agriculture 27%, industry 18%, services 55% (2001 est.)

Unemployment rate:
  9.1% (2002)

Budget:
  revenues: $222 million
  expenditures: $300 million, including capital expenditures of $70
  million (2003 est.)

Agriculture - products: bananas, coca, citrus, sugar; fish, cultured shrimp; lumber; garments

Industries:
  garment production, food processing, tourism, construction

Industrial production growth rate:
  4.6% (1999)

Electricity - production:
  199.5 million kWh (2001)

Electricity - consumption:
  185.5 million kWh (2001)

Electricity - exports:
  0 kWh (2001)

Electricity - imports:
  0 kWh (2001)

Oil - production:
  0 bbl/day (2001 est.)

Oil - consumption:
  5,000 bbl/day (2001 est.)

Oil - exports:
  NA (2001)

Oil - imports:
  NA (2001)

Current account balance:
  $-142 million (2003)

Exports:
  $207.8 million f.o.b. (2003 est.)

Exports - commodities:
  sugar, bananas, citrus, clothing, fish products, molasses, wood

Exports - partners:
  US 39.1%, UK 25%, France 4% (2003)

Imports:
  $500.6 million f.o.b. (2003 est.)

Imports - commodities:
  machinery and transport equipment, manufactured goods; fuels,
  chemicals, pharmaceuticals; food, beverages, tobacco

Imports - partners:
  US 41.9%, Mexico 12.4%, UK 5.9%, Cuba 5.5% (2003)

Reserves of foreign exchange & gold:
  $84.7 million (2003)

Debt - external:
  $475 million (2001 est.)

Economic aid - recipient:
  NA

Currency:
  Belizean dollar (BZD)

Currency code:
  BZD

Exchange rates:
  Belizean dollars per US dollar - 2 (2003), 2 (2002), 2 (2001), 2
  (2000), 2 (1999)

Fiscal year:
  1 April - 31 March

Communications Belize

Telephones - main lines in use:
  33,300 (2003)

Telephones - mobile cellular:
  60,400 (2003)

Telephone system:
  general assessment: above-average system
  domestic: trunk network depends primarily on microwave radio relay
  international: country code - 501; satellite earth station - 1
  Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations:
  AM 1, FM 12, shortwave 0 (1998)

Radios:
  133,000 (1997)

Television broadcast stations:
  2 (1997)

Televisions:
  41,000 (1997)

Internet country code:
  .bz

Internet hosts:
  2,613 (2003)

Internet Service Providers (ISPs):
  2 (2000)

Internet users:
  30,000 (2002)

Transportation Belize

Highways: total: 2,872 km paved: 488 km unpaved: 2,384 km (1999 est.)

Waterways:
  825 km (navigable only by small craft) (2004)

Ports and harbors:
  Belize City, Big Creek, Corozol, Punta Gorda

Merchant marine:
  total: 336 ships (1,000 GRT or over) 1,015,270 GRT/1,336,890 DWT
  registered in other countries: 25 (2004 est.)
  by type: bulk 13, cargo 240, chemical tanker 11, combination bulk 4,
  combination ore/oil 1, container 10, multi-functional large load
  carrier 1, petroleum tanker 27, refrigerated cargo 18, roll on/roll
  off 8, short-sea/passenger 1, specialized tanker 2
  foreign-owned: Bahamas 2, Belgium 1, British Virgin Islands 11,
  Cambodia 6, China 67, Cuba 2, Cyprus 1, Ecuador 1, Estonia 8,
  Germany 5, Greece 2, Grenada 1, Honduras 1, Hong Kong 27, Indonesia
  4, Italy 2, Japan 5, Jordan 1, South Korea 13, Latvia 5, Liberia 2,
  Malaysia 4, Malta 1, Isle of Man 1, Marshall Islands 16, Mexico 1,
  Netherlands 1, Nigeria 2, Panama 15, Philippines 4, Portugal 1,
  Russia 9, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 3, Singapore 9, Spain 6,
  Switzerland 2, Taiwan 1, Thailand 3, Tunisia 1, Turkey 2, Ukraine 3,
  United Kingdom 1, United States 3, Yemen 1

Airports:
  43 (2003 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
  total: 5
  1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
  914 to 1,523 m: 2
  under 914 m: 2 (2004 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
  total: 38
  2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
  914 to 1,523 m: 11
  under 914 m: 26 (2004 est.)

Military Belize

Military branches:
  Belize Defense Force (includes Army, Maritime Wing, Air Wing, and
  Volunteer Guard)

Military manpower - military age and obligation: 18 years of age for voluntary military service; laws allow for conscription only if volunteers are insufficient; conscription has never been implemented; volunteers typically outnumber available positions by 3:1 (2001)

Military manpower - availability:
  males age 15-49: 68,518 (2004 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:
  males age 15-49: 40,619 (2004 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
  males: 3,122 (2004 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure:
  $18 million (2003)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP:
  2% (2003)

Transnational Issues Belize

Disputes - international:
  Guatemalan squatters continue to settle along the border region; an
  OAS brokered Differendum in 2002 created a small adjustment to the
  land boundary, a large Guatemalan maritime corridor in Caribbean, a
  joint ecological park for disputed Sapodilla Cays, and a substantial
  US-UK financial package, but agreement was not brought to popular
  referendum leaving Guatemala to continue to claim the southern half
  of Belize

Illicit drugs:
  major transshipment point for cocaine; small-scale illicit producer
  of cannabis for the international drug trade; money-laundering
  activity related to narcotics trafficking and offshore sector

This page was last updated on 10 February, 2005

======================================================================

@Benin

Introduction Benin

Background:
  Present day Benin was the site of Dahomey, a prominent West African
  kingdom that rose in the 15th century. The territory became a French
  Colony in 1872 and achieved independence on 1 August 1960, as the
  Republic of Benin. A succession of military governments ended in
  1972 with the rise to power of Mathieu KEREKOU and the establishment
  of a government based on Marxist-Leninist principles. A move to
  representative government began in 1989. Two years later, free
  elections ushered in former Prime Minister Nicephore SOGLO as
  president, marking the first successful transfer of power in Africa
  from a dictatorship to a democracy. KEREKOU was returned to power by
  elections held in 1996 and 2001, though some irregularities were
  alleged.

Geography Benin

Location:
  Western Africa, bordering the Bight of Benin, between Nigeria and
  Togo

Geographic coordinates:
  9 30 N, 2 15 E

Map references:
  Africa

Area:
  total: 112,620 sq km
  water: 2,000 sq km
  land: 110,620 sq km

Area - comparative:
  slightly smaller than Pennsylvania

Land boundaries:
  total: 1,989 km
  border countries: Burkina Faso 306 km, Niger 266 km, Nigeria 773 km,
  Togo 644 km

Coastline:
  121 km

Maritime claims:
  territorial sea: 200 nm

Climate:
  tropical; hot, humid in south; semiarid in north

Terrain:
  mostly flat to undulating plain; some hills and low mountains

Elevation extremes: lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m highest point: Mont Sokbaro 658 m

Natural resources: small offshore oil deposits, limestone, marble, timber

Land use: arable land: 18.08% permanent crops: 2.4% other: 79.52% (2001)

Irrigated land:
  120 sq km (1998 est.)

Natural hazards:
  hot, dry, dusty harmattan wind may affect north from December to
  March

Environment - current issues:
  inadequate supplies of potable water; poaching threatens wildlife
  populations; deforestation; desertification

Environment - international agreements:
  party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto
  Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental
  Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer
  Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
  signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - note:
  sandbanks create difficult access to a coast with no natural
  harbors, river mouths, or islands

People Benin

Population:
  7,250,033
  note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the
  effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower
  life expectancy, higher infant mortality and death rates, lower
  population and growth rates, and changes in the distribution of
  population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (July
  2004 est.)

Age structure:
  0-14 years: 46.8% (male 1,711,075; female 1,679,439)
  15-64 years: 51% (male 1,802,990; female 1,890,915)
  65 years and over: 2.3% (male 68,890; female 96,724) (2004 est.)

Median age:
  total: 16.5 years
  male: 16 years
  female: 16.9 years (2004 est.)

Population growth rate:
  2.89% (2004 est.)

Birth rate:
  42.57 births/1,000 population (2004 est.)

Death rate:
  13.69 deaths/1,000 population (2004 est.)

Net migration rate:
  0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2004 est.)

Sex ratio:
  at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
  under 15 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
  15-64 years: 0.95 male(s)/female
  65 years and over: 0.71 male(s)/female
  total population: 0.98 male(s)/female (2004 est.)

Infant mortality rate:
  total: 85.88 deaths/1,000 live births
  female: 80.71 deaths/1,000 live births (2004 est.)
  male: 90.89 deaths/1,000 live births

Life expectancy at birth:
  total population: 50.81 years
  male: 50.25 years
  female: 51.39 years (2004 est.)

Total fertility rate:
  5.95 children born/woman (2004 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
  1.9% (2003 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
  68,000 (2003 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths:
  5,800 (2003 est.)

Major infectious diseases:
  typhoid fever, malaria, yellow fever
  overall degree of risk: very high (2004)

Nationality:
  noun: Beninese (singular and plural)
  adjective: Beninese

Ethnic groups:
  African 99% (42 ethnic groups, most important being Fon, Adja,
  Yoruba, Bariba), Europeans 5,500

Religions:
  indigenous beliefs 50%, Christian 30%, Muslim 20%

Languages:
  French (official), Fon and Yoruba (most common vernaculars in
  south), tribal languages (at least six major ones in north)

Literacy:
  definition: age 15 and over can read and write
  total population: 40.9%
  male: 56.2%
  female: 26.5% (2000)

Government Benin

Country name: conventional long form: Republic of Benin conventional short form: Benin local short form: Benin former: Dahomey local long form: Republique du Benin

Government type:
  republic under multiparty democratic rule; dropped Marxism-Leninism
  December 1989; democratic reforms adopted February 1990; transition
  to multiparty system completed 4 April 1991

Capital:
  Porto-Novo is the official capital; Cotonou is the seat of
  government

Administrative divisions:
  12 departments; Alibori, Atakora, Atlantique, Borgou, Collines,
  Kouffo, Donga, Littoral, Mono, Oueme, Plateau, Zou

Independence:
  1 August 1960 (from France)

National holiday:
  National Day, 1 August (1960)

Constitution:
  December 1990

Legal system:
  based on French civil law and customary law; has not accepted
  compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage:
  18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
  chief of state: President Mathieu KEREKOU (since 4 April 1996);
  note - the president is both the chief of state and head of
  government
  head of government: President Mathieu KEREKOU (since 4 April 1996);
  note - the president is both the chief of state and head of
  government
  cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president
  elections: president reelected by popular vote for a five-year term;
  runoff election held 22 March 2001 (next to be held NA March 2006)
  note: the four top-ranking contenders following the first-round
  presidential elections were: Mathieu KEREKOU (incumbent) 45.4%,
  Nicephore SOGOLO (former president) 27.1%, Adrien HOUNGBEDJI
  (National Assembly Speaker) 12.6%, and Bruno AMOUSSOU (Minister of
  State) 8.6%; the second-round balloting, originally scheduled for 18
  March 2001, was postponed four days because both SOGOLO and
  HOUNGBEDJI withdrew alleging electoral fraud; this left KEREKOU to
  run against his own Minister of State, AMOUSSOU, in what was termed
  a "friendly match"
  election results: Mathieu KEREKOU reelected president; percent of
  vote - Mathieu KEREKOU 84.1%, Bruno AMOUSSOU 15.9%

Legislative branch:
  unicameral National Assembly or Assemblee Nationale (83 seats;
  members are elected by direct popular vote to serve four-year terms)
  election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party -
  Presidential Movement 52, opposition (PRB, PRD, E'toile, and 5 other
  small parties) 31
  elections: last held 30 March 2003 (next to be held NA March 2007)

Judicial branch:
  Constitutional Court or Cour Constitutionnelle; Supreme Court or
  Cour Supreme; High Court of Justice

Political parties and leaders:
  African Congress for Renewal or DUNYA [Saka SALEY]; African
  Movement for Democracy and Progress or MADEP [Sefou FAGBOHOUN];
  Alliance of the Social Democratic Party or PSD [Bruno AMOUSSOU];
  Coalition of Democratic Forces [Gatien HOUNGBEDJI]; Democratic
  Renewal Party or PRD [Adrien HOUNGBEDJI]; Front for Renewal and
  Development or FARD-ALAFIA [Jerome Sakia KINA]; Impulse for Progress
  and Democracy or IPD [Bertin BORNA]; Key Force or FC [leader NA];
  Presidential Movement (UBF, MADEP, FC, IDP, and 4 other small
  parties); Renaissance Party du Benin or PRB [Nicephore SOGLO]; The
  Star Alliance (Alliance E'toile) [Sacca LAFIA]; Union of Tomorrow's
  Benin or UBF [Bruno AMOUSSOU]
  note: approximately 20 additional minor parties

Political pressure groups and leaders:
  NA

International organization participation:
  ACCT, ACP, AfDB, AU, ECOWAS, Entente, FAO, FZ, G-77, IAEA, IBRD,
  ICAO, ICCt, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO,
  Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO (correspondent), ITU, MIGA, MINUSTAH, MONUC,
  NAM, OIC, ONUB, OPCW, UN, UN Security Council (temporary), UNCTAD,
  UNESCO, UNIDO, UNMIL, UNOCI, UPU, WADB (regional), WAEMU, WCL, WCO,
  WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTO

Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Cyrille Segbe OGUIN FAX: [1] (202) 265-1996 telephone: [1] (202) 232-6656 chancery: 2124 Kalorama Road NW, Washington, DC 20008

Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Wayne NEILL embassy: Rue Caporal Bernard Anani, Cotonou mailing address: 01 B. P. 2012, Cotonou telephone: [229] 30-06-50 FAX: [229] 30-06-70

Flag description:
  two equal horizontal bands of yellow (top) and red with a vertical
  green band on the hoist side

Economy Benin

Economy - overview:
  The economy of Benin remains underdeveloped and dependent on
  subsistence agriculture, cotton production, and regional trade.
  Growth in real output has averaged a stable 5% in the past six
  years, but rapid population rise has offset much of this increase.
  Inflation has subsided over the past several years. In order to
  raise growth still further, Benin plans to attract more foreign
  investment, place more emphasis on tourism, facilitate the
  development of new food processing systems and agricultural
  products, and encourage new information and communication
  technology. The 2001 privatization policy should continue in
  telecommunications, water, electricity, and agriculture in spite of
  initial government reluctance. The Paris Club and bilateral
  creditors have eased the external debt situation, while pressing for
  speeded-up structural reforms.

GDP:
  purchasing power parity - $7.742 billion (2003 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:
  5.5% (2003 est.)

GDP - per capita:
  purchasing power parity - $1,100 (2003 est.)

GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 36.4% industry: 14.5% services: 49.1% (2003 est.)

Investment (gross fixed):
  19.3% of GDP (2003)

Population below poverty line:
  37% (2001 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
  lowest 10%: NA
  highest 10%: NA

Inflation rate (consumer prices):
  1.5% (2003 est.)

Labor force:
  NA (1996)

Unemployment rate:
  NA

Budget:
  revenues: $698.9 million
  expenditures: $613.2 million, including capital expenditures of NA
  (2003)

Agriculture - products:
  cotton, corn, cassava (tapioca), yams, beans, palm oil, peanuts,
  livestock (2001)

Industries:
  textiles, food processing, chemical production, construction
  materials (2001)

Industrial production growth rate:
  8.3% (2001 est.)

Electricity - production:
  274.3 million kWh (2001)

Electricity - consumption:
  631.1 million kWh (2001)

Electricity - exports:
  0 kWh (2001)

Electricity - imports:
  376 million kWh (2001)

Oil - production:
  700 bbl/day (2001 est.)

Oil - consumption:
  11,500 bbl/day (2001 est.)

Oil - exports:
  NA (2001)

Oil - imports:
  NA (2001)

Oil - proved reserves:
  4.105 million bbl (1 January 2002)

Natural gas - proved reserves:
  608.8 million cu m (1 January 2002)

Current account balance:
  $-112 million (2003)

Exports:
  $485 million f.o.b. (2003 est.)

Exports - commodities:
  cotton, crude oil, palm products, cocoa

Exports - partners:
  China 21.1%, India 18%, Thailand 6.8%, Ghana 5.8%, Niger 4.4%,
  Indonesia 4.1% (2003)

Imports:
  $726 million f.o.b. (2003 est.)

Imports - commodities:
  foodstuffs, capital goods, petroleum products

Imports - partners:
  China 29.5%, France 14.9%, UK 4.7%, Cote d'Ivoire 4.7%, Thailand
  4.6% (2003)

Reserves of foreign exchange & gold:
  $636 million (2003)

Debt - external:
  $1.6 billion (2000)

Economic aid - recipient:
  $342.6 million (2000)

Currency:
  Communaute Financiere Africaine franc (XOF); note - responsible
  authority is the Central Bank of the West African States

Currency code:
  XOF

Exchange rates:
  Communaute Financiere Africaine francs (XOF) per US dollar - 581.2
  (2003), 696.988 (2002), 733.039 (2001), 711.976 (2000), 615.699
  (1999)

Fiscal year:
  calendar year

Communications Benin

Telephones - main lines in use:
  66,500 (2003)

Telephones - mobile cellular:
  236,200 (2003)

Telephone system:
  general assessment: NA
  domestic: fair system of open-wire, microwave radio relay, and
  cellular connections
  international: country code - 229; satellite earth station - 1
  Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean); fiber optic submarine cable (SAT-3/WASC)
  provides connectivity to Europe and Asia

Radio broadcast stations:
  AM 2, FM 9, shortwave 4 (2000)

Radios:
  660,000 (2000)

Television broadcast stations:
  1 (2001)

Televisions:
  66,000 (2000)

Internet country code:
  .bj

Internet hosts:
  879 (2004)

Internet Service Providers (ISPs):
  4 (2002)

Internet users:
  70,000 (2003)

Transportation Benin

Railways: total: 578 km narrow gauge: 578 km 1.000-m gauge (2003)

Highways:
  total: 6,787 km
  paved: 1,357 km (including 10 km of expressways)
  unpaved: 5,430 km (1999 est.)

Waterways:
  150 km (on River Niger along northern border) (2004)

Ports and harbors:
  Cotonou, Porto-Novo

Merchant marine:
  none

Airports:
  5 (2003 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
  total: 1
  1,524 to 2,437 m: 1 (2004 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
  total: 4
  2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
  1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
  914 to 1,523 m: 2 (2004 est.)

Military Benin

Military branches:
  Armed Forces: Army, Navy, Air Force

Military manpower - military age and obligation: 21 years of age for compulsory and voluntary military service; in practice, volunteers may be taken at the age of 18; both sexes are eligible for military service; conscript tour of duty - 18 months (2004)

Military manpower - availability:
  males age 15-49: 1,638,010
  females age 15-49: 1,647,850 (2004 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:
  males age 15-49: 835,561
  females age 15-49: 835,633 (2004 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
  males: 77,552
  females: 81,841 (2004 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure:
  $98.3 million (2003)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP:
  2.7% (2003)

Transnational Issues Benin

Disputes - international:
  two villages remain in dispute along the border with Burkina Faso;
  accuses Burkina Faso of moving boundary pillars; much of Benin-Niger
  boundary, including tripoint with Nigeria, remains undemarcated, and
  ICJ ad hoc judges have been selected to rule on disputed Niger and
  Mekrou River islands; several villages along the Okpara River are in
  dispute with Nigeria; a joint boundary commission continues to
  resurvey the boundary with Togo to verify Benin's claim that Togo
  moved boundary stones

Illicit drugs:
  transshipment point for narcotics associated with Nigerian
  trafficking organizations and most commonly destined for Western
  Europe and the US; vulnerable to money laundering due to a poorly
  regulated financial infrastructure

This page was last updated on 10 February, 2005

======================================================================

@Bermuda

Introduction Bermuda

Background:
  Bermuda was first settled in 1609 by shipwrecked English colonists
  headed for Virginia. Tourism to the island to escape North American
  winters first developed in Victorian times. Tourism continues to be
  important to the island's economy, although international business
  has overtaken it in recent years. Bermuda has developed into a
  highly successful offshore financial center. A referendum on
  independence was soundly defeated in 1995.

Geography Bermuda

Location:
  North America, group of islands in the North Atlantic Ocean, east
  of South Carolina (US)

Geographic coordinates:
  32 20 N, 64 45 W

Map references:
  North America

Area:
  total: 53.3 sq km
  water: 0 sq km
  land: 53.3 sq km

Area - comparative:
  about one-third the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries:
  0 km

Coastline:
  103 km

Maritime claims: territorial sea: 12 nm exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm

Climate:
  subtropical; mild, humid; gales, strong winds common in winter

Terrain:
  low hills separated by fertile depressions

Elevation extremes: lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m highest point: Town Hill 76 m

Natural resources: limestone, pleasant climate fostering tourism

Land use: arable land: 20% permanent crops: 0% other: 80% (55% developed, 45% rural/open space) (2001)

Irrigated land:
  NA sq km

Natural hazards:
  hurricanes (June to November)

Environment - current issues:
  asbestos disposal; water pollution; preservation of open space;
  sustainable development

Geography - note:
  consists of about 138 coral islands and islets with ample rainfall,
  but no rivers or freshwater lakes; some land was leased by US
  Government from 1941 to 1995

People Bermuda

Population:
  64,935 (July 2004 est.)

Age structure:
  0-14 years: 19.1% (male 6,192; female 6,186)
  15-64 years: 69.3% (male 22,268; female 22,703)
  65 years and over: 11.7% (male 3,295; female 4,291) (2004 est.)

Median age:
  total: 39.2 years
  male: 38.3 years
  female: 40.1 years (2004 est.)

Population growth rate:
  0.68% (2004 est.)

Birth rate:
  11.83 births/1,000 population (2004 est.)

Death rate:
  7.55 deaths/1,000 population (2004 est.)

Net migration rate:
  2.49 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2004 est.)

Sex ratio:
  at birth: 1.02 male(s)/female
  under 15 years: 1 male(s)/female
  15-64 years: 0.98 male(s)/female
  65 years and over: 0.77 male(s)/female
  total population: 0.96 male(s)/female (2004 est.)

Infant mortality rate:
  total: 8.79 deaths/1,000 live births
  female: 7.1 deaths/1,000 live births (2004 est.)
  male: 10.45 deaths/1,000 live births

Life expectancy at birth:
  total population: 77.6 years
  male: 75.54 years
  female: 79.7 years (2004 est.)

Total fertility rate:
  1.9 children born/woman (2004 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
  NA

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
  NA

HIV/AIDS - deaths:
  NA

Nationality: noun: Bermudian(s) adjective: Bermudian

Ethnic groups:
  black 58%, white 36%, other 6%

Religions:
  non-Anglican Protestant 39%, Anglican 27%, Roman Catholic 15%,
  other 19%

Languages:
  English (official), Portuguese

Literacy:
  definition: age 15 and over can read and write
  total population: 98%
  male: 98%
  female: 99% (1970 est.)

Government Bermuda

Country name: conventional long form: none conventional short form: Bermuda former: Somers Islands

Dependency status:
  overseas territory of the UK

Government type:
  parliamentary British overseas territory with internal
  self-government

Capital:
  Hamilton

Administrative divisions:
  9 parishes and 2 municipalities*; Devonshire, Hamilton, Hamilton*,
  Paget, Pembroke, Saint George*, Saint George's, Sandys, Smith's,
  Southampton, Warwick

Independence:
  none (overseas territory of the UK)

National holiday:
  Bermuda Day, 24 May

Constitution:
  8 June 1968, amended 1989 and 2003

Legal system:
  English law

Suffrage:
  18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
  chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952),
  represented by Governor Sir John VEREKER (since NA April 2002)
  head of government: Premier Alex SCOTT (since 24 July 2003); Deputy
  Premier Ewart BROWN
  cabinet: Cabinet nominated by the premier, appointed by the governor
  elections: none; the monarch is hereditary; governor appointed by
  the monarch; following legislative elections, the leader of the
  majority party or the leader of the majority coalition is usually
  appointed premier by the governor

Legislative branch:
  bicameral Parliament consists of the Senate (an 11-member body
  appointed by the governor, the premier, and the opposition) and the
  House of Assembly (36 seats; members are elected by popular vote to
  serve up to five-year terms)
  elections: last general election held 24 July 2003 (next to be held
  NA July 2008)
  election results: percent of vote by party - PLP 51.7%, UBP 48%;
  seats by party - PLP 22, UBP 14

Judicial branch:
  Supreme Court; Court of Appeal; Magistrate Courts

Political parties and leaders:
  Gombey Liberation Party or GLP [Gavin Sundjata SMITH]; National
  Liberal Party or NLP [Dessaline WALDRON]; Progressive Labor Party or
  PLP [William Alexander SCOTT]; United Bermuda Party or UBP [Grant
  GIBBONS];

Political pressure groups and leaders:
  Bermuda Employer's Union [Eddie SAINTS]; Bermuda Industrial Union
  or BIU [Derrick BURGESS]; Bermuda Public Services Union or BPSU [Ed
  BALL]; Bermuda Union of Teachers [Michael CHARLES]

International organization participation:
  Caricom (associate), ICFTU, Interpol (subbureau), IOC, UPU, WCO,
  Egmont Group, Caribbean Financial Action Task Force

Diplomatic representation in the US:
  none (overseas territory of the UK)

Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Deputy Chief of Mission Antoinette BOECKER consulate(s) general: Crown Hill, 16 Middle Road, Devonshire DVO3 mailing address: P. O. Box HM325, Hamilton HMBX; American Consulate General Hamilton, Department of State, 5300 Hamilton Place, Washington, DC 20520-5300 telephone: [1] (441) 295-1342 FAX: [1] (441) 295-1592, [1] (441) 296-9233

Flag description:
  red, with the flag of the UK in the upper hoist-side quadrant and
  the Bermudian coat of arms (white and green shield with a red lion
  holding a scrolled shield showing the sinking of the ship Sea
  Venture off Bermuda in 1609) centered on the outer half of the flag

Economy Bermuda

Economy - overview:
  Bermuda enjoys one of the highest per capita incomes in the world,
  equal to that of the US. Its economy is primarily based on providing
  financial services for international business and luxury facilities
  for tourists. The effects of 11 September 2001 have had both
  positive and negative ramifications for Bermuda. On the positive
  side, a number of new reinsurance companies have located on the
  island, contributing to the expansion of an already robust
  international business sector. On the negative side, Bermuda's
  tourism industry - which derives over 80% of its visitors from the
  US - was severely hit as American tourists chose not to travel.
  Tourism rebounded somewhat in 2002-03. Most capital equipment and
  food must be imported. Bermuda's industrial sector is small,
  although construction continues to be important; the average cost of
  a house in June 2003 had risen to $976,000. Agriculture is limited,
  only 6% of the land being arable.

GDP:
  purchasing power parity - $2.33 billion (2003 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:
  2% (2003 est.)

GDP - per capita:
  purchasing power parity - $36,000 (2003 est.)

GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 1% industry: 10% services: 89% (2002 est.)

Population below poverty line:
  19% (2000)

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
  lowest 10%: NA
  highest 10%: NA

Inflation rate (consumer prices):
  3.3% (mid-2003 est.)

Labor force:
  37,470 (2000)

Labor force - by occupation: agriculture and fishing 3%, laborers 17%, clerical 22%, professional and technical 17%, administrative and managerial 13%, sales 8%, services 20% (2000 est.)

Unemployment rate:
  5% (2002 est.)

Budget:
  revenues: $671.1 million
  expenditures: $594.6 million, including capital expenditures of $55
  million (FY03/04)

Agriculture - products:
  bananas, vegetables, citrus, flowers; dairy products

Industries:
  tourism, international business, light manufacturing

Industrial production growth rate:
  NA

Electricity - production:
  643.7 million kWh (2001)

Electricity - consumption:
  598.6 million kWh (2001)

Electricity - exports:
  0 kWh (2001)

Electricity - imports:
  0 kWh (2001)

Oil - production:
  0 bbl/day (2001 est.)

Oil - consumption:
  4,000 bbl/day (2001 est.)

Oil - exports:
  NA (2001)

Oil - imports:
  NA (2001)

Exports:
  $879 million (2002)

Exports - commodities:
  reexports of pharmaceuticals

Exports - partners:
  France 62%, Norway 13.8%, UK 7.5% (2003)

Imports:
  $5.523 billion (2002)

Imports - commodities:
  machinery and transport equipment, construction materials,
  chemicals, food and live animals

Imports - partners:
  Kazakhstan 46.7%, France 32.5%, US 8.5% (2003)

Debt - external:
  $160 million (FY99/00)

Economic aid - recipient:
  NA

Currency:
  Bermudian dollar (BMD)

Currency code:
  BMD

Exchange rates:
  Bermudian dollar per US dollar - 1.0000 (fixed rate pegged to the
  US dollar)

Fiscal year:
  1 April - 31 March

Communications Bermuda

Telephones - main lines in use:
  56,000 (2002)

Telephones - mobile cellular:
  37,873 (2003)

Telephone system:
  general assessment: good
  domestic: modern, fully automatic telephone system
  international: country code - 1-441; 3 submarine cables; satellite
  earth stations - 3 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations:
  AM 5, FM 3, shortwave 0 (1998)

Radios:
  82,000 (1997)

Television broadcast stations:
  4 (2003)

Televisions:
  66,000 (1997)

Internet country code:
  .bm

Internet hosts:
  5,161 (2001)

Internet Service Providers (ISPs):
  20 (2000)

Internet users:
  34,500 (2003)

Transportation Bermuda

Highways:
  total: 450 km
  paved: 450 km
  note: public roads - 209 km; private roads - 241 km (2002)
  unpaved: 0 km

Ports and harbors:
  Hamilton, Saint George's, Dockyard

Merchant marine:
  total: 94 ships (1,000 GRT or over) 4,845,326 GRT/6,501,782 DWT
  foreign-owned: Croatia 5, Germany 2, Greece 21, Hong Kong 9,
  Indonesia 1, Sweden 6, Switzerland 1, United Kingdom 33, United
  States 12
  registered in other countries: 2 (2004 est.)
  by type: bulk 25, cargo 4, container 17, liquefied gas 9, passenger
  6, petroleum tanker 9, refrigerated cargo 11, roll on/roll off 10,
  short-sea/passenger 3

Airports:
  1 (2003 est.)

Airports - with paved runways: total: 1 2,438 to 3,047 m: 1 (2004 est.)

Military Bermuda

Military branches:
  Bermuda Regiment

Military expenditures - dollar figure:
  $4.03 million (2001)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP:
  0.11% (FY00/01)

Military - note:
  defense is the responsibility of the UK

Transnational Issues Bermuda

Disputes - international: none

This page was last updated on 10 February, 2005

======================================================================

@Bhutan

Introduction Bhutan

Background:
  In 1865, Britain and Bhutan signed the Treaty of Sinchulu, under
  which Bhutan would receive an annual subsidy in exchange for ceding
  some border land. Under British influence, a monarchy was set up in
  1907; three years later, a treaty was signed whereby the British
  agreed not to interfere in Bhutanese internal affairs and Bhutan
  allowed Britain to direct its foreign affairs. This role was assumed
  by independent India after 1947. Two years later, a formal
  Indo-Bhutanese accord returned the areas of Bhutan annexed by the
  British, formalized the annual subsidies the country received, and
  defined India's responsibilities in defense and foreign relations. A
  refugee issue of some 100,000 Bhutanese in Nepal remains unresolved;
  90% of the refugees are housed in seven United Nations Office of the
  High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) camps.

Geography Bhutan

Location:
  Southern Asia, between China and India

Geographic coordinates:
  27 30 N, 90 30 E

Map references:
  Asia

Area:
  total: 47,000 sq km
  water: 0 sq km
  land: 47,000 sq km

Area - comparative:
  about half the size of Indiana

Land boundaries: total: 1,075 km border countries: China 470 km, India 605 km

Coastline:
  0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims:
  none (landlocked)

Climate:
  varies; tropical in southern plains; cool winters and hot summers
  in central valleys; severe winters and cool summers in Himalayas

Terrain:
  mostly mountainous with some fertile valleys and savanna

Elevation extremes: lowest point: Drangme Chhu 97 m highest point: Kula Kangri 7,553 m

Natural resources: timber, hydropower, gypsum, calcium carbide

Land use: arable land: 3.09% permanent crops: 0.43% other: 96.48% (2001)

Irrigated land:
  400 sq km (1998 est.)

