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Title: The Memoirs of Charles-Lewis, Baron de Pollnitz, Volume I

Author: Freiherr von Karl Ludwig Pöllnitz

Release date: January 5, 2012 [eBook #38495]
Most recently updated: January 8, 2021

Language: English

Credits: Produced by Robert Connal, Henry Gardiner and the Online
Distributed Proofreading Team at (This
file was produced from images generously made available
by the Bibliothèque nationale de France (BnF/Gallica) at


Transcriber's Note: The original publication has been replicated faithfully except as listed here.

Lestevenon de Berkenroode Lestevenon de Berkenroode





Baron de Pollnitz.


The OBSERVATIONS He made in his
late Travels from Prussia thro'


In LETTERS to his Friend.

Discovering not only the PRESENT STATE
of the Chief Cities and Towns;


The CHARACTERS of the Principal Persons
at the Several COURTS.


Vol. I.

The Second Edition, with Additions.
Printed for Daniel Browne, at the Black Swan,
without Temple-Bar. M.dcc.xxxix.






ADDENDA to Vol. Ixviii

ADDENDA to Vol. IIxxi


































To the Right Honourable

Philip, Lord Hardwicke;

Baron of Hardwicke, in the
County of Gloucester;

Lord High Chancellor
of Great Britain;


One of the Lords of His Majesty's most
Honourable Privy Council.
My Lord,

The good Reception these Memoirs, which I most humbly offer to your Lordship, have met with Abroad; and the Protection and Favour the Author has obtain'd at one of the Chief Protestant Courts of Europe; encourage me, tho' with the profoundest Submission, to intreat your Lordship's favourable Acceptance of this Translation.


'Tis, my Lord, the only Homage I am capable of paying your Lordship, and the best Testimony I can give with what Zeal and Pleasure I join in the Congratulation of the Public for that illustrious Regard paid to your Lordship's Merit, and Their Wishes, by his Sacred Majesty, this Day in Council.

That your Lordship may very long enjoy a sufficient Portion of Health, equal to the Abilities of your Great Mind, for supporting you under that vast Weight of Service which you have now taken upon you for your King and Country, is the hearty Prayer of all good Englishmen; and particularly of Him, My Lord, who has the Honour to subscribe

Your Lordship's
Most Devoted,
Most Obedient, and
Most Humble Servant.




By the Translator.

The Author of these Memoirs, who is a Person of an honourable Family in Prussia, and confess'd by all that know him to be a Gentleman of extraordinary Talents, is one that may be truly said to have seen the World; he having not only travell'd twice thro' the principal Parts of Europe, but by his Acquaintance with People of the first Rank, and a diligent Inquiry and nice Inspection into Men and Things, attained to that Knowledge of Both, which is of such Service and Entertainment to Mankind in the general, and so particularly necessary for All who attend to what is doing in high Life.

He has succeeded very happily in the right Narrative Stile; and the French Language, in which he wrote the following Letters, seems to be as natural to him as if it was his Mother-Tongue. But the Thing which has most contributed to the Demand for these Memoirs, is the Multitude of Characters that the Baron has interspers'd, not only of the Deceas'd, but evenvi of Persons that are still living, and distinguish'd by the exalted Spheres in which they move.

That every one of those Characters is equally just, or that every Circumstance relating to them is told with the utmost Exactness, is not to be imagin'd: For supposing the Author to have been ever so circumspect and impartial, how was it possible for him to take the true Likeness of every one, in such a Variety of Personages of both Sexes, and to be perfectly sure of every Particular that he mentions; since he could not be Eye-Witness of every thing, and must be oblig'd for many to Information from other Persons, of whom, 'tis no wonder if some were prejudic'd? But to do the Baron Justice, it must be allow'd, that he no where fails in that Respect and Decorum to Princes which are their due; and that he has not discover'd a predominant Passion for Satire: because where he has painted in the strongest Colours, and represented his Subjects in the most disadvantageous Light, they were such whose Follies or whose Vices were too flagrant and notorious to be either conceal'd or disguis'd: And, considering the Groupe of Courtiers whom he has crouded into his Canvass, the Reader will rather be surpris'd to meet with so few Imperfections in his Characters, and so many excellent Qualities. By this means, his Memoirs have, upon the whole, done Honour to his Understanding, without offending his Conscience, or hurting his Fortune;vii he being, at this very time, upon a handsome Establishment at the Court of Prussia.

It cannot possibly escape the Observation of the Reader, that the Baron, when he wrote these Letters to his noble Friend, was a profess'd Member of the Church of Rome; but that nevertheless, he was not such a Bigot to its Constitution, nor such a Believer in the Legends of its Writers, or the pretended Miracles of its Saints, as to incur the Character of a blind and furious Zealot; it appearing on the contrary, from several Declarations of his Mind in the following Pages, that he did not want Charity either in his Nature or Principles for those from whom he differ'd in religious Sentiments. Such a Catholic Spirit, assisted by his good Sense, made it, no doubt, much easier for him, after reflecting upon the Fopperies and Impostures which he had seen in that Church during his Travels, to abjure the Romish and to embrace the Protestant Religion, which he did accordingly with great Devotion last Summer, at Berlin; after which, his Prussian Majesty was pleas'd to distinguish him with peculiar Marks of his Favour and Esteem, by declaring him one of the Gentlemen of his Bed-Chamber, and Chief Cup-Bearer of his Court; and he has very lately given him a considerable Prebend.

To the new Edition of his Memoirs, from which the following Sheets are translated, there's not only a great number of material Additions in the Body of the Work, as is observ'd by the Editorviii of it, Amsterdam, but several new Notes: In this Translation, these Notes are likewise considerably augmented, for the sake of continuing the Thread of the History to the present Time, by the Notice taken of certain remarkable Alterations, or other curious Particulars that have happen'd to the Persons or the Places mentioned, since 1734, when the said Edition was publish'd.

One great Defect for which the foreign Editor has been very much blam'd, was the want of a Table to these Memoirs; which, if not absolutely necessary in a Work of this kind, wherein so many Persons and Facts are mentioned, cannot be necessary for any Book whatsoever that comes from the Press. To supply this Defect, the Translator has added an Alphabetical Index to each of the two Volumes; which Indexes are the more copious, that the Reader might know where to turn in an Instant for some Account of the Characters, Conduct, or Familys of those public Personages, whose Names so often occur in the News-Papers.








There are very few Books without a Preface; and that there are so, is in a great measure owing to the Fancy of the Booksellers, who think them to be absolutely necessary, and too often judge of the merit of a Copy by the Flights of its Preface, and the insinuating Tone of the Author's Voice in reading it. I had the misfortune to fall into the hands of one of these Booksellers, so fond of Prefaces, whom nothing would serve but he must have one at the Head of my Memoirs. My telling him that I did not know what to put into a Preface, signify'd no more than if I had been talking to a Post; for he threaten'd to get a Preface compos'd by an Author who wrote for Wages. This startled me, and I trembled for the fate of my Book, not doubting that a Preface written by a Man of Letters, who made it his profession to compose such marvellous Pieces, would altogether eclipse the few Excellencies in this Work of mine. What, said I to myself, the Sale of my Book then must depend only on the Goodness of the Preface, which, when the Readers compare with the Book it self, they will say, O! what a wonderful Man is the Author of the Preface! What a pitiful Writer, the Compiler of the Memoirs! No, said I again to my self, I am resolv'd that the Preface and the Book shall run the same risk; and sincex Chance has enter'd me an Author, I'll play out the whole part of one.