Natural hazards:
  violent storms from the Himalayas are the source of the country's
  name which translates as Land of the Thunder Dragon; frequent
  landslides during the rainy season

Environment - current issues:
  soil erosion; limited access to potable water

Environment - international agreements:
  party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto
  Protocol, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes
  signed, but not ratified: Law of the Sea

Geography - note:
  landlocked; strategic location between China and India; controls
  several key Himalayan mountain passes

People Bhutan

Population: 2,185,569 note: other estimates range as low as 810,000 (July 2004 est.)

Age structure:
  0-14 years: 39.3% (male 445,548; female 414,338)
  15-64 years: 56.6% (male 637,637; female 600,253)
  65 years and over: 4% (male 44,298; female 43,495) (2004 est.)

Median age:
  total: 20.2 years
  male: 20 years
  female: 20.3 years (2004 est.)

Population growth rate:
  2.12% (2004 est.)

Birth rate:
  34.41 births/1,000 population (2004 est.)

Death rate:
  13.2 deaths/1,000 population (2004 est.)

Net migration rate:
  0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2004 est.)

Sex ratio:
  at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
  under 15 years: 1.08 male(s)/female
  15-64 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
  65 years and over: 1.02 male(s)/female
  total population: 1.07 male(s)/female (2004 est.)

Infant mortality rate:
  total: 102.56 deaths/1,000 live births
  female: 104.89 deaths/1,000 live births (2004 est.)
  male: 100.35 deaths/1,000 live births

Life expectancy at birth:
  total population: 53.99 years
  male: 54.27 years
  female: 53.68 years (2004 est.)

Total fertility rate:
  4.87 children born/woman (2004 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
  less than 0.1% (2001 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
  less than 100 (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths:
  NA

Nationality:
  noun: Bhutanese (singular and plural)
  adjective: Bhutanese

Ethnic groups:
  Bhote 50%, ethnic Nepalese 35% (includes Lhotsampas - one of
  several Nepalese ethnic groups), indigenous or migrant tribes 15%

Religions:
  Lamaistic Buddhist 75%, Indian- and Nepalese-influenced Hinduism 25%

Languages:
  Dzongkha (official), Bhotes speak various Tibetan dialects,
  Nepalese speak various Nepalese dialects

Literacy:
  definition: age 15 and over can read and write
  total population: 42.2%
  male: 56.2%
  female: 28.1% (1995 est.)

Government Bhutan

Country name:
  conventional long form: Kingdom of Bhutan
  conventional short form: Bhutan

Government type:
  monarchy; special treaty relationship with India

Capital:
  Thimphu

Administrative divisions:
  18 districts (dzongkhag, singular and plural); Bumthang, Chhukha,
  Chirang, Dagana, Geylegphug, Ha, Lhuntshi, Mongar, Paro, Pemagatsel,
  Punakha, Samchi, Samdrup Jongkhar, Shemgang, Tashigang, Thimphu,
  Tongsa, Wangdi Phodrang
  note: there may be two new districts named Gasa and Yangtse

Independence:
  8 August 1949 (from India)

National holiday:
  National Day (Ugyen WANGCHUCK became first hereditary king), 17
  December (1907)

Constitution:
  no written constitution or bill of rights; note - in 2001 the King
  commissioned the drafting of a constitution, and in November 2004
  presented a draft to the Council of Ministers

Legal system:
  based on Indian law and English common law; has not accepted
  compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage:
  each family has one vote in village-level elections; note - in late
  2003 Bhutan's legislature passed a new election law

Executive branch:
  chief of state: King Jigme Singye WANGCHUCK (since 24 July 1972)
  elections: none; the monarch is hereditary, but democratic reforms
  in July 1998 grant the National Assembly authority to remove the
  monarch with two-thirds vote
  head of government: Chairman of the Council of Ministers Lyonpo
  Yeshey ZIMBA (since 20 August 2004)
  cabinet: Council of Ministers (Lhengye Shungtsog) nominated by the
  monarch, approved by the National Assembly; members serve fixed,
  five-year terms; note - there is also a Royal Advisory Council
  (Lodoi Tsokde), members nominated by the monarch

Legislative branch:
  unicameral National Assembly or Tshogdu (150 seats; 105 elected
  from village constituencies, 10 represent religious bodies, and 35
  are designated by the monarch to represent government and other
  secular interests; members serve three-year terms)
  elections: local elections last held November 2002 (next to be held
  NA 2005)
  election results: NA

Judicial branch:
  Supreme Court of Appeal (the monarch); High Court (judges appointed
  by the monarch)

Political parties and leaders:
  no legal parties

Political pressure groups and leaders:
  Buddhist clergy; ethnic Nepalese organizations leading militant
  antigovernment campaign; Indian merchant community; United Front for
  Democracy (exiled)

International organization participation:
  AsDB, CP, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IMF, IOC, IOM
  (observer), ITU, NAM, OPCW (signatory), SAARC, SACEP, UN, UNCTAD,
  UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO (observer)

Diplomatic representation in the US: none; note - Bhutan has a Permanent Mission to the UN; address: 2 United Nations Plaza, 27th Floor, New York, NY 10017; telephone [1] (212) 826-1919; FAX [1] (212) 826-2998; the Bhutanese mission to the UN has consular jurisdiction in the US consulate(s) general: New York

Diplomatic representation from the US: the US and Bhutan have no formal diplomatic relations, although informal contact is maintained between the Bhutanese and US Embassy in New Delhi (India)

Flag description:
  divided diagonally from the lower hoist side corner; the upper
  triangle is yellow and the lower triangle is orange; centered along
  the dividing line is a large black and white dragon facing away from
  the hoist side

Economy Bhutan

Economy - overview:
  The economy, one of the world's smallest and least developed, is
  based on agriculture and forestry, which provide the main livelihood
  for more than 90% of the population. Agriculture consists largely of
  subsistence farming and animal husbandry. Rugged mountains dominate
  the terrain and make the building of roads and other infrastructure
  difficult and expensive. The economy is closely aligned with India's
  through strong trade and monetary links and dependence on India's
  financial assistance. The industrial sector is technologically
  backward, with most production of the cottage industry type. Most
  development projects, such as road construction, rely on Indian
  migrant labor. Bhutan's hydropower potential and its attraction for
  tourists are key resources. Model education, social, and environment
  programs are underway with support from multilateral development
  organizations. Each economic program takes into account the
  government's desire to protect the country's environment and
  cultural traditions. For example, the government in its cautious
  expansion of the tourist sector encourages the visits of upscale,
  environmentally conscientious visitors. Detailed controls and
  uncertain policies in areas like industrial licensing, trade, labor,
  and finance continue to hamper foreign investment.

GDP:
  purchasing power parity - $2.7 billion (2002 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:
  7.7% (2002 est.)

GDP - per capita:
  purchasing power parity - $1,300 (2002 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
  agriculture: 45%
  industry: 10%
  services: 45% (2002 est.)

Population below poverty line:
  NA

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
  lowest 10%: NA
  highest 10%: NA

Inflation rate (consumer prices):
  3% (2002 est.)

Labor force:
  NA
  note: massive lack of skilled labor (1997 est.)

Labor force - by occupation:
  agriculture 93%, industry and commerce 2%, services 5%

Unemployment rate:
  NA

Budget:
  revenues: $146 million
  note: the government of India finances nearly three-fifths of
  Bhutan's budget expenditures (FY95/96 est.)
  expenditures: $152 million, including capital expenditures of NA

Agriculture - products:
  rice, corn, root crops, citrus, foodgrains; dairy products, eggs

Industries:
  cement, wood products, processed fruits, alcoholic beverages,
  calcium carbide

Industrial production growth rate:
  9.3% (1996 est.)

Electricity - production:
  1.896 billion kWh (2001)

Electricity - consumption:
  379.5 million kWh (2001)

Electricity - exports:
  1.4 billion kWh (2001)

Electricity - imports:
  16 million kWh (2001)

Oil - production:
  0 bbl/day (2001 est.)

Oil - consumption:
  1,020 bbl/day (2001 est.)

Oil - exports:
  NA (2001)

Oil - imports:
  NA (2001)

Exports:
  $154 million f.o.b. (2000 est.)

Exports - commodities:
  electricity (to India), cardamom, gypsum, timber, handicrafts,
  cement, fruit, precious stones, spices

Exports - partners:
  Bangladesh 60.5%, US 11.7%, Malaysia 5.7% (2003)

Imports:
  $196 million c.i.f. (2000 est.)

Imports - commodities:
  fuel and lubricants, grain, machinery and parts, vehicles, fabrics,
  rice

Imports - partners:
  Japan 36.6%, Austria 14.2%, Sweden 8.3%, China 7.5%, Thailand 6%,
  Bangladesh 6%, Germany 5.5%, Italy 4% (2003)

Debt - external:
  $245 million (2000)

Economic aid - recipient:
  substantial aid from India and other nations

Currency:
  ngultrum (BTN); Indian rupee (INR)

Currency code:
  BTN; INR

Exchange rates:
  ngultrum per US dollar - 46.5806 (2003), 48.6103 (2002), 47.1864
  (2001), 44.9416 (2000), 43.0554 (1999)

Fiscal year:
  1 July - 30 June

Communications Bhutan

Telephones - main lines in use:
  25,200 (2003)

Telephones - mobile cellular:
  8,000 (2003)

Telephone system:
  general assessment: NA
  domestic: domestic telephone service is very poor with few
  telephones in use
  international: country code - 975; international telephone and
  telegraph service is by landline through India; a satellite earth
  station was planned (1990)

Radio broadcast stations:
  AM 0, FM 1, shortwave 1 (1998)

Radios:
  37,000 (1997)

Television broadcast stations:
  0 (1997)

Televisions:
  11,000 (1997)

Internet country code:
  .bt

Internet hosts:
  985 (2003)

Internet Service Providers (ISPs):
  NA

Internet users:
  15,000 (2003)

Transportation Bhutan

Highways: total: 3,690 km paved: 2,240 km unpaved: 1,450 km (1999 est.)

Ports and harbors:
  none

Airports:
  2 (2003 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
  total: 1
  1,524 to 2,437 m: 1 (2004 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
  total: 1
  914 to 1,523 m: 1 (2004 est.)

Military Bhutan

Military branches:
  Royal Bhutan Army, Royal Bodyguard, National Militia

Military manpower - military age and obligation: 18 years of age for voluntary military service; no conscription (2001)

Military manpower - availability:
  males age 15-49: 544,560 (2004 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:
  males age 15-49: 290,843 (2004 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
  males: 23,379 (2004 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure:
  $11.2 million (2003)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP:
  1.9% (2003)

Transnational Issues Bhutan

Disputes - international:
  approximately 100,000 Bhutanese refugees living in Nepal, 90% of
  whom reside in seven UN Office of the High Commissioner for Refugees
  camps, place decades-long strains on Nepal

This page was last updated on 10 February, 2005

======================================================================

@Bolivia

Introduction Bolivia

Background:
  Bolivia, named after independence fighter Simon BOLIVAR, broke away
  from Spanish rule in 1825; much of its subsequent history has
  consisted of a series of nearly 200 coups and counter-coups.
  Comparatively democratic civilian rule was established in 1982, but
  leaders have faced difficult problems of deep-seated poverty, social
  unrest, and drug production. Current goals include attracting
  foreign investment, strengthening the educational system, resolving
  disputes with coca growers over Bolivia's counterdrug efforts, and
  waging an anticorruption campaign.

Geography Bolivia

Location:
  Central South America, southwest of Brazil

Geographic coordinates:
  17 00 S, 65 00 W

Map references:
  South America

Area:
  total: 1,098,580 sq km
  water: 14,190 sq km
  land: 1,084,390 sq km

Area - comparative:
  slightly less than three times the size of Montana

Land boundaries:
  total: 6,743 km
  border countries: Argentina 832 km, Brazil 3,400 km, Chile 861 km,
  Paraguay 750 km, Peru 900 km

Coastline:
  0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims:
  none (landlocked)

Climate:
  varies with altitude; humid and tropical to cold and semiarid

Terrain:
  rugged Andes Mountains with a highland plateau (Altiplano), hills,
  lowland plains of the Amazon Basin

Elevation extremes:
  lowest point: Rio Paraguay 90 m
  highest point: Nevado Sajama 6,542 m

Natural resources:
  tin, natural gas, petroleum, zinc, tungsten, antimony, silver,
  iron, lead, gold, timber, hydropower

Land use: arable land: 2.67% permanent crops: 0.19% other: 97.54% (2001)

Irrigated land:
  1,280 sq km (1998 est.)

Natural hazards:
  flooding in the northeast (March-April)

Environment - current issues:
  the clearing of land for agricultural purposes and the
  international demand for tropical timber are contributing to
  deforestation; soil erosion from overgrazing and poor cultivation
  methods (including slash-and-burn agriculture); desertification;
  loss of biodiversity; industrial pollution of water supplies used
  for drinking and irrigation

Environment - international agreements:
  party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto
  Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law
  of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution,
  Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands
  signed, but not ratified: Environmental Modification, Marine Life
  Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection

Geography - note:
  landlocked; shares control of Lago Titicaca, world's highest
  navigable lake (elevation 3,805 m), with Peru

People Bolivia

Population:
  8,724,156 (July 2004 est.)

Age structure:
  0-14 years: 36.4% (male 1,619,950; female 1,557,883)
  15-64 years: 59.1% (male 2,522,086; female 2,631,944)
  65 years and over: 4.5% (male 175,193; female 217,100) (2004 est.)

Median age:
  total: 21.1 years
  male: 20.4 years
  female: 21.8 years (2004 est.)

Population growth rate:
  1.56% (2004 est.)

Birth rate:
  24.65 births/1,000 population (2004 est.)

Death rate:
  7.77 deaths/1,000 population (2004 est.)

Net migration rate:
  -1.32 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2004 est.)

Sex ratio:
  at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
  under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
  15-64 years: 0.96 male(s)/female
  65 years and over: 0.81 male(s)/female
  total population: 0.98 male(s)/female (2004 est.)

Infant mortality rate:
  total: 54.58 deaths/1,000 live births
  female: 50.75 deaths/1,000 live births (2004 est.)
  male: 58.23 deaths/1,000 live births

Life expectancy at birth:
  total population: 65.14 years
  male: 62.54 years
  female: 67.86 years (2004 est.)

Total fertility rate:
  3.08 children born/woman (2004 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
  0.1% (2003 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
  4,900 (2003 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths:
  less than 500 (2003 est.)

Nationality:
  noun: Bolivian(s)
  adjective: Bolivian

Ethnic groups:
  Quechua 30%, mestizo (mixed white and Amerindian ancestry) 30%,
  Aymara 25%, white 15%

Religions:
  Roman Catholic 95%, Protestant (Evangelical Methodist)

Languages:
  Spanish (official), Quechua (official), Aymara (official)

Literacy:
  definition: age 15 and over can read and write
  total population: 87.2%
  male: 93.1%
  female: 81.6% (2003 est.)

Government Bolivia

Country name:
  conventional long form: Republic of Bolivia
  conventional short form: Bolivia
  local short form: Bolivia
  local long form: Republica de Bolivia

Government type:
  republic

Capital:
  La Paz (seat of government); Sucre (legal capital and seat of
  judiciary)

Administrative divisions:
  9 departments (departamentos, singular - departamento); Chuquisaca,
  Cochabamba, Beni, La Paz, Oruro, Pando, Potosi, Santa Cruz, Tarija

Independence:
  6 August 1825 (from Spain)

National holiday:
  Independence Day, 6 August (1825)

Constitution:
  2 February 1967; revised in August 1994

Legal system:
  based on Spanish law and Napoleonic Code; has not accepted
  compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage:
  18 years of age, universal and compulsory (married); 21 years of
  age, universal and compulsory (single)

Executive branch:
  chief of state: President Carlos Diego MESA Gisbert (since 17
  October 2003); Vice President (vacant); note - the president is both
  the chief of state and head of government
  head of government: President Carlos Diego MESA Gisbert (since 17
  October 2003); Vice President (vacant); note - the president is both
  the chief of state and head of government
  cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president
  elections: president and vice president elected on the same ticket
  by popular vote for five-year terms; election last held 30 June 2002
  (next to be held NA June 2007)
  election results: as a result of no candidate winning a majority in
  the 30 June 2002 election, Gonzalo SANCHEZ DE LOZADA Bustamante was
  chosen president by Congress; Congressional votes - Gonzalo SANCHEZ
  DE LOZADA Bustamante 84, Evo MORALES 43; note - following the
  resignation of the elected president on 17 October 2003, Vice
  President Carlos Diego MESA Gisbert assumed the presidency

Legislative branch:
  bicameral National Congress or Congreso Nacional consists of
  Chamber of Senators or Camara de Senadores (27 seats; members are
  elected by proportional representation from party lists to serve
  five-year terms) and Chamber of Deputies or Camara de Diputados (130
  seats; 68 are directly elected from their districts and 62 are
  elected by proportional representation from party lists to serve
  five-year terms)
  elections: Chamber of Senators and Chamber of Deputies - last held
  30 June 2002 (next to be held NA June 2007)
  election results: Chamber of Senators - percent of vote by party -
  NA; seats by party - MNR 11, MAS 8, MIR 5, NFR 2, other 1; Chamber
  of Deputies - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - MNR
  36, MAS 27, MIR 26, NFR 25, others 16

Judicial branch:
  Supreme Court or Corte Suprema (judges appointed for 10-year terms
  by National Congress); District Courts (one in each department);
  provincial and local courts (to try minor cases)

Political parties and leaders:
  Bolivian Socialist Falange or FSB [Romel PANTOJA]; Civic Solidarity
  Union or UCS [Johnny FERNANDEZ]; Free Bolivia Movement or MBL [Franz
  BARRIOS]; Marshal of Ayacucho Institutional Vanguard or VIMA [Freddy
  ZABALA]; Movement of the Revolutionary Left or MIR [Jaime PAZ
  Zamora]; Movement Toward Socialism or MAS [Evo MORALES]; Movement
  Without Fear or MSM [Juan DEL GRANADO]; Nationalist Democratic
  Action or ADN [Jorge Fernando QUIROGA Ramirez]; Nationalist
  Revolutionary Movement or MNR [leader NA]; New Republican Force or
  NFR [Manfred REYES-VILLA]; Pachakuti Indigenous Movement or MIP
  [Felipe QUISPE]; Socialist Party or PS [Jeres JUSTINIANO]

Political pressure groups and leaders:
  Cocalero Groups; indigenous organizations; labor unions; Sole
  Confederation of Campesino Workers of Bolivia or CSUTCB [Roman
  LOAYZA]

International organization participation:
  CAN, FAO, G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC,
  IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO (correspondent), ITU,
  LAES, LAIA, Mercosur (associate), MIGA, MINUSTAH, MONUC, NAM, OAS,
  ONUB, OPANAL, OPCW, PCA, RG, UN, UNAMSIL, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO,
  UNMIK, UNMIL, UNMISET, UNOCI, UPU, WCL, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO,
  WToO, WTO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador Jaime APARICIO Otero
  consulate(s): Washington, DC
  consulate(s) general: Miami, New York, and San Francisco
  FAX: [1] (202) 328-3712
  telephone: [1] (202) 483-4410
  chancery: 3014 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008

Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador David N. GREENLEE embassy: Avenida Arce 2780, San Jorge, La Paz mailing address: P. O. Box 425, La Paz; APO AA 34032 telephone: [591] (2) 2430120, 2430251 FAX: [591] (2) 2433900

Flag description:
  three equal horizontal bands of red (top), yellow, and green with
  the coat of arms centered on the yellow band; similar to the flag of
  Ghana, which has a large black five-pointed star centered in the
  yellow band

Economy Bolivia

Economy - overview:
  Bolivia, long one of the poorest and least developed Latin American
  countries, made considerable progress in the 1990s toward the
  development of a market-oriented economy. Successes under President
  SANCHEZ DE LOZADA (1993-97) included the signing of a free trade
  agreement with Mexico and becoming an associate member of the
  Southern Cone Common Market (Mercosur), as well as the privatization
  of the state airline, telephone company, railroad, electric power
  company, and oil company. Growth slowed in 1999, in part due to
  tight government budget policies, which limited needed
  appropriations for anti-poverty programs, and the fallout from the
  Asian financial crisis. In 2000, major civil disturbances held down
  growth to 2.5%. Bolivia's GDP failed to grow in 2001 due to the
  global slowdown and laggard domestic activity. Growth picked up
  slightly in 2002, but the first quarter of 2003 saw extensive civil
  riots and looting and loss of confidence in the government. Bolivia
  will remain highly dependent on foreign aid unless and until it can
  develop its substantial natural resources.

GDP:
  purchasing power parity - $21.01 billion (2003 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:
  2.5% (2003 est.)

GDP - per capita:
  purchasing power parity - $2,400 (2003 est.)

GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 15% industry: 33.2% services: 51.9% (2003 est.)

Investment (gross fixed):
  12.4% of GDP (2003)

Population below poverty line:
  70% (1999 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: 1.3% highest 10%: 32% (1999)

Distribution of family income - Gini index:
  44.7 (1999)

Inflation rate (consumer prices):
  3.3% (2003 est.)

Labor force:
  4.1 million (2003)

Labor force - by occupation:
  agriculture NA, industry NA, services NA

Unemployment rate:
  11.7%
  note: widespread underemployment (2003)

Budget:
  revenues: $2.346 billion
  expenditures: $2.957 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA
  (2003)

Agriculture - products:
  soybeans, coffee, coca, cotton, corn, sugarcane, rice, potatoes;
  timber

Industries:
  mining, smelting, petroleum, food and beverages, tobacco,
  handicrafts, clothing

Industrial production growth rate:
  3.9% (1998)

Electricity - production:
  3.901 billion kWh (2001)

Electricity - consumption:
  3.634 billion kWh (2001)

Electricity - exports:
  3 million kWh (2001)

Electricity - imports:
  9 million kWh (2001)

Oil - production:
  44,340 bbl/day (2001 est.)

Oil - consumption:
  49,000 bbl/day (2001 est.)

Oil - exports:
  NA (2001)

Oil - imports:
  NA (2001)

Oil - proved reserves:
  458.8 million bbl (1 January 2002)

Natural gas - production:
  4.05 billion cu m (2001 est.)

Natural gas - consumption:
  1.15 billion cu m (2001 est.)

Natural gas - exports:
  2.9 billion cu m (2001 est.)

Natural gas - imports:
  0 cu m (2001 est.)

Natural gas - proved reserves:
  727.2 billion cu m (1 January 2002)

Current account balance:
  $50 million (2003)

Exports:
  $1.495 billion f.o.b. (2003 est.)

Exports - commodities:
  soybeans, natural gas, zinc, gold, wood (2000)

Exports - partners:
  Brazil 37%, Venezuela 12.9%, Colombia 11.9%, US 11.5%, Peru 5.1%
  (2003)

Imports:
  $1.505 billion f.o.b. (2003 est.)

Imports - commodities:
  capital goods, raw materials and semi-manufactures, chemicals,
  petroleum, food

Imports - partners:
  Brazil 25.2%, Argentina 22.3%, US 12%, Chile 9.3%, Peru 5.8% (2003)

Reserves of foreign exchange & gold:
  $1.096 billion (2003)

Debt - external:
  $5.332 billion (2003 est.)

Economic aid - recipient:
  $588 million (1997)

Currency:
  boliviano (BOB)

Currency code:
  BOB

Exchange rates:
  bolivianos per US dollar - 7.6592 (2003), 7.17 (2002), 6.6069
  (2001), 6.1835 (2000), 5.8124 (1999)

Fiscal year:
  calendar year

Communications Bolivia

Telephones - main lines in use:
  600,100 (2003)

Telephones - mobile cellular:
  1,401,500 (2003)

Telephone system:
  general assessment: new subscribers face bureaucratic difficulties;
  most telephones are concentrated in La Paz and other cities; mobile
  cellular telephone use expanding rapidly
  domestic: primary trunk system, which is being expanded, employs
  digital microwave radio relay; some areas are served by fiber-optic
  cable; mobile cellular systems are being expanded
  international: country code - 591; satellite earth station - 1
  Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations:
  AM 171, FM 73, shortwave 77 (1999)

Radios:
  5.25 million (1997)

Television broadcast stations:
  48 (1997)

Televisions:
  900,000 (1997)

Internet country code:
  .bo

Internet hosts:
  7,080 (2003)

Internet Service Providers (ISPs):
  9 (2000)

Internet users:
  270,000 (2002)

Transportation Bolivia

Railways: total: 3,519 km narrow gauge: 3,519 km 1.000-m gauge (2003)

Highways:
  total: 53,790 km
  paved: 3,496 km (including 13 km of expressways)
  unpaved: 50,294 km (2000 est.)

Waterways:
  10,000 km (commercially navigable) (2004)

Pipelines:
  gas 4,860 km; liquid petroleum gas 47 km; oil 2,457 km; refined
  products 1,589 km; unknown (oil/water) 247 km (2004)

Ports and harbors:
  Puerto Aguirre (on the Paraguay/Parana waterway, at the
  Bolivia/Brazil border); also, Bolivia has free port privileges in
  maritime ports in Argentina, Brazil, Chile, and Paraguay

Merchant marine:
  total: 56 ships (1,000 GRT or over) 413,407 GRT/699,901 DWT
  by type: bulk 3, cargo 26, chemical tanker 4, container 3, livestock
  carrier 1, multi-functional large load carrier 1, petroleum tanker
  10, refrigerated cargo 2, roll on/roll off 1, short-sea/passenger 3,
  specialized tanker 2
  registered in other countries: 1 (2004 est.)
  foreign-owned: Argentina 1, British Virgin Islands 1, Cambodia 1,
  China 1, Cyprus 1, Egypt 1, Eritrea 1, Germany 2, Greece 1, Hong
  Kong 1, Indonesia 1, Iran 1, Italy 2, Latvia 2, Panama 3, Romania 1,
  Russia 1, Saint Kitts and Nevis 1, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines
  1, Saudi Arabia 2, Singapore 3, Syria 1, Turkey 1, United Kingdom 1,
  United States 3, Yemen 2

Airports:
  1,067 (2003 est.)

Airports - with paved runways: total: 16 over 3,047 m: 4 2,438 to 3,047 m: 4 1,524 to 2,437 m: 5 914 to 1,523 m: 3 (2004 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways: total: 1,049 over 3,047 m: 1 2,438 to 3,047 m: 3 1,524 to 2,437 m: 60 914 to 1,523 m: 207 under 914 m: 778 (2004 est.)

Military Bolivia

Military branches:
  Army (Ejercito Boliviano), Navy (Fuerza Naval, includes Marines),
  Air Force (Fuerza Aerea Boliviana)

Military manpower - military age and obligation: 18 years of age for voluntary military service; when annual number of volunteers falls short of goal, compulsory recruitment is effected, including conscription of boys as young as 14; one estimate holds that 40% of the armed forces are under the age of 18, with 50% of those under the age of 16; conscript tour of duty - 12 months (2002)

Military manpower - availability:
  males age 15-49: 2,175,384 (2004 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:
  males age 15-49: 1,417,804 (2004 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
  males: 98,155 (2004 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure:
  $127 million (2003)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP:
  1.6% (2003)

Transnational Issues Bolivia

Disputes - international:
  has reactivated its claim to restore the Atacama corridor, ceded to
  Chile in 1884, to secure sovereign maritime access for Bolivian
  natural gas

Illicit drugs:
  world's third-largest cultivator of coca (after Colombia and Peru)
  with an estimated 28,450 hectares under cultivation in June 2003, a
  23% increase from June 2002; intermediate coca products and cocaine
  exported mostly to or through Brazil, Argentina, and Chile to
  European and US drug markets; eradication and alternative crop
  programs under the MESA administration have been unable to keep pace
  with farmers' attempts to increase cultivation; money-laundering
  activity related to narcotics trade, especially along the borders
  with Brazil and Paraguay

This page was last updated on 10 February, 2005

======================================================================

@Bosnia and Herzegovina

Introduction Bosnia and Herzegovina

Background:
  Bosnia and Herzegovina's declaration of sovereignty in October
  1991, was followed by a declaration of independence from the former
  Yugoslavia on 3 March 1992 after a referendum boycotted by ethnic
  Serbs. The Bosnian Serbs - supported by neighboring Serbia and
  Montenegro - responded with armed resistance aimed at partitioning
  the republic along ethnic lines and joining Serb-held areas to form
  a "Greater Serbia." In March 1994, Bosniaks and Croats reduced the
  number of warring factions from three to two by signing an agreement
  creating a joint Bosniak/Croat Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina.
  On 21 November 1995, in Dayton, Ohio, the warring parties initialed
  a peace agreement that brought to a halt three years of interethnic
  civil strife (the final agreement was signed in Paris on 14 December
  1995). The Dayton Agreement retained Bosnia and Herzegovina's
  international boundaries and created a joint multi-ethnic and
  democratic government. This national government was charged with
  conducting foreign, diplomatic, and fiscal policy. Also recognized
  was a second tier of government comprised of two entities roughly
  equal in size: the Bosniak/Croat Federation of Bosnia and
  Herzegovina and the Bosnian Serb-led Republika Srpska (RS). The
  Federation and RS governments were charged with overseeing most
  government functions. The Office of the High Representative (OHR)
  was established to oversee the implementation of the civilian
  aspects of the agreement. In 1995-96, a NATO-led international
  peacekeeping force (IFOR) of 60,000 troops served in Bosnia to
  implement and monitor the military aspects of the agreement. IFOR
  was succeeded by a smaller, NATO-led Stabilization Force (SFOR)
  whose mission was to deter renewed hostilities. European Union
  peacekeeping troops (EUFOR) replaced SFOR in December 2004; their
  mission was to maintain peace and stability throughout the country.

Geography Bosnia and Herzegovina

Location:
  Southeastern Europe, bordering the Adriatic Sea and Croatia

Geographic coordinates:
  44 00 N, 18 00 E

Map references:
  Europe

Area:
  total: 51,129 sq km
  water: 0 sq km
  land: 51,129 sq km

Area - comparative:
  slightly smaller than West Virginia

Land boundaries: total: 1,459 km border countries: Croatia 932 km, Serbia and Montenegro 527 km

Coastline:
  20 km

Maritime claims:
  No data available

Climate:
  hot summers and cold winters; areas of high elevation have short,
  cool summers and long, severe winters; mild, rainy winters along
  coast

Terrain:
  mountains and valleys

Elevation extremes:
  lowest point: Adriatic Sea 0 m
  highest point: Maglic 2,386 m

Natural resources:
  coal, iron ore, bauxite, copper, lead, zinc, chromite, cobalt,
  manganese, nickel, clay, gypsum, salt, sand, forests, hydropower

Land use: arable land: 13.6% permanent crops: 2.96% other: 83.44% (2001)

Irrigated land:
  20 sq km (1998 est.)

Natural hazards:
  destructive earthquakes

Environment - current issues:
  air pollution from metallurgical plants; sites for disposing of
  urban waste are limited; water shortages and destruction of
  infrastructure because of the 1992-95 civil strife; deforestation

Environment - international agreements:
  party to: Air Pollution, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Hazardous
  Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer
  Protection, Wetlands
  signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - note:
  within Bosnia and Herzegovina's recognized borders, the country is
  divided into a joint Bosniak/Croat Federation (about 51% of the
  territory) and the Bosnian Serb-led Republika Srpska or RS (about
  49% of the territory); the region called Herzegovina is contiguous
  to Croatia and Serbia and Montenegro (Montenegro), and traditionally
  has been settled by an ethnic Croat majority in the west and an
  ethnic Serb majority in the east

People Bosnia and Herzegovina

Population:
  4,007,608 (July 2004 est.)

Age structure:
  0-14 years: 18.9% (male 389,062; female 368,721)
  15-64 years: 70.6% (male 1,447,725; female 1,379,729)
  65 years and over: 10.5% (male 180,801; female 241,570) (2004 est.)

Median age:
  total: 35.9 years
  male: 35.5 years
  female: 36.2 years (2004 est.)

Population growth rate:
  0.45% (2004 est.)

Birth rate:
  12.56 births/1,000 population (2004 est.)

Death rate:
  8.33 deaths/1,000 population (2004 est.)

Net migration rate:
  0.31 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2004 est.)