I am told, that the Design of a Preface is to give the Publick an account, in the first place, of the Reasons that have engag'd the Author to compose his Work; that then he is to inform the Publick, that 'tis in meer Complaisance to his Friends, and because there are mangled Copies of his Manuscript abroad, that he has been determined to put it to the Press; and finally, that he is to conclude with a sort of Petition, wherein he is to beg the Reader's Indulgence for his Productions. This, I have been assured, is the Plan of a Preface; let us now see how well I can execute it.

As to the first Article, viz. what Motives I had to write, I sincerely own that when I set Pen to Paper, I meant nothing more than to amuse myself. I was the farthest in the World from thinking that I should one day be overtaken with the Temptation of setting up for an Author. I wrote Letters to a Friend of mine, purely to divert him with an Account of such things as came in my way; the Minutes of which Letters I preserved till I had insensibly formed a Volume of 'em; and having nothing else to do, I augmented and digested them in the manner that I now give them to the Publick. The truth is, that my Friends have not used the least Importunity with me to commit my Manuscript to the Press, nor was it possible for any spurious Copies of it to get abroad, because no body ever saw it till I put it into the hands of the Bookseller.

But I shall be ask'd, what possess'd me to commence Author, and how came I to be so idle as to put my Name at the Head of a sorry book? I must answer again, that it was downright Indolence. As to my Name, it would have been very difficult to have concealed it from Persons to whom I have the greatest Obligations. I should have been suspected to have been the Author of these Memoirs at certain Courts, for which I have a Respect both by Inclination and Duty; and perhaps,xi if I had left this Copy to the wide World, as some do those Foundlings which they are asham'd to own, such Passages might have been foisted into it, as would have been father'd upon me, in spite of all Protestations of my Innocence.

As to the Book itself, I am apt to think there is nothing in it that any Person whatsoever ought to take offence at. When I speak of Sovereign Princes, 'tis with the Reverence due to the Lord's Anointed; and I also endeavour to honour them in their Ministers, being taught by my Religion that I ought to honour God in his Saints. I have done my utmost to paint the true Characters of People in Place, and can safely say, that my Authorities are not meer hear-says or scraps out of News-Papers; for, thank to God, my Birth and Fortune have put me in a capacity to see, hear, and judge for myself.

It will be thought perhaps, that when I speak of Nations in general, I judge too rashly. It may be so; this being an Article especially in which all Men do not think alike. The French have a quite different Idea of the Germans from what the English have, and the English do not pass the same Verdict on the French as the Swedes do. 'Tis the same in private Life. Every one makes his own Condition the Standard of his Judgment. The Man of Quality, the Citizen, the Soldier, the Merchant, have all different Ideas. The Traveller judges of the Nation where he is, by the Company he keeps. A Frenchman who in Germany converses with none but those of the second Class, will say that the Germans are honest People, but clownish; whereas another, who keeps company with Persons of Quality, or those in Offices, will agree, that the Germans are more polite than they have been painted by certain French Writers, who have been transplanted to Germany either by their Distresses, or by meer Chance. So, a German, who, when he is at Paris, sees no better Company than the Marchionesses of thexii Suburb of St. Germain, imagines that all the Women both at Court and in the City are like them. In fine, a Foreigner who takes up his Residence in the City of London, will entertain a different Idea of the English from what another shall do who lodges at St. James's end of the town. They are, as one may say, so many different Nations in one and the same State, which stand in little relation to one another; and sometimes attribute Virtues and Vices to each other without due Consideration. A Foreigner therefore can form a solid Judgment of none but those with whom he is conversant; and if he has the good luck to pitch his Tent well, he entertains an advantageous Opinion of the Nation in general. Let Foreigners, when they return home, after having kept such various sorts of Company, sit down to draw the Characters of the Nations they have seen, I do but think what a strange difference would appear in their Descriptions! The Judgment therefore which I make of People, is founded upon the Company I kept, and upon what I heard from such Inhabitants of the Country as appear'd to me to be altogether unprejudiced, and were pleased to honour me with their Information. I do not say but, after all, I may have been mistaken; for I do not pretend to have painted things in any other light than as they appear'd to me. If, nevertheless, any particular Person thinks himself particularly intended when I speak of the Inhabitants of any Province or Town in general, I beg him to remember, that I confess in my Memoirs there are worthy People in all parts of the World, and 'tis not my fault if his Conscience does not permit him to rank himself in that number.

No doubt I shall be reproach'd for relating too many Trifles, and passing too lightly over things of greater Importance. To speak freely again, I will make no difficulty to own, that, if when I began these Memoirs, I had ever thought of printing them, the desire of promoting their Sale might perhaps have put upon insertingxiii a great many Nothings which I omitted, as not thinking it worth while to charge my Memory with 'em. The far greatest part of what the World reads is Trifles, and a History will make its fortune not by the instructive Facts that are in it, but by the Romantic Turn the Author gives it. Besides, I am not so vain as to write with a design of Instructing; for what could I relate in my Travels which others have not done before me in better Terms? To talk of Learned Men, to make a Catalogue of Books and MSS. that are to be met with in Libraries, to ransack the Cabinet of the Curious, to publish Inscriptions, to treat of antique Medals, to affirm that I have seen an Otho of Brass, which is known to be but of Silver, what a Posse of Men of Learning would rise up against me! Whereas, now I fear nothing; the Learned don't read Trifles, or if they do, they scorn to criticise them. I shall to them remain unknown, or at least, my Meanness will be my Protection against their Indignation.

I would fain be as secure against the Criticism of those, who reading for the sake of their amusement, require an exact, elegant Stile in trifles, that is, adorn'd with the Flowers and Garlands of Rhetorick. But how shall I gain their Indulgence? If I own to them that I could do no better, they will say to me, and justly enough, Alas! then what made you write? To which I shall answer, as I said before, that it was meerly for want of something else to do. If they will but forgive me this time, I assure them that I not only will never relapse into the same error, but that I shall not be sorry if they disdain to take Notice of my Book: And if the reading of these Memoirs inclines them to sleep, I shall think my self very well rewarded for having contributed to their Repose.

After all, I am more particularly obliged to ask pardon of the French than any other Nation: 'Tis in their Language I have presumed to write, and they are my proper Judges. Such is their Politeness and their xivReadiness to assist Foreigners, that I doubt not of Mercy. And in return, I promise them, that if a Frenchman ever vouchsafes to write in the German Language, I will forgive him any Errors that he may commit.

ADVERTISEMENT by the Editor.

N. B. "These Memoirs went off so quick, that before they had been out scarce six Months, the French Bookseller was oblig'd to prepare for this Second Edition; to which, there are considerable Additions both in the Body of the Work and in the Notes, of curious and interesting Facts and Characters, and the principal Alterations that have happen'd at the several Courts, since the first Edition.

"There is added in particular, a very circumstantial Account of the present Elector of Saxony's Family, his Ministers, and Officers; and in short, of the Chief Persons of both Sexes belonging to his Court and Houshold. This is prefix'd in the Original, at the Head of the Memoirs; but the Translator thought it more regular as well as more consistent with the Method observ'd every where else by the Author, to place it at the End of his Description of the City of Dresden. The Baron has dedicated that Account to the present Elector (Augustus, King of Poland) and introduc'd it with the following Preface."





To the Second Edition.

The Present State of the Court of Saxony, which is added to this Edition, has no need of a Preface to recommend it, the very Title shewing that 'tis what concerns every Saxon especially to be acquainted with.