Sex ratio:
  at birth: 1.07 male(s)/female
  under 15 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
  15-64 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
  65 years and over: 0.75 male(s)/female
  total population: 1.01 male(s)/female (2004 est.)

Infant mortality rate:
  total: 21.88 deaths/1,000 live births
  female: 19.08 deaths/1,000 live births (2004 est.)
  male: 24.5 deaths/1,000 live births

Life expectancy at birth:
  total population: 72.57 years
  male: 69.82 years
  female: 75.51 years (2004 est.)

Total fertility rate:
  1.71 children born/woman (2004 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
  less than 0.1% (2001 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
  900 (2003 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths:
  100 (2001 est.)

Nationality:
  noun: Bosnian(s), Herzegovinian(s)
  adjective: Bosnian, Herzegovinian

Ethnic groups:
  Serb 37.1%, Bosniak 48%, Croat 14.3%, other 0.6% (2000)
  note: Bosniak has replaced Muslim as an ethnic term in part to avoid
  confusion with the religious term Muslim - an adherent of Islam

Religions:
  Muslim 40%, Orthodox 31%, Roman Catholic 15%, other 14%

Languages:
  Bosnian, Croatian, Serbian

Literacy: definition: NA total population: NA male: NA female: NA

Government Bosnia and Herzegovina

Country name:
  conventional long form: none
  conventional short form: Bosnia and Herzegovina
  local long form: none
  former: People's Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina, Socialist
  Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina
  local short form: Bosna i Hercegovina

Government type:
  emerging federal democratic republic

Capital:
  Sarajevo

Administrative divisions:
  2 first-order administrative divisions and 1 internationally
  supervised district* - Brcko district (Brcko Distrikt)*, the
  Bosniak/Croat Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina (Federacija Bosna
  i Hercegovina) and the Bosnian Serb-led Republika Srpska; note -
  Brcko district is in northeastern Bosnia and is an administrative
  unit under the sovereignty of Bosnia and Herzegovina; the district
  remains under international supervision

Independence:
  1 March 1992 (from Yugoslavia; referendum for independence was
  completed 1 March 1992; independence was declared 3 March 1992)

National holiday:
  National Day, 25 November (1943)

Constitution:
  the Dayton Agreement, signed 14 December 1995, included a new
  constitution now in force; note - each of the entities also has its
  own constitution

Legal system:
  based on civil law system

Suffrage:
  18 years of age, universal

Executive branch:
  chief of state: Chairman of the Presidency Borislav PARAVAC
  (chairman since 28 October 2004; presidency member since 10 April
  2003 - Serb) other members of the three-member rotating (every eight
  months) presidency: Dragan COVIC (since 5 October 2002 - Croat) and
  Sulejman TIHIC (since 5 October 2002 - Bosniak); note - Mirko
  SAROVIC resigned 2 April 2003
  elections: the three members of the presidency (one Bosniak, one
  Croat, one Serb) are elected by popular vote for a four-year term;
  the member with the most votes becomes the chairman unless he or she
  was the incumbent chairman at the time of the election, but the
  chairmanship rotates every eight months; election last held 5
  October 2002 (next to be held NA 2006); the chairman of the Council
  of Ministers is appointed by the presidency and confirmed by the
  National House of Representatives
  head of government: Chairman of the Council of Ministers Adnan
  TERZIC (since 20 December 2002)
  cabinet: Council of Ministers nominated by the council chairman;
  approved by the National House of Representatives
  election results: percent of vote - Mirko SAROVIC with 35.5% of the
  Serb vote was elected chairman of the collective presidency for the
  first eight months; Dragan COVIC received 61.5% of the Croat vote;
  Sulejman TIHIC received 37% of the Bosniak vote
  note: President of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina: Niko
  LOZANCIC (since 27 January 2003); Vice Presidents Sahbaz DZIHANOVIC
  (since NA 2003) and Desnica RADIVOJEVIC (since NA 2003); President
  of the Republika Srpska: Dragan CAVIC (since 28 November 2002)

Legislative branch:
  bicameral Parliamentary Assembly or Skupstina consists of the
  National House of Representatives or Predstavnicki Dom (42 seats -
  elected by proportional representation, 28 seats allocated from the
  Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina and 14 seats from the Republika
  Srpska; members elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms)
  and the House of Peoples or Dom Naroda (15 seats - 5 Bosniak, 5
  Croat, 5 Serb; members elected by the Bosniak/Croat Federation's
  House of Representatives and the Republika Srpska's National
  Assembly to serve four-year terms); note - Bosnia's election law
  specifies four-year terms for the state and first-order
  administrative division entity legislatures
  election results: National House of Representatives - percent of
  vote by party/coalition - SDA 21.9%, SDS 14.0%, SBiH 10.5%, SDP
  10.4%, SNSD 9.8%, HDZ 9.5%, PDP 4.6%, others 19.3%; seats by
  party/coalition - SDA 10, SDS 5, SBiH 6, SDP 4, SNSD 3, HDZ 5, PDP
  2, others 7; House of Peoples - percent of vote by party/coalition -
  NA; seats by party/coalition - NA
  elections: National House of Representatives - elections last held 5
  October 2002 (next to be held in NA 2006); House of Peoples - last
  constituted NA January 2003 (next to be constituted in 2007)
  note: the Bosniak/Croat Federation has a bicameral legislature that
  consists of a House of Representatives (98 seats; members elected by
  popular vote to serve four-year terms); elections last held 5
  October 2002 (next to be held NA October 2006); percent of vote by
  party - NA; seats by party/coalition - SDA 32, HDZ-BiH 16, SDP 15,
  SBiH 15, other 20; and a House of Peoples (60 seats - 30 Bosniak, 30
  Croat); last constituted December 2002; the Republika Srpska has a
  National Assembly (83 seats; members elected by popular vote to
  serve four-year terms); elections last held 5 October 2002 (next to
  be held in the fall of 2006); percent of vote by party - NA; seats
  by party/coalition - SDS 26, SNSD 19, PDP 9, SDA 6, SRS 4, SPRS 3,
  DNZ 3, SBiH 4, SDP 3, others 6; as a result of the 2002
  constitutional reform process, a 28-member Republika Srpska Council
  of Peoples (COP) was established in the Republika Srpska National
  Assembly; each constituent nation and "others" will have eight
  delegates

Judicial branch:
  BiH Constitutional Court (consists of nine members: four members
  are selected by the Bosniak/Croat Federation's House of
  Representatives, two members by the Republika Srpska's National
  Assembly, and three non-Bosnian members by the president of the
  European Court of Human Rights); BiH State Court (consists of nine
  judges and three divisions - Administrative, Appellate and Criminal
  - having jurisdiction over cases related to state-level law and
  appellate jurisdiction over cases initiated in the entities; note -
  a War Crimes Chamber may be added at a future date)
  note: the entities each have a Supreme Court; each entity also has a
  number of lower courts; there are 10 cantonal courts in the
  Federation, plus a number of municipal courts; the Republika Srpska
  has five municipal courts

Political parties and leaders:
  Alliance of Independent Social Democrats or SNSD [Milorad DODIK];
  Bosnian Party or BOSS [Mirnes AJANOVIC]; Civic Democratic Party or
  GDS [Ibrahim SPAHIC]; Croatian Democratic Union of Bosnia and
  Herzegovina or HDZ-BH [Barisa COLAK]; Croat Christian Democratic
  Union of Bosnia and Herzegovina or HKDU [Mijo IVANIC-LONIC]; Croat
  Party of Rights or HSP [Zdravko HRISTIC]; Croat Peasants Party or
  HSS [Marko TADIC]; Democratic National Union or DNZ [Fikret ABDIC];
  Liberal Democratic Party or LDS [Rasim KADIC]; New Croat Initiative
  or NHI [Kresimir ZUBAK]; Party for Bosnia and Herzegovina or SBiH
  [Safet HALILOVIC]; Party of Democratic Action or SDA [Sulejman
  TIHIC]; Party of Democratic Progress or PDP [Mladen IVANIC]; Serb
  Democratic Party or SDS [Dragan CAVIC - acting]; Serb Radical Party
  of the Republika Srpska or SRS-RS [Milanko MIHAJLICA]; Serb Radical
  Party-Dr. Vojislav Seselj or SRS-VS [Radislav KANJERIC]; Social
  Democratic Party of BIH or SDP [Zlatko LAGUMDZIJA]; Social
  Democratic Union or SDU [Miro LAZOVIC]; Socialist Party of Republika
  Srpska or SPRS [Petar DJOKIC]

Political pressure groups and leaders:
  NA

International organization participation:
  BIS, CE, CEI, EBRD, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt, IDA, IFAD,
  IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), ISO, ITU,
  MIGA, MONUC, NAM (guest), OAS (observer), OIC (observer), OPCW,
  OSCE, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNMEE, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO,
  WTrO (observer)

Diplomatic representation in the US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador Igor DAVIDOVIC
  chancery: 2109 E Street NW, Washington, DC 20037
  FAX: [1] (202) 337-1502
  consulate(s) general: New York
  telephone: [1] (202) 337-1500

Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Douglas L. McELHANEY embassy: Alipasina 43, 71000 Sarajevo mailing address: use street address telephone: [387] (33) 445-700 FAX: [387] (33) 659-722 branch office(s): Banja Luka, Mostar

Flag description:
  a wide medium blue vertical band on the fly side with a yellow
  isosceles triangle abutting the band and the top of the flag; the
  remainder of the flag is medium blue with seven full five-pointed
  white stars and two half stars top and bottom along the hypotenuse
  of the triangle

Economy Bosnia and Herzegovina

Economy - overview:
  Bosnia and Herzegovina ranked next to The Former Yugoslav Republic
  of Macedonia as the poorest republic in the old Yugoslav federation.
  Although agriculture is almost all in private hands, farms are small
  and inefficient, and the republic traditionally is a net importer of
  food. Industry has been greatly overstaffed, one reflection of the
  socialist economic structure of Yugoslavia. TITO had pushed the
  development of military industries in the republic with the result
  that Bosnia hosted a number of Yugoslavia's defense plants. The
  interethnic warfare in Bosnia caused production to plummet by 80%
  from 1992 to 1995 and unemployment to soar. With an uneasy peace in
  place, output recovered in 1996-99 at high percentage rates from a
  low base; but output growth slowed in 2000-02. Part of the lag in
  output was made up in 2003-04. National-level statistics are
  limited. Moreover, official data do not capture the large share of
  black market activity. The konvertibilna marka (convertible mark or
  BAM)- the national currency introduced in 1998 - is now pegged to
  the euro, and the Central Bank of Bosnia and Herzegovina has
  dramatically increased its reserve holdings. Implementation of
  privatization, however, has been slow, and local entities only
  reluctantly support national-level institutions. Banking reform
  accelerated in 2001 as all the Communist-era payments bureaus were
  shut down. The country receives substantial amounts of
  reconstruction assistance and humanitarian aid from the
  international community but will have to prepare for an era of
  declining assistance.

GDP:
  purchasing power parity - $24.31 billion (2003 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:
  3.5% (2003 est.)

GDP - per capita:
  purchasing power parity - $6,100 (2003 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
  agriculture: 13%
  industry: 40.9%
  services: 46.1% (2001 est.)

Population below poverty line:
  NA (2004 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
  lowest 10%: NA
  highest 10%: NA

Inflation rate (consumer prices):
  0.9% (2003 est.)

Labor force:
  1.026 million (2001)

Labor force - by occupation:
  agriculture NA, industry NA, services NA

Unemployment rate:
  40% (2002 est.)

Budget:
  revenues: $3.271 billion
  expenditures: $3.242 billion, including capital expenditures of NA
  (2003 est.)

Agriculture - products:
  wheat, corn, fruits, vegetables; livestock

Industries:
  steel, coal, iron ore, lead, zinc, manganese, bauxite, vehicle
  assembly, textiles, tobacco products, wooden furniture, tank and
  aircraft assembly, domestic appliances, oil refining (2001)

Industrial production growth rate:
  5.5% (2003 est.)

Electricity - production:
  9.979 billion kWh (2001)

Electricity - consumption:
  8.116 billion kWh (2001)

Electricity - exports:
  2.569 billion kWh (2001)

Electricity - imports:
  1.405 billion kWh (2001)

Oil - production:
  0 bbl/day (2001 est.)

Oil - consumption:
  20,000 bbl/day (2001 est.)

Oil - exports:
  NA (2001)

Oil - imports:
  NA (2001)

Natural gas - production:
  0 cu m (2001 est.)

Natural gas - consumption:
  300 million cu m (2001 est.)

Natural gas - exports:
  0 cu m (2001 est.)

Natural gas - imports:
  300 million cu m (2001 est.)

Current account balance:
  $-2.195 billion (2003)

Exports:
  $1.28 billion f.o.b. (2003 est.)

Exports - commodities:
  metals, clothing, wood products

Exports - partners:
  Italy 28.7%, Croatia 18.3%, Germany 17.1%, Austria 9.2%, Slovenia
  7.1% (2003)

Imports:
  $4.7 billion f.o.b. (2003 est.)

Imports - commodities:
  machinery and equipment, chemicals, fuels, foodstuffs

Imports - partners:
  Croatia 24.5%, Slovenia 14.7%, Germany 13.7%, Italy 12.2%, Hungary
  7.8%, Austria 6.7% (2003)

Reserves of foreign exchange & gold:
  $1.796 billion (2003)

Debt - external:
  $3.5 billion (2003)

Economic aid - recipient:
  $650 million (2001 est.)

Currency:
  marka (BAM)

Currency code:
  BAM

Exchange rates:
  marka per US dollar - 1.7329 (2003), 1.7329 (2002), 2.1857 (2001),
  2.1244 (2000), 1.8371 (1999)

Fiscal year:
  calendar year

Communications Bosnia and Herzegovina

Telephones - main lines in use:
  938,000 (2003)

Telephones - mobile cellular:
  1.05 million (2003)

Telephone system:
  general assessment: telephone and telegraph network needs
  modernization and expansion; many urban areas are below average as
  contrasted with services in other former Yugoslav republics
  domestic: NA
  international: country code - 387; no satellite earth stations

Radio broadcast stations:
  AM 8, FM 16, shortwave 1 (1998)

Radios:
  940,000 (1997)

Television broadcast stations:
  33 (plus 277 repeaters) (September 1995)

Televisions:
  NA

Internet country code:
  .ba

Internet hosts:
  6,994 (2004)

Internet Service Providers (ISPs):
  3 (2000)

Internet users:
  100,000 (2002)

Transportation Bosnia and Herzegovina

Railways:
  total: 1,021 km (795 km electrified)
  standard gauge: 1,021 km 1.435-m gauge (2003)

Highways:
  total: 21,846 km
  paved: 11,424 km
  unpaved: 10,422 km (1999 est.)

Waterways:
  Sava River (northern border) open to shipping but use limited
  because of no agreement with neighboring countries (2004)

Ports and harbors:
  Bosanska Gradiska, Bosanski Brod, Bosanski Samac, and Brcko (all
  inland waterway ports on the Sava), Orasje

Merchant marine:
  none

Airports:
  27 (2003 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
  total: 8
  2,438 to 3,047 m: 4
  1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
  under 914 m: 3 (2004 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
  total: 19
  under 914 m: 11 (2004 est.)
  1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
  914 to 1,523 m: 7

Heliports:
  5 (2003 est.)

Military Bosnia and Herzegovina

Military branches:
  VF Army (the air and air defense forces are subordinate commands
  within the Army), VRS Army (the air and air defense forces are
  subordinate commands within the Army)

Military manpower - military age and obligation: 18 years of age for compulsory military service in the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina; 16 years of age in times of war; 18 years of age for Republika Srpska; 17 years of age for voluntary military service in the Federation and in the Republika Srpska; by law, military obligations cover all healthy men between the ages of 18 and 60, and all women between the ages of 18 and 55; service obligation is 4 months (July 2004)

Military manpower - availability:
  males age 15-49: 1,133,847 (2004 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:
  males age 15-49: 898,451 (2004 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
  males: 30,130 (2004 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure:
  $234.3 million (FY02)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP:
  4.5% (FY02)

Transnational Issues Bosnia and Herzegovina

Disputes - international:
  Bosnia and Herzegovina and Serbia and Montenegro have delimited
  most of their boundary, but sections along the Drina River remain in
  dispute; discussions continue with Croatia on problem sections
  around Kostajnica on the Una River and villages at the base of Mount
  Pljesevica

Refugees and internally displaced persons:
  IDPs: 327,200 (Bosnian Croats, Serbs, and Muslims displaced in
  1992-1995 war) (2004)

Illicit drugs:
  minor transit point for marijuana and opiate trafficking routes to
  Western Europe; remains highly vulnerable to money laundering
  activity given a primarily cash-based and unregulated economy, weak
  law enforcement and instances of corruption

This page was last updated on 10 February, 2005

======================================================================

@Botswana

Introduction Botswana

Background:
  Formerly the British protectorate of Bechuanaland, Botswana adopted
  its new name upon independence in 1966. Four decades of
  uninterrupted civilian leadership, progressive social policies, and
  significant capital investment have created one of the most dynamic
  economies in Africa. Mineral extraction, principally diamond mining,
  dominates economic activity, though tourism is a growing sector due
  to the country's conservation practices and extensive nature
  preserves. Botswana has one of the world's highest known rates of
  HIV/AIDS infection, but also one of Africa's most progressive and
  comprehensive programs for dealing with the disease.

Geography Botswana

Location:
  Southern Africa, north of South Africa

Geographic coordinates:
  22 00 S, 24 00 E

Map references:
  Africa

Area:
  total: 600,370 sq km
  water: 15,000 sq km
  land: 585,370 sq km

Area - comparative:
  slightly smaller than Texas

Land boundaries:
  total: 4,013 km
  border countries: Namibia 1,360 km, South Africa 1,840 km, Zimbabwe
  813 km

Coastline:
  0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims:
  none (landlocked)

Climate:
  semiarid; warm winters and hot summers

Terrain:
  predominantly flat to gently rolling tableland; Kalahari Desert in
  southwest

Elevation extremes:
  lowest point: junction of the Limpopo and Shashe Rivers 513 m
  highest point: Tsodilo Hills 1,489 m

Natural resources:
  diamonds, copper, nickel, salt, soda ash, potash, coal, iron ore,
  silver

Land use: arable land: 0.65% permanent crops: 0.01% other: 99.34% (2001)

Irrigated land:
  10 sq km (1998 est.)

Natural hazards:
  periodic droughts; seasonal August winds blow from the west,
  carrying sand and dust across the country, which can obscure
  visibility

Environment - current issues:
  overgrazing; desertification; limited fresh water resources

Environment - international agreements: party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - note: landlocked; population concentrated in eastern part of the country

People Botswana

Population:
  1,561,973
  note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the
  effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower
  life expectancy, higher infant mortality and death rates, lower
  population and growth rates, and changes in the distribution of
  population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (July
  2004 est.)

Age structure:
  0-14 years: 39.2% (male 310,282; female 302,452)
  15-64 years: 56.2% (male 424,613; female 452,801)
  65 years and over: 4.6% (male 30,896; female 40,929) (2004 est.)

Median age:
  total: 19.2 years
  male: 18.5 years
  female: 19.9 years (2004 est.)

Population growth rate:
  -0.89% (2004 est.)

Birth rate:
  24.71 births/1,000 population (2004 est.)

Death rate:
  33.63 deaths/1,000 population (2004 est.)

Net migration rate:
  0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2004 est.)

Sex ratio:
  at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
  under 15 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
  15-64 years: 0.94 male(s)/female
  65 years and over: 0.76 male(s)/female
  total population: 0.96 male(s)/female (2004 est.)

Infant mortality rate:
  total: 69.98 deaths/1,000 live births
  female: 68.96 deaths/1,000 live births (2004 est.)
  male: 70.96 deaths/1,000 live births

Life expectancy at birth:
  total population: 30.76 years
  male: 30.99 years
  female: 30.53 years (2004 est.)

Total fertility rate:
  3.17 children born/woman (2004 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
  37.3% (2003 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
  350,000 (2003 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths:
  33,000 (2003 est.)

Major infectious diseases:
  typhoid fever, malaria
  overall degree of risk: high (2004)

Nationality:
  noun: Motswana (singular), Batswana (plural)
  adjective: Motswana (singular), Batswana (plural)

Ethnic groups:
  Tswana (or Setswana) 79%, Kalanga 11%, Basarwa 3%, other, including
  Kgalagadi and white 7%

Religions:
  indigenous beliefs 85%, Christian 15%

Languages:
  English (official), Setswana

Literacy:
  definition: age 15 and over can read and write
  total population: 79.8%
  male: 76.9%
  female: 82.4% (2003 est.)

Government Botswana

Country name:
  conventional long form: Republic of Botswana
  conventional short form: Botswana
  former: Bechuanaland

Government type:
  parliamentary republic

Capital:
  Gaborone

Administrative divisions:
  9 districts and four town councils*; Central, Francistown*,
  Gaborone*, Ghanzi, Kgalagadi, Kgatleng, Kweneng, Lobatse*,
  Northwest, Northeast, Selebi-Pikwe*, Southeast, Southern

Independence:
  30 September 1966 (from UK)

National holiday:
  Independence Day (Botswana Day), 30 September (1966)

Constitution:
  March 1965, effective 30 September 1966

Legal system:
  based on Roman-Dutch law and local customary law; judicial review
  limited to matters of interpretation; has not accepted compulsory
  ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage:
  18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
  chief of state: President Festus MOGAE (since 1 April 1998) and
  Vice President Seretse Ian KHAMA (since 13 July 1998); note - the
  president is both the chief of state and head of government
  head of government: President Festus MOGAE (since 1 April 1998) and
  Vice President Seretse Ian KHAMA (since 13 July 1998); note - the
  president is both the chief of state and head of government
  cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president
  elections: president elected by the National Assembly for a
  five-year term; election last held 16 October 1999 (next to be held
  NA October 2004); vice president appointed by the president
  election results: Festus MOGAE elected president; percent of
  National Assembly vote - 54.3%

Legislative branch:
  bicameral Parliament consists of the House of Chiefs (a largely
  advisory 15-member body consisting of the chiefs of the eight
  principal tribes, four elected subchiefs, and three members selected
  by the other 12 members) and the National Assembly (44 seats, 40
  members are directly elected by popular vote and 4 are appointed by
  the majority party; members serve five-year terms)
  elections: National Assembly elections last held 30 October 2004
  (next to be held NA October 2009)
  election results: percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party -
  BDP 44, BNF 12, BCP 1

Judicial branch:
  High Court; Court of Appeal; Magistrates' Courts (one in each
  district)

Political parties and leaders:
  Botswana Democratic Party or BDP [Seretse Ian KHAMA]; Botswana
  National Front or BNF [Otswoletse MOUPO]; Botswana Congress Party or
  BCP [Mokgweetsi KGOSIPULA]; Botswana Alliance Movement or BAM
  [Ephraim Lepetu SETSHWAELO]
  note: a number of minor parties joined forces in 1999 to form the
  BAM but did not capture any parliamentary seats; the BAM parties
  are: the United Action Party [Ephraim Lepetu SETSHWAELO], the
  Independence Freedom Party or IFP [Motsamai MPHO], and the Botswana
  Progressive Union [D. K. KWELE]

Political pressure groups and leaders:
  NA

International organization participation:
  ACP, AfDB, AU, C, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt, ICFTU, ICRM,
  IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, Interpol, IOC, ISO, ITU, MIGA, NAM,
  OPCW, SACU, SADC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCO, WFTU, WHO,
  WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador Lapologang Caesar LEKOA
  chancery: 1531-1533 New Hampshire Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20036
  FAX: [1] (202) 244-4164
  telephone: [1] (202) 244-4990

Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Joseph HUGGINS embassy: address NA, Gaborone mailing address: Embassy Enclave, P. O. Box 90, Gaborone telephone: [267] 353982 FAX: [267] 312782

Flag description: light blue with a horizontal white-edged black stripe in the center

Economy Botswana

Economy - overview:
  Botswana has maintained one of the world's highest growth rates
  since independence in 1966. Through fiscal discipline and sound
  management, Botswana has transformed itself from one of the poorest
  countries in the world to a middle-income country with a per capita
  GDP of $8,800 in 2003. Two major investment services rank Botswana
  as the best credit risk in Africa. Diamond mining has fueled much of
  the expansion and currently accounts for more than one-third of GDP
  and for nine-tenths of export earnings. Tourism, subsistence
  farming, and cattle raising are other key sectors. On the downside,
  the government must deal with high rates of unemployment and
  poverty. Unemployment officially is 21%, but unofficial estimates
  place it closer to 40%. HIV/AIDS infection rates are the highest in
  the world and threaten Botswana's impressive economic gains.
  Long-term prospects are overshadowed by the expected leveling off in
  diamond mining production.

GDP:
  purchasing power parity - $14.2 billion (2003 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:
  7.2% (2003 est.)

GDP - per capita:
  purchasing power parity - $9,000 (2003 est.)

GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 4% industry: 48.7% (including 36% mining) services: 52% (2003 est.)

Investment (gross fixed):
  23.9% of GDP (2003)

Population below poverty line:
  47% (2002 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
  lowest 10%: NA
  highest 10%: NA

Inflation rate (consumer prices):
  9.2% (2003 est.)

Labor force:
  264,000 formal sector employees (2000)

Labor force - by occupation:
  NA

Unemployment rate:
  40% (official rate is 21%) (2001 est.)

Budget:
  revenues: $3.263 billion
  expenditures: $3.283 billion, including capital expenditures of NA
  (2003)

Public debt:
  7% of GDP (2003)

Agriculture - products:
  livestock, sorghum, maize, millet, beans, sunflowers, groundnuts

Industries:
  diamonds, copper, nickel, salt, soda ash, potash; livestock
  processing; textiles

Industrial production growth rate:
  7.3% (2003 est.)

Electricity - production:
  409.8 million kWh (2001)

Electricity - consumption:
  1.564 billion kWh (2001)

Electricity - exports:
  0 kWh (2001)

Electricity - imports:
  1.183 billion kWh (2001)

Oil - production:
  0 bbl/day (2001 est.)

Oil - consumption:
  16,000 bbl/day (2001 est.)

Oil - exports:
  NA (2001)

Oil - imports:
  NA (2001)

Current account balance:
  $539 million (2003)

Exports:
  $2.544 billion f.o.b. (2003 est.)

Exports - commodities:
  diamonds, copper, nickel, soda ash, meat, textiles

Exports - partners:
  European Free Trade Association (EFTA) 87%, Southern African
  Customs Union (SACU) 7%, Zimbabwe 4% (2000)

Imports:
  $1.753 billion f.o.b. (2003 est.)

Imports - commodities:
  foodstuffs, machinery, electrical goods, transport equipment,
  textiles, fuel and petroleum products, wood and paper products,
  metal and metal products

Imports - partners:
  Southern African Customs Union (SACU) 74%, EFTA 17%, Zimbabwe 4%
  (2000)

Reserves of foreign exchange & gold:
  $5.25 billion (2003)

Debt - external:
  $392 million (2003)

Economic aid - recipient:
  $73 million (1995)

Currency:
  pula (BWP)

Currency code:
  BWP

Exchange rates:
  pulas per US dollar - 4.9499 (2003), 6.3278 (2002), 5.8412 (2001),
  5.1018 (2000), 4.6244 (1999)

Fiscal year:
  1 April - 31 March

Communications Botswana

Telephones - main lines in use:
  142,400 (2002)

Telephones - mobile cellular:
  435,000 (2002)

Telephone system:
  general assessment: the system is expanding with the growth of
  mobile cellular service and participation in regional development
  domestic: small system of open-wire lines, microwave radio relay
  links, and a few radiotelephone communication stations; mobile
  cellular service is growing fast
  international: country code - 267; two international exchanges;
  digital microwave radio relay links to Namibia, Zambia, Zimbabwe,
  and South Africa; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Indian Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations:
  AM 8, FM 13, shortwave 4 (2001)

Radios:
  252,720 (2000)

Television broadcast stations:
  1 (2001)

Televisions:
  31,000 (1997)

Internet country code:
  .bw

Internet hosts:
  1,920 (2003)

Internet Service Providers (ISPs):
  11 (2001)

Internet users:
  60,000 (2002)

Transportation Botswana

Railways: total: 888 km narrow gauge: 888 km 1.067-m gauge (2003)

Highways: total: 10,217 km paved: 5,619 km unpaved: 4,598 km (1999)

Ports and harbors:
  none

Airports:
  85 (2003 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
  total: 10
  2,438 to 3,047 m: 2
  1,524 to 2,437 m: 7
  914 to 1,523 m: 1 (2004 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
  total: 75
  1,524 to 2,437 m: 3
  914 to 1,523 m: 54
  under 914 m: 18 (2004 est.)

Military Botswana

Military branches:
  Botswana Defense Force (including an Air Wing)

Military manpower - military age and obligation: 18 is the apparent age of voluntary military service; the official qualifications for determining minimum age are unknown (2001)

Military manpower - availability:
  males age 15-49: 381,801 (2004 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:
  males age 15-49: 202,176 (2004 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
  males: 20,651 (2004 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure:
  $298.9 million (2003)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP:
  3.6% (2003)

Transnational Issues Botswana

Disputes - international:
  established a commission with Namibia to resolve small residual
  disputes along the Caprivi Strip, including the Situngu marshlands
  along the Linyanti River; downstream Botswana residents protest
  Namibia's planned construction of the Okavango hydroelectric dam at
  Popavalle (Popa Falls); Botswana, Namibia, Zambia, and Zimbabwe
  boundary convergence is not clearly defined or delimited

This page was last updated on 10 February, 2005

======================================================================

@Bouvet Island

Introduction Bouvet Island

Background:
  This uninhabited volcanic island is almost entirely covered by
  glaciers and is difficult to approach. It was discovered in 1739 by
  a French naval officer after whom the island was named. No claim was
  made until 1825, when the British flag was raised. In 1928, the UK
  waived its claim in favor of Norway, which had occupied the island
  the previous year. In 1971, Bouvet Island and the adjacent
  territorial waters were designated a nature reserve. Since 1977,
  Norway has run an automated meteorological station on the island.

Geography Bouvet Island

Location:
  island in the South Atlantic Ocean, southwest of the Cape of Good
  Hope (South Africa)

Geographic coordinates:
  54 26 S, 3 24 E

Map references:
  Antarctic Region

Area:
  total: 58.5 sq km
  water: 0 sq km
  land: 58.5 sq km

Area - comparative:
  about 0.3 times the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries:
  0 km

Coastline:
  29.6 km

Maritime claims:
  territorial sea: 4 nm

Climate:
  antarctic

Terrain:
  volcanic; coast is mostly inaccessible

Elevation extremes: lowest point: South Atlantic Ocean 0 m highest point: Olav Peak 935 m

Natural resources: none

Land use: arable land: 0% permanent crops: 0% other: 100% (93% ice) (2001)

Irrigated land:
  0 sq km (1998 est.)

Natural hazards:
  NA

Environment - current issues:
  NA

Geography - note:
  covered by glacial ice; declared a nature reserve

People Bouvet Island

Population: uninhabited (July 2004 est.)

Government Bouvet Island

Country name:
  conventional long form: none
  conventional short form: Bouvet Island

Dependency status:
  territory of Norway; administered by the Polar Department of the
  Ministry of Justice and Police from Oslo

Legal system:
  the laws of Norway, where applicable, apply

Flag description:
  the flag of Norway is used

Economy Bouvet Island

Economy - overview: no economic activity; declared a nature reserve

Communications Bouvet Island

Internet country code:
  .bv

Communications - note:
  automatic meteorological station

Transportation Bouvet Island

Ports and harbors: none; offshore anchorage only

Military Bouvet Island

Military - note: defense is the responsibility of Norway

Transnational Issues Bouvet Island

Disputes - international: none

This page was last updated on 10 February, 2005

======================================================================

@Brazil

Introduction Brazil

Background:
  Following three centuries under the rule of Portugal, Brazil became
  an independent nation in 1822. By far the largest and most populous
  country in South America, Brazil overcame more than half a century
  of military intervention in the governance of the country when in
  1985 the military regime peacefully ceded power to civilian rulers.
  Brazil continues to pursue industrial and agricultural growth and
  development of its interior. Exploiting vast natural resources and a
  large labor pool, it is today South America's leading economic power
  and a regional leader. Highly unequal income distribution remains a
  pressing problem.

Geography Brazil

Location:
  Eastern South America, bordering the Atlantic Ocean

Geographic coordinates:
  10 00 S, 55 00 W

Map references:
  South America

Area:
  total: 8,511,965 sq km
  land: 8,456,510 sq km
  note: includes Arquipelago de Fernando de Noronha, Atol das Rocas,
  Ilha da Trindade, Ilhas Martin Vaz, and Penedos de Sao Pedro e Sao
  Paulo
  water: 55,455 sq km

Area - comparative:
  slightly smaller than the US

Land boundaries:
  total: 14,691 km
  border countries: Argentina 1,224 km, Bolivia 3,400 km, Colombia
  1,643 km, French Guiana 673 km, Guyana 1,119 km, Paraguay 1,290 km,
  Peru 1,560 km, Suriname 597 km, Uruguay 985 km, Venezuela 2,200 km

Coastline:
  7,491 km

Maritime claims: territorial sea: 12 nm continental shelf: 200 nm or to edge of the continental margin contiguous zone: 24 nm exclusive economic zone: 200 nm

Climate:
  mostly tropical, but temperate in south

Terrain:
  mostly flat to rolling lowlands in north; some plains, hills,
  mountains, and narrow coastal belt

Elevation extremes:
  lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m
  highest point: Pico da Neblina 3,014 m

Natural resources:
  bauxite, gold, iron ore, manganese, nickel, phosphates, platinum,
  tin, uranium, petroleum, hydropower, timber

Land use: arable land: 6.96% permanent crops: 0.9% other: 92.15% (2001)

Irrigated land:
  26,560 sq km (1998 est.)

Natural hazards:
  recurring droughts in northeast; floods and occasional frost in
  south

Environment - current issues:
  deforestation in Amazon Basin destroys the habitat and endangers a
  multitude of plant and animal species indigenous to the area; there
  is a lucrative illegal wildlife trade; air and water pollution in
  Rio de Janeiro, Sao Paulo, and several other large cities; land
  degradation and water pollution caused by improper mining
  activities; wetland degradation; severe oil spills

Environment - international agreements:
  party to: Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living
  Resources, Antarctic Seals, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate
  Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered
  Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the
  Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution,
  Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling
  signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - note:
  largest country in South America; shares common boundaries with
  every South American country except Chile and Ecuador

People Brazil

Population:
  184,101,109
  note: Brazil took a count in August 2000, which reported a
  population of 169,799,170; that figure was about 3.3% lower than
  projections by the US Census Bureau, and is close to the implied
  underenumeration of 4.6% for the 1991 census; estimates for this
  country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality
  due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant
  mortality and death rates, lower population and growth rates, and
  changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would
  otherwise be expected (July 2004 est.)

Age structure:
  0-14 years: 26.6% (male 24,915,902; female 23,966,713)
  15-64 years: 67.6% (male 61,739,012; female 62,770,480)
  65 years and over: 5.8% (male 4,389,659; female 6,319,343) (2004
  est.)

Median age: total: 27.4 years male: 26.7 years female: 28.2 years (2004 est.)

Population growth rate:
  1.11% (2004 est.)

Birth rate:
  17.25 births/1,000 population (2004 est.)

Death rate:
  6.14 deaths/1,000 population (2004 est.)

Net migration rate:
  -0.03 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2004 est.)

Sex ratio:
  at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
  under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
  15-64 years: 0.98 male(s)/female
  65 years and over: 0.7 male(s)/female
  total population: 0.98 male(s)/female (2004 est.)

Infant mortality rate:
  total: 30.66 deaths/1,000 live births
  female: 26.65 deaths/1,000 live births (2004 est.)
  male: 34.47 deaths/1,000 live births

Life expectancy at birth:
  total population: 71.41 years
  male: 67.45 years
  female: 75.57 years (2004 est.)

Total fertility rate:
  1.97 children born/woman (2004 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
  0.7% (2003 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
  660,000 (2003 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths:
  15,000 (2003 est.)

Nationality:
  noun: Brazilian(s)
  adjective: Brazilian

Ethnic groups:
  white (includes Portuguese, German, Italian, Spanish, Polish) 55%,
  mixed white and black 38%, black 6%, other (includes Japanese, Arab,
  Amerindian) 1%

Religions:
  Roman Catholic (nominal) 80%

Languages:
  Portuguese (official), Spanish, English, French

Literacy:
  definition: age 15 and over can read and write
  total population: 86.4%
  male: 86.1%
  female: 86.6% (2003 est.)

Government Brazil

Country name:
  conventional long form: Federative Republic of Brazil
  conventional short form: Brazil
  local short form: Brasil
  local long form: Republica Federativa do Brasil

Government type:
  federative republic

Capital:
  Brasilia

Administrative divisions:
  26 states (estados, singular - estado) and 1 federal district*
  (distrito federal); Acre, Alagoas, Amapa, Amazonas, Bahia, Ceara,
  Distrito Federal*, Espirito Santo, Goias, Maranhao, Mato Grosso,
  Mato Grosso do Sul, Minas Gerais, Para, Paraiba, Parana, Pernambuco,
  Piaui, Rio de Janeiro, Rio Grande do Norte, Rio Grande do Sul,
  Rondonia, Roraima, Santa Catarina, Sao Paulo, Sergipe, Tocantins

Independence:
  7 September 1822 (from Portugal)

National holiday:
  Independence Day, 7 September (1822)

Constitution:
  5 October 1988

Legal system:
  based on Roman codes; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage:
  voluntary between 16 and 18 years of age and over 70; compulsory
  over 18 and under 70 years of age; note - military conscripts do not
  vote

Executive branch:
  chief of state: President Luiz Inacio LULA DA SILVA (since 1
  January 2003); Vice President Jose ALENCAR (since 1 January 2003);
  note - the president is both the chief of state and head of
  government
  election results: in runoff election 27 October 2002, Luiz Inacio
  LULA DA SILVA (PT) was elected with 61.3% of the vote; Jose SERRA
  (PSDB) 38.7%
  elections: president and vice president elected on the same ticket
  by popular vote for four-year terms; election last held 6 October
  2002 (next to be held 1 October 2006, with a runoff on 29 October
  2006 if necessary); runoff election held 27 October 2002
  cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president
  head of government: President Luiz Inacio LULA DA SILVA (since 1
  January 2003); Vice President Jose ALENCAR (since 1 January 2003);
  note - the president is both the chief of state and head of
  government

Legislative branch:
  bicameral National Congress or Congresso Nacional consists of the
  Federal Senate or Senado Federal (81 seats; three members from each
  state and federal district elected according to the principle of
  majority to serve eight-year terms; one-third elected after a
  four-year period, two-thirds elected after the next four-year
  period) and the Chamber of Deputies or Camara dos Deputados (513
  seats; members are elected by proportional representation to serve
  four-year terms)
  election results: Federal Senate - percent of vote by party - NA%;
  seats by party PMBD 19, PFL 19, PT 14, PSDB 11, PDT 5, PSB 4, PL 3,
  PTB 3, PPS 1, PSD 1, PP 1; Chamber of Deputies - percent of vote by
  party - NA%; seats by party - PT 91, PFL 84, PMDB 74, PSDB 71, PP
  49, PL 26, PTB 26, PSB 22, PDT 21, PPS 15, PCdoB 12, PRONA 6, PV 5,
  other 11; note - many congressmen have changed party affiliation
  since the most recent election
  elections: Federal Senate - last held 6 October 2002 for two-thirds
  of the Senate (next to be held NA October 2006 for one-third of the
  Senate); Chamber of Deputies - last held 6 October 2002 (next to be
  held NA October 2006)

Judicial branch:
  Supreme Federal Tribunal (11 ministers are appointed for life by
  the president and confirmed by the Senate); Higher Tribunal of
  Justice; Regional Federal Tribunals (judges are appointed for life);
  note - though appointed "for life," judges, like all federal
  employees, have a mandatory retirement age of 70

Political parties and leaders:
  Brazilian Democratic Movement Party or PMDB [Federal Deputy Michel
  TEMER]; Brazilian Labor Party or PTB [Federal Deputy Roberto
  JEFFERSON]; Brazilian Social Democracy Party or PSDB [Senator
  Eduardo AZAREDO]; Brazilian Socialist Party or PSB [Federal Deputy
  Miguel ARRAES]; Communist Party of Brazil or PCdoB [Renato RABELO];
  Democratic Labor Party or PDT [Carlos LUPI]; Green Party or PV [Jose
  Luiz de Franca PENNA]; Liberal Front Party or PFL [Senator Jorge
  BORNHAUSEN]; Liberal Party or PL [Federal Deputy Valdemar COSTA
  Neto]; National Order Reconstruction Party or PRONA [Federal Deputy
  Dr. Eneas CARNEIRO]; Popular Socialist Party or PPS [Federal Deputy
  Roberto FREIRE]; Progressive Party or PP [Federal Deputy Pedro
  CORREA]; Worker's Party or PT [Jose GENOINO]; Social Christian Party
  or PSC [Vitor Jorge ABDALA NOSSEIS]

Political pressure groups and leaders:
  Landless Worker's Movement; large farmers' associations; labor
  unions and federations; religious groups including evangelical
  christian churches and the Catholic Church

International organization participation:
  AfDB, BIS, FAO, G-15, G-24, G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC,
  ICCt, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO,
  Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, LAES, LAIA, Mercosur, MIGA, MINUSTAH,
  NAM (observer), NSG, OAS, OPANAL, OPCW, PCA, RG, UN, UN Security
  Council (temporary), UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNITAR, UNMIK,
  UNMIL, UNMISET, UNMOVIC, UNOCI, UPU, WCL, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO,
  WToO, WTO

Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Roberto ABDENUR FAX: [1] (202) 238-2827 consulate(s) general: Boston, Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, Miami, New York, and San Francisco chancery: 3006 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008 telephone: [1] (202) 238-2700

Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador John DANILOVICH embassy: Avenida das Nacoes, Quadra 801, Lote 3, Distrito Federal Cep 70403-900, Brasilia mailing address: Unit 3500, APO AA 34030 telephone: [55] (61) 312-7000 FAX: [55] (61) 225-9136 consulate(s) general: Rio de Janeiro, Sao Paulo consulate(s): Recife

Flag description:
  green with a large yellow diamond in the center bearing a blue
  celestial globe with 27 white five-pointed stars (one for each state
  and the Federal District) arranged in the same pattern as the night
  sky over Brazil; the globe has a white equatorial band with the
  motto ORDEM E PROGRESSO (Order and Progress)

Economy Brazil

Economy - overview:
  Possessing large and well-developed agricultural, mining,
  manufacturing, and service sectors, Brazil's economy outweighs that
  of all other South American countries and is expanding its presence
  in world markets. From 2001-03 real wages fell and Brazil's economy
  grew, on average, only 1.1% per year, as the country absorbed a
  series of domestic and international economic shocks. That Brazil
  absorbed these shocks without financial collapse is a tribute to the
  resiliency of the Brazilian economy and the economic program put in
  place by former President CARDOSO and strengthened by President Lula
  DA SILVA. The three pillars of the economic program are a floating
  exchange rate, an inflation-targeting regime, and tight fiscal
  policy, which have been reinforced by a series of IMF programs. The
  currency depreciated sharply in 2001 and 2002, which contributed to
  a dramatic current account adjustment: in 2003, Brazil ran a record
  trade surplus and recorded the first current account surplus since
  1992. While economic management has been good, there remain
  important economic vulnerabilities. The most significant are
  debt-related: the government's largely domestic debt increased
  steadily from 1994 to 2003, straining government finances, while
  Brazil's foreign debt (a mix of private and public debt) is large in
  relation to Brazil's modest (but growing) export base. Another
  challenge is maintaining economic growth over a period of time to
  generate employment and make the government debt burden more
  manageable.

GDP:
  purchasing power parity - $1.375 trillion (2003 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:
  -0.2% (2003 est.)

GDP - per capita:
  purchasing power parity - $7,600 (2003 est.)

GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 10.2% industry: 38.7% services: 51.2% (2003 est.)

Investment (gross fixed):
  18% of GDP (2003)

Population below poverty line:
  22% (1998 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: 0.7% highest 10%: 48% (1998)

Distribution of family income - Gini index:
  60.7 (1998)

Inflation rate (consumer prices):
  14.7% (2003)

Labor force:
  82.59 million (2003 est.)

Labor force - by occupation:
  agriculture 23%, industry 24%, services 53%

Unemployment rate:
  12.3% (2003 est.)

Budget:
  revenues: $147.2 billion
  expenditures: $172.4 billion, including capital expenditures of NA
  (2003)

Public debt:
  58.5% of GDP (2003)

Agriculture - products:
  coffee, soybeans, wheat, rice, corn, sugarcane, cocoa, citrus; beef

Industries:
  textiles, shoes, chemicals, cement, lumber, iron ore, tin, steel,
  aircraft, motor vehicles and parts, other machinery and equipment

Industrial production growth rate:
  0.4% (2003 est.)

Electricity - production:
  321.2 billion kWh (2001)

Electricity - consumption:
  335.9 billion kWh (2001)

Electricity - exports:
  0 kWh (2001)

Electricity - imports:
  37.19 billion kWh; note - supplied by Paraguay (2001)

Oil - production:
  1.561 million bbl/day (2001 est.)

Oil - consumption:
  2.199 million bbl/day (2001 est.)

Oil - exports:
  NA (2001)

Oil - imports:
  NA (2001)

Oil - proved reserves:
  8.507 billion bbl (1 January 2002)

Natural gas - production:
  5.95 billion cu m (2001 est.)

Natural gas - consumption:
  9.59 billion cu m (2001 est.)

Natural gas - exports:
  0 cu m (2001 est.)

Natural gas - imports:
  3.64 billion cu m (2001 est.)

Natural gas - proved reserves:
  221.7 billion cu m (1 January 2002)

Current account balance:
  $3.52 billion (2003)

Exports:
  $73.28 billion f.o.b. (2003 est.)

Exports - commodities:
  transport equipment, iron ore, soybeans, footwear, coffee, autos

Exports - partners:
  US 23%, Argentina 6.1%, China 6%, Netherlands 5.8%, Germany 4.2%
  (2003)

Imports:
  $48.25 billion f.o.b. (2003 est.)

Imports - commodities:
  machinery, electrical and transport equipment, chemical products,
  oil

Imports - partners:
  US 20%, Argentina 9.8%, Germany 8.7%, Japan 5.2%, China 4.4% (2003)

Reserves of foreign exchange & gold:
  $49.3 billion (2003)

Debt - external:
  $214.9 billion (2003)

Economic aid - recipient:
  $30 billion IMF disbursement (2002)

Currency:
  real (BRL)

Currency code:
  BRL

Exchange rates:
  reals per US dollar - 3.0771 (2003), 2.9208 (2002), 2.3577 (2001),
  1.8301 (2000), 1.8147 (1999)
  note: from October 1994 through 14 January 1999, the official rate
  was determined by a managed float; since 15 January 1999, the
  official rate floats independently with respect to the US dollar

Fiscal year:
  calendar year

Communications Brazil

Telephones - main lines in use:
  38.81 million (2002)

Telephones - mobile cellular:
  46,373,300 (2003)

Telephone system:
  general assessment: good working system
  domestic: extensive microwave radio relay system and a domestic
  satellite system with 64 earth stations
  international: country code - 55; 3 coaxial submarine cables;
  satellite earth stations - 3 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean), 1 Inmarsat
  (Atlantic Ocean region east), connected by microwave relay system to
  Mercosur Brazilsat B3 satellite earth station

Radio broadcast stations:
  AM 1,365, FM 296, shortwave 161 (of which 91 are collocated with AM
  stations) (1999)

Radios:
  71 million (1997)

Television broadcast stations:
  138 (1997)

Televisions:
  36.5 million (1997)

Internet country code:
  .br

Internet hosts:
  3,163,349 (2003)

Internet Service Providers (ISPs):
  50 (2000)

Internet users:
  14.3 million (2002)

Transportation Brazil

Railways:
  total: 29,412 km (1,610 km electrified)
  broad gauge: 4,907 km 1.600-m gauge (942 km electrified)
  standard gauge: 194 km 1.440-m gauge
  dual gauge: 396 km 1.000-m and 1.600-m gauges (three rails) (78 km
  electrified) (2003)
  narrow gauge: 23,915 km 1.000-m gauge (581 km electrified)

Highways: total: 1,724,929 km paved: 94,871 km unpaved: 1,630,058 km (2000)

Waterways:
  50,000 km (most in areas remote from industry and population) (2004)

Pipelines:
  condensate/gas 244 km; gas 10,739 km; liquid petroleum gas 341 km;
  oil 5,212 km; refined products 4,755 km (2004)

Ports and harbors:
  Belem, Fortaleza, Ilheus, Imbituba, Manaus, Paranagua, Porto
  Alegre, Recife, Rio de Janeiro, Rio Grande, Salvador, Santos, Vitoria

Merchant marine:
  total: 151 ships (1,000 GRT or over) 2,961,431 GRT/4,725,267 DWT
  by type: bulk 29, cargo 22, chemical tanker 7, combination ore/oil
  6, container 12, liquefied gas 12, multi-functional large load
  carrier 1, passenger/cargo 5, petroleum tanker 48, roll on/roll off
  8, short-sea/passenger 1
  foreign-owned: Chile 2, Germany 7, Monaco 9, Panama 1, Spain 7
  registered in other countries: 11 (2004 est.)

Airports:
  3,803 (2003 est.)

Airports - with paved runways: total: 698 over 3,047 m: 7 2,438 to 3,047 m: 23 914 to 1,523 m: 461 under 914 m: 49 (2004 est.) 1,524 to 2,437 m: 158

Airports - with unpaved runways: total: 3,438 over 3,047 m: 1 1,524 to 2,437 m: 78 under 914 m: 1,780 (2004 est.) 914 to 1,523 m: 1,579

Heliports: 417 (2003 est.)

Military Brazil

Military branches:
  Brazilian Army, Brazilian Navy (including Naval Air and Marines),
  Brazilian Air Force (FAB)

Military manpower - military age and obligation:
  19 years of age for compulsory military service, conscript service
  obligation - 12 months; 17 years of age for voluntary service (2001)

Military manpower - availability:
  males age 15-49: 52,100,042 (2004 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:
  males age 15-49: 34,799,098 (2004 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
  males: 1,788,495 (2004 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure:
  $10,439.4 million (2003)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP:
  2.1% (2003)

Transnational Issues Brazil

Disputes - international:
  unruly region at convergence of Argentina-Brazil-Paraguay borders
  is locus of money laundering, smuggling, arms and drug trafficking,
  and fundraising for extremist organizations; uncontested dispute
  with Uruguay over certain islands in the Quarai/Cuareim and
  Invernada boundary streams and the resulting tripoint with Argentina

Illicit drugs:
  illicit producer of cannabis; minor coca cultivation in the Amazon
  region, used for domestic consumption; government has a large-scale
  eradication program to control cannabis; important transshipment
  country for Bolivian, Colombian and Peruvian cocaine headed for
  Europe and the US; also used by traffickers as a way station for
  narcotics air transshipments between Peru and Colombia; upsurge in
  drug-related violence and weapons smuggling; important market for
  Colombian, Bolivian, and Peruvian cocaine; illicit narcotics
  proceeds earned in Brazil are often laundered through the financial
  system; significant illicit financial activity in the Tri-Border Area

This page was last updated on 10 February, 2005

======================================================================

@British Indian Ocean Territory

Introduction British Indian Ocean Territory

Background:
  Established as a territory of the UK in 1965, a number of the
  British Indian Ocean Territory (BIOT) islands were transferred to
  the Seychelles when it attained independence in 1976. Subsequently,
  BIOT has consisted only of the six main island groups comprising the
  Chagos Archipelago. The largest and most southerly of the islands,
  Diego Garcia, contains a joint UK-US naval support facility. All of
  the remaining islands are uninhabited. Former agricultural workers,
  earlier residents in the islands, were relocated primarily to
  Mauritius but also to the Seychelles, between 1967 and 1973. In
  2000, a British High Court ruling invalidated the local immigration
  order that had excluded them from the archipelago, but upheld the
  special military status of Diego Garcia.

Geography British Indian Ocean Territory

Location:
  archipelago in the Indian Ocean, south of India, about one-half the
  way from Africa to Indonesia

Geographic coordinates:
  6 00 S, 71 30 E

Map references:
  Political Map of the World

Area:
  total: 60 sq km
  note: includes the entire Chagos Archipelago
  water: 0 sq km
  land: 60 sq km

Area - comparative:
  about 0.3 times the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries:
  0 km

Coastline:
  698 km

Maritime claims: territorial sea: 3 nm exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm

Climate:
  tropical marine; hot, humid, moderated by trade winds

Terrain:
  flat and low (most areas do not exceed four meters in elevation)

Elevation extremes: lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m highest point: unnamed location on Diego Garcia 15 m

Natural resources: coconuts, fish, sugarcane

Land use: arable land: 0% permanent crops: 0% other: 100% (2001)

Irrigated land:
  0 sq km (1998 est.)

Natural hazards:
  NA

Environment - current issues:
  NA

Geography - note:
  archipelago of 2,300 islands; Diego Garcia, largest and
  southernmost island, occupies strategic location in central Indian
  Ocean; island is site of joint US-UK military facility

People British Indian Ocean Territory

Population:
  no indigenous inhabitants
  note: approximately 1,200 former agricultural workers resident in
  the Chagos Archipelago, often referred to as Chagossians or Ilois,
  were relocated to Mauritius and the Seychelles in the 1960s and
  1970s, in November 2000 they were granted the right of return by a
  British High Court ruling, though no timetable has been set; in
  2001, there were approximately 1,500 UK and US military personnel
  and 2,000 civilian contractors living on the island of Diego Garcia
  (July 2004 est.)

Government British Indian Ocean Territory

Country name:
  conventional long form: British Indian Ocean Territory
  conventional short form: none
  abbreviation: BIOT

Dependency status:
  overseas territory of the UK; administered by a commissioner,
  resident in the Foreign and Commonwealth Office in London

Legal system:
  the laws of the UK, where applicable, apply

Executive branch:
  chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952)
  head of government: Commissioner Tony CROMBIE (since January 2004);
  Administrator Charles A. HAMILTON (since 2002); note - both reside
  in the UK
  elections: none; the monarch is hereditary; commissioner and
  administrator appointed by the monarch
  cabinet: NA

Diplomatic representation in the US:
  none (overseas territory of the UK)

Diplomatic representation from the US:
  none (overseas territory of the UK)

Flag description:
  white with six blue wavy horizontal stripes; the flag of the UK is
  in the upper hoist-side quadrant; the striped section bears a palm
  tree and yellow crown centered on the outer half of the flag

Economy British Indian Ocean Territory

Economy - overview:
  All economic activity is concentrated on the largest island of
  Diego Garcia, where joint UK-US defense facilities are located.
  Construction projects and various services needed to support the
  military installations are done by military and contract employees
  from the UK, Mauritius, the Philippines, and the US. There are no
  industrial or agricultural activities on the islands. When the Ilois
  return, they plan to reestablish sugarcane production and fishing.

Electricity - production:
  NA kWh; note - electricity supplied by the US military

Electricity - consumption:
  NA kWh

Communications British Indian Ocean Territory

Telephones - main lines in use:
  NA

Telephone system:
  general assessment: separate facilities for military and public
  needs are available
  domestic: all commercial telephone services are available, including
  connection to the Internet
  international: international telephone service is carried by
  satellite (2000)

Radio broadcast stations:
  AM 1, FM 2, shortwave 0 (1998)

Radios:
  NA

Television broadcast stations:
  1 (1997)

Televisions:
  NA

Internet country code:
  .io

Internet Service Providers (ISPs):
  1 (2000)

Transportation British Indian Ocean Territory

Highways:
  total: NA km
  paved: short section of paved road between port and airfield on
  Diego Garcia
  unpaved: NA km

Ports and harbors:
  Diego Garcia

Airports:
  1 (2003 est.)

Airports - with paved runways: total: 1 over 3,047 m: 1 (2004 est.)

Military British Indian Ocean Territory

Military - note:
  defense is the responsibility of the UK; the US lease on Diego
  Garcia expires in 2016

Transnational Issues British Indian Ocean Territory

Disputes - international:
  Mauritius and Seychelles claim the Chagos Archipelago and its
  former inhabitants, who reside chiefly in Mauritius, but in 2001
  were granted UK citizenship and the right to repatriation since
  eviction in 1965; the UK resists the Chagossians' demand for an
  immediate return to the islands; repatriation is complicated by the
  exclusive US military lease of Diego Garcia that restricted access
  to the largest island in the chain

This page was last updated on 10 February, 2005

======================================================================

@British Virgin Islands

Introduction British Virgin Islands

Background:
  First settled by the Dutch in 1648, the islands were annexed in
  1672 by the English. The economy is closely tied to the larger and
  more populous US Virgin Islands to the west; the US dollar is the
  legal currency.

Geography British Virgin Islands

Location:
  Caribbean, between the Caribbean Sea and the North Atlantic Ocean,
  east of Puerto Rico

Geographic coordinates:
  18 30 N, 64 30 W

Map references:
  Central America and the Caribbean

Area:
  total: 153 sq km
  note: comprised of 16 inhabited and more than 20 uninhabited
  islands; includes the island of Anegada
  water: 0 sq km
  land: 153 sq km

Area - comparative:
  about 0.9 times the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries:
  0 km

Coastline:
  80 km

Maritime claims: territorial sea: 3 nm exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm

Climate:
  subtropical; humid; temperatures moderated by trade winds

Terrain:
  coral islands relatively flat; volcanic islands steep, hilly

Elevation extremes:
  lowest point: Caribbean Sea 0 m
  highest point: Mount Sage 521 m

Natural resources:
  NEGL

Land use:
  arable land: 20%
  permanent crops: 6.67%
  other: 73.33% (2001)

Irrigated land:
  NA sq km

Natural hazards:
  hurricanes and tropical storms (July to October)

Environment - current issues: limited natural fresh water resources (except for a few seasonal streams and springs on Tortola, most of the islands' water supply comes from wells and rainwater catchments)

Geography - note: strong ties to nearby US Virgin Islands and Puerto Rico

People British Virgin Islands

Population:
  22,187 (July 2004 est.)

Age structure:
  0-14 years: 21.5% (male 2,402; female 2,361)
  15-64 years: 73.5% (male 8,395; female 7,911)
  65 years and over: 5% (male 594; female 524) (2004 est.)

Median age:
  total: 30.9 years
  male: 31.1 years
  female: 30.7 years (2004 est.)

Population growth rate:
  2.06% (2004 est.)

Birth rate:
  14.96 births/1,000 population (2004 est.)

Death rate:
  4.42 deaths/1,000 population (2004 est.)

Net migration rate:
  10.01 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2004 est.)

Sex ratio:
  at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
  under 15 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
  15-64 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
  65 years and over: 1.13 male(s)/female
  total population: 1.06 male(s)/female (2004 est.)

Infant mortality rate:
  total: 18.05 deaths/1,000 live births
  female: 14.95 deaths/1,000 live births (2004 est.)
  male: 21.02 deaths/1,000 live births

Life expectancy at birth:
  total population: 76.27 years
  male: 75.24 years
  female: 77.36 years (2004 est.)

Total fertility rate:
  1.72 children born/woman (2004 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
  NA

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
  NA

HIV/AIDS - deaths:
  NA

Nationality: noun: British Virgin Islander(s) adjective: British Virgin Islander

Ethnic groups:
  black 83%, white, Indian, Asian and mixed

Religions:
  Protestant 86% (Methodist 33%, Anglican 17%, Church of God 9%,
  Seventh-Day Adventist 6%, Baptist 4%, Jehovah's Witnesses 2%, other
  15%), Roman Catholic 10%, none 2%, other 2% (1991)

Languages:
  English (official)

Literacy:
  definition: age 15 and over can read and write
  total population: 97.8% (1991 est.)
  male: NA
  female: NA

Government British Virgin Islands

Country name:
  conventional long form: none
  conventional short form: British Virgin Islands
  abbreviation: BVI

Dependency status:
  overseas territory of the UK; internal self-governing

Government type:
  NA

Capital:
  Road Town

Administrative divisions:
  none (overseas territory of the UK)

Independence:
  none (overseas territory of the UK)

National holiday:
  Territory Day, 1 July

Constitution:
  1 June 1977

Legal system:
  English law

Suffrage:
  18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
  chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952),
  represented by Governor Tom MACAN (since 14 October 2002)
  elections: none; the monarch is hereditary; governor appointed by
  the monarch; following legislative elections, the leader of the
  majority party or the leader of the majority coalition is usually
  appointed chief minister by the governor
  head of government: Chief Minister Orlando D. SMITH (since 17 June
  2003)
  cabinet: Executive Council appointed by the governor from members of
  the Legislative Council

Legislative branch:
  unicameral Legislative Council (13 seats; members are elected by
  direct popular vote, one member from each of 9 electoral districts,
  four at-large members; members serve four-year terms)
  elections: last held 16 May 2003 (next to be held NA 2007)
  election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party -
  NDP 8, VIP 5

Judicial branch:
  Eastern Caribbean Supreme Court, consisting of the High Court of
  Justice and the Court of Appeal (one judge of the Supreme Court is a
  resident of the islands and presides over the High Court);
  Magistrate's Court; Juvenile Court; Court of Summary Jurisdiction

Political parties and leaders:
  Concerned Citizens Movement or CCM [Ethlyn SMITH]; National
  Democratic Party or NDP [Orlando SMITH]; United Party or UP [Gregory
  MADURO]; Virgin Islands Party or VIP [Ralph T. O'NEAL]

Political pressure groups and leaders:
  NA

International organization participation:
  Caricom (associate), CDB, Interpol (subbureau), IOC, OECS
  (associate), UNESCO (associate), UPU

Diplomatic representation in the US:
  none (overseas territory of the UK)

Diplomatic representation from the US:
  none (overseas territory of the UK)

Flag description:
  blue, with the flag of the UK in the upper hoist-side quadrant and
  the Virgin Islander coat of arms centered in the outer half of the
  flag; the coat of arms depicts a woman flanked on either side by a
  vertical column of six oil lamps above a scroll bearing the Latin
  word VIGILATE (Be Watchful)

Economy British Virgin Islands

Economy - overview:
  The economy, one of the most stable and prosperous in the
  Caribbean, is highly dependent on tourism, generating an estimated
  45% of the national income. An estimated 350,000 tourists, mainly
  from the US, visited the islands in 1998. Tourism suffered in 2002
  because of the lackluster US economy. In the mid-1980s, the
  government began offering offshore registration to companies wishing
  to incorporate in the islands, and incorporation fees now generate
  substantial revenues. Roughly 400,000 companies were on the offshore
  registry by yearend 2000. The adoption of a comprehensive insurance
  law in late 1994, which provides a blanket of confidentiality with
  regulated statutory gateways for investigation of criminal offenses,
  is expected to make the British Virgin Islands even more attractive
  to international business. Livestock raising is the most important
  agricultural activity; poor soils limit the islands' ability to meet
  domestic food requirements. Because of traditionally close links
  with the US Virgin Islands, the British Virgin Islands has used the
  dollar as its currency since 1959.

GDP:
  purchasing power parity - $320 million (2002 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:
  1% (2002 est.)

GDP - per capita:
  purchasing power parity - $16,000 (2002 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
  agriculture: 1.8%
  industry: 6.2%
  services: 92% (1996 est.)

Population below poverty line:
  NA

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
  lowest 10%: NA
  highest 10%: NA

Inflation rate (consumer prices):
  2.5% (2002)

Labor force:
  4,911 (1980)

Labor force - by occupation:
  agriculture NA, industry NA, services NA

Unemployment rate:
  3% (1995)

Budget:
  revenues: $121.5 million
  expenditures: $115.5 million, including capital expenditures of NA
  (1997)

Agriculture - products:
  fruits, vegetables; livestock, poultry; fish

Industries:
  tourism, light industry, construction, rum, concrete block,
  offshore financial center

Industrial production growth rate:
  NA

Electricity - production:
  38.1 million kWh (2001)

Electricity - consumption:
  35.43 million kWh (2001)

Electricity - exports:
  0 kWh (2001)

Electricity - imports:
  0 kWh (2001)

Oil - production:
  0 bbl/day (2001 est.)

Oil - consumption:
  420 bbl/day (2001 est.)