All Subjects have a desire to know something of their Sovereign; and private Men in every State have this Curiosity, with respect to their Ministers and Courtiers. These are the Characters which I have ventured to draw, tho' I own, that I don't think I have always hit the Life, for want of that Penetration and Delicacy of Imagination which Nature, to me a Step-Mother, has deny'd me; and also because it would have been necessary for me to have stay'd longer than I did at Dresden. Three Months Residence at so great a Court, are hardly sufficient to make a Man acquainted with it, were his Fund of Knowledge even as deep as mine is shallow. Then what a Presumption would it be for me to think I have attained to it!

I must not dissemble, that this Book with all its Imperfections, has cost me more trouble in composing than one much larger would have done upon a Subject that had been more familiar to me. There was a necessity for me to make Inquiry into many Particulars, and to get some of my Information from a private hand. I own my Obligation to the Civility of M. Konig, the Counsellor of the Court, for the Intelligence I wantedxvi relating to some of the Court-Nobility. If I had been so happy as to have found out but one or two Persons more as active for me as he was, my Work would have been more correct and more extensive. Such as it is, I intreat the Reader to accept it, and to forgive any Errors in it, in consideration that I am the first who has ventured to treat of such a Subject. I own, there is a certain degree of Rashness in the Undertaking, but the noble Motive that has induc'd me to it, seems to plead for my excuse.

All Saxony knows in general, that 'tis govern'd by a Sovereign, gracious, and vigilant to render it happy. It were needless to set the King's Virtues and Actions before their Eyes, which the People already admire, and pray for him. But as this Great Prince does not want those who envy his Glory, they are the Persons whom I have chose to make asham'd of themselves; and have endeavoured, if possible, to reclaim others whom a fatal blindness keeps at a distance from his Majesty's Person[1].

All that ever had the honour of approaching Augustus III. will agree with me that he adorns that Throne, upon which a respectful Nation has plac'd him; and that whatever I have said of this Monarch is short of what might be mention'd. How is it possible to give the true Portraiture of a King born without Vice, by Principle virtuous, and religiously good? To admire him in silence is the only way to please him, which I know too well, not to conform to it; and therefore I have not presum'd to expatiate so far in his Praise as the Sublimity of the Subject demands.

The same Aversion of the Queen to Praise, has confin'd me within the same bounds. How many Virtues have not I been forc'd to smother? What Thoughts xviihave not I sacrific'd, lest I should offend the noble Modesty of that August Princess, who with a Simplicity attending her Grandeur, makes her Glory to consist in being humble in the midst of Honours?

I believe no body will dispute the Truth of what I have advanc'd relating to the Prince Royal and Electoral, the Princes his Brothers, and the Princesses his Sisters. The hopes I have raised of what may be expected from their Royal Highnesses, will surely be confirm'd by Time, and by all those who have access to them.

The Actions of the Duke John-Adolphus of Saxe-Weissenfels are so well establish'd that I have not thought fit to anticipate History, by which they are to be consecrated: And for the same reason, I have but just touch'd upon the amiable Qualities of his Mind, which are rever'd both by the Court and the Army.

As to the Princess of Saxe-Weissenfels, I frankly own, that as I had not the honour of paying my Court to her, what I have said of her Virtues has no other Authority than the Voice of the Publick, which can never speak enough in her Praise.

I have been more copious in treating of the Ministers; and what I have said of them is so true, that they who know them not may thereby form a just Idea of what they are.

I have taken as much notice of the principal Lords and the most distinguish'd Ladies of the Court, as the little time I had for this Work, and the Limits to which I was confin'd, would permit. I flatter myself they will forgive the Freedom with which I use them; and hope I have preserv'd a Decency in my Language which will secure me from Reproach.




ADDENDA to Vol. I.

Pap. 15. M. Beausobre, Minister of the Gospel at Berlin, and Author of several learned Treatises, died in May 1738.

P. 26. The Princess of Brandenburg-Schwedt, fourth Daughter of the King of Prussia, was deliver'd of a Daughter in April 1738.

P. 27. The Count de Truchses-Walbourg, Major-General in the Service of the King of Prussia, died at Berlin in April 1738.

P. 34. In July 1738, his Prussian Majesty, together with the Prince Royal and Prince William, made a Tour to Holland, and paid a Visit to his most Serene Highness the Prince of Orange.

P. 66. His Excellency Baron Hattorf, Secretary of State for the Affairs of Hanover, died in August 1737.

P. 70. Christina-Louisa, Princess of Oetingen, died in 1736.

P. 72. Philippina-Charlotte, Duchess of Brunswic-Wolfembuttle, and third Daughter to the King of Prussia, after having had two Sons by Duke Charles her Husband, viz. the first born in 1735, and the other, who is called George-Francis, in 1736, was deliver'd also of a Daughter in September 1737, who in the Month following was baptiz'd by the Names of Christina-Sophia-Maria.

P. 105. M. de Miltitz, who was Tutor to the present King Augustus when he was Electoral Prince of Saxony, died in March 1738.


P. 113. The Princess Royal of Poland was married in July 1738, to Don Carlos King of Naples and Sicily.

P. 130. The Count de Sulkowski in January 1738 fell under some Disgrace, so that his Majesty order'd his Papers to be seal'd up, and excused him from farther Attendance on him, but was willing he should keep the Title and Rank of Minister of the Cabinet, and General of the Foot, with 6000 Crowns Pension.

P. 140. Adolphus de Bruhl was in January 1738 appointed Grand-Master of the Horse, at the Saxon Court, in the room of the Count de Sulkowski.

P. 142. The Count de Moschinski died in September 1737.

P. 147. The Count de Diedrichstein died at Prague in September 1737. He was Baron of Hollenbourg, Finckenstein, Dahlberg and Landskroon, Hereditary Great Huntsman of Styria, Hereditary Cup-Bearer of Carinthia, Knight of the Order of St. John of Jerusalem, Grand Prior in Bohemia, Moravia, Silesia, Carinthia, Styria, Tirol, Austria and Poland, Bailiff of the aforesaid Order, and Commander of the Commanderies of Little Oels, Furstenfeld and Mosling, a Privy-Counsellor of the Emperor, and Governour-General of the Kingdom of Bohemia.

P. 168. The last Duke of Saxe-Mersebourg mention'd in the Note of that Page, died in May 1738.

P. 182. In April 1738, the Emperor appointed the Prince of Saxe-Gotha Lieutenant Velt-Marshal of his Armies; and in September following he solicited the Diet of Ratisbon for the Post of second Velt-Marshal-General of the Empire, in the Disposal of the Protestant States, vacant by the Death of the Baron de Wutgenau.


P. 182. Augusta Princess of Wales was deliver'd of a Princess on the 31st of July 1737, who was baptized after her own Name; and on the 24th of May 1738, she was deliver'd of a Prince who was baptiz'd George-William Frederic.

P. 208. The Margravine of Brandenbourg-Culmbach, Mother to the Queen of Denmark, died at Copenhagen in August 1737, in the 70th Year of her Age, very much lamented.

P. 220. Count Philip Kinski was made Chancellor of Bohemia, in May 1738, in the room of the late Count de Collowrat.

P. 233. The Archduchess, Wife to the Duke of Lorrain, had a Daughter, born January 25, 1737, and another born in September 1738.

P. 264. The eldest Son of the Duke Ferdinand of Bavaria, died in April 1738.

P. 266. The Count Maximilian de Fugger died at Vienna, in January 1738.

P. 266. The Count de Thirheim died in January 1738, at Lintz, the Capital of Upper Austria.

P. 285. Charles-Alexander Duke of Wirtemberg-Stutgard, died on the 1st of March 1737, and was succeeded by his eldest Son Eugene-Lewis the present Duke, who was born the 30th of January 1728.