Oil - exports:
  NA (2001)

Oil - imports:
  NA (2001)

Exports:
  $25.3 million (2002)

Exports - commodities:
  rum, fresh fish, fruits, animals; gravel, sand

Exports - partners:
  Virgin Islands (US), Puerto Rico, US

Imports:
  $187 million (2002 est.)

Imports - commodities:
  building materials, automobiles, foodstuffs, machinery

Imports - partners:
  Virgin Islands (US), Puerto Rico, US

Debt - external:
  $36.1 million (1997)

Economic aid - recipient:
  NA

Currency:
  US dollar (USD)

Currency code:
  USD

Exchange rates:
  the US dollar is used

Fiscal year:
  1 April - 31 March

Communications British Virgin Islands

Telephones - main lines in use:
  11,700 (2002)

Telephones - mobile cellular:
  8,000 (2002)

Telephone system:
  general assessment: worldwide telephone service
  domestic: NA
  international: country code - 1-284; submarine cable to Bermuda

Radio broadcast stations:
  AM 1, FM 4, shortwave 0 (1998)

Radios:
  9,000 (1997)

Television broadcast stations:
  1 (plus one cable company) (1997)

Televisions:
  4,000 (1997)

Internet country code:
  .vg

Internet Service Providers (ISPs):
  16 (2000)

Internet users:
  NA

Transportation British Virgin Islands

Highways: total: 177 km paved: 177 km unpaved: 0 km (2000)

Ports and harbors:
  Road Town

Merchant marine:
  total: 3 ships (1,000 GRT or over) 83,825 GRT/155,909 DWT
  registered in other countries: 32 (2004 est.)
  by type: cargo 1, liquefied gas 1, petroleum tanker 1
  foreign-owned: Norway 1

Airports:
  3 (2003 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
  total: 2
  914 to 1,523 m: 1
  under 914 m: 1 (2004 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
  total: 1
  914 to 1,523 m: 1 (2004 est.)

Military British Virgin Islands

Military - note: defense is the responsibility of the UK

Transnational Issues British Virgin Islands

Disputes - international:
  none

Illicit drugs:
  transshipment point for South American narcotics destined for the
  US and Europe; large offshore financial center makes it vulnerable
  to money laundering

This page was last updated on 10 February, 2005

======================================================================

@Brunei

Introduction Brunei

Background:
  The Sultanate of Brunei's influence peaked between the 15th and
  17th centuries when its control extended over coastal areas of
  northwest Borneo and the southern Philippines. Brunei subsequently
  entered a period of decline brought on by internal strife over royal
  succession, colonial expansion of European powers, and piracy. In
  1888, Brunei became a British protectorate; independence was
  achieved in 1984. The same family has ruled Brunei for over six
  centuries. Brunei benefits from extensive petroleum and natural gas
  fields, the source of one of the highest per capita GDPs in the
  developing world.

Geography Brunei

Location:
  Southeastern Asia, bordering the South China Sea and Malaysia

Geographic coordinates:
  4 30 N, 114 40 E

Map references:
  Southeast Asia

Area:
  total: 5,770 sq km
  water: 500 sq km
  land: 5,270 sq km

Area - comparative:
  slightly smaller than Delaware

Land boundaries: total: 381 km border countries: Malaysia 381 km

Coastline: 161 km

Maritime claims: territorial sea: 12 nm exclusive economic zone: 200 nm or to median line

Climate:
  tropical; hot, humid, rainy

Terrain:
  flat coastal plain rises to mountains in east; hilly lowland in west

Elevation extremes: lowest point: South China Sea 0 m highest point: Bukit Pagon 1,850 m

Natural resources: petroleum, natural gas, timber

Land use: arable land: 0.57% permanent crops: 0.76% other: 98.67% (2001)

Irrigated land:
  10 sq km (1998 est.)

Natural hazards:
  typhoons, earthquakes, and severe flooding are rare

Environment - current issues:
  seasonal smoke/haze resulting from forest fires in Indonesia

Environment - international agreements:
  party to: Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea,
  Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution
  signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - note:
  close to vital sea lanes through South China Sea linking Indian and
  Pacific Oceans; two parts physically separated by Malaysia; almost
  an enclave of Malaysia

People Brunei

Population:
  365,251 (July 2004 est.)

Age structure:
  0-14 years: 29.1% (male 54,243; female 52,013)
  15-64 years: 68% (male 131,682; female 116,631)
  65 years and over: 2.9% (male 5,035; female 5,647) (2004 est.)

Median age:
  total: 26.7 years
  male: 27.3 years
  female: 26 years (2004 est.)

Population growth rate:
  1.95% (2004 est.)

Birth rate:
  19.33 births/1,000 population (2004 est.)

Death rate:
  3.4 deaths/1,000 population (2004 est.)

Net migration rate:
  3.59 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2004 est.)

Sex ratio:
  at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female
  under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
  15-64 years: 1.13 male(s)/female
  65 years and over: 0.89 male(s)/female
  total population: 1.1 male(s)/female (2004 est.)

Infant mortality rate:
  total: 13.05 deaths/1,000 live births
  female: 9.41 deaths/1,000 live births (2004 est.)
  male: 16.51 deaths/1,000 live births

Life expectancy at birth:
  total population: 74.54 years
  male: 72.13 years
  female: 77.09 years (2004 est.)

Total fertility rate:
  2.33 children born/woman (2004 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
  less than 0.1% (2003 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
  less than 200 (2003 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths:
  less than 200 (2003 est.)

Nationality:
  noun: Bruneian(s)
  adjective: Bruneian

Ethnic groups:
  Malay 67%, Chinese 15%, indigenous 6%, other 12%

Religions:
  Muslim (official) 67%, Buddhist 13%, Christian 10%, indigenous
  beliefs and other 10%

Languages:
  Malay (official), English, Chinese

Literacy:
  definition: age 15 and over can read and write
  total population: 93.9%
  male: 96.3%
  female: 91.4% (2002)

Government Brunei

Country name:
  conventional long form: Negara Brunei Darussalam
  conventional short form: Brunei

Government type:
  constitutional sultanate

Capital:
  Bandar Seri Begawan

Administrative divisions:
  4 districts (daerah-daerah, singular - daerah); Belait, Brunei and
  Muara, Temburong, Tutong

Independence:
  1 January 1984 (from UK)

National holiday:
  National Day, 23 February (1984); note - 1 January 1984 was the
  date of independence from the UK, 23 February 1984 was the date of
  independence from British protection

Constitution:
  29 September 1959 (some provisions suspended under a State of
  Emergency since December 1962, others since independence on 1
  January 1984)

Legal system:
  based on English common law; for Muslims, Islamic Shari'a law
  supersedes civil law in a number of areas

Suffrage:
  none

Executive branch:
  chief of state: Sultan and Prime Minister Sir HASSANAL Bolkiah
  (since 5 October 1967); note - the monarch is both the chief of
  state and head of government
  head of government: Sultan and Prime Minister Sir HASSANAL Bolkiah
  (since 5 October 1967); note - the monarch is both the chief of
  state and head of government
  cabinet: Council of Cabinet Ministers appointed and presided over by
  the monarch; deals with executive matters; note - there is also a
  Religious Council (members appointed by the monarch) that advises on
  religious matters, a Privy Council (members appointed by the
  monarch) that deals with constitutional matters, and the Council of
  Succession (members appointed by the monarch) that determines the
  succession to the throne if the need arises
  elections: none; the monarch is hereditary

Legislative branch:
  Legislative Council met on 25 September 2004 for first time in 20
  years with 21 members appointed by the Sultan; passed constitutional
  amendments calling for a 45-seat council with 15 elected members
  elections: last held in March 1962; date of next election NA

Judicial branch:
  Supreme Court (chief justice and judges are sworn in by the monarch
  for three-year terms)

Political parties and leaders:
  other parties include Brunei People's Party or PRB (banned in 1962)
  and Brunei National Democratic Party (registered in May 1965,
  deregistered by the Brunei Government in 1988)

Political pressure groups and leaders:
  NA

International organization participation:
  APEC, ARF, ASEAN, C, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDB, IFRCS, IMF, IMO,
  Interpol, IOC, ISO (correspondent), ITU, NAM, OIC, OPCW, UN, UNCTAD,
  UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador Pengiran Anak Dato PUTEH
  telephone: [1] (202) 237-1838
  FAX: [1] (202) 885-0560
  chancery: 3520 International Court NW, Washington, DC 20008

Diplomatic representation from the US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador Gene B. CHRISTY
  embassy: Third Floor, Teck Guan Plaza, Jalan Sultan, Bandar Seri
  Begawan
  mailing address: PSC 470 (BSB), FPO AP 96507
  telephone: [673] (2) 229670
  FAX: [673] (2) 225293

Flag description:
  yellow with two diagonal bands of white (top, almost double width)
  and black starting from the upper hoist side; the national emblem in
  red is superimposed at the center; the emblem includes a
  swallow-tailed flag on top of a winged column within an upturned
  crescent above a scroll and flanked by two upraised hands

Economy Brunei

Economy - overview:
  This small, wealthy economy encompasses a mixture of foreign and
  domestic entrepreneurship, government regulation, welfare measures,
  and village tradition. Crude oil and natural gas production account
  for nearly half of GDP. Per capita GDP is far above most other Third
  World countries, and substantial income from overseas investment
  supplements income from domestic production. The government provides
  for all medical services and subsidizes rice and housing. Brunei's
  leaders are concerned that steadily increased integration in the
  world economy will undermine internal social cohesion, although it
  became a more prominent player by serving as chairman for the 2000
  APEC (Asian Pacific Economic Cooperation) forum. Plans for the
  future include upgrading the labor force, reducing unemployment,
  strengthening the banking and tourist sectors, and, in general,
  further widening the economic base beyond oil and gas.

GDP:
  purchasing power parity - $6.5 billion (2002 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:
  3% (2002 est.)

GDP - per capita:
  purchasing power parity - $18,600 (2002 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
  agriculture: 5%
  industry: 45%
  services: 50% (2001 est.)

Population below poverty line:
  NA (1992 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
  lowest 10%: NA
  highest 10%: NA

Inflation rate (consumer prices):
  -2% (2002 est.)

Labor force:
  143,400
  note: includes foreign workers and military personnel; temporary
  residents make up about 40% of labor force (1999 est.)

Labor force - by occupation: agriculture, forestry, and fishing 10%, production of oil, natural gas, services, and construction 42%, government 48% (1999 est.)

Unemployment rate:
  10% (2001 est.)

Budget:
  revenues: $2.5 billion
  expenditures: $2.6 billion, including capital expenditures of $1.35
  billion (1997 est.)

Agriculture - products:
  rice, vegetables, fruits, chickens, water buffalo

Industries:
  petroleum, petroleum refining, liquefied natural gas, construction

Industrial production growth rate:
  5% (2002 est.)

Electricity - production:
  2.497 billion kWh (2001)

Electricity - consumption:
  2.322 billion kWh (2001)

Electricity - exports:
  0 kWh (2001)

Electricity - imports:
  0 kWh (2001)

Oil - production:
  217,200 bbl/day (2001 est.)

Oil - consumption:
  13,000 bbl/day (2001 est.)

Oil - exports:
  NA (2001)

Oil - imports:
  NA (2001)

Oil - proved reserves:
  1.255 billion bbl (1 January 2002)

Natural gas - production:
  10.35 billion cu m (2001 est.)

Natural gas - consumption:
  1.35 billion cu m (2001 est.)

Natural gas - exports:
  9 billion cu m (2001 est.)

Natural gas - imports:
  0 cu m (2001 est.)

Natural gas - proved reserves:
  315 billion cu m (1 January 2002)

Exports:
  $3.439 billion f.o.b. (2002 est.)

Exports - commodities:
  crude oil, natural gas, refined products

Exports - partners:
  Japan 41%, South Korea 11.2%, Thailand 9.4%, Australia 8.4%, US
  7.8%, China 6.7%, Singapore 4.5% (2003)

Imports:
  $1.63 billion c.i.f. (2002 est.)

Imports - commodities:
  machinery and transport equipment, manufactured goods, food,
  chemicals

Imports - partners:
  Singapore 19.9%, Malaysia 19.8%, US 11.4%, Japan 9.9%, Hong Kong
  6.5%, China 4.8%, Australia 4.3%, Thailand 4% (2003)

Debt - external:
  $0

Economic aid - recipient:
  $4.3 million (1995)

Currency:
  Bruneian dollar (BND)

Currency code:
  BND

Exchange rates:
  Bruneian dollars per US dollar - 1.7422 (2003), 1.7906 (2002),
  1.7917 (2001), 1.724 (2000), 1.695 (1999)

Fiscal year:
  calendar year

Communications Brunei

Telephones - main lines in use:
  90,000 (2002)

Telephones - mobile cellular:
  137,000 (2002)

Telephone system:
  general assessment: service throughout the country is excellent;
  international service is good to East Asia, Europe, and the US
  domestic: every service available
  international: country code - 673; satellite earth stations - 2
  Intelsat (1 Indian Ocean and 1 Pacific Ocean); digital submarine
  cable links to Malaysia, the Philippines, and Singapore (2001)

Radio broadcast stations:
  AM 3, FM 10, shortwave 0 (1998)

Radios:
  329,000 (1998)

Television broadcast stations:
  2 (1997)

Televisions:
  201,900 (1998)

Internet country code:
  .bn

Internet hosts:
  6,409 (2003)

Internet Service Providers (ISPs):
  2 (2000)

Internet users:
  35,000 (2002)

Transportation Brunei

Highways: total: 2,525 km paved: 2,525 km unpaved: 0 km (2000)

Waterways:
  209 km (navigable by craft drawing less than 1.2 m) (2004)

Pipelines:
  gas 665 km; oil 439 km (2004)

Ports and harbors:
  Bandar Seri Begawan, Kuala Belait, Muara, Seria, Tutong

Merchant marine:
  total: 8 ships (1,000 GRT or over) 465,937 GRT/413,393 DWT
  by type: liquefied gas 8
  foreign-owned: United Kingdom 8 (2004 est.)

Airports:
  2 (2003 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
  total: 1
  over 3,047 m: 1 (2004 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
  total: 1
  914 to 1,523 m: 1 (2004 est.)

Heliports:
  3 (2003 est.)

Military Brunei

Military branches:
  Royal Brunei Land Forces, Royal Brunei Navy, Royal Brunei Air Force

Military manpower - military age and obligation:
  18 years of age (est.) (2004)

Military manpower - availability:
  males age 15-49: 112,630 (2004 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:
  males age 15-49: approx. 60,000 (2004 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
  males: 3,425 (2004 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure:
  $339.5 million (2003)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP:
  5.9% (2003)

Transnational Issues Brunei

Disputes - international:
  in 2003 Brunei and Malaysia ceased gas and oil exploration in their
  offshore and deepwater seabeds until negotiations progress to an
  agreement over allocation of disputed areas; Malaysia's land
  boundary with Brunei around Limbang is in dispute; Brunei
  established an exclusive economic fishing zone encompassing Louisa
  Reef in southern Spratly Islands in 1984 but makes no public
  territorial claim to the offshore reefs; the 2002 "Declaration on
  the Conduct of Parties in the South China Sea" has eased tensions in
  the Spratly Islands but falls short of a legally binding "code of
  conduct" desired by several of the disputants

Illicit drugs:
  drug trafficking and illegally importing controlled substances are
  serious offenses in Brunei and carry a mandatory death penalty

This page was last updated on 10 February, 2005

======================================================================

@Bulgaria

Introduction Bulgaria

Background:
  The Bulgars, a Central Asian Turkic tribe, merged with the local
  Slavic inhabitants in the late 7th century to form the first
  Bulgarian state. In succeeding centuries, Bulgaria struggled with
  the Byzantine Empire to assert its place in the Balkans, but by the
  end of the 14th century the country was overrun by the Ottoman
  Turks. Northern Bulgaria attained autonomy in 1878 and all of
  Bulgaria became independent in 1908. Having fought on the losing
  side in both World Wars, Bulgaria fell within the Soviet sphere of
  influence and became a People's Republic in 1946. Communist
  domination ended in 1990, when Bulgaria held its first multiparty
  election since World War II and began the contentious process of
  moving toward political democracy and a market economy while
  combating inflation, unemployment, corruption, and crime. Today,
  reforms and democratization keep Bulgaria on a path toward eventual
  integration into the EU. The country joined NATO in 2004.

Geography Bulgaria

Location:
  Southeastern Europe, bordering the Black Sea, between Romania and
  Turkey

Geographic coordinates:
  43 00 N, 25 00 E

Map references:
  Europe

Area:
  total: 110,910 sq km
  water: 360 sq km
  land: 110,550 sq km

Area - comparative:
  slightly larger than Tennessee

Land boundaries:
  total: 1,808 km
  border countries: Greece 494 km, Macedonia 148 km, Romania 608 km,
  Serbia and Montenegro 318 km, Turkey 240 km

Coastline:
  354 km

Maritime claims: territorial sea: 12 nm contiguous zone: 24 nm exclusive economic zone: 200 nm

Climate:
  temperate; cold, damp winters; hot, dry summers

Terrain:
  mostly mountains with lowlands in north and southeast

Elevation extremes: lowest point: Black Sea 0 m highest point: Musala 2,925 m

Natural resources: bauxite, copper, lead, zinc, coal, timber, arable land

Land use: arable land: 40.02% permanent crops: 1.92% other: 58.06% (2001)

Irrigated land:
  8,000 sq km (1998 est.)

Natural hazards:
  earthquakes, landslides

Environment - current issues:
  air pollution from industrial emissions; rivers polluted from raw
  sewage, heavy metals, detergents; deforestation; forest damage from
  air pollution and resulting acid rain; soil contamination from heavy
  metals from metallurgical plants and industrial wastes

Environment - international agreements:
  party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air
  Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Sulfur 85,
  Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Antarctic-Environmental
  Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Treaty,
  Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol,
  Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification,
  Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship
  Pollution, Wetlands
  signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution-Sulfur 94

Geography - note:
  strategic location near Turkish Straits; controls key land routes
  from Europe to Middle East and Asia

People Bulgaria

Population:
  7,517,973 (July 2004 est.)

Age structure:
  0-14 years: 14.4% (male 553,801; female 526,856)
  15-64 years: 68.5% (male 2,533,784; female 2,615,968)
  65 years and over: 17.1% (male 535,954; female 751,610) (2004 est.)

Median age:
  total: 40.5 years
  male: 38.4 years
  female: 42.4 years (2004 est.)

Population growth rate:
  -0.92% (2004 est.)

Birth rate:
  9.65 births/1,000 population (2004 est.)

Death rate:
  14.25 deaths/1,000 population (2004 est.)

Net migration rate:
  -4.58 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2004 est.)

Sex ratio:
  at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female
  under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
  15-64 years: 0.97 male(s)/female
  65 years and over: 0.71 male(s)/female
  total population: 0.93 male(s)/female (2004 est.)

Infant mortality rate:
  total: 21.31 deaths/1,000 live births
  female: 17.23 deaths/1,000 live births (2004 est.)
  male: 25.15 deaths/1,000 live births

Life expectancy at birth:
  total population: 71.75 years
  male: 68.14 years
  female: 75.59 years (2004 est.)

Total fertility rate:
  1.37 children born/woman (2004 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: less than 0.1% - note: no country specific models provided (2001 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
  346 (2001 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths:
  100 (2001 est.)

Nationality:
  noun: Bulgarian(s)
  adjective: Bulgarian

Ethnic groups:
  Bulgarian 83.9%, Turk 9.4%, Roma 4.7%, other 2% (including
  Macedonian, Armenian, Tatar, Circassian) (2001)

Religions:
  Bulgarian Orthodox 82.6%, Muslim 12.2%, Roman Catholic 1.7%, Jewish
  0.1%, Protestant, Gregorian-Armenian, and other 3.4% (1998)

Languages:
  Bulgarian, secondary languages closely correspond to ethnic
  breakdown

Literacy:
  definition: age 15 and over can read and write
  total population: 98.6%
  male: 99.1%
  female: 98.2% (2003 est.)

Government Bulgaria

Country name:
  conventional long form: Republic of Bulgaria
  conventional short form: Bulgaria

Government type:
  parliamentary democracy

Capital:
  Sofia

Administrative divisions:
  28 provinces (oblasti, singular - oblast); Blagoevgrad, Burgas,
  Dobrich, Gabrovo, Khaskovo, Kurdzhali, Kyustendil, Lovech, Montana,
  Pazardzhik, Pernik, Pleven, Plovdiv, Razgrad, Ruse, Shumen,
  Silistra, Sliven, Smolyan, Sofiya, Sofiya-Grad, Stara Zagora,
  Turgovishte, Varna, Veliko Turnovo, Vidin, Vratsa, Yambol

Independence:
  3 March 1878 (as an autonomous principality within the Ottoman
  Empire); 22 September 1908 (complete independence from the Ottoman
  Empire)

National holiday:
  Liberation Day, 3 March (1878)

Constitution:
  adopted 12 July 1991

Legal system:
  civil law and criminal law based on Roman law; accepts compulsory
  ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage:
  18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
  chief of state: President Georgi PURVANOV (since 22 January 2002);
  Vice President Angel MARIN (since 22 January 2002)
  head of government: Chairman of the Council of Ministers (Prime
  Minister) Simeon SAXE-COBURG-GOTHA (since 24 July 2001); Deputy
  Prime Ministers Nikolay VASILEV (since 24 July 2001), Lidiya SHULEVA
  (since 24 July 2001), and Plamen PANAYOTOV (since 17 July 2003)
  cabinet: Council of Ministers nominated by the prime minister and
  elected by the National Assembly
  elections: president and vice president elected on the same ticket
  by popular vote for five-year terms; election last held 11 November
  and 18 November 2001 (next to be held NA 2006); chairman of the
  Council of Ministers (prime minister) nominated by the president and
  elected by the National Assembly; deputy prime ministers nominated
  by the prime minister and elected by the National Assembly
  election results: Georgi PURVANOV elected president; percent of vote
  - Georgi PURVANOV 54.13%, Petar STOYANOV 45.87%

Legislative branch:
  unicameral National Assembly or Narodno Sobranie (240 seats;
  members elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms)
  elections: last held 17 June 2001 (next to be held NA June 2005)
  election results: percent of vote by party - NMS2 42.74%, UDF
  18.18%, CfB 17.15%, MRF 7.45%; seats by party - NMS2 120, UDF 51,
  CfB 48, MRF 21; note - seating as of January 2005 - NMS2 98, CfB 49,
  UtDF 28, MRF 20, UDF 14, New Time 13, BANU 11, independents 7

Judicial branch:
  Supreme Administrative Court; Supreme Court of Cassation;
  Constitutional Court (12 justices appointed or elected for nine-year
  terms); Supreme Judicial Council (consists of the chairmen of the
  two Supreme Courts, the Chief Prosecutor, and 22 other members;
  responsible for appointing the justices, prosecutors, and
  investigating magistrates in the justice system; members of the
  Supreme Judicial Council elected for five-year terms, 11 elected by
  the National Assembly and 11 by bodies of the judiciary)

Political parties and leaders:
  Bulgarian Agrarian National Union-People's Union or BANU [Anastasia
  MOZER]; Bulgarian Socialist Party or BSP [Sergei STANISHEV];
  Coalition for Bulgaria or CfB (coalition of parties dominated by
  BSP) [Sergei STANISHEV]; Democrats for a Strong Bulgaria or DSB
  [Ivan KOSTOV]; Movement for Rights and Freedoms or MRF [Ahmed
  DOGAN]; National Movement for Simeon II or NMS2 [Simeon
  SAXE-COBURG-GOTHA]; New Time [Emil KOSHLUKOV]; Union of Democratic
  Forces or UDF [Nadezhda MIKHAYLOVA]; Union of Free Democrats or UFD
  [Stefan SOFIYANSKI]; United Democratic Forces or UtDF (a coalition
  of center-right parties dominated by DSB)

Political pressure groups and leaders:
  Confederation of Independent Trade Unions of Bulgaria or CITUB;
  Podkrepa Labor Confederation; numerous regional, ethnic, and
  national interest groups with various agendas

International organization participation:
  ACCT, Australia Group, BIS, BSEC, CE, CEI, CERN, EAPC, EBRD, EU
  (applicant), FAO, G- 9, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt, ICFTU, ICRM, IFC,
  IFRCS, IHO (pending member), ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO,
  ITU, MIGA, NAM (guest), NATO, NSG, OAS (observer), OPCW, OSCE, PCA,
  PFP, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNMEE, UNMIK, UNMIL, UPU, WCL, WCO,
  WEU (associate affiliate), WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTO, ZC

Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Elena B. POPTODOROVA consulate(s): New York FAX: [1] (202) 234-7973 telephone: [1] (202) 387-0174 chancery: 1621 22nd Street NW, Washington, DC 20008

Diplomatic representation from the US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador James William PARDEW
  embassy: 16 Kozyak Street, Sofia 1407
  mailing address: American Embassy Sofia, Department of State, 5740
  Sofia Place, Washington, DC 20521-5740
  telephone: [359] (2) 937-5100
  FAX: [359] (2) 937-5230

Flag description:
  three equal horizontal bands of white (top), green, and red; the
  national emblem formerly on the hoist side of the white stripe has
  been removed - it contained a rampant lion within a wreath of wheat
  ears below a red five-pointed star and above a ribbon bearing the
  dates 681 (first Bulgarian state established) and 1944 (liberation
  from Nazi control)

Economy Bulgaria

Economy - overview:
  Bulgaria, a former communist country striving to enter the European
  Union, has experienced macroeconomic stability and strong growth
  since a major economic downturn in 1996 led to the fall of the then
  socialist government. As a result, the government became committed
  to economic reform and responsible fiscal planning. A $300 million
  stand-by agreement negotiated with the IMF at the end of 2001 has
  supported government efforts to overcome high rates of poverty and
  unemployment.

GDP:
  purchasing power parity - $57.13 billion (2003 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:
  4.3% (2003 est.)

GDP - per capita:
  purchasing power parity - $7,600 (2003 est.)

GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 11.4% industry: 30% services: 58.6% (2003)

Investment (gross fixed):
  19.6% of GDP (2003)

Population below poverty line:
  13.4% (2002 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: 4.5% highest 10%: 22.8% (1997)

Distribution of family income - Gini index:
  26.4 (2001)

Inflation rate (consumer prices):
  2.3% (2003 est.)

Labor force:
  3.333 million (2003 est.)

Labor force - by occupation:
  agriculture 26%, industry 31%, services 43% (1998 est.)

Unemployment rate:
  14.3% (2003)

Budget:
  revenues: $8.121 billion
  expenditures: $8.121 billion, including capital expenditures of NA
  (2003 est.)

Public debt:
  48% of GDP (2003)

Agriculture - products:
  vegetables, fruits, tobacco, livestock, wine, wheat, barley,
  sunflowers, sugar beets

Industries:
  electricity, gas and water; food, beverages and tobacco; machinery
  and equipment, base metals, chemical products, coke, refined
  petroleum, nuclear fuel

Industrial production growth rate:
  6.3% (2003 est.)

Electricity - production:
  41.38 billion kWh (2001)

Electricity - consumption:
  32.52 billion kWh (2001)

Electricity - exports:
  6.79 billion kWh (2001)

Electricity - imports:
  830 million kWh (2001)

Oil - production:
  603 bbl/day (2001 est.)

Oil - consumption:
  94,000 bbl/day (2001 est.)

Oil - exports:
  NA (2001)

Oil - imports:
  NA (2001)

Oil - proved reserves:
  8.1 million bbl (1 January 2002)

Natural gas - production:
  4 million cu m (2001 est.)

Natural gas - consumption:
  5.804 billion cu m (2001 est.)

Natural gas - exports:
  0 cu m (2001 est.)

Natural gas - imports:
  5.8 billion cu m (2001 est.)

Natural gas - proved reserves:
  3.724 billion cu m (1 January 2002)

Current account balance:
  $-1.666 billion (2003)

Exports:
  $7.337 billion f.o.b. (2003 est.)

Exports - commodities:
  clothing, footwear, iron and steel, machinery and equipment, fuels

Exports - partners:
  Italy 14.1%, Germany 10.9%, Greece 10.5%, Turkey 9.2%, France 5.1%,
  US 4.5% (2003)

Imports:
  $9.723 billion f.o.b. (2003 est.)

Imports - commodities:
  fuels, minerals, and raw materials; machinery and equipment; metals
  and ores; chemicals and plastics; food, textiles

Imports - partners:
  Germany 14.4%, Russia 12.6%, Italy 10.3%, Greece 6.7%, Turkey 6.2%,
  France 5.7% (2003)

Reserves of foreign exchange & gold:
  $6.705 billion (2003)

Debt - external:
  $12.05 billion (2003)

Economic aid - recipient:
  $300 million (2000 est.)

Currency:
  lev (BGL)

Currency code:
  BGN

Exchange rates:
  leva per US dollar - 1.7327 (2003), 2.077 (2002), 2.1847 (2001),
  2.1233 (2000), 1.8364 (1999)
  note: on 5 July 1999, the lev was redenominated; the post-5 July
  1999 lev is equal to 1,000 of the pre-5 July 1999 lev

Fiscal year:
  calendar year

Communications Bulgaria

Telephones - main lines in use:
  2,868,200 (2002)

Telephones - mobile cellular:
  2,597,500 (2002)

Telephone system:
  general assessment: extensive but antiquated
  domestic: more than two-thirds of the lines are residential;
  telephone service is available in most villages; a fairly modern
  digital cable trunk line now connects switching centers in most of
  the regions, the others are connected by digital microwave radio
  relay
  international: country code - 359; direct dialing to 58 countries;
  satellite earth stations - 1 Intersputnik (Atlantic Ocean region); 2
  Intelsat (Atlantic and Indian Ocean regions)

Radio broadcast stations:
  AM 31, FM 63, shortwave 2 (2001)

Radios:
  4.51 million (1997)

Television broadcast stations:
  39 (plus 1,242 repeaters) (2001)

Televisions:
  3.31 million (1997)

Internet country code:
  .bg

Internet hosts:
  53,421 (2004)

Internet Service Providers (ISPs):
  200 (2001)

Internet users:
  630,000 (2002)

Transportation Bulgaria

Railways:
  total: 4,294 km
  standard gauge: 4,049 km 1.435-m gauge (2,710 km electrified)
  narrow gauge: 245 km 0.760-m gauge (2003)

Highways:
  total: 37,286 km
  paved: 35,049 km (including 324 km of expressways)
  unpaved: 2,237 km (2000)

Waterways:
  470 km (2004)

Pipelines:
  gas 2,425 km; oil 339 km; refined products 156 km (2004)

Ports and harbors:
  Burgas, Lom, Nesebur, Ruse, Varna, Vidin

Merchant marine:
  total: 60 ships (1,000 GRT or over) 757,972 GRT/1,115,238 DWT
  by type: bulk 37, cargo 7, chemical tanker 4, container 2, petroleum
  tanker 3, rail car carrier 2, roll on/roll off 3,
  short-sea/passenger 1, specialized tanker 1
  registered in other countries: 45 (2004 est.)

Airports:
  212 (2003 est.)

Airports - with paved runways: total: 128 over 3,047 m: 1 2,438 to 3,047 m: 19 914 to 1,523 m: 1 under 914 m: 92 (2004 est.) 1,524 to 2,437 m: 15

Airports - with unpaved runways: total: 85 1,524 to 2,437 m: 2 914 to 1,523 m: 11 under 914 m: 72 (2004 est.)

Heliports: 1 (2003 est.)

Military Bulgaria

Military branches:
  Army, Navy, Air and Air Defense Forces

Military manpower - military age and obligation: 18 years of age for compulsory and voluntary military service; conscript service obligation - 9 months (2004)

Military manpower - availability:
  males age 15-49: 1,829,203 (2004 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:
  males age 15-49: 1,530,657 (2004 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
  males: 52,811 (2004 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure:
  $356 million (FY02)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP:
  2.6% (2003)

Transnational Issues Bulgaria

Disputes - international:
  none

Illicit drugs:
  major European transshipment point for Southwest Asian heroin and,
  to a lesser degree, South American cocaine for the European market;
  limited producer of precursor chemicals; some money laundering of
  drug-related proceeds through financial institutions

This page was last updated on 10 February, 2005

======================================================================

@Burkina Faso

Introduction Burkina Faso

Background:
  Burkina Faso (formerly Upper Volta) achieved independence from
  France in 1960. Repeated military coups during the 1970s and 1980s
  were followed by multiparty elections in the early 1990s. Burkina
  Faso's high population density and limited natural resources result
  in poor economic prospects for the majority of its citizens. Recent
  unrest in Cote d'Ivoire and northern Ghana has hindered the ability
  of several hundred thousand seasonal Burkinabe farm workers to find
  employment in neighboring countries.