P. 298. The Margrave of Baden-Dourlach died the first of May 1738, at Carelsruhe, who having no Issue living, is succeeded by Frederic of Witgenstein, who is marry'd to the Princess Augusta-Amelia-Albertina of Nassau-Siegen. The Deceased was 58 Years and near 11 Months of Age, being born the 17th of June 1679. He was a General in the Emperor's Army, and Great Master of the Artillery in the Circle of Suabia. By his Wife, a Daughter of the Duke of Wirtemberg-Stutgard, he had four Children, who arexxi all dead. When he laid the Plan and Foundation of the City and Castle of Carelsruhe, he gave equal Liberty of Conscience to the Lutherans, Calvinists, and Roman Catholics.

P. 321. The Cardinal de Schonborn died in August 1737.

P. 335. The Baron de Beveren, Grand Marshal at the Elector Palatine's Court, died there in January 1738.

P. 357. In January 1738, the Prince of Hesse-Hombourg was married to the Velt-Marshal Trubetskay's Daughter.

P. 362. After the Death of the Count of Hanau without Issue, the Succession was awarded to the Prince of Darmstad as next Heir, on condition of his paying 200000l. by way of Compensation to the House of Cassel.



Pag. 14. Cardinal Bissi died in August 1737.

P. 44. Cardinal Olivieri, Secretary of the Pope's Briefs, died at Rome in February 1738.

P. 61. Prince James Sobieski died in December 1737.

P. 136. On the 28th of June 1737, the Great Duke of Tuscany died in the 67th Year of his Age, and was succeeded by Francis Duke of Lorrain (who married the Emperor's Daughter) for whom possession was immediately taken of the Duchy by the German Forces.


Ferdinand, Duke of Courland, who is mentioned in the same Page, died in 1737; and the Nobility assembling at Mittau elected Count Biron, a Native, to succeed him.

P. 150. The Affairs of Corsica are very much alter'd since the first Edition of these Volumes. Baron Theodore having left the Island, and promis'd to return soon with Succours, went to Amsterdam, where he was confin'd for Debt; but being soon discharg'd by the Interest of some foreign Power, he proceeded to Paris, and thence to Marseilles, in order, as he gave out, to put himself again at the Head of the Corsicans: But during this the French having undertaken to be Mediators betwixt the Corsicans and Genoese, have, with the Approbation of both, sent a General thither with some Troops, and the Corsicans have agreed to send over a dozen of their chief Men to the Court of France as Hostages for their good Behaviour; but since this, Theodore has set his Foot again upon that Island.

P. 257. The Duke of Liria, Son and Successor to the late Marshal Duke of Berwic, died at Naples in May 1738.

P. 260. The Marshal d'Estrees died the 5th of December 1737.

P. 309. The Marshal de Wrangel, Governour of Brussels, died in August 1737, in the 87th Year of his Age.

P. 332. The Succession to the Duchies of Juliers and Berg, is an Affair which has been very much canvass'd for several Months past, between the Elector Palatine and the Courts of Prussia and Saxony. The maritime Powers of Great Britain and Holland have proposed an Accommodation, with regard to the Succession, into which the Elector Palatine is willing to enter; but the Courts of France, Prussia and Saxony don't concurxxiii with it; and France has guarantee'd the actual Possession of those Duchies to the Prince of Sultzbach.

P. 447. On the 20th of November 1737, Wilhelmina-Carolina Queen of Great Britain died of a Mortification in her Bowels; and on the 17th of December following she was privately interr'd in Westminster-Abbey.



BOOKS lately published,

1. The Third and Fourth Volumes of the MEMOIRS of Charles-Lewis Baron de Pollnitz being the Observations he made in his late Travels from Prussia thro' Poland, Germany, Italy, France, Spain, Flanders, Holland, England, &c. discovering not only the present State of the chief Cities and Towns, but the Characters of the principal Persons at the several Courts.

2. CYCLOPÆDIA; or, An Universal Dictionary of ARTS and SCIENCES: Containing, An Explication of the Terms, and an Account of the Things signified thereby in the several Arts, both Liberal and Mechanical, and the several Sciences, Human and Divine: The Figures, Kinds, Properties, Productions, Preparations and Uses of Things, Natural and Artificial: The Rise, Progress, and State of Things, Ecclesiastical, Civil, Military and Commercial; with the several Systems, Sects, Opinions, &c. among Philosophers, Divines, Mathematicians, Physicians, Antiquaries, Critics, &c. The Whole intended as a Course of Antient and Modern Learning, extracted from the best Authors, Dictionaries, Journals, Memoirs, Transactions, Ephemerides, &c. in several languages. By E. Chambers, F.R.S. The Second Edition, corrected and amended, with some Additions. In Two Volumes, Folio.

3. BAYLE's Great Historical and Critical Dictionary, the second Edition, carefully collated with the several Editions of the Original; in which many Passages are restored, and the Whole greatly augmented; particularly with a Translation of the Quotations from eminent Writers in various Languages: To which is prefixed, the Life of the Author, revised, corrected and enlarged, by Mr. Des Maizeaux, Fellow of the Royal Society; compleat in 5 Volumes, Folio.

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Baron de Pollnitz.



SIR,Berlin, June 6, 1729.  

From Breslaw to Berlin 'tis 40 German Miles of very even Country, well peopled and cultivated. There are I know not how many little Towns in the Road, not worth mentioning.

The first Place of any Importance is Crossen. This City is the Capital of the Dutchy from whence it has its Name, which formerly made a Part of Silesia, but is now annex'd to the Electorate of Brandenburgh. There's a Bridge at Crossen, by which we pass the River Oder, defended by Fortifications. The Town is situate in a pleasant fruitful Country. The Houses, which are all of Brick, are uniform, and the Streets as strait as a Line. The chief of them2 terminate in a great Square in the middle of the Town, where there is a Statue of the King of Prussia. The River Oder is of great advantage to the Commerce of Crossen, which carries on a considerable Trade in Linnen-Cloth and Earthen Ware.

Going out of Crossen, we pass this River by a Bridge, as we do a second time over to Francfort, a considerable City of the Marquisate of Brandenbourg, famous for its Fairs, and its University. This City has stood the Shock of various Revolutions. It was put under the Ban of the Empire by the Emperor Charles IV. for having disobey'd his Orders; and the Inhabitants to make him easy were forc'd to pay him down 12000 Marks of Silver, which at that time was an immense Sum. In 1631 the Swedes besieg'd and took it by Storm, when they put all the Inhabitants to the Sword in reprisal for the Massacre of 2000 Swedes, whom the Emperor's General Count Tilly had inhumanly put to death in the City of Brandenbourg. By the Peace of Munster, or Westphalia, which establish'd the Tranquility of the Empire, Francfort was restor'd to the Elector of Brandenbourg its lawful Sovereign.

Here is a University founded by Joachim I. (Margrave of Brandenbourg) in 1506, which is very much frequented by the Silesians, and by the Hungarian Protestants.

There are two Fairs a Year at Francfort, which render it a trading City, and its Commerce consists in Linnen-Cloth, and Fells.

'Tis ten Miles from Francfort to Berlin, and a flat sandy Country. The Road leads thro' Munchenbourg, a little Town chiefly inhabited by the Descendants of French Men, who left their Country upon the Revocation of the Edict of Nantes.

The nearer one comes to the Capital of Brandenbourg, the more sandy is the Soil, yet the Country produces plenty of Corn and Fruits.