Geography Burkina Faso

Location:
  Western Africa, north of Ghana

Geographic coordinates:
  13 00 N, 2 00 W

Map references:
  Africa

Area:
  total: 274,200 sq km
  water: 400 sq km
  land: 273,800 sq km

Area - comparative:
  slightly larger than Colorado

Land boundaries:
  total: 3,193 km
  border countries: Benin 306 km, Cote d'Ivoire 584 km, Ghana 549 km,
  Mali 1,000 km, Niger 628 km, Togo 126 km

Coastline:
  0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims:
  none (landlocked)

Climate:
  tropical; warm, dry winters; hot, wet summers

Terrain:
  mostly flat to dissected, undulating plains; hills in west and
  southeast

Elevation extremes:
  lowest point: Mouhoun (Black Volta) River 200 m
  highest point: Tena Kourou 749 m

Natural resources:
  manganese, limestone, marble; small deposits of gold, antimony,
  copper, nickel, bauxite, lead, phosphates, zinc, silver

Land use: arable land: 14.43% permanent crops: 0.19% other: 85.38% (2001)

Irrigated land:
  250 sq km (1998 est.)

Natural hazards:
  recurring droughts

Environment - current issues:
  recent droughts and desertification severely affecting agricultural
  activities, population distribution, and the economy; overgrazing;
  soil degradation; deforestation

Environment - international agreements:
  party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered
  Species, Hazardous Wastes, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer
  Protection, Wetlands
  signed, but not ratified: Law of the Sea

Geography - note:
  landlocked savanna cut by the three principal rivers of the Black,
  Red, and White Voltas

People Burkina Faso

Population:
  13,574,820
  note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the
  effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower
  life expectancy, higher infant mortality and death rates, lower
  population and growth rates, and changes in the distribution of
  population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (July
  2004 est.)

Age structure:
  0-14 years: 46% (male 3,135,098; female 3,114,354)
  15-64 years: 51.1% (male 3,391,848; female 3,545,115)
  65 years and over: 2.9% (male 163,137; female 225,268) (2004 est.)

Median age:
  total: 16.8 years
  male: 16.4 years
  female: 17.2 years (2004 est.)

Population growth rate:
  2.57% (2004 est.)

Birth rate:
  44.46 births/1,000 population (2004 est.)

Death rate:
  18.79 deaths/1,000 population (2004 est.)

Net migration rate:
  0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2004 est.)

Sex ratio:
  at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
  under 15 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
  15-64 years: 0.96 male(s)/female
  65 years and over: 0.72 male(s)/female
  total population: 0.97 male(s)/female (2004 est.)

Infant mortality rate:
  total: 98.67 deaths/1,000 live births
  female: 90.39 deaths/1,000 live births (2004 est.)
  male: 106.7 deaths/1,000 live births

Life expectancy at birth:
  total population: 44.2 years
  male: 42.62 years
  female: 45.83 years (2004 est.)

Total fertility rate:
  6.28 children born/woman (2004 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
  4.2% (2003 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
  300,000 (2003 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths:
  29,000 (2003 est.)

Major infectious diseases:
  typhoid fever, malaria, schistosomiasis
  overall degree of risk: very high (2004)

Nationality:
  noun: Burkinabe (singular and plural)
  adjective: Burkinabe

Ethnic groups:
  Mossi over 40%, Gurunsi, Senufo, Lobi, Bobo, Mande, Fulani

Religions:
  indigenous beliefs 40%, Muslim 50%, Christian (mainly Roman
  Catholic) 10%

Languages:
  French (official), native African languages belonging to Sudanic
  family spoken by 90% of the population

Literacy:
  definition: age 15 and over can read and write
  total population: 26.6%
  male: 36.9%
  female: 16.6% (2003 est.)

Government Burkina Faso

Country name:
  conventional long form: none
  conventional short form: Burkina Faso
  former: Upper Volta, Republic of Upper Volta

Government type:
  parliamentary republic

Capital:
  Ouagadougou

Administrative divisions:
  45 provinces; Bale, Bam, Banwa, Bazega, Bougouriba, Boulgou,
  Boulkiemde, Comoe, Ganzourgou, Gnagna, Gourma, Houet, Ioba, Kadiogo,
  Kenedougou, Komondjari, Kompienga, Kossi, Koulpelogo, Kouritenga,
  Kourweogo, Leraba, Loroum, Mouhoun, Namentenga, Nahouri, Nayala,
  Noumbiel, Oubritenga, Oudalan, Passore, Poni, Sanguie, Sanmatenga,
  Seno, Sissili, Soum, Sourou, Tapoa, Tuy, Yagha, Yatenga, Ziro,
  Zondoma, Zoundweogo

Independence:
  5 August 1960 (from France)

National holiday:
  Republic Day, 11 December (1958)

Constitution:
  2 June 1991 approved by referendum; 11 June 1991 formally adopted;
  ammended April 2000

Legal system:
  based on French civil law system and customary law

Suffrage:
  universal

Executive branch:
  chief of state: President Blaise COMPAORE (since 15 October 1987)
  head of government: Prime Minister Ernest Paramanga YONLI (since 6
  November 2000)
  cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president on the
  recommendation of the prime minister
  elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term;
  election last held 15 November 1998 (next to be held NA 2005); in
  April 2000, the constitution was amended reducing the presidential
  term from seven to five years, enforceable as of 2005, and allowing
  the president to be reelected only once; it is unclear whether this
  amendment will be applied retroactively or not; prime minister
  appointed by the president with the consent of the legislature
  election results: Blaise COMPAORE reelected president with 87.5%
  percent of the vote

Legislative branch:
  unicameral National Assembly or Assemblee Nationale (111 seats;
  members are elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms)
  elections: National Assembly election last held 5 May 2002 (next to
  be held NA May 2007)
  election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party -
  CDP 57, RDA-ADF 17, PDP/PS 10, CFD 5, PAI 5, others 17

Judicial branch:
  Supreme Court; Appeals Court

Political parties and leaders:
  African Democratic Rally-Alliance for Democracy and Federation or
  RDA-ADF [Herman YAMEOGO]; Confederation for Federation and Democracy
  or CFD [Amadou Diemdioda DICKO]; Congress for Democracy and Progress
  or CDP [Roch Marc-Christian KABORE]; Movement for Tolerance and
  Progress or MTP [Nayabtigungou Congo KABORE]; Party for African
  Independence or PAI [Philippe OUEDRAOGO]; Party for Democracy and
  Progress or PDP [Joseph KI-ZERBO]; Union of Greens for the
  Development of Burkina Faso or UVDB [Ram OVEDRAGO]

Political pressure groups and leaders:
  Burkinabe General Confederation of Labor or CGTB; Burkinabe
  Movement for Human Rights or MBDHP; Group of 14 February; National
  Confederation of Burkinabe Workers or CNTB; National Organization of
  Free Unions or ONSL; watchdog/political action groups throughout the
  country in both organizations and communities

International organization participation:
  ACCT, ACP, AfDB, AU, ECOWAS, Entente, FAO, FZ, G-77, IAEA, IBRD,
  ICAO, ICC, ICCt, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF,
  Interpol, IOC, IOM, ITU, MIGA, MONUC, NAM, OIC, ONUB, OPCW, PCA, UN,
  UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNOCI, UPU, WADB (regional), WAEMU, WCL, WCO,
  WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador Tertius ZONGO
  FAX: [1] (202) 667-1882
  telephone: [1] (202) 332-5577
  chancery: 2340 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008

Diplomatic representation from the US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador Anthony HOLMES
  embassy: 602 Avenue Raoul Follereau, Koulouba, Secteur 4
  mailing address: 01 B. P. 35, Ouagadougou 01; pouch mail - U. S.
  Department of State, 2440 Ouagadougou Place, Washington, DC
  20521-2440
  telephone: [226] 306723
  FAX: [226] 303890

Flag description:
  two equal horizontal bands of red (top) and green with a yellow
  five-pointed star in the center; uses the popular pan-African colors
  of Ethiopia

Economy Burkina Faso

Economy - overview:
  One of the poorest countries in the world, landlocked Burkina Faso
  has few natural resources, a fragile soil, and a highly unequal
  distribution of income. About 90% of the population is engaged in
  (mainly subsistence) agriculture, which is vulnerable to variations
  in rainfall. Cotton is the key crop. Industry remains dominated by
  unprofitable government-controlled corporations. Following the
  African franc currency devaluation in January 1994 the government
  updated its development program in conjunction with international
  agencies, and exports and economic growth have increased.
  Maintenance of macroeconomic progress depends on continued low
  inflation, reduction in the trade deficit, and reforms designed to
  encourage private investment. The internal crisis in neighboring
  Cote d'Ivoire continues to hurt trade and industrial prospects and
  deepens the need for international assistance.

GDP:
  purchasing power parity - $14.55 billion (2003 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:
  5.2% (2003 est.)

GDP - per capita:
  purchasing power parity - $1,100 (2003 est.)

GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 39.8% industry: 19.6% services: 40.5% (2003)

Investment (gross fixed):
  29% of GDP (2003)

Population below poverty line:
  45% (2003 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
  lowest 10%: 2%
  highest 10%: 46.8% (1994)

Distribution of family income - Gini index:
  48.2 (1994)

Inflation rate (consumer prices):
  1.9% (2003 est.)

Labor force:
  5 million
  note: a large part of the male labor force migrates annually to
  neighboring countries for seasonal employment (2003)

Labor force - by occupation:
  agriculture 90% (2000 est.)

Unemployment rate:
  NA

Budget:
  revenues: $599.8 million
  expenditures: $748.8 million NA, including capital expenditures of
  NA (2003)

Agriculture - products:
  cotton, peanuts, shea nuts, sesame, sorghum, millet, corn, rice;
  livestock

Industries:
  cotton lint, beverages, agricultural processing, soap, cigarettes,
  textiles, gold

Industrial production growth rate:
  14% (2001 est.)

Electricity - production:
  279.2 million kWh (2001)

Electricity - consumption:
  259.6 million kWh (2001)

Electricity - exports:
  0 kWh (2001)

Electricity - imports:
  0 kWh (2001)

Oil - production:
  0 bbl/day (2001 est.)

Oil - consumption:
  8,000 bbl/day (2001 est.)

Oil - exports:
  NA (2001)

Oil - imports:
  NA (2001)

Current account balance:
  $-341 million (2003)

Exports:
  $293 million f.o.b. (2003 est.)

Exports - commodities:
  cotton, livestock, gold

Exports - partners:
  Singapore 12.8%, China 11.6%, Thailand 8%, Italy 6.4%, India 6%,
  Colombia 5.2%, Ghana 5.2%, France 4.8%, Niger 4% (2003)

Imports:
  $633.6 million f.o.b. (2003 est.)

Imports - commodities:
  capital goods, foodstuffs, petroleum

Imports - partners:
  France 31.2%, Cote d'Ivoire 14.6%, Togo 9%, Belgium 5% (2003)

Reserves of foreign exchange & gold:
  $379 million (2003)

Debt - external:
  $1.3 billion (2000)

Economic aid - recipient:
  $484.1 million (1995)

Currency:
  Communaute Financiere Africaine franc (XOF); note - responsible
  authority is the Central Bank of the West African States

Currency code:
  XOF

Exchange rates:
  Communaute Financiere Africaine francs (XOF) per US dollar - 581.2
  (2003), 696.988 (2002), 733.039 (2001), 711.976 (2000), 615.699
  (1999)

Fiscal year:
  calendar year

Communications Burkina Faso

Telephones - main lines in use:
  65,400 (2003)

Telephones - mobile cellular:
  227,000 (2003)

Telephone system:
  general assessment: all services only fair
  domestic: microwave radio relay, open-wire, and radiotelephone
  communication stations
  international: country code - 226; satellite earth station - 1
  Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations:
  AM 3, FM 17, shortwave 3 (2002)

Radios:
  394,020 (2000)

Television broadcast stations:
  1 (2002)

Televisions:
  131,340 (2002)

Internet country code:
  .bf

Internet hosts:
  442 (2003)

Internet Service Providers (ISPs):
  1 (2002)

Internet users:
  48,000 (2003)

Transportation Burkina Faso

Railways:
  total: 622 km
  narrow gauge: 622 km 1.000-m gauge
  note:: another 660 km of this railway extends into Cote D'Ivoire
  (2003)

Highways: total: 12,506 km paved: 2,001 km unpaved: 10,505 km (1999)

Ports and harbors:
  none

Airports:
  33 (2003 est.)

Airports - with paved runways: total: 2 over 3,047 m: 1 2,438 to 3,047 m: 1 (2004 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways: total: 31 1,524 to 2,437 m: 3 914 to 1,523 m: 11 under 914 m: 17 (2004 est.)

Military Burkina Faso

Military branches:
  Army, Air Force

Military manpower - military age and obligation: 18 years of age for compulsory military service; 20 years of age for voluntary military service (2001)

Military manpower - availability:
  males age 15-49: 3,047,306 (2004 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:
  males age 15-49: 1,552,212 (2004 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure:
  $52.7 million (2003)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP:
  1.6% (2003)

Transnational Issues Burkina Faso

Disputes - international:
  two villages are in dispute along the border with Benin; Benin
  accuses Burkina Faso of moving boundary pillars; Burkina Faso border
  regions have become a staging area for Liberia and Cote d'Ivoire
  rebels and an asylum for refugees caught in regional fighting; the
  Ivoirian Government accuses Burkina Faso of supporting Ivoirian
  rebels

This page was last updated on 10 February, 2005

======================================================================

@Burma

Introduction Burma

Background:
  Britain conquered Burma over a period of 62 years (1824-1886) and
  incorporated it into its Indian Empire. Burma was administered as a
  province of India until 1937 when it became a separate,
  self-governing colony; independence from the Commonwealth was
  attained in 1948. Gen. NE WIN dominated the government from 1962 to
  1988, first as military ruler, then as self-appointed president, and
  later as political kingpin. Despite multiparty legislative elections
  in 1990 that resulted in the main opposition party - the National
  League for Democracy (NLD) - winning a landslide victory, the ruling
  junta refused to hand over power. NLD leader and Nobel Peace Prize
  recipient AUNG SAN SUU KYI, who was under house arrest from 1989 to
  1995 and 2000 to 2002, was imprisoned in May 2003 and is currently
  under house arrest. In December 2004, the junta announced it was
  extending her detention for at least an additional year. Her
  supporters, as well as all those who promote democracy and improved
  human rights, are routinely harassed or jailed.

Geography Burma

Location:
  Southeastern Asia, bordering the Andaman Sea and the Bay of Bengal,
  between Bangladesh and Thailand

Geographic coordinates:
  22 00 N, 98 00 E

Map references:
  Southeast Asia

Area:
  total: 678,500 sq km
  land: 657,740 sq km
  water: 20,760 sq km

Area - comparative:
  slightly smaller than Texas

Land boundaries:
  total: 5,876 km
  border countries: Bangladesh 193 km, China 2,185 km, India 1,463 km,
  Laos 235 km, Thailand 1,800 km

Coastline:
  1,930 km

Maritime claims:
  territorial sea: 12 nm
  continental shelf: 200 nm or to the edge of the continental margin
  contiguous zone: 24 nm
  exclusive economic zone: 200 nm

Climate:
  tropical monsoon; cloudy, rainy, hot, humid summers (southwest
  monsoon, June to September); less cloudy, scant rainfall, mild
  temperatures, lower humidity during winter (northeast monsoon,
  December to April)

Terrain:
  central lowlands ringed by steep, rugged highlands

Elevation extremes:
  lowest point: Andaman Sea 0 m
  highest point: Hkakabo Razi 5,881 m

Natural resources:
  petroleum, timber, tin, antimony, zinc, copper, tungsten, lead,
  coal, some marble, limestone, precious stones, natural gas,
  hydropower

Land use:
  arable land: 15.19%
  permanent crops: 0.97%
  other: 83.84% (2001)

Irrigated land:
  15,920 sq km (1998 est.)

Natural hazards:
  destructive earthquakes and cyclones; flooding and landslides
  common during rainy season (June to September); periodic droughts

Environment - current issues:
  deforestation; industrial pollution of air, soil, and water;
  inadequate sanitation and water treatment contribute to disease

Environment - international agreements:
  party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto
  Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Law of the Sea, Ozone
  Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical
  Timber 94
  signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - note:
  strategic location near major Indian Ocean shipping lanes

People Burma

Population:
  42,720,196
  note: estimates for this country take into account the effects of
  excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life
  expectancy, higher infant mortality and death rates, lower
  population growth rates, and changes in the distribution of
  population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (July
  2004 est.)

Age structure:
  0-14 years: 27.6% (male 6,023,874; female 5,774,055)
  15-64 years: 67.5% (male 14,317,308; female 14,504,500)
  65 years and over: 4.9% (male 927,570; female 1,172,889) (2004 est.)

Median age:
  total: 25.7 years
  male: 25.2 years
  female: 26.3 years (2004 est.)

Population growth rate:
  0.47% (2004 est.)

Birth rate:
  18.64 births/1,000 population (2004 est.)

Death rate:
  12.16 deaths/1,000 population (2004 est.)

Net migration rate:
  -1.8 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2004 est.)

Sex ratio:
  at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female
  under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
  15-64 years: 0.99 male(s)/female
  65 years and over: 0.79 male(s)/female
  total population: 0.99 male(s)/female (2004 est.)

Infant mortality rate:
  total: 68.78 deaths/1,000 live births
  female: 62.42 deaths/1,000 live births (2004 est.)
  male: 74.78 deaths/1,000 live births

Life expectancy at birth:
  total population: 56.01 years
  male: 54.22 years
  female: 57.9 years (2004 est.)

Total fertility rate:
  2.08 children born/woman (2004 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
  1.2% (2003 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
  330,000 (2003 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths:
  20,000 (2003 est.)

Major infectious diseases:
  typhoid fever, dengue fever, malaria, leptospirosis
  overall degree of risk: very high (2004)

Nationality:
  noun: Burmese (singular and plural)
  adjective: Burmese

Ethnic groups:
  Burman 68%, Shan 9%, Karen 7%, Rakhine 4%, Chinese 3%, Indian 2%,
  Mon 2%, other 5%

Religions:
  Buddhist 89%, Christian 4% (Baptist 3%, Roman Catholic 1%), Muslim
  4%, animist 1%, other 2%

Languages:
  Burmese, minority ethnic groups have their own languages

Literacy:
  definition: age 15 and over can read and write
  total population: 85.3%
  male: 89.2%
  female: 81.4% (2002)

Government Burma

Country name:
  conventional long form: Union of Burma
  conventional short form: Burma
  local short form: Myanma Naingngandaw
  former: Socialist Republic of the Union of Burma
  local long form: Pyidaungzu Myanma Naingngandaw (translated by the
  US Government as Union of Myanma and by the Burmese as Union of
  Myanmar)
  note: since 1989 the military authorities in Burma have promoted the
  name Myanmar as a conventional name for their state; this decision
  was not approved by any sitting legislature in Burma, and the US
  Government did not adopt the name, which is a derivative of the
  Burmese short-form name Myanma Naingngandaw

Government type:
  military junta

Capital:
  Rangoon (government refers to the capital as Yangon)

Administrative divisions: 7 divisions (taing-myar, singular - taing) and 7 states (pyi ne-myar, singular - pyi ne) : divisions: Ayeyarwady, Bago, Magway, Mandalay, Sagaing, Tanintharyi, Yangon (Rangoon) : states: Chin State, Kachin State, Kayin State, Kayah State, Mon State, Rakhine State, Shan State

Independence:
  4 January 1948 (from UK)

National holiday:
  Independence Day, 4 January (1948); Union Day, 12 February (1947)

Constitution:
  3 January 1974 (suspended since 18 September 1988); national
  convention convened in 1993 to draft a new constitution but
  collapsed in 1996; reconvened in 2004 but does not include
  participation of democratic opposition

Legal system:
  has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage:
  18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
  chief of state: Chairman of the State Peace and Development Council
  Sr. Gen. THAN SHWE (since 23 April 1992)
  head of government: Prime Minister, Gen SOE WIN (since 19 October
  2004)
  elections: none
  cabinet: State Peace and Development Council (SPDC); military junta,
  so named 15 November 1997, which initially assumed power 18
  September 1988 under the name State Law and Order Restoration
  Council (SLORC); the SPDC oversees the cabinet

Legislative branch:
  unicameral People's Assembly or Pyithu Hluttaw (485 seats; members
  elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms)
  election results: percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party -
  NLD 392 (opposition), SNLD 23 (opposition), NUP 10 (pro-government),
  other 60
  elections: last held 27 May 1990, but Assembly never allowed by
  junta to convene

Judicial branch:
  remnants of the British-era legal system are in place, but there is
  no guarantee of a fair public trial; the judiciary is not
  independent of the executive

Political parties and leaders: National League for Democracy or NLD [AUNG SHWE, chairman, AUNG SAN SUU KYI, general secretary]; National Unity Party or NUP (progovernment) [THA KYAW]; Shan Nationalities League for Democracy or SNLD [KHUN HTUN OO]; and other smaller parties

Political pressure groups and leaders: National Coalition Government of the Union of Burma or NCGUB (self-proclaimed government in exile) ["Prime Minister" Dr. SEIN WIN] consists of individuals, some legitimately elected to the People's Assembly in 1990 (the group fled to a border area and joined insurgents in December 1990 to form parallel government in exile); Kachin Independence Army or KIA; Karen National Union or KNU; several Shan factions; United Wa State Army or UWSA; Union Solidarity and Development Association or USDA (progovernment, a social and political organization) [THAN AUNG, general secretary]

International organization participation:
  ARF, AsDB, ASEAN, CP, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IFAD,
  IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, ITU, NAM, OPCW
  (signatory), UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
  chief of mission: vacant
  chancery: 2300 S Street NW, Washington, DC 20008
  consulate(s) general: New York (UN)
  FAX: [1] (202) 332-9046
  telephone: [1] (202) 332-9044

Diplomatic representation from the US:
  chief of mission: Charge d'Affaires Carmen M. MARTINEZ
  embassy: 581 Merchant Street, Rangoon (GPO 521)
  mailing address: Box B, APO AP 96546
  telephone: [95] (1) 379 880, 379 881
  FAX: [95] (1) 256 018

Flag description:
  red with a blue rectangle in the upper hoist-side corner bearing,
  14 white five-pointed stars encircling a cogwheel containing a stalk
  of rice; the 14 stars represent the 7 administrative divisions and 7
  states

Economy Burma

Economy - overview:
  Burma is a resource-rich country that suffers from government
  controls and abject rural poverty. The military regime took steps in
  the early 1990s to liberalize the economy after decades of failure
  under the "Burmese Way to Socialism", but those efforts have since
  stalled. Burma has been unable to achieve monetary or fiscal
  stability, resulting in an economy that suffers from serious
  macroeconomic imbalances - including a steep inflation rate and an
  official exchange rate that overvalues the Burmese kyat by more than
  100 times the market rate. In addition, most overseas development
  assistance ceased after the junta suppressed the democracy movement
  in 1988 and subsequently ignored the results of the 1990 election. A
  crisis in the private banking sector in early 2003 followed by
  economic moves against Burma by the United States, the European
  Union, and Japan - including a US ban on imports from Burma and a
  Japanese freeze on new bilateral economic aid - further weakened the
  Burmese economy. Burma is data poor, and official statistics are
  often dated and inaccurate. Published estimates of Burma's foreign
  trade are greatly understated because of the size of the black
  market and border trade - often estimated to be one to two times the
  official economy. Better relations with foreign countries and
  relaxed controls at home are needed to promote foreign investment,
  exports, and tourism. In February 2003, a major banking crisis hit
  the country's 20 private banks, shutting them down and disrupting
  the economy. In July and August 2003, the United States imposed a
  ban on all Burmese imports and a ban on provision of financial
  services, hampering Burma's ability to obtain foreign exchange. As
  of January 2004, the largest private banks remained moribund,
  leaving the private sector with little formal access to credit
  outside of government contracts.

GDP:
  purchasing power parity - $74.53 billion (2003 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:
  -0.5% (2003 est.)

GDP - per capita:
  purchasing power parity - $1,800 (2003 est.)

GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 57.2% industry: 9.6% services: 33.1% (2003 est.)

Investment (gross fixed):
  11.8% of GDP (2003)

Population below poverty line:
  25% (2000 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: 2.8% highest 10%: 32.4% (1998)

Inflation rate (consumer prices):
  49.7% (2003 est.)

Labor force:
  22.14 million (2003 est.)

Labor force - by occupation:
  agriculture 70%, industry 7%, services 23% (2001 est.)

Unemployment rate:
  4.2% (2003)

Budget:
  revenues: $7.9 billion
  expenditures: $12.2 billion, including capital expenditures of $5.7
  billion (FY96/97)

Agriculture - products:
  rice, pulses, beans, sesame, groundnuts, sugarcane; hardwood; fish
  and fish products

Industries:
  agricultural processing; knit and woven apparel; wood and wood
  products; copper, tin, tungsten, iron; construction materials;
  pharmaceuticals; fertilizer; cement

Industrial production growth rate:
  NA

Electricity - production:
  6.139 billion kWh (2001)

Electricity - consumption:
  5.709 billion kWh (2001)

Electricity - exports:
  0 kWh (2001)

Electricity - imports:
  0 kWh (2001)

Oil - production:
  18,590 bbl/day (2002 est.)

Oil - consumption:
  38,000 bbl/day (2001 est.)

Oil - exports:
  NA (2001)

Oil - imports:
  NA (2001)

Oil - proved reserves:
  115 million bbl (1 January 2003)

Natural gas - production:
  7.35 billion cu m (2001 est.)

Natural gas - consumption:
  2.15 billion cu m (2001 est.)

Natural gas - exports:
  5.2 billion cu m (2001 est.)

Natural gas - imports:
  0 cu m (2001 est.)

Natural gas - proved reserves:
  314.4 billion cu m (1 January 2003)

Current account balance:
  $-35 million (2003)

Exports:
  $2.434 billion f.o.b. (2003 est.)

Exports - commodities:
  Clothing, gas, wood products, pulses, beans, fish, rice

Exports - partners:
  Thailand 31.5%, US 10.2%, India 9.3%, China 5.8%, Japan 4.8% (2003)

Imports:
  $2.071 billion f.o.b. (2003 est.)

Imports - commodities:
  Fabric, petroleum products, plastics, machinery, transport
  equipment, construction materials, crude oil; food products

Imports - partners:
  China 31.1%, Singapore 22.3%, Thailand 15.1%, South Korea 6.3%,
  Malaysia 4.8%, Japan 4.3% (2003)

Reserves of foreign exchange & gold:
  $562 million (2003)

Debt - external:
  $6.011 billion (2003 est.)

Economic aid - recipient:
  $127 million (2001 est.)

Currency:
  kyat (MMK)

Currency code:
  MMK

Exchange rates:
  kyats per US dollar - 6.0764 (2003), 6.5734 (2002), 6.6841 (2001),
  6.5167 (2000), 6.2858 (1999)
  note: these are official exchange rates; unofficial exchange rates
  ranged in 2003 from 100 kyat/US dollar to nearly 1000 kyat/US dollar

Fiscal year:
  1 April - 31 March

Communications Burma

Telephones - main lines in use:
  357,300 (2003)

Telephones - mobile cellular:
  66,500 (2003)

Telephone system:
  general assessment: barely meets minimum requirements for local and
  intercity service for business and government; international service
  is fair
  domestic: NA
  international: country code - 95; satellite earth station - 2,
  Intelsat (Indian Ocean), and ShinSat

Radio broadcast stations:
  AM 1, FM 1 (2004)

Radios:
  4.2 million (1997)

Television broadcast stations:
  2 (2004)

Televisions:
  320,000 (2000)

Internet country code:
  .mm

Internet hosts:
  3 (2003)

Internet Service Providers (ISPs):
  1
  note: as of September 2000, Internet connections were legal only for
  the government, tourist offices, and a few large businesses (2000)

Internet users:
  28,000 (2003)

Transportation Burma

Railways: total: 3,955 km narrow gauge: 3,955 km 1.000-m gauge (2003)

Highways: total: 28,200 km paved: 3,440 km unpaved: 24,760 km (1996 est.)

Waterways:
  12,800 km (2004)

Pipelines:
  gas 2,056 km; oil 558 km (2004)

Ports and harbors:
  Bhamo, Chauk, Mandalay, Moulmein, Myitkyina, Pathein, Rangoon,
  Sittwe, Tavoy

Merchant marine:
  total: 31 ships (1,000 GRT or over) 384,529 GRT/608,609 DWT
  foreign-owned: Germany 6, Japan 4 (2004 est.)
  by type: bulk 8, cargo 18, container 1, passenger/cargo 3, petroleum
  tanker 1

Airports:
  79 (2003 est.)

Airports - with paved runways: total: 9 over 3,047 m: 2 2,438 to 3,047 m: 5 1,524 to 2,437 m: 2 (2004 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways: total: 69 under 914 m: 31 (2004 est.) 914 to 1,523 m: 20 over 3,047 m: 2 1,524 to 2,437 m: 16

Heliports: 1 (2003 est.)

Military Burma

Military branches:
  Army, Navy, Air Force

Military manpower - military age and obligation:
  18 years of age for voluntary military service for both sexes (May
  2002)

Military manpower - availability:
  males age 15-49: 12,450,884
  females age 15-49: 12,457,077 (2004 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:
  males age 15-49: 6,609,995
  females age 15-49: 6,595,611 (2004 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
  males: 441,333
  females: 440,914 (2004 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure:
  $39 million (FY97)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP:
  2.1% (FY97)

Transnational Issues Burma

Disputes - international:
  despite continuing border committee talks, significant differences
  remain with Thailand over boundary alignment and the handling of
  ethnic rebels, refugees, and illegal cross-border activities; groups
  in Burma and Thailand express concern over China's construction of
  13 hydroelectric dams on the Salween River in Yunnan Province; India
  seeks cooperation from Burma to keep out Indian Nagaland insurgents

Refugees and internally displaced persons:
  IDPs: 600,000 - 1,000,000 (government offensives against ethnic
  insurgent groups near borders; most IDPs are ethnic Karen, Karenni,
  Shan, and Mon) (2004)

Illicit drugs:
  world's second largest producer of illicit opium (potential
  production in 2003 - 484 metric tons, down 23% due to eradication
  efforts and alternate development; cultivation in 2003 - 47,130
  hectares, a 39% decline from 2002); surrender of drug warlord KHUN
  SA's Mong Tai Army in January 1996 was hailed by Rangoon as a major
  counternarcotics success, but lack of government will and ability to
  take on major narcotrafficking groups and lack of serious commitment
  against money laundering continues to hinder the overall antidrug
  effort; major source of methamphetamine and heroin for regional
  consumption; currently under Financial Action Task Force
  countermeasures due to continued failure to address its inadequate
  money-laundering controls

This page was last updated on 10 February, 2005

======================================================================

@Burundi

Introduction Burundi

Background:
  Burundi's first democratically elected president was assassinated
  in October 1993 after only one hundred days in office. Since then,
  some 200,000 Burundians have perished in widespread, often intense
  ethnic violence between Hutu and Tutsi factions. Hundreds of
  thousands have been internally displaced or have become refugees in
  neighboring countries. Burundi troops, seeking to secure their
  borders, briefly intervened in the conflict in the Democratic
  Republic of the Congo in 1998. A new transitional government,
  inaugurated on 1 November 2001, signed a power-sharing agreement
  with the largest rebel faction in December 2003 and set in place a
  provisional constitution in October 2004. Implementation of the
  agreement has been problematic, however, as one remaining rebel
  group refuses to sign on and elections have been repeatedly delayed,
  clouding prospects for a sustainable peace.

Geography Burundi

Location:
  Central Africa, east of Democratic Republic of the Congo

Geographic coordinates:
  3 30 S, 30 00 E

Map references:
  Africa

Area:
  total: 27,830 sq km
  water: 2,180 sq km
  land: 25,650 sq km

Area - comparative:
  slightly smaller than Maryland

Land boundaries:
  total: 974 km
  border countries: Democratic Republic of the Congo 233 km, Rwanda
  290 km, Tanzania 451 km

Coastline:
  0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims:
  none (landlocked)

Climate:
  equatorial; high plateau with considerable altitude variation (772
  m to 2,670 m above sea level); average annual temperature varies
  with altitude from 23 to 17 degrees centigrade but is generally
  moderate as the average altitude is about 1,700 m; average annual
  rainfall is about 150 cm; wet seasons from February to May and
  September to November, and dry seasons from June to August and
  December to January

Terrain:
  hilly and mountainous, dropping to a plateau in east, some plains

Elevation extremes:
  lowest point: Lake Tanganyika 772 m
  highest point: Mount Heha 2,670 m

Natural resources:
  nickel, uranium, rare earth oxides, peat, cobalt, copper, platinum
  (not yet exploited), vanadium, arable land, hydropower

Land use:
  arable land: 35.05%
  permanent crops: 14.02%
  other: 50.93% (2001)

Irrigated land:
  740 sq km (1998 est.)

Natural hazards:
  flooding, landslides, drought

Environment - current issues:
  soil erosion as a result of overgrazing and the expansion of
  agriculture into marginal lands; deforestation (little forested land
  remains because of uncontrolled cutting of trees for fuel); habitat
  loss threatens wildlife populations

Environment - international agreements:
  party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto
  Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes,
  Ozone Layer Protection
  signed, but not ratified: Law of the Sea

Geography - note:
  landlocked; straddles crest of the Nile-Congo watershed; the
  Kagera, which drains into Lake Victoria, is the most remote
  headstream of the White Nile

People Burundi

Population:
  6,231,221
  note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the
  effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower
  life expectancy, higher infant mortality and death rates, lower
  population and growth rates, and changes in the distribution of
  population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (July
  2004 est.)

Age structure:
  0-14 years: 46.4% (male 1,459,251; female 1,430,332)
  15-64 years: 50.9% (male 1,566,274; female 1,607,705)
  65 years and over: 2.7% (male 66,306; female 101,353) (2004 est.)

Median age:
  total: 16.5 years
  male: 16.1 years
  female: 16.8 years (2004 est.)

Population growth rate:
  2.2% (2004 est.)

Birth rate:
  39.68 births/1,000 population (2004 est.)

Death rate:
  17.61 deaths/1,000 population (2004 est.)

Net migration rate:
  -0.06 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2004 est.)

Sex ratio:
  at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
  under 15 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
  15-64 years: 0.97 male(s)/female
  65 years and over: 0.65 male(s)/female
  total population: 0.99 male(s)/female (2004 est.)

Infant mortality rate:
  total: 70.4 deaths/1,000 live births
  female: 63.45 deaths/1,000 live births (2004 est.)
  male: 77.15 deaths/1,000 live births

Life expectancy at birth:
  total population: 43.36 years
  male: 42.73 years
  female: 44 years (2004 est.)

Total fertility rate:
  5.9 children born/woman (2004 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
  6% (2003 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
  250,000 (2003 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths:
  25,000 (2003 est.)

Major infectious diseases:
  typhoid fever, malaria
  overall degree of risk: very high (2004)

Nationality:
  noun: Burundian(s)
  adjective: Burundian

Ethnic groups:
  Hutu (Bantu) 85%, Tutsi (Hamitic) 14%, Twa (Pygmy) 1%, Europeans
  3,000, South Asians 2,000

Religions:
  Christian 67% (Roman Catholic 62%, Protestant 5%), indigenous
  beliefs 23%, Muslim 10%

Languages:
  Kirundi (official), French (official), Swahili (along Lake
  Tanganyika and in the Bujumbura area)

Literacy:
  definition: age 15 and over can read and write
  total population: 51.6%
  male: 58.5%
  female: 45.2% (2003 est.)

Government Burundi

Country name:
  conventional long form: Republic of Burundi
  conventional short form: Burundi
  local short form: Burundi
  local long form: Republika y'u Burundi
  former: Urundi

Government type:
  republic

Capital:
  Bujumbura

Administrative divisions:
  16 provinces; Bubanza, Bujumbura, Bururi, Cankuzo, Cibitoke,
  Gitega, Karuzi, Kayanza, Kirundo, Makamba, Muramvya, Muyinga, Mwaro,
  Ngozi, Rutana, Ruyigi

Independence:
  1 July 1962 (from UN trusteeship under Belgian administration)

National holiday:
  Independence Day, 1 July (1962)

Constitution:
  13 March 1992; provided for establishment of a plural political
  system; supplanted on 20 October 2004 by a provisional constitution
  approved by the parliament, which extended the transition, set
  ethnic quotas for government positions, and tentatively scheduled
  elections for February-April 2005

Legal system:
  based on German and Belgian civil codes and customary law; has not
  accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage:
  NA years of age; universal adult

Executive branch:
  chief of state: President Domitien NDAYIZEYE (since 30 April 2003);
  note - NDAYIZEYE, a Hutu, was sworn in as president for the second
  half of the three-year transitional government inaugurated on 1
  November 2001; Vice President Frederic NGENZEBUHORO (since 11
  November 2004)
  head of government: President Domitien NDAYIZEYE (since 30 April
  2003); note - NDAYIZEYE, a Hutu, was sworn in as president for the
  second half of the three-year transitional government inaugurated on
  1 November 2001; Vice President Frederic NGENZEBUHORO (since 11
  November 2004)
  cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by president
  elections: NA; current president assumed power on 30 April 2003 as
  part of the transitional government established by the 2000 Arusha
  Accord

Legislative branch:
  bicameral, consists of a National Assembly or Assemblee Nationale
  (expanded from 121 to approximately 140 seats under the transitional
  government inaugurated 1 November 2001; members are elected by
  popular vote to serve five-year terms) and a Senate (54 seats; term
  length is undefined, the current senators will likely serve out the
  three-year transition period)
  elections: last held 29 June 1993 (next was scheduled to be held in
  1998, but was suspended by presidential decree in 1996; elections
  are planned to follow the completion of the three-year transitional
  government)
  election results: percent of vote by party - FRODEBU 71.04%, UPRONA
  21.4%, other 7.56%; seats by party - FRODEBU 65, UPRONA 16,
  civilians 27, other parties 13

Judicial branch:
  Supreme Court or Cour Supreme; Constitutional Court; Courts of
  Appeal (there are three in separate locations); Tribunals of First
  Instance (17 at the province level and 123 small local tribunals)

Political parties and leaders:
  the two national, mainstream, governing parties are: Unity for
  National Progress or UPRONA [Alphonse KADEGE, president]; Burundi
  Democratic Front or FRODEBU [Jean MINANI, president]
  note: a multiparty system was introduced after 1998, included are:
  Burundi African Alliance for the Salvation or ABASA [Terrence
  NSANZE]; Rally for Democracy and Economic and Social Development or
  RADDES [Joseph NZEYIMANA]; Party for National Redress or PARENA
  [Jean-Baptiste BAGAZA]; People's Reconciliation Party or PRP
  [Mathias HITIMANA]

Political pressure groups and leaders:
  loosely organized Hutu and Tutsi militias, often affiliated with
  Hutu and Tutsi extremist parties or subordinate to government
  security forces

International organization participation:
  ACCT, ACP, AfDB, AU, CEPGL, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt, ICFTU,
  ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, Interpol, IOC, IOM
  (observer), ISO (subscriber), ITU, MIGA, NAM, OPCW, UN, UNCTAD,
  UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador Antoine NTAMOBWA
  chancery: Suite 212, 2233 Wisconsin Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20007
  FAX: [1] (202) 342-2578
  telephone: [1] (202) 342-2574

Diplomatic representation from the US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador James Howard YELLIN
  embassy: Avenue des Etats-Unis, Bujumbura
  mailing address: B. P. 1720, Bujumbura
  telephone: [257] 223454
  FAX: [257] 222926

Flag description:
  divided by a white diagonal cross into red panels (top and bottom)
  and green panels (hoist side and outer side) with a white disk
  superimposed at the center bearing three red six-pointed stars
  outlined in green arranged in a triangular design (one star above,
  two stars below)

Economy Burundi

Economy - overview:
  Burundi is a landlocked, resource-poor country with an
  underdeveloped manufacturing sector. The economy is predominantly
  agricultural with roughly 90% of the population dependent on
  subsistence agriculture. Economic growth depends on coffee and tea
  exports, which account for 90% of foreign exchange earnings. The
  ability to pay for imports, therefore, rests primarily on weather
  conditions and international coffee and tea prices. The Tutsi
  minority, 14% of the population, dominates the government and the
  coffee trade at the expense of the Hutu majority, 85% of the
  population. Since October 1993 an ethnic-based war has resulted in
  more than 200,000 deaths, forced 800,000 refugees into Tanzania, and
  displaced 525,000 others internally. Doubts about the prospects for
  sustainable peace continue to impede development. Only one in two
  children go to school, and approximately one in ten adults has
  HIV/AIDS. Food, medicine, and electricity remain in short supply.

GDP:
  purchasing power parity - $3.78 billion (2003 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:
  -1.3% (2003 est.)

GDP - per capita:
  purchasing power parity - $600 (2003 est.)

GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 47.4% industry: 19.3% services: 33.3% (2003 est.)

Investment (gross fixed):
  9.8% of GDP (2003)

Population below poverty line:
  68% (2002 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: 1.8% highest 10%: 32.9% (1998)

Distribution of family income - Gini index:
  42.5 (1998)

Inflation rate (consumer prices):
  10.7% (2003 est.)

Labor force:
  2.99 million (2002)

Labor force - by occupation:
  agriculture 93.6%, industry 2.3%, services 4.1% (2002 est.)

Unemployment rate:
  NA

Budget:
  revenues: $179.4 million
  expenditures: $209 million, including capital expenditures of $NA
  (2003)

Agriculture - products:
  coffee, cotton, tea, corn, sorghum, sweet potatoes, bananas, manioc
  (tapioca); beef, milk, hides

Industries:
  light consumer goods such as blankets, shoes, soap; assembly of
  imported components; public works construction; food processing

Industrial production growth rate:
  18% (2001)

Electricity - production:
  155.4 million kWh (2001)

Electricity - consumption:
  177.5 million kWh (2001)

Electricity - exports:
  0 kWh (2001)

Electricity - imports:
  33 million kWh; note - supplied by the Democratic Republic of the
  Congo (2001)

Oil - production:
  0 bbl/day (2001 est.)

Oil - consumption:
  2,750 bbl/day (2001 est.)

Oil - exports:
  NA (2001)

Oil - imports:
  NA (2001)

Current account balance:
  $-35 million (2003)

Exports:
  $40 million f.o.b. (2003 est.)

Exports - commodities:
  coffee, tea, sugar, cotton, hides

Exports - partners:
  Switzerland 31.6%, UK 15.8%, Netherlands 5.3%, Rwanda 5.3% (2003)

Imports:
  $128 million f.o.b. (2003 est.)

Imports - commodities:
  capital goods, petroleum products, foodstuffs

Imports - partners:
  Kenya 14.6%, Tanzania 11.5%, Uganda 5.7%, France 5.1%, Zambia 5.1%,
  China 4.5%, India 4.5%, Japan 4.5% (2003)

Reserves of foreign exchange & gold:
  $67.4 million (2003)

Debt - external:
  $1.133 billion (2002)

Economic aid - recipient:
  $92.7 million (2000)

Currency:
  Burundi franc (BIF)

Currency code:
  BIF

Exchange rates:
  Burundi francs per US dollar - 1,082.62 (2003), 930.75 (2002),
  830.35 (2001), 720.67 (2000), 563.56 (1999)

Fiscal year:
  calendar year

Communications Burundi

Telephones - main lines in use:
  23,900 (2003)

Telephones - mobile cellular:
  64,000 (2003)

Telephone system:
  general assessment: primitive system
  domestic: sparse system of open-wire, radiotelephone communications,
  and low-capacity microwave radio relay
  international: country code - 257; satellite earth station - 1
  Intelsat (Indian Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations:
  AM 0, FM 4, shortwave 1 (2001)

Radios:
  440,000 (2001)

Television broadcast stations:
  1 (2001)

Televisions:
  25,000 (1997)

Internet country code:
  .bi

Internet hosts:
  22 (2003)

Internet Service Providers (ISPs):
  1 (2000)

Internet users:
  14,000 (2003)

Transportation Burundi

Highways: total: 14,480 km paved: 1,028 km unpaved: 13,452 km (1999 est.)

Waterways:
  mainly on Lake Tanganyika (2004)

Ports and harbors:
  Bujumbura

Airports:
  8 (2003 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
  total: 1
  over 3,047 m: 1 (2004 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
  total: 7
  914 to 1,523 m: 4
  under 914 m: 3 (2004 est.)

Military Burundi

Military branches:
  Army (including Naval Detachment and Air Wing), National Gendarmerie

Military manpower - military age and obligation:
  16 years of age for compulsory and voluntary military service (2001)

Military manpower - availability:
  males age 15-49: 1,419,755 (2004 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:
  males age 15-49: 747,400 (2004 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
  males: 81,862 (2004 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure:
  $33.3 million (2003)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP:
  6% (2003)

Transnational Issues Burundi

Disputes - international:
  Tutsi, Hutu, and other conflicting ethnic groups, associated
  political rebels, armed gangs, and various government forces
  continue fighting in the Great Lakes region, transcending the
  boundaries of Burundi, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Rwanda, and
  Uganda to gain control over populated and natural resource areas;
  government heads pledge to end conflict, but localized violence
  continues despite UN peacekeeping efforts

Refugees and internally displaced persons:
  refugees (country of origin): 60,288 (Democratic Republic of the
  Congo)
  IDPs: 140,000 (armed conflict between government and rebels; most
  IDPs in northern and western Burundi) (2004)

This page was last updated on 10 February, 2005

======================================================================

@Cambodia

Introduction Cambodia

Background:
  Most Cambodians consider themselves to be Khmers, whose Angkor
  Empire extended over much of Southeast Asia and reached its zenith
  between the 10th and 13th centuries. Subsequently, attacks by the
  Thai and Cham (from present-day Vietnam) weakened the empire
  ushering in a long period of decline. In 1863, the king of Cambodia
  placed the country under French protection; it became part of French
  Indochina in 1887. Following Japanese occupation in World War II,
  Cambodia became independent within the French Union in 1949 and
  fully independent in 1953. After a five-year struggle, Communist
  Khmer Rouge forces captured Phnom Penh in April 1975 and ordered the
  evacuation of all cities and towns; at least 1.5 million Cambodians
  died from execution, enforced hardships, or starvation during the
  Khmer Rouge regime under POL POT. A December 1978 Vietnamese
  invasion drove the Khmer Rouge into the countryside, led to a
  10-year Vietnamese occupation, and touched off almost 13 years of
  civil war. The 1991 Paris Peace Accords mandated democratic
  elections and a ceasefire, which was not fully respected by the
  Khmer Rouge. UN-sponsored elections in 1993 helped restore some
  semblance of normalcy and the final elements of the Khmer Rouge
  surrendered in early 1999. Factional fighting in 1997 ended the
  first coalition government, but a second round of national elections
  in 1998 led to the formation of another coalition government and
  renewed political stability. The July 2003 elections were relatively
  peaceful, but it took one year of negotiations between contending
  political parties before a coalition government was formed.
  Nation-wide local elections are scheduled for 2007 and national
  elections for 2008.

Geography Cambodia

Location:
  Southeastern Asia, bordering the Gulf of Thailand, between
  Thailand, Vietnam, and Laos

Geographic coordinates:
  13 00 N, 105 00 E

Map references:
  Southeast Asia

Area:
  total: 181,040 sq km
  land: 176,520 sq km
  water: 4,520 sq km

Area - comparative:
  slightly smaller than Oklahoma

Land boundaries: total: 2,572 km border countries: Laos 541 km, Thailand 803 km, Vietnam 1,228 km

Coastline: 443 km

Maritime claims: territorial sea: 12 nm continental shelf: 200 nm contiguous zone: 24 nm exclusive economic zone: 200 nm

Climate:
  tropical; rainy, monsoon season (May to November); dry season
  (December to April); little seasonal temperature variation

Terrain:
  mostly low, flat plains; mountains in southwest and north

Elevation extremes:
  lowest point: Gulf of Thailand 0 m
  highest point: Phnum Aoral 1,810 m

Natural resources:
  oil and gas, timber, gemstones, some iron ore, manganese,
  phosphates, hydropower potential

Land use: arable land: 20.96% permanent crops: 0.61% other: 78.43% (2001)

Irrigated land:
  2,700 sq km (1998 est.)

Natural hazards:
  monsoonal rains (June to November); flooding; occasional droughts

Environment - current issues:
  illegal logging activities throughout the country and strip mining
  for gems in the western region along the border with Thailand have
  resulted in habitat loss and declining biodiversity (in particular,
  destruction of mangrove swamps threatens natural fisheries); soil
  erosion; in rural areas, most of the population does not have access
  to potable water; declining fish stocks because of illegal fishing
  and overfishing

Environment - international agreements:
  party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto
  Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes,
  Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution,
  Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands
  signed, but not ratified: Law of the Sea

Geography - note:
  a land of paddies and forests dominated by the Mekong River and
  Tonle Sap

People Cambodia

Population:
  13,363,421
  note: estimates for this country take into account the effects of
  excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life
  expectancy, higher infant mortality and death rates, lower
  population growth rates, and changes in the distribution of
  population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (July
  2004 est.)

Age structure:
  0-14 years: 38.3% (male 2,583,606; female 2,534,460)
  15-64 years: 58.6% (male 3,742,178; female 4,095,303)
  65 years and over: 3.1% (male 149,466; female 258,408) (2004 est.)

Median age:
  total: 19.5 years
  male: 18.8 years
  female: 20.4 years (2004 est.)

Population growth rate:
  1.8% (2004 est.)

Birth rate:
  27.13 births/1,000 population (2004 est.)

Death rate:
  9.1 deaths/1,000 population (2004 est.)

Net migration rate:
  0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2004 est.)

Sex ratio:
  at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
  under 15 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
  15-64 years: 0.91 male(s)/female
  65 years and over: 0.58 male(s)/female
  total population: 0.94 male(s)/female (2004 est.)

Infant mortality rate:
  total: 73.67 deaths/1,000 live births
  female: 64.44 deaths/1,000 live births (2004 est.)
  male: 82.51 deaths/1,000 live births

Life expectancy at birth:
  total population: 58.41 years
  male: 55.71 years
  female: 61.23 years (2004 est.)

Total fertility rate:
  3.51 children born/woman (2004 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
  2.6% (2003 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
  170,000 (2003 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths:
  15,000 (2003 est.)

Major infectious diseases:
  typhoid fever, dengue fever, malaria, Japanese encephalitis
  overall degree of risk: very high (2004)

Nationality:
  noun: Cambodian(s)
  adjective: Cambodian

Ethnic groups:
  Khmer 90%, Vietnamese 5%, Chinese 1%, other 4%

Religions:
  Theravada Buddhist 95%, other 5%

Languages:
  Khmer (official) 95%, French, English

Literacy:
  definition: age 15 and over can read and write
  total population: 69.4%
  male: 80.8%
  female: 59.3% (2002)

Government Cambodia

Country name:
  conventional long form: Kingdom of Cambodia
  conventional short form: Cambodia
  local short form: Kampuchea
  former: Kingdom of Cambodia, Khmer Republic, Democratic Kampuchea,
  People's Republic of Kampuchea, State of Cambodia
  local long form: Preahreacheanacha Kampuchea (phonetic pronunciation)

Government type:
  multiparty democracy under a constitutional monarchy established in
  September 1993

Capital:
  Phnom Penh

Administrative divisions:
  20 provinces (khaitt, singular and plural) and 4 municipalities
  (krong, singular and plural)
  : provinces: Banteay Mean Chey, Batdambang, Kampong Cham, Kampong
  Chhnang, Kampong Spoe, Kampong Thum, Kampot, Kandal, Koh Kong,
  Kracheh, Mondol Kiri, Otdar Mean Chey, Pouthisat, Preah Vihear, Prey
  Veng, Rotanakir, Siem Reab, Stoeng Treng, Svay Rieng, Takao
  : municipalities: Keb, Pailin, Phnom Penh, Preah Sihanouk (formerly
  Kompong Som)

Independence:
  9 November 1953 (from France)

National holiday:
  Independence Day, 9 November (1953)

Constitution:
  promulgated 21 September 1993

Legal system:
  primarily a civil law mixture of French-influenced codes from the
  United Nations Transitional Authority in Cambodia (UNTAC) period,
  royal decrees, and acts of the legislature, with influences of
  customary law and remnants of communist legal theory; increasing
  influence of common law in recent years

Suffrage:
  18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
  chief of state: King Norodom SIHAMONI (since 29 October 2004)
  head of government: Prime Minister HUN SEN (since 14 January 1985)
  and Deputy Prime Ministers SAR KHENG (since 3 February 1992),
  Norodom SIRIVUDH, SOK AN, LU LAY SRENG, TEA BANH, HOR NAMHONG, NHEK
  BUNCHHAY (since 16 July 2004)
  elections: none; the monarch is chosen by a Royal Throne Council;
  following legislative elections, a member of the majority party or
  majority coalition is named prime minister by the Chairman of the
  National Assembly and appointed by the king
  cabinet: Council of Ministers in theory appointed by the monarch; in
  practice named by the prime minister

Legislative branch:
  bicameral consists of the National Assembly (123 seats; members
  elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms) and the Senate (61
  seats; two members appointed by the monarch, two elected by the
  National Assembly, and 57 elected by "functional constituencies";
  members serve five-year terms)
  election results: National Assembly - percent of vote by party - CPP
  47%, SRP 22%, FUNCINPEC 21%, other 10%; seats by party - CPP 73,
  FUNCINPEC 26, SRP 24; Senate - percent of vote by party - NA; seats
  by party - CPP 31, FUNCINPEC 21, SRP 7, other 2 (July 2003)
  elections: National Assembly - last held 27 July 2003 (next to be
  held in July 2008); Senate - last held 2 March 1999 (scheduled to be
  held in 2004 but delayed)

Judicial branch:
  Supreme Council of the Magistracy (provided for in the constitution
  and formed in December 1997); Supreme Court (and lower courts)
  exercises judicial authority

Political parties and leaders:
  Cambodian Pracheachon Party (Cambodian People's Party) or CPP [CHEA
  SIM]; National United Front for an Independent, Neutral, Peaceful,
  and Cooperative Cambodia or FUNCINPEC [Prince NORODOM Ranariddh];
  Sam Rangsi Party or SRP [SAM RANGSI]

Political pressure groups and leaders:
  NA

International organization participation:
  ACCT, ARF, AsDB, ASEAN, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt, ICRM, IDA,
  IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO
  (subscriber), ITU, MIGA, NAM, OPCW (signatory), PCA, UN, UNCTAD,
  UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador EK SEREYWATH
  chancery: 4530 16th Street NW, Washington, DC 20011
  FAX: [1] (202) 726-8381
  telephone: [1] (202) 726-7742

Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Charles Aaron RAY embassy: 27 EO Street 240, Phnom Penh mailing address: Box P, APO AP 96546 telephone: [855] (23) 216-436/438 FAX: [855] (23) 216-437/811

Flag description:
  three horizontal bands of blue (top), red (double width), and blue
  with a white three-towered temple representing Angkor Wat outlined
  in black in the center of the red band; only national flag to
  incorporate a building in its design

Economy Cambodia

Economy - overview:
  Cambodia's economy slowed dramatically in 1997-1998 due to the
  regional economic crisis, civil violence, and political infighting.
  Foreign investment and tourism fell off. In 1999, the first full
  year of peace in 30 years, progress was made on economic reforms.
  Growth resumed and has remained about 5.0% during 2000-2003. Tourism
  was Cambodia's fastest growing industry, with arrivals up 34% in
  2000 and up another 40% in 2001 before the 11 September 2001
  terrorist attacks in the US. Cambodia expects 1 million foreign
  tourists in 2004. Economic growth has been largely driven by
  expansion in the clothing sector and tourism. Clothing exports were
  fostered by the U.S.-Cambodian Bilateral Textile Agreement signed in
  1999. Even given Cambodia's recent growth, the long-term development
  of the economy after decades of war remains a daunting challenge.
  The population lacks education and productive skills, particularly
  in the poverty-ridden countryside, which suffers from an almost
  total lack of basic infrastructure. Fear of renewed political
  instability and a dysfunctional legal system coupled with government
  corruption discourage foreign investment. The Cambodian government
  continues to work with bilateral and multilateral donors to address
  the country's many pressing needs. The major economic challenge for
  Cambodia over the next decade will be fashioning an economic
  environment in which the private sector can create enough jobs to
  handle Cambodia's demographic imbalance. About 60% of the population
  is 20 years or younger; most of these citizens will seek to enter
  the workforce over the course of the next 10 years.

GDP:
  purchasing power parity - $25.02 billion (2003 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:
  5% (2003 est.)

GDP - per capita:
  purchasing power parity - $1,900 (2003 est.)

GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 35% industry: 30% services: 35% (2003 est.)

Investment (gross fixed):
  15.9% of GDP (2003)

Population below poverty line:
  36% (1997 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: 2.9% highest 10%: 33.8% (1997)

Distribution of family income - Gini index:
  40.4 (1997)

Inflation rate (consumer prices):
  1.7% (2003 est.)

Labor force:
  7 million (2003 est.)

Labor force - by occupation:
  agriculture 75% (2003 est.)

Unemployment rate:
  2.5% (2000 est.)

Budget:
  revenues: $476.5 million
  expenditures: $734.8 million, including capital expenditures of $291
  million of which 75% was financed by external assistance (2003 est.)

Agriculture - products:
  rice, rubber, corn, vegetables, cashews, tapioca

Industries:
  tourism, garments, rice milling, fishing, wood and wood products,
  rubber, cement, gem mining, textiles

Industrial production growth rate:
  22% (2002 est.)

Electricity - production:
  119 million kWh (2001)

Electricity - consumption:
  110.6 million kWh (2001)

Electricity - exports:
  0 kWh (2001)

Electricity - imports:
  0 kWh (2001)

Oil - production:
  0 bbl/day (2001 est.)

Oil - consumption:
  3,600 bbl/day (2001 est.)

Oil - exports:
  NA (2001)

Oil - imports:
  NA (2001)

Current account balance:
  $-218.1 million (2003)

Exports:
  $1.616 billion f.o.b. (2003 est.)

Exports - commodities:
  Clothing, timber, rubber, rice, fish, tobacco, footwear

Exports - partners:
  US 58.4%, Germany 10.3%, UK 7.2% (2003)

Imports:
  $2.124 billion f.o.b. (2003 est.)

Imports - commodities:
  petroleum products, cigarettes, gold, construction materials,
  machinery, motor vehicles, pharmaceutical products

Imports - partners:
  Thailand 26.4%, Hong Kong 14.4%, Singapore 11.8%, China 11.3%,
  Vietnam 8.3%, Taiwan 8%, South Korea 4.1% (2003)

Reserves of foreign exchange & gold:
  $861.4 million (2003)

Debt - external:
  $2.4 billion (2002 est.)

Economic aid - recipient:
  $548 million pledged in grants and concessional loans for 2001 by
  international donors (actual disbursement in 2002 was about $500
  million)

Currency:
  riel (KHR)

Currency code:
  KHR

Exchange rates:
  riels per US dollar - 3,973.33 (2003), 3,912.08 (2002), 3,916.33
  (2001), 3,840.75 (2000), 3,807.83 (1999)

Fiscal year:
  calendar year

Communications Cambodia

Telephones - main lines in use:
  35,400 (2002)

Telephones - mobile cellular:
  380,000 (2002)

Telephone system:
  general assessment: adequate landline and/or cellular service in
  Phnom Penh and other provincial cities; mobile phone coverage is
  rapidly expanding in rural areas
  domestic: NA
  international: country code - 855; adequate but expensive landline
  and cellular service available to all countries from Phnom Penh and
  major provincial cities; satellite earth station - 1 Intersputnik
  (Indian Ocean region)

Radio broadcast stations:
  AM 2, FM 17, (2003)

Radios:
  1.34 million (1997)

Television broadcast stations:
  7 (2003)

Televisions:
  94,000 (1997)

Internet country code:
  .kh

Internet hosts:
  818 (2003)

Internet Service Providers (ISPs):
  2 (2000)

Internet users:
  30,000 (2002)

Transportation Cambodia

Railways: total: 602 km narrow gauge: 602 km 1.000-m gauge (2003)

Highways: total: 12,323 km paved: 1,996 km unpaved: 10,327 km (2000 est)

Waterways:
  2,400 km (mainly on Mekong River) (2004)

Ports and harbors:
  Kampong Som (Sihanoukville), Kampot, Krong Kaoh Kong, Phnom Penh,
  Sre Ambol, Keo Phoh Port (privately owned) (2003)

Merchant marine:
  total: 467 ships (1,000 GRT or over) 1,913,910 GRT/2,713,967 DWT
  registered in other countries: 19 (2004 est.)
  foreign-owned: Algeria 2, Angola 1, Aruba 1, Bahamas 1, Belize 10,
  British Virgin Islands 7, Bulgaria 1, Canada 4, China 35, Cyprus 14,
  Egypt 8, Finland 1, France 1, Georgia 1, Germany 1, Gibraltar 1,
  Greece 9, Honduras 8, Hong Kong 12, Indonesia 2, Iran 1, Italy 2,
  Japan 1, Jordan 1, North Korea 2, South Korea 31, Lebanon 2, Liberia
  7, Malaysia 1, Malta 2, Marshall Islands 11, Netherlands 2, Nigeria
  2, Norway 1, Panama 8, Romania 1, Russia 81, Saint Kitts and Nevis
  2, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 5, Samoa 2, Singapore 7, Spain
  1, Syria 19, Taiwan 1, Turkey 11
  by type: bulk 42, cargo 360, chemical tanker 6, combination bulk 3,
  container 13, liquefied gas 1, livestock carrier 4, multi-functional
  large load carrier 1, passenger/cargo 1, petroleum tanker 16,
  refrigerated cargo 13, roll on/roll off 5, short-sea/passenger 2

Airports:
  20 (2003 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
  total: 6
  2,438 to 3,047 m: 2
  1,524 to 2,437 m: 2
  914 to 1,523 m: 2 (2004 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
  total: 14
  under 914 m: 1 (2004 est.)
  1,524 to 2,437 m: 2
  914 to 1,523 m: 11

Heliports:
  2 (2003 est.)

Military Cambodia

Military branches:
  Royal Cambodian Armed Forces: Army, Navy, Air Force

Military manpower - military age and obligation: 18-30 years of age for compulsory military service for all males; conscription law passed September 2004; service obligation is 18 months (September 2004)

Military manpower - availability:
  males age 15-49: 3,402,703 (2004 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:
  males age 15-49: 1,899,710 (2004 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
  males: 170,072 (2004 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure:
  $112 million (FY01 est.)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP:
  3% (FY01 est.)

Transnational Issues Cambodia

Disputes - international:
  land boundary disputes persist among Cambodian claims that Thailand
  and Vietnam moved or destroyed boundary markers; maritime boundary
  with Vietnam is hampered by dispute over offshore islands; Cambodia
  periodically accuses Thailand of obstructing access to Preah Vihear
  temple ruins awarded to Cambodia by ICJ decision in 1962; 2003
  anti-Thai riots in Phnom Penh resulted in the destruction of the
  Thai Embassy, damage to 17 Thai-owned businesses, and disputes over
  full payment of compensation

Illicit drugs:
  narcotics-related corruption reportedly involving some in the
  government, military, and police; possible small-scale opium,
  heroin, and amphetamine production; large producer of cannabis for
  the international market; vulnerable to money laundering due to its
  cash-based economy and porous borders

This page was last updated on 10 February, 2005

======================================================================

@Cameroon

Introduction Cameroon

Background:
  The former French Cameroon and part of British Cameroon merged in
  1961 to form the present country. Cameroon has generally enjoyed
  stability, which has permitted the development of agriculture,
  roads, and railways, as well as a petroleum industry. Despite
  movement toward democratic reform, political power remains firmly in
  the hands of an ethnic oligarchy.