Berlin is the common Residence of the King of Prussia, and one of the largest, best built, and best govern'd Cities in all Germany. The Streets are spacious, strait, neat and well pav'd. The Situation is advantageous; for tho' it lies in a very sandy Soil, yet it is encompass'd with agreeable Gardens producing Fruits and excellent Pulse, and its Commerce is much improv'd by the River Spree; which passes thro' the City, and has a Communication with the Havel, the Oder, and the Elbe.

The French, who for the sake of Religion became Refugees, have contributed in an extraordinary manner to the Establishment and Aggrandisement of Berlin, by the establishing of all sorts of Manufactures, and the introducing of Arts into it; and it may be said of them, that they have omitted nothing to testify their Gratitude to the Elector Frederic-William and his Posterity, for the generous Reception which he gave them in his Dominions.

Berlin is divided into five Wards exclusive of the Suburbs, which are very extensive. I will run thro' these Wards in the Order of their Situation: But before I do this, I propose to shew you what is most remarkable in the Suburbs; where the Houses are generally of Timber, but so well plaister'd that they seem to be of Stone; and the Streets are broad, lightsome and strait.

In the Suburb of Spandau the Queen has a delightful House and Gardens. The House is called Monbijou; a very proper Name for it, because 'tis really a Jewel. 'Tis a Pavilion, the Apartments of which are laid out with Art, and furnish'd with great Judgment and Elegance. The Gardens are charming, and lie finely open to the River. This House was built by the Countess de Wartemberg, Wife to the Prime Minister of King Frederic I. As her Husband's Power and Favour were at that time so great, that he did whatever he pleas'd, all the4 King's Workmen and Architects us'd the utmost Diligence to serve her well. But she did not enjoy this fine House long; for it was scarce compleated when the King removed the Count from all his Employments, and banish'd him to Francfort on the Maine. However, he settled a Pension upon him and his Lady of 24000 Crowns, and the Countess by way of Acknowledgement gave the King this House, which of all the immense Treasure that she had amass'd, was the only Piece that she cou'd not carry with her. The King gave this House to the Princess Royal now Queen, who has added great Embellishments to it, and brought it to its present State of Perfection.

In the Suburbs of Stralau is the House and Gardens of Belvedere, belonging to the King. Rollé Superintendant of the Finances to the Elector Frederic-William, caus'd this Garden to be made, in which he laid out considerable Sums; and as this Minister was at other very great Expences, it so impair'd his Fortune, that he was oblig'd to throw up all and retir'd to Holland; and being very much in debt to the Elector, his Garden was forfeited to that Prince, who made a Present of it to M. de Fuchs, one of his Ministers. King Frederic I. purchas'd it of the latter, and after having embellished it, made a Present of it to the Queen his third Wife; but that Princess's ill state of Health obliging her to retire to Mecklenbourg her Native Country, Belvedere became neglected.

Near this Royal House is the magnificent Gardens of Craut, who from a Boy behind the Counter rais'd himself by his Industry to the Post of Pay-master General of the Army, and at length to that of Minister of State. He was to have been call'd to account in his last stage of Life, but he cunningly diverted that Storm by feigning himself Lunatic; and dying, he left an immense Estate, part of which5 fell to the King by way of Restitution, and the rest to his Nephew, who makes a grand Figure at Paris.

I enter'd Berlin thro' that call'd the Gate Royale, which has had that Name ever since the Day that Frederic I. made his Entry there, after his Coronation at Koningsberg in Prussia. This Gate is defended by a Half-Moon, and two Bastions fac'd with Brick, and fronts that call'd the Street Royale; one of the longest and most frequented in all the City. There are very fine Houses in it, particularly that of M. de Catsch, a Minister of State, that of Grumkau, and the Post-House, which last Building was begun by order of the late King, for his Favourite the Count de Wartemberg, who was hereditary Post-Master.

Thro' the Street Royale there run fine, spacious and beautiful Streets. The first is call'd la Rue du Cloitre, in which we see the Royal Manufactory. Frederic I. who bought it of the Heirs of the Marshal de Flemming, established an Academy of Nobles there; so that, on the Payment of three hundred Crowns, they had Lodging, Provision, and Instruction in every thing that it's natural a Man of Quality shou'd know. This Establishment existed a few Years, but sunk at last meerly thro' the Neglect of Persons whose Business 'twas to take care of it. The present King has chang'd this Fabrick into a Work-house, and allowed Lodgings in it for several Woollen Manufacturers.

Adjoining to the Royal Manufactory, there are public Warehouses, which were established and built by the late King; and being destroyed by Fire, the present King caus'd them to be rebuilt. Opposite to the Warehouses stands the House of M. de Creutz, Minister of State; which has fine Apartments, and is very neatly furnish'd. Higher in the same Street there's the House of M. Duvaine,6 a French Man by Birth, and Lieutenant-General of his Prussian Majesty's Forces: And contiguous to his House, which makes a fine Appearance, is the Calvinists new Church, a Structure rais'd after the Model of Grunberg, an Architect who had before acquir'd a Reputation, which did not suffer by his Contrivance of this great Fabrick: The Front of it is magnificent, but the inside plain, as are all the Churches of the Calvinists, which you know don't admit of Images. The subterranean Places or Catacombs, for interring those that worship here, are worth seeing. Several Persons have been interr'd there of great Note, particularly Casimir de Colbe, Count de Wartemberg, Prime Minister, Great Chamberlain, Master of the Horse, Post-Master-General, Protector of all the Academies in the Dominions of the King of Prussia, and Knight of the Order of the Black Eagle. Being banish'd in 1711, to Francfort upon the Maine, where he died the Year following, he ordered that his Corpse shou'd be carry'd to Berlin; and his Will was accordingly fulfill'd. He was so dear to King Frederic I. that he was very loth to part with him; but was, as it were, compell'd to it by a Cabal, who oppos'd his Ministerial Authority; tho' he was provok'd at the Insolence of Wartemberg's Wife, and at his mean Submission to her. The King made an Offer to him afterwards, by the Count Christophle de Dohna, (who was then his Ambassador at Francfort, for the Election of the Emperor,) to come and resume his Employments, on condition that he wou'd not bring his Wife with him; but Wartemberg refus'd, saying, he was engag'd in honour not to forsake her. Perhaps he was very glad of this Excuse for not returning, because he had once experienc'd the Vicissitude of Fortune, and knew well that he had been too powerful a Man not to be hated. King Frederic I. who was desirous7 to see his Funeral pass by, cou'd not refrain Tears; which undoubtedly was the greatest Character that he cou'd give of his Minister.

Next to the Count de Wartemberg's Tomb, is that of Henrietta de Pollnitz, Wife to Francis Count de Duhamel, the Venetians Generalissimo. Her Husband dying in the Morea, this Lady return'd to Venice, proposing to go and end her Days at Berlin, where she was born; but while she was performing her Quarantain she died, after desiring her Body to be carry'd to Berlin; which was accordingly done by two of her Nephews, and one of her Nieces, whom she made her Heirs. There is also the Tomb of the Count de Denhoff, Lieutenant-General of the King's Armies, Knight of his Order of the Black Eagle, Minister of State, Governour of Memel, and Ambassador at the Treaty of Utrecht, where he acquired a high Reputation among the foreign Ministers. The Marshal de Villars, who had known him at Vienna, when he the Marshal resided there in the quality of Minister, to take care of the Affairs of France, said to me one day, speaking of the Count de Denhoff, that the King of Prussia cou'd not do enough to reward the Count's great Merit. If he wou'd have been rul'd by me, added he, he wou'd have been in the Service of the King my Master.

The second Street that crosses the Street Royale, is the Jews Street, which runs into the Square Molcke-Marck; where the Hotel de Schwerin makes a fine Appearance. Within a few Houses lower down, there's a Manufactory of Gold and Silver Lace, which one Schindler has established with good success: This House belong'd to the Wife of M. de Wensen, Marshal of the Court to King Frederic I. but she resign'd it as part of Payment of a Fine, to which her Husband had been condemn'd by the Count de Wartemberg, then prime Minister;8 who confin'd M. Wensen in Custrin Castle, because he had presum'd to represent to the King that the Table of the prime Minister, which was served by his Majesty's Cooks and Butlers, was more expensive than his Majesty's own Table. Wensen however, upon the Payment of this Fine, obtain'd his Liberty, and was banish'd to his Lands in the Dutchy of Zell.

In the middle of Molcke-Marck is the Statue of Frederic I. Father to the present King, with a Crown on his Head, and a royal Mantle on his Shoulders. The Statue was cast by order of Frederic I. himself, who intended to have it plac'd in the Court of the Arsenal; but dying before it cou'd be brought about, the King his Son caus'd it to be set up where it now stands, which is indeed a much better Place for it.

The Spandau Street, which is the third that crosses the Street Royale, contains the Town-House, and other fine Buildings: The Street St. Esprit is altogether as beautiful, as is the Kay, which fronts the Castle or Palace of the King. Upon this Kay we see the House of the Baron de Vernesobre, whose Ancestors being French Protestant Merchants, settled at Koningsberg in Prussia. He was in France at the time of the Mississippy Plague, which, tho' so fatal to others, prov'd so fortunate to him, that he gain'd several Millions of Livres, with which he came and set up at Berlin, where he has taken to building, having purchas'd the Estate of Hohensihn from Monsieur de Borstel, one of the best Gentlemen of the Country, procur'd himself the Title of Counsellor of State, and cuts a Figure now among Persons of Quality.

The Churches of St. Mary, St. Nicholas, and that belonging to the Garrison, are as magnificent as any of the Protestant Churches. St. Mary's has a beautiful Spire. When Frederic I. made his royal Entry here, at his return from his Coronation, a Man ascended to the Globe of this Spire, and saluted9 the new King by flourishing a pair of Colours. The Church of the Garrison was founded by the late King, but was very much damag'd some Years ago by the blowing up of a Magazine of Gun-Powder in the Neighbourhood, just as they were removing it to a safer Place. King Frederic William has caus'd it to be rebuilt with more Magnificence than before. The Organs are very fine, and the Galleries very well contriv'd.

That Ward of Berlin which I have now run through, is separated from that of Coln or Cologne by the River Spree, over which there are four Bridges, whereof there is one of Stone, call'd the Pont-neuf. Frederic I. in imitation of the Pont-neuf at Paris, famous for the Statue of Henry IV. caused the Equestrian Statue of his Father, the Elector Frederic-William, to be erected upon this Bridge, with very great Pomp and Splendor; for no Prince in Germany strove more than he did to copy Lewis XIV. in Magnificence and every thing else. When this Statue was dedicated, the Count de Lottum, who was then Grand Marshal of the Court, accompanied by most of the Courtiers on horseback, and by the City Companies, assisted at the Ceremony, which was performed with an Apparatus, till then unknown in Germany upon the like Occasions; but had been practised at Paris, when the Statue of Lewis le Grand was erected in that City.

This entire Monument was design'd by one Jacobi, who after several Years Labour and constant Application to it, has brought it to its present State. This skilful Operator has represented the Elector in a Roman Dress, and in an heroic Stature; that is to say, above the natural Size. The Statue is placed on a magnificent Pedestal of white Marble. At the four Corners of the Base, are placed as many Slaves in Brass, who seem as if they were chain'd to it.


When one has pass'd the Bridge, the King's Palace offers itself to view; a great and stately Fabric, which Frederic I. began in the Year 1699, and a worthy Monument of that Prince's Magnificence, who was of Opinion, that of all the Sums expended by Sovereigns, those which they lay out in Buildings are least liable to Censure. And indeed Magnificence is well bestowed, and even Profusion seems justifiable in Architecture, because grand Edifices are the principal Ornament of any State.

The Palace has been the Workmanship of several Architects; the Name of the first was Schluter, but he not giving Satisfaction was dismiss'd, and went into the Service of the Czar Peter Alexiowitz. Whatever he did is extremely incumber'd with Ornaments which have not a due Proportion. His Successor was Eosander, a Swede, who is a Lieutenant-General in the Service of the King of Poland: He was oblig'd in some measure to pursue what Schluter had begun; so that if he has not come off well every where, he has at least that for his Excuse. The third was Bot, a Frenchman, and now General Officer in Poland; who without dispute was a much better Artist than the others. Every thing that he has done is more simple, yet more grand, noble, and complete.

These three Architects having gone upon different Plans, you will easily imagine that the Fronts are not perfectly regular; yet for all this, had the Palace been finish'd according to the Models approv'd of by the late King, it wou'd have been inferior to no Edifice for Grandeur and Magnificence, except the Louvre of Paris. King Frederic-William does not think fit to carry on this Building, but leaves that Honour to his Son, the Prince Royal.

As to giving you all the Particulars of this vast Palace, you will be so good as to excuse me: Be11 satisfied if I only tell you, that it consists of four Stories: The Apartments are large, have fine Cielings, and are royally furnish'd. In no part of the World did I ever see such a prodigious quantity of Plate, Tables, Stands, Lustres, Chandeliers, Screens, Looking-Glass Frames, Couches, Arm-Chairs, all of Silver. The late King left Plate to the value of two Millions eight hundred thousand Crowns, not reckoning the Fashion. In that call'd the Knights Hall, there's a Beaufet which takes up one intire side of the Room, where there are Cisterns and Basons Silver gilt, of an extraordinary Size.

The Furniture of the grand Apartment is very rich; there's a fine Gallery adorn'd with Pictures, the Cieling of which was painted by one Peine, a Frenchman, who in divers Compartments has skilfully represented the principal Actions of King Frederic I. At the End of this Gallery there's a Saloon, which was formerly magnificent to the last degree, being wainscotted, if I may so call it, with Amber: But the late Czar coming on Berlin in his return from Holland and France, and not a little admiring this Furniture, which was the only thing of its kind, the King made him a Present of it: so that what had been amass'd with great Care and Cost by several Electors, fell in one Day into the hands of a Nation, which, no longer ago than the beginning of the present Century, was reckon'd Barbarian.

The Palace had fine Gardens belonging to it before they were destroy'd, and converted into a Place of Arms, and a Parade for the Guards.

Hard by the Palace are the King's Stables, a very grand Building, facing the great Street. The Architecture without is Gothic, but the inside is more magnificent; the Stables are broad and spacious,12 very lofty, and very lightsome: the Mangers are of Stone, and the Pillars which mark the Stands for the Horses, are of Iron, and adorn'd with the King's Cypher, gilt: Over the Mangers are several great Pictures of the finest Horses that ever came out of his Majesty's Studs. The Backside of the Stables projects towards the River Spree, to which they can lead the Horses by a Stair-Case without Steps, built in the form of a Horse-Shoe.

The Main Body of the House contains grand Lodgings for the Master of the Horse, and the Officers under him. Over the Stables are great Rooms where they keep a deal of fine Furniture, both for the Horse and Mule; magnificent Sleds, with convenient Harness, adorn'd with Bells of Silver, or Silver gilt; a great number of fine Arms; the rich Accoutrements of the Horse which serv'd Frederic I. on the Day of his public Entry; all the Ornaments of the Bridle, the Breast-Leather, and Crupper, as well as the Bits and Stirrups, being of Gold adorn'd with Brilliants.