Geography Cameroon

Location:
  Western Africa, bordering the Bight of Biafra, between Equatorial
  Guinea and Nigeria

Geographic coordinates:
  6 00 N, 12 00 E

Map references:
  Africa

Area:
  total: 475,440 sq km
  water: 6,000 sq km
  land: 469,440 sq km

Area - comparative:
  slightly larger than California

Land boundaries:
  total: 4,591 km
  border countries: Central African Republic 797 km, Chad 1,094 km,
  Republic of the Congo 523 km, Equatorial Guinea 189 km, Gabon 298
  km, Nigeria 1,690 km

Coastline:
  402 km

Maritime claims:
  territorial sea: 50 nm

Climate:
  varies with terrain, from tropical along coast to semiarid and hot
  in north

Terrain:
  diverse, with coastal plain in southwest, dissected plateau in
  center, mountains in west, plains in north

Elevation extremes:
  lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m
  highest point: Fako (on Mount Cameroon) 4,095 m

Natural resources:
  petroleum, bauxite, iron ore, timber, hydropower

Land use: arable land: 12.81% permanent crops: 2.58% other: 84.61% (2001)

Irrigated land:
  330 sq km (1998 est.)

Natural hazards:
  volcanic activity with periodic releases of poisonous gases from
  Lake Nyos and Lake Monoun volcanoes

Environment - current issues:
  water-borne diseases are prevalent; deforestation; overgrazing;
  desertification; poaching; overfishing

Environment - international agreements:
  party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto
  Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law
  of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical
  Timber 94
  signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - note:
  sometimes referred to as the hinge of Africa; throughout the
  country there are areas of thermal springs and indications of
  current or prior volcanic activity; Mount Cameroon, the highest
  mountain in Sub-Saharan west Africa, is an active volcano

People Cameroon

Population:
  16,063,678
  note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the
  effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower
  life expectancy, higher infant mortality and death rates, lower
  population and growth rates, and changes in the distribution of
  population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (July
  2004 est.)

Age structure:
  0-14 years: 42% (male 3,416,086; female 3,334,904)
  15-64 years: 54.8% (male 4,425,246; female 4,370,329)
  65 years and over: 3.2% (male 233,506; female 283,607) (2004 est.)

Median age:
  total: 18.5 years
  male: 18.3 years
  female: 18.6 years (2004 est.)

Population growth rate:
  1.97% (2004 est.)

Birth rate:
  35.08 births/1,000 population (2004 est.)

Death rate:
  15.34 deaths/1,000 population (2004 est.)

Net migration rate:
  0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2004 est.)

Sex ratio:
  at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
  under 15 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
  15-64 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
  65 years and over: 0.82 male(s)/female
  total population: 1.01 male(s)/female (2004 est.)

Infant mortality rate:
  total: 69.18 deaths/1,000 live births
  female: 65.09 deaths/1,000 live births (2004 est.)
  male: 73.16 deaths/1,000 live births

Life expectancy at birth:
  total population: 47.95 years
  male: 47.1 years
  female: 48.83 years (2004 est.)

Total fertility rate:
  4.55 children born/woman (2004 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
  6.9% (2003 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
  560,000 (2003 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths:
  49,000 (2003 est.)

Major infectious diseases:
  typhoid fever, malaria, yellow fever, schistosomiasis
  overall degree of risk: very high (2004)

Nationality:
  noun: Cameroonian(s)
  adjective: Cameroonian

Ethnic groups:
  Cameroon Highlanders 31%, Equatorial Bantu 19%, Kirdi 11%, Fulani
  10%, Northwestern Bantu 8%, Eastern Nigritic 7%, other African 13%,
  non-African less than 1%

Religions:
  indigenous beliefs 40%, Christian 40%, Muslim 20%

Languages:
  24 major African language groups, English (official), French
  (official)

Literacy:
  definition: age 15 and over can read and write
  total population: 79%
  male: 84.7%
  female: 73.4% (2003 est.)

Government Cameroon

Country name:
  conventional long form: Republic of Cameroon
  conventional short form: Cameroon
  former: French Cameroon

Government type:
  unitary republic; multiparty presidential regime (opposition
  parties legalized in 1990)
  note: preponderance of power remains with the president

Capital:
  Yaounde

Administrative divisions:
  10 provinces; Adamaoua, Centre, Est, Extreme-Nord, Littoral, Nord,
  Nord-Ouest, Ouest, Sud, Sud-Ouest

Independence:
  1 January 1960 (from French-administered UN trusteeship)

National holiday:
  Republic Day (National Day), 20 May (1972)

Constitution:
  20 May 1972 approved by referendum; 2 June 1972 formally adopted;
  revised January 1996

Legal system:
  based on French civil law system, with common law influence; has
  not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage:
  20 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
  chief of state: President Paul BIYA (since 6 November 1982)
  elections: president elected by popular vote for a seven-year term;
  election last held 11 October 2004 (next to be held NA October
  2011); prime minister appointed by the president
  head of government: Prime Minister Ephraim INONI (since 8 Dec 2004)
  cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president from proposals submitted
  by the prime minister
  election results: President Paul BIYA reelected; percent of vote -
  Paul BIYA 70.9%, John FRU NDI 17.4%, Adamou Ndam NJOYA 4.5%, Garga
  Haman ADJI 3.7%

Legislative branch:
  unicameral National Assembly or Assemblee Nationale (180 seats;
  members are elected by direct popular vote to serve five-year terms;
  note - the president can either lengthen or shorten the term of the
  legislature)
  elections: last held 23 June 2002 (next to be held NA 2007)
  election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party -
  RDCP 133, SDF 21, UDC 5, other 21
  note: the constitution calls for an upper chamber for the
  legislature, to be called a Senate, but it has yet to be established

Judicial branch:
  Supreme Court (judges are appointed by the president); High Court
  of Justice (consists of 9 judges and 6 substitute judges, elected by
  the National Assembly)

Political parties and leaders:
  Cameroonian Democratic Union or UDC [Adamou NDAM NJOYA]; Democratic
  Rally of the Cameroon People or RDCP [Paul BIYA]; Movement for the
  Defense of the Republic or MDR [Dakole DAISSALA]; Movement for the
  Liberation and Development of Cameroon or MLDC [leader Marcel
  YONDO]; Movement for the Youth of Cameroon or MYC [Dieudonne TINA];
  National Union for Democracy and Progress or UNDP [Maigari BELLO
  BOUBA]; Social Democratic Front or SDF [John FRU NDI]; Union of
  Cameroonian Populations or UPC [Augustin Frederic KODOCK]

Political pressure groups and leaders:
  Southern Cameroon National Council [Ayamba Ette OTUN]; Human Rights
  Defense Group [Albert MUKONG, president]

International organization participation:
  ABEDA, ACCT, ACP, AfDB, AU, BDEAC, C, CEMAC, FAO, FZ, G-77, IAEA,
  IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICCt (signatory), ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC,
  IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, ITU, MIGA, MONUC, NAM, OIC,
  OPCW, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNMIK, UPU, WCL, WCO, WFTU,
  WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador Jerome MENDOUGA
  chancery: 2349 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
  FAX: [1] (202) 387-3826
  telephone: [1] (202) 265-8790

Diplomatic representation from the US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador George McDade STAPLES
  embassy: Rue Nachtigal, Yaounde
  mailing address: P. O. Box 817, Yaounde; pouch: American Embassy,
  Department of State, Washington, DC 20521-2520
  telephone: [237] 223-05-12, 222-25-89, 222-17-94, 223-40-14
  FAX: [237] 223-07-53
  branch office(s): Douala

Flag description:
  three equal vertical bands of green (hoist side), red, and yellow
  with a yellow five-pointed star centered in the red band; uses the
  popular pan-African colors of Ethiopia

Economy Cameroon

Economy - overview:
  Because of its oil resources and favorable agricultural conditions,
  Cameroon has one of the best-endowed primary commodity economies in
  sub-Saharan Africa. Still, it faces many of the serious problems
  facing other underdeveloped countries, such as a top-heavy civil
  service and a generally unfavorable climate for business enterprise.
  Since 1990, the government has embarked on various IMF and World
  Bank programs designed to spur business investment, increase
  efficiency in agriculture, improve trade, and recapitalize the
  nation's banks. In June 2000, the government completed an
  IMF-sponsored, three-year structural adjustment program; however,
  the IMF is pressing for more reforms, including increased budget
  transparency, privatization, and poverty reduction programs.
  International oil and cocoa prices have considerable impact on the
  economy.

GDP:
  purchasing power parity - $27.75 billion (2003 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:
  4.2% (2003 est.)

GDP - per capita:
  purchasing power parity - $1,800 (2003 est.)

GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 42.6% industry: 19.8% services: 37.6% (2003 est.)

Investment (gross fixed):
  19.4% of GDP (2003)

Population below poverty line:
  48% (2000 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: 1.9% highest 10%: 36.6% (1996)

Distribution of family income - Gini index:
  47.7 (1996)

Inflation rate (consumer prices):
  2.3% (2003 est.)

Labor force:
  6.49 million NA (2003)

Labor force - by occupation:
  agriculture 70%, industry and commerce 13%, other 17%

Unemployment rate:
  30% (2001 est.)

Budget:
  revenues: $2.442 billion
  expenditures: $1.941 billion, including capital expenditures of NA
  (2003 est.)

Public debt:
  57.1% of GDP (2003)

Agriculture - products:
  coffee, cocoa, cotton, rubber, bananas, oilseed, grains, root
  starches; livestock; timber

Industries:
  petroleum production and refining, food processing, light consumer
  goods, textiles, lumber

Industrial production growth rate:
  4.2% (1999 est.)

Electricity - production:
  3.613 billion kWh (2001)

Electricity - consumption:
  3.36 billion kWh (2001)

Electricity - exports:
  0 kWh (2001)

Electricity - imports:
  0 kWh (2001)

Oil - production:
  76,650 bbl/day (2001 est.)

Oil - consumption:
  22,000 bbl/day (2001 est.)

Oil - exports:
  NA (2001)

Oil - imports:
  NA (2001)

Oil - proved reserves:
  200 million bbl (1 January 2002)

Natural gas - production:
  0 cu m (2001 est.)

Natural gas - consumption:
  0 cu m (2001 est.)

Natural gas - exports:
  0 cu m (2001 est.)

Natural gas - imports:
  0 cu m (2001 est.)

Natural gas - proved reserves:
  55.22 billion cu m (1 January 2002)

Current account balance:
  $-564 million (2003)

Exports:
  $1.873 billion f.o.b. (2003 est.)

Exports - commodities:
  crude oil and petroleum products, lumber, cocoa beans, aluminum,
  coffee, cotton

Exports - partners:
  Spain 21.9%, Italy 13.4%, France 10.8%, Netherlands 10.6%, US 7.5%,
  China 4.4% (2003)

Imports:
  $1.959 billion f.o.b. (2003 est.)

Imports - commodities:
  machinery, electrical equipment, transport equipment, fuel, food

Imports - partners:
  France 21.9%, Nigeria 9.5%, Japan 6.8%, US 5.7%, China 4.9%,
  Germany 4.3% (2003)

Reserves of foreign exchange & gold:
  $634 million (2003)

Debt - external:
  $7.236 billion (2003 est.)

Economic aid - recipient:
  on 23 January 2001, the Paris Club agreed to reduce Cameroon's debt
  of $1.3 billion by $900 million; debt relief now totals $1.26 billion

Currency:
  Communaute Financiere Africaine franc (XAF); note - responsible
  authority is the Bank of the Central African States

Currency code:
  XAF

Exchange rates:
  Communaute Financiere Africaine francs (XAF) per US dollar - 581.2
  (2003), 696.988 (2002), 733.039 (2001), 711.976 (2000), 615.699
  (1999)

Fiscal year:
  1 July - 30 June

Communications Cameroon

Telephones - main lines in use:
  110,900 (2002)

Telephones - mobile cellular:
  1.077 million (2003)

Telephone system:
  general assessment: available only to business and government
  domestic: cable, microwave radio relay, and tropospheric scatter
  international: country code - 237; satellite earth stations - 2
  Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean); fiber optic submarine cable (SAT-3/WASC)
  provides connectivity to Europe and Asia

Radio broadcast stations:
  AM 2, FM 9, shortwave 3 (2002)

Radios:
  2.27 million (1997)

Television broadcast stations:
  1 (2002)

Televisions:
  450,000 (1997)

Internet country code:
  .cm

Internet hosts:
  479 (2004)

Internet Service Providers (ISPs):
  1 (2002)

Internet users: 60,000 (2002) note: Cameroon also had more than 100 cyber-cafes in 2001

Transportation Cameroon

Railways: total: 1,008 km narrow gauge: 1,008 km 1.000-m gauge (2003)

Highways: total: 34,300 km paved: 4,288 km unpaved: 30,012 km (1999 est.)

Waterways:
  navigation mainly on Benue River; limited during rainy season (2004)

Pipelines:
  gas 90 km; liquid petroleum gas 9 km; oil 1,120 km (2004)

Ports and harbors:
  Bonaberi, Douala, Garoua, Kribi, Tiko

Merchant marine:
  total: 1 ships (1,000 GRT or over) 169,593 GRT/357,023 DWT
  by type: petroleum tanker 1 (2004 est.)

Airports:
  47 (2003 est.)

Airports - with paved runways: total: 11 over 3,047 m: 2 2,438 to 3,047 m: 4 1,524 to 2,437 m: 3 914 to 1,523 m: 1 under 914 m: 1 (2004 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways: total: 36 1,524 to 2,437 m: 7 914 to 1,523 m: 20 under 914 m: 9 (2004 est.)

Military Cameroon

Military branches:
  Army, Navy (includes Naval Infantry), Air Force

Military manpower - military age and obligation: 18 years of age for voluntary military service; no conscription (1999)

Military manpower - availability:
  males age 15-49: 3,898,944 (2004 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:
  males age 15-49: 1,979,151 (2004 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
  males: 184,054 (2004 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure:
  $189.2 million (2003)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP:
  1.4% (2003)

Transnational Issues Cameroon

Disputes - international:
  ICJ ruled in 2002 on the entire Cameroon-Nigeria land and maritime
  boundary but the parties formed a Joint Border Commission to resolve
  differences bilaterally and have commenced with demarcation in
  less-contested sections of the boundary, starting in Lake Chad in
  the north; the ICF ruled on an equidistance settlement of
  Cameroon-Equatorial Guinea-Nigeria maritime boundary in the Gulf of
  Guinea, however, implementation of the decision is delayed due to
  imprecisely defined coordinates, the unresolved Bakasi allocation,
  and a sovereignty dispute between Equatorial Guinea and Cameroon
  over an island at the mouth of the Ntem River; Nigeria initially
  rejected cession of the Bakasi Peninsula; Lake Chad Commission
  continues to urge signatories Cameroon, Chad, Niger, and Nigeria to
  ratify delimitation treaty over the lake region, which remains the
  site of armed clashes among local populations and militias

Refugees and internally displaced persons: refugees (country of origin): 39,261 (Chad), 16,983 (Nigeria), 9,634 (Cote d'Ivoire) (2004)

This page was last updated on 10 February, 2005

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@Canada

Introduction Canada

Background:
  A land of vast distances and rich natural resources, Canada became
  a self-governing dominion in 1867 while retaining ties to the
  British crown. Economically and technologically the nation has
  developed in parallel with the US, its neighbor to the south across
  an unfortified border. Canada's paramount political problem is
  meeting public demands for quality improvements in health care and
  education services after a decade of budget cuts. The issue of
  reconciling Quebec's francophone heritage with the majority
  anglophone Canadian population has moved to the back burner in
  recent years; support for separatism abated after the Quebec
  government's referendum on independence failed to pass in October of
  1995.

Geography Canada

Location:
  Northern North America, bordering the North Atlantic Ocean on the
  east, North Pacific Ocean on the west, and the Arctic Ocean on the
  north, north of the conterminous US

Geographic coordinates:
  60 00 N, 95 00 W

Map references:
  North America

Area:
  total: 9,984,670 sq km
  land: 9,093,507 sq km
  water: 891,163 sq km

Area - comparative:
  somewhat larger than the US

Land boundaries: total: 8,893 km border countries: US 8,893 km (includes 2,477 km with Alaska)

Coastline:
  202,080 km

Maritime claims:
  territorial sea: 12 nm
  continental shelf: 200 nm or to the edge of the continental margin
  contiguous zone: 24 nm
  exclusive economic zone: 200 nm

Climate:
  varies from temperate in south to subarctic and arctic in north

Terrain:
  mostly plains with mountains in west and lowlands in southeast

Elevation extremes:
  lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m
  highest point: Mount Logan 5,959 m

Natural resources:
  iron ore, nickel, zinc, copper, gold, lead, molybdenum, potash,
  diamonds, silver, fish, timber, wildlife, coal, petroleum, natural
  gas, hydropower

Land use:
  arable land: 4.96%
  permanent crops: 0.02%
  other: 95.02% (2001)

Irrigated land:
  7,200 sq km (1998 est.)

Natural hazards:
  continuous permafrost in north is a serious obstacle to
  development; cyclonic storms form east of the Rocky Mountains, a
  result of the mixing of air masses from the Arctic, Pacific, and
  North American interior, and produce most of the country's rain and
  snow east of the mountains

Environment - current issues:
  air pollution and resulting acid rain severely affecting lakes and
  damaging forests; metal smelting, coal-burning utilities, and
  vehicle emissions impacting on agricultural and forest productivity;
  ocean waters becoming contaminated due to agricultural, industrial,
  mining, and forestry activities

Environment - international agreements:
  party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air
  Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Sulfur 85,
  Air Pollution-Sulfur 94, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol,
  Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Seals, Antarctic
  Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol,
  Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification,
  Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer
  Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94,
  Wetlands
  signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds,
  Marine Life Conservation

Geography - note:
  second-largest country in world (after Russia); strategic location
  between Russia and US via north polar route; approximately 90% of
  the population is concentrated within 160 km of the US border

People Canada

Population:
  32,507,874 (July 2004 est.)

Age structure:
  0-14 years: 18.2% (male 3,038,800; female 2,890,579)
  15-64 years: 68.7% (male 11,225,686; female 11,111,941)
  65 years and over: 13% (male 1,807,472; female 2,433,396) (2004 est.)

Median age:
  total: 38.2 years
  male: 37.2 years
  female: 39.2 years (2004 est.)

Population growth rate:
  0.92% (2004 est.)

Birth rate:
  10.91 births/1,000 population (2004 est.)

Death rate:
  7.67 deaths/1,000 population (2004 est.)

Net migration rate:
  5.96 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2004 est.)

Sex ratio:
  at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
  under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
  15-64 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
  65 years and over: 0.74 male(s)/female
  total population: 0.98 male(s)/female (2004 est.)

Infant mortality rate:
  total: 4.82 deaths/1,000 live births
  female: 4.33 deaths/1,000 live births (2004 est.)
  male: 5.28 deaths/1,000 live births

Life expectancy at birth:
  total population: 79.96 years
  male: 76.59 years
  female: 83.5 years (2004 est.)

Total fertility rate:
  1.61 children born/woman (2004 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
  0.3% (2003 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
  56,000 (2003 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths:
  1,500 (2003 est.)

Nationality:
  noun: Canadian(s)
  adjective: Canadian

Ethnic groups:
  British Isles origin 28%, French origin 23%, other European 15%,
  Amerindian 2%, other, mostly Asian, African, Arab 6%, mixed
  background 26%

Religions:
  Roman Catholic 46%, Protestant 36%, other 18%
  note: based on the 1991 census

Languages:
  English 59.3% (official), French 23.2% (official), other 17.5%

Literacy:
  definition: age 15 and over can read and write
  total population: 97% (1986 est.)
  male: NA
  female: NA

Government Canada

Country name: conventional long form: none conventional short form: Canada

Government type:
  confederation with parliamentary democracy

Capital:
  Ottawa

Administrative divisions:
  10 provinces and 3 territories*; Alberta, British Columbia,
  Manitoba, New Brunswick, Newfoundland and Labrador, Northwest
  Territories*, Nova Scotia, Nunavut*, Ontario, Prince Edward Island,
  Quebec, Saskatchewan, Yukon Territory*

Independence:
  1 July 1867 (union of British North American colonies); 11 December
  1931 (independence recognized)

National holiday:
  Canada Day, 1 July (1867)

Constitution:
  17 April 1982 (Constitution Act); originally, the machinery of the
  government was set up in the British North America Act of 1867;
  charter of rights and unwritten customs

Legal system:
  based on English common law, except in Quebec, where civil law
  system based on French law prevails; accepts compulsory ICJ
  jurisdiction, with reservations

Suffrage:
  18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
  chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952),
  represented by Governor General Adrienne CLARKSON (since 7 October
  1999)
  elections: none; the monarchy is hereditary; governor general
  appointed by the monarch on the advice of the prime minister for a
  five-year term; following legislative elections, the leader of the
  majority party or the leader of the majority coalition in the House
  of Commons is automatically designated prime minister by the
  governor general
  head of government: Prime Minister Paul MARTIN (since 12 December
  2003); Deputy Prime Minister Anne MCLELLAN (since 12 December 2003)
  cabinet: Federal Ministry chosen by the prime minister from among
  the members of his own party sitting in Parliament

Legislative branch:
  bicameral Parliament or Parlement consists of the Senate or Senat
  (members appointed by the governor general with the advice of the
  prime minister and serve until reaching 75 years of age; its normal
  limit is 105 senators) and the House of Commons or Chambre des
  Communes (308 seats; members elected by direct, popular vote to
  serve for up to five-year terms)
  elections: House of Commons - last held 28 June 2004 (next to be
  held by NA 2009)
  election results: House of Commons - percent of vote by party -
  Liberal Party 36.7%, Conservative Party 29.6%, New Democratic Party
  15.7%, Bloc Quebecois 12.4%, Greens 4.3%, independents 0.4%, other
  0.9%; seats by party - Liberal Party 134, Conservative Party 99,
  Bloc Quebecois 54, New Democratic Party 19, independent 2

Judicial branch:
  Supreme Court of Canada (judges are appointed by the prime minister
  through the governor general); Federal Court of Canada; Federal
  Court of Appeal; Provincial Courts (these are named variously Court
  of Appeal, Court of Queens Bench, Superior Court, Supreme Court, and
  Court of Justice)

Political parties and leaders:
  Bloc Quebecois [Gilles DUCEPPE]; Conservative Party of Canada (a
  merger of the Canadian Alliance and the Progressive Conservative
  Party) [Stephen HARPER]; Liberal Party [Paul MARTIN]; New Democratic
  Party [Jack LAYTON]

Political pressure groups and leaders:
  NA

International organization participation:
  ACCT, AfDB, APEC, ARF, AsDB, ASEAN (dialogue partner), Australia
  Group, BIS, C, CDB, CE (observer), EAPC, EBRD, ESA (cooperating
  state), FAO, G-7, G-8, G-10, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICCt,
  ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO,
  Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, MIGA, MINUSTAH, MONUC, NAM (guest),
  NATO, NEA, NSG, OAS, OECD, OPCW, OSCE, Paris Club, PCA, UN, UNAMSIL,
  UNCTAD, UNDOF, UNESCO, UNFICYP, UNHCR, UNMOVIC, UNTSO, UPU, WCL,
  WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTO, ZC

Diplomatic representation in the US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador Michael F. KERGIN
  chancery: 501 Pennsylvania Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20001
  FAX: [1] (202) 682-7726
  telephone: [1] (202) 682-1740
  consulate(s) general: Atlanta, Boston, Buffalo, Chicago, Dallas,
  Detroit, Los Angeles, Miami, Minneapolis, New York, and Seattle
  consulate(s): Anchorage, Denver, Houston, Philadelphia,
  Raleigh-Durham, San Diego, San Francisco (trade office), and San
  Jose (trade office)

Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Paul CELLUCCI embassy: 490 Sussex Drive, Ottawa, Ontario K1N 1G8 mailing address: P. O. Box 5000, Ogdensburgh, NY 13669-0430 telephone: [1] (613) 238-5335, 4470 FAX: [1] (613) 688-3082 consulate(s) general: Calgary, Halifax, Montreal, Quebec, Toronto, Vancouver, Winnipeg

Flag description:
  two vertical bands of red (hoist and fly side, half width), with
  white square between them; an 11-pointed red maple leaf is centered
  in the white square; the official colors of Canada are red and white

Economy Canada

Economy - overview:
  As an affluent, high-tech industrial society, Canada today closely
  resembles the US in its market-oriented economic system, pattern of
  production, and high living standards. Since World War II, the
  impressive growth of the manufacturing, mining, and service sectors
  has transformed the nation from a largely rural economy into one
  primarily industrial and urban. The 1989 US-Canada Free Trade
  Agreement (FTA) and the 1994 North American Free Trade Agreement
  (NAFTA) (which includes Mexico) touched off a dramatic increase in
  trade and economic integration with the US. As a result of the close
  cross-border relationship, the economic sluggishness in the United
  States in 2001-02 had a negative impact on the Canadian economy.
  Real growth averaged nearly 3% during 1993-2000, but declined in
  2001, with moderate recovery in 2002-03. Unemployment is up, with
  contraction in the manufacturing and natural resource sectors.
  Nevertheless, given its great natural resources, skilled labor
  force, and modern capital plant Canada enjoys solid economic
  prospects. Solid fiscal management has produced a long-term budget
  surplus which is substantially reducing the national debt, although
  public debate continues over how to manage the rising cost of the
  publicly funded healthcare system. Trade accounts for roughly a
  third of GDP. Canada enjoys a substantial trade surplus with its
  principal trading partner, the United States, which absorbs more
  than 85% of Canadian exports. Roughly 90% of the population lives
  within 160 kilometers of the US border.

GDP:
  purchasing power parity - $958.7 billion (2003 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:
  1.7% (2003 est.)

GDP - per capita:
  purchasing power parity - $29,800 (2003 est.)

GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 2.2% industry: 29.2% services: 68.6% (2003 est.)

Investment (gross fixed):
  19.5% of GDP (2003)

Population below poverty line:
  NA

Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: 2.8% highest 10%: 23.8% (1994)

Distribution of family income - Gini index:
  31.5 (1994)

Inflation rate (consumer prices):
  2.8% (2003 est.)

Labor force:
  17.04 million (2003 est.)

Labor force - by occupation: agriculture 3%, manufacturing 15%, construction 5%, services 74%, other 3% (2000)

Unemployment rate:
  7.8% (2003 est.)

Budget:
  revenues: $348.2 billion
  expenditures: $342.7 billion, including capital expenditures of NA
  (2003 est.)

Public debt:
  77% of GDP (2003)

Agriculture - products:
  wheat, barley, oilseed, tobacco, fruits, vegetables; dairy
  products; forest products; fish

Industries:
  transportation equipment, chemicals, processed and unprocessed
  minerals, food products; wood and paper products; fish products,
  petroleum and natural gas

Industrial production growth rate:
  0.2% (2003 est.)

Electricity - production:
  566.3 billion kWh (2001)

Electricity - consumption:
  504.4 billion kWh (2001)

Electricity - exports:
  38.4 billion kWh (2001)

Electricity - imports:
  16.11 billion kWh (2001)

Oil - production:
  2.738 million bbl/day (2001 est.)

Oil - consumption:
  1.703 million bbl/day (2001 est.)

Oil - exports:
  2.008 million bbl/day (2001)

Oil - imports:
  1.145 million bbl/day (2001)

Oil - proved reserves:
  5.112 billion bbl (1 January 2002)

Natural gas - production:
  186.8 billion cu m (2001 est.)

Natural gas - consumption:
  82.25 billion cu m (2001 est.)

Natural gas - exports:
  109 billion cu m (2001 est.)

Natural gas - imports:
  4.46 billion cu m (2001 est.)

Natural gas - proved reserves:
  1.691 trillion cu m (1 January 2002)

Current account balance:
  $18.63 billion (2003)

Exports:
  $279.3 billion f.o.b. (2003 est.)

Exports - commodities:
  motor vehicles and parts, industrial machinery, aircraft,
  telecommunications equipment; chemicals, plastics, fertilizers; wood
  pulp, timber, crude petroleum, natural gas, electricity, aluminum

Exports - partners:
  US 86.6%, Japan 2.1%, UK 1.4% (2003)

Imports:
  $240.4 billion f.o.b. (2003 est.)

Imports - commodities:
  machinery and equipment, motor vehicles and parts, crude oil,
  chemicals, electricity, durable consumer goods

Imports - partners:
  US 60.6%, China 5.6%, Japan 4.1% (2003)

Reserves of foreign exchange & gold:
  $36.27 billion (2003)

Debt - external:
  $1.9 billion (2000)

Economic aid - donor:
  ODA, $1.3 billion (1999)

Currency:
  Canadian dollar (CAD)

Currency code:
  CAD

Exchange rates:
  Canadian dollars per US dollar - 1.4011 (2003), 1.5693 (2002),
  1.5488 (2001), 1.4851 (2000), 1.4857 (1999)

Fiscal year:
  1 April - 31 March

Communications Canada

Telephones - main lines in use:
  19,950,900 (2003)

Telephones - mobile cellular:
  13,221,800 (2003)

Telephone system:
  general assessment: excellent service provided by modern technology
  domestic: domestic satellite system with about 300 earth stations
  international: country code - 1-xxx; 5 coaxial submarine cables;
  satellite earth stations - 5 Intelsat (4 Atlantic Ocean and 1
  Pacific Ocean) and 2 Intersputnik (Atlantic Ocean region)

Radio broadcast stations:
  AM 535, FM 53, shortwave 6 (1998)

Radios:
  32.3 million (1997)

Television broadcast stations:
  80 (plus many repeaters) (1997)

Televisions:
  21.5 million (1997)

Internet country code:
  .ca

Internet hosts:
  3,210,081 (2003)

Internet Service Providers (ISPs):
  760 (2000 est.)

Internet users:
  16.11 million (2002)

Transportation Canada

Railways: total: 48,909 km standard gauge: 48,909 km 1.435-m gauge (2003)

Highways:
  total: 1,408,800 km
  paved: 497,306 km (including 16,900 km of expressways)
  unpaved: 911,494 km (2002)

Waterways:
  631 km
  note: Saint Lawrence Seaway of 3,769 km, including the Saint
  Lawrence River of 3,058 km, shared with United States (2003)

Pipelines:
  crude and refined oil 23,564 km; liquid petroleum gas 74,980 km
  (2003)

Ports and harbors:
  Becancour (Quebec), Churchill, Halifax, Hamilton, Montreal, New
  Westminster, Prince Rupert, Quebec, Saint John (New Brunswick), St.
  John's (Newfoundland), Sept Isles, Sydney, Trois-Rivieres, Thunder
  Bay, Toronto, Vancouver, Windsor

Merchant marine:
  total: 119 ships (1,000 GRT or over) 1,784,229 GRT/2,657,499 DWT
  foreign-owned: Germany 3, Hong Kong 2, Monaco 18, United Kingdom 3,
  United States 2
  registered in other countries: 43 (2004 est.)
  by type: barge carrier 1, bulk 59, cargo 13, chemical tanker 6,
  combination bulk 2, combination ore/oil 1, passenger 2,
  passenger/cargo 1, petroleum tanker 18, rail car carrier 1, roll
  on/roll off 11, short-sea/passenger 3, specialized tanker 1

Airports:
  1,357 (2003 est.)

Airports - with paved runways: total: 503 over 3,047 m: 18 2,438 to 3,047 m: 15 914 to 1,523 m: 245 under 914 m: 75 (2004 est.) 1,524 to 2,437 m: 150

Airports - with unpaved runways: total: 823 1,524 to 2,437 m: 67 914 to 1,523 m: 347 under 914 m: 409 (2004 est.)

Heliports: 12 (2003 est.)

Military Canada

Military branches:
  Canadian Armed Forces: Land Forces Command, Maritime Command, Air
  Command

Military manpower - military age and obligation:
  16 years of age for voluntary military service (2001)

Military manpower - availability:
  males age 15-49: 8,417,314 (2004 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:
  males age 15-49: 7,176,642 (2004 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
  males: 214,623 (2004 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure:
  $9,801.7 million (2003)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP:
  1.1% (2003)

Transnational Issues Canada

Disputes - international:
  managed maritime boundary disputes with the US at Dixon Entrance,
  Beaufort Sea, Strait of Juan de Fuca, and around the disputed
  Machias Seal Island and North Rock; uncontested dispute with Denmark
  over Hans Island sovereignty in the Kennedy Channel between
  Ellesmere Island and Greenland

Illicit drugs:
  illicit producer of cannabis for the domestic drug market and
  export to US; use of hydroponics technology permits growers to plant
  large quantities of high-quality marijuana indoors; transit point
  for heroin and cocaine entering the US market; vulnerable to
  narcotics money laundering because of its mature financial services
  sector

This page was last updated on 10 February, 2005

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