Over the Riding-House is the great Theatre, where, in the late King's time, Interludes and Comedies us'd to be acted before the whole Court; but the Opera of Roxana and Alexander was the last that was acted on it. It was play'd in 1708, upon the Marriage of King Frederic I. with Sophia of Mecklemberg. In 1706, an Interlude was acted there, on account of the Arrival of the Princess Royal, now Queen; intitled, Beauty triumphing over Heroes; at which the Markgraves Frederic-Albert and Christian-Lewis, the late King's Brothers, danc'd, with all the young Courtiers.

As we go farther down the great Street, we come to the Fish-Market, where is the Hotel of the City of Cologne, and Dorffling's Hotel occupied by the Count de Finck. This Family is oblig'd for its Rise to the Marshal Dorffling, who from an Apprentice13 to a Taylor rais'd himself by his Valour and Merit to the highest Posts in the Army. The Story goes, that when he had serv'd his Apprenticeship at Tangermunde, having a mind to go to Berlin, he came to a part of the Country where he cou'd not proceed without crossing the Elbe, but not having wherewithal to pay his Passage, the Ferry-Men refus'd to carry him over; which so vex'd him, that he threw his Knapsack into the River in a Pet, curs'd the Trade of a Taylor, and went back to Tangermunde, where he listed himself a Soldier. There being a War at that time all over Germany, it was no difficult matter for the young Warrior to find an Opportunity to shew his Courage; and he signaliz'd it in such a manner, that his Officers, who were all in love with him, strove to advance him, and therefore made him known to the Elector Frederic-William. This Prince who lov'd, rewarded, and was a good Judge of Valour, did not depend upon what Fame reported of him; but in order to see his Officers and Soldiers fight with his own Eyes, conducted them himself to the Enemy, and very soon took notice of Dorffling. He saw him at every part of the Field where there was Honour to be won: He saw he was a sensible industrious Fellow, that he hated Parties and Cabals, and that he had that Germanic Probity which was the distinguish'd Virtue of our Forefathers, but which we now content ourselves with admiring. The Elector observing such a Stock of Virtue in Dorffling, thought him deserving of his Favour, advanc'd him to the tip-top Employments, and made him very rich. Envy, which is as old as the World itself, and which like that, never stands still, made several of the Courtiers jealous of the Fortune or rather the Merit of Dorffling, and there were some who did not stick to say, that if the Marshal came to be ever so great a Nobleman, he wou'd always retain the Air of a Taylor. This 14being carry'd to Dorffling, True enough, said he, I was a Taylor, and I have cut out Cloth; but now, said he, clapping his Hand to the Hilt of his Sword, I have an Instrument in my Hand, with which I'll cut off the Ears of any Man that slanders me.

This brave Fellow liv'd to a great Age, and left a Son who was one of the King of Prussia's Lieutenant-Generals, and Colonel of a Regiment of Dragoons, but died without Issue. He had not quite the Vivacity of his Father, but he had his Honour and Integrity.

Going out of the Fish-market, as we turn to the right, one perceives the Lutheran Church of St. Peter[2], which is a considerable Structure; and then we come into that call'd the Fryars Street, the Houses of which are all well built. In this Street stands the Palace where the Aulic Council meets, which in France they call the Parlement; 'tis here that all Civil Causes are try'd, and from thence there lies an Appeal to the King's Council.

Beyond the Palace there is a Square, on the Right side of which there's a Church with a Cupola which belongs to the Calvinists, and is look'd upon as the Cathedral of Berlin: For you know that the late King made two Bishops, one in Prussia and the other at Berlin, and they were the Prelates that crown'd him. They are since dead, and the present King lets their Sees lie vacant. In this Church is the Tomb of the Royal Family. There's a great Row of Buildings over against it, which consists of several uniform Houses belonging to Merchants,15 and supported by stately Arches with Shops under them, where are sold all sorts of Goods. Turning round by that Piazza, brings one to a second Branch of the River, which divides the Ward of Coln from that of Werder. This River, which has three wooden Bridges over it, is confin'd in a Canal lin'd with Freestone, and form'd by two fine Kays.

The most considerable Edifices in the Ward of Werder are the Royal Custom-House, so commodiously situate that Boats can come up close to it: The French School, and their Church, which is serv'd by able Ministers; some of whom, as the late M. Lenfant (Author of the celebrated History of the Council of Constance, &c. and Chaplain to the King of Prussia) M. de Beausobre and M. Jacquelot, &c. have acquir'd a Reputation in the Republic of Letters. The Royal Hunting-House is a large magnificent Structure for lodging the great Huntsman and all his inferior Officers: There too is the great Dog-Kennel and the Magazines for all the Hunting Equipage. Near this place is the Hotel or Palace for Ambassadors, where are likewise entertain'd such Foreign Princes as are not of a Rank high enough to be accommodated in the King's Palace. This Hotel belong'd formerly to the Baron de Danckelman, Prime Minister to King Frederic when he was only Elector, and being built by the said Minister at a time when he was such a Favourite that he did almost what he pleas'd, he spar'd no Cost to render it a Mansion worthy of his high Station. I was assur'd by Persons of Credit then alive, that after it was built, the late King had a Desire to see it, upon which occasion M. de Danckelman made a great Entertainment for him; and that while the Queen and the whole Court were dancing, the King retir'd into his Minister's Closet, to have a private Conference with him; and looking very earnestly on a certain Picture16 there, M. de Danckelman told him, that Picture and all that he saw would soon be his Majesty's. The King not knowing what he meant, desir'd his Minister to explain himself; whereupon he made answer, 'That he shou'd very shortly incur his Displeasure; that his Fall wou'd be attended by the Forfeiture of all his Estate; that he should be arrested and committed to the Spandau Prison; and that there he should be confin'd ten Years, at the Expiration of which his Innocence wou'd be made to appear, his Estate wou'd be restor'd to him, and he shou'd be taken again into his Majesty's Favour.' The King, who was at that time very fond of his Minister, and did not think he cou'd ever do without him, ridicul'd what he had said as the Surmise of a Visionary, and was going to swear by the New Testament then upon a Table in the Room, that this sad Prophecy wou'd never come to pass. But the Minister held his Hand, and begg'd him not to take an Oath which it wou'd not be in his power to keep.

I tell you this Story just as I had it from a Lady of Quality to whom the King himself told it: But in short, let the Story be as it will, 'tis very certain that M. de Danckelman was disgrac'd, committed Prisoner to Spandau, and from thence remov'd to Peitz, without any Companion but his Wife, who generously desir'd to suffer Imprisonment with him. His Confinement lasted much longer than he had prophesy'd, and when at length he obtained his Release, he was not restor'd to his Employments, nor even to his Estate. 'Tis said indeed that the present King, who on his Accession to the Crown sent for M. de Danckelman to Berlin, offer'd him the Ministry; but that the Baron excus'd himself by reason of his great Age and his tedious Imprisonment, which had made him lose the Connection of Public Affairs. This Minister died17 lately, having lived to the Age of fourscore. His remarkable Disgrace, and fifteen Years Confinement in a Prison, had not sunk his Spirits, nor shock'd his Constancy of Mind; and one shall scarce meet with an Instance in History, either before or since, of more Merit and more Misfortune in one and the same Person. He was a passionate Admirer of Learned Men, and a Rewarder of Virtue. In a word, by the Disgrace of this Great Man, the State lost a faithful disinterested Minister, and Men of Learning lost a Mecænas, full of Zeal and solid Knowledge, who never fail'd to support by his own Authority, and to procure a Reward from his Master, for all Persons that apply'd to him with any Proposal that was useful and uncommon.

To go from the Ambassadors Hotel to the New Town, one must pass before the House belonging to the Governour of Berlin[3], who is at present the Marshal Count de Wartensleben; a Nobleman whose Virtues, long Services, and great Age, challenge Veneration. The House he lives in was built by order of the Elector Frederic-William, for the Reception of the Marshal de Schomberg, who resign'd the Battoon of the Marshal of France to Lewis XIV. after that Prince had revok'd the Edict of Nantes, and came with a numerous Retinue of Gentlemen, to desire Employment under the Elector. Accordingly that Prince gave him the Command of his Troops, but the Marshal quitted that Employment, to accompany the Prince of Orange to England, in his famous Expedition against his Father-in-Law; and he likewise attended that Prince to Ireland, where he acquir'd great Glory, but was kill'd in passing the River Boyne.


The Governour's House is separated by a great Square from the Arsenal, which is one of the compleatest Fabrics in Europe, and was built according to a Model design'd by Bot, whom I mention'd to you before; which skilful Architect has, upon this occasion, equalled any thing that was ever done by the famous Bernin.

The intire Structure consists of four main Bodies of Building, which form a spacious Quadrangle in the middle. The lower Story is of Rustic Architecture, with arch'd Windows. There are three great Porticoes at the Entrance to each Front. Over the principal Gate there's the Picture of the late King, in a great Medal of Brass. The four Cardinal Virtues of a Gigantic Size, are plac'd on Pedestals by the Portico, and seem to look towards the King's Effigies, which is supported by Fame and Victory. The Corinthian Order prevails throughout the first Story, and is very artfully executed. A Gallery or Ballustrade runs round the whole Edifice, and is adorn'd with Trophies and Statues, particularly a very perfect one of Mars, sitting upon a Heap of Arms of different sorts; and the Decoration of all together is noble and majestic. Studs of Iron in form of Cannon are plac'd at proper Distances, and support Iron Chains, hung in Festoons, which hinder People from clambering up to the Windows.

The Inside of this Arsenal is as magnificent as the Outside. The lower Rooms are stor'd with a great number of Brass Cannon. The Walls and Pillars that support the Arch are garnish'd with Cuirasses and Helmets. In the upper Story there are several Rooms full of Arms, rang'd in such Order as can never be enough admir'd.

Behind the Arsenal there's the House of the General of the Ordnance, which also contains the Foundery, where Men are continually at work.

Besides this Arsenal, there are several others in Berlin, where they keep Field-Pieces, Iron Cannon,19 and all that belongs to the Train of Artillery. 'Twas the late Margrave Philip[4], Brother to Frederic I. who when he was Great Master of the Ordnance began to put the King's Arsenals into a good State. But King Frederic-William has finish'd what his said Uncle began, and has put the Artillery on such a footing, that 'tis a question if any Arsenal in Europe is on a better Regulation.

A Rampart and a Ditch separate the Werder from the Dorothy-Stadt, or new Town, which is for most part inhabited by French Families. It had the Name of Dorothy-Stadt in honour of the Electress Dorothy of Holstein-Glucksburg, the second Wife of Frederic-William, who with her own Hand planted the first Lime-Tree of the seven great Rows which divide this Ward into two Parts. The middlemost Row, which is the widest, is inclos'd with Ballustrades, and forms a pleasant Grass-Walk for Foot-Passengers. The Walks on each side are pav'd, and serve as a Ring for the Coaches. Nothing is more beneficial and agreeable than taking the Air in this Place, where you may have any thing that can be desir'd in a City. At the end of one of these Walks is a Gate which opens to the Park, the Walks of which being above a League in length, form a fine Point of View.

On both sides the Lime-Tree Rows, are Houses, among which the Palace of Madame the Margravine, Dowager[5] to the Margrave Philip, Brother to the late King, is one of the best. The late Margrave20 purchas'd this Palace (which at that time was inconsiderable) of the Wife of Weiller Colonel of the Artillery, who had thrown up his Employments, Wife, Children and all, to go with a Lady of Quality, that was in love with him, to Vienna. This Gentlewoman pass'd for a modern Sappho, and every body talk'd of her Virtue and good Sense. But being a Slave to the Follies of Love, and asham'd to let them be seen at Berlin, where she was counted an Oracle, she resolv'd to quit the Place of her Birth, and engag'd her Lover to leave all and follow her.

The Margrave made considerable Augmentations to this House, and render'd it very commodious. The Furniture of the Palace also is rich, and worthy of the Princess who resides in it.

Opposite to the Margravine's Palace is a Building which was formerly call'd the King's Little Stables, but has been metamorphos'd into Caserns for the Gendarmery; they discover the Magnificence of Frederic I. who caused them to be built. The Apartments that run over the Stables are occupied by the Academy of Painters, and that of Arts and Sciences. Behind the Stables there's the Observatory, with a great number of Astronomical and Mathematical Instruments, of which there are many of a new Invention.

Frederic-Stadt, which is the fifth Ward of Berlin, communicates with the New Town and the Werder. This is one of the pleasantest Wards in the whole City, the Streets being spacious, strait, and planted with Lime-Trees[6].


Perhaps I have dwelt too long upon the Metropolis of the Electorate of Brandenburgh; but I thought that as there had been no true Account yet given of this City, you wou'd not be sorry to have it from me.

The next day after my Arrival here, I had the Honour to see the King, who was then seeing his Soldiers mount guard. He is a Prince of a middling Stature, and in very good Plight of Body: His Air commands Respect; yet, when he pleases, no Prince in the World can be more gracious. I heard him speak to his Officers in such a kind manner as cou'd not but charm them; I admir'd his Genius for military Discipline, and perceiv'd that with the Glance of an Eye he cou'd discover the least Fault committed against that wonderful Exactness which is introduc'd in the Evolutions of his Troops. After the Guards had perform'd their Exercise, the King stay'd to see them file off. I never yet saw Troops march with more Order and State, so that it seem'd as if they were all mov'd by one Spring. All the Soldiers are young, of an even Stature, and the cleverest Fellows that Nature ever form'd: they are well cloth'd, and have such an Air of Neatness, that even the private Centinels might all pass for Officers. I remember you was prejudic'd against their Clothing; their Clothes you said were too strait, and too short. I was of your Opinion once, and think so still, when I happen to see one of their Officers and Soldiers singly among us, who wear Night-Gowns rather than Coats; but when I see a whole Body of Prussians together, I am of another Opinion, and think their Dress gives them a warlike Air which other Troops have not. You will tell me perhaps, that the Clothing of the Prussians is good in a Garrison, but that in the Field their Garments are22 not wide enough to cover the Soldiers in the Night. I answer, that the Prussian Soldiers are in no danger of not being cover'd, because when they are in the Field, every Captain is to carry as many Coverlids, as there are Comrades in his Company. But you'll say, this must be a very great Incumbrance, and take up a deal of Equipage. 'Tis true, it may require two Sumpter Horses in a Company, but a Soldier fares the better for it; because when he goes wet into the Camp, he can get his Clothes dry'd in the Night while he is under his Coverlid. After all, the Incumbrance is no greater at present, for those Troops, than it was at the time when all the Prussian Infantry had Cloaks, which the Soldiers wore, was the Weather ever so hot, folded over their Shoulders, and ty'd both before and behind by their Belt. If they had any hasty March to make, such as I saw they made in Flanders in 1708, when they went to attack the French near Audenarde, the Prussians left their Cloaks behind with a Guard, and when the Battle was join'd, the Captains were oblig'd to send for their Cloaks. In short, what makes me think the Prussian Clothing the most convenient for a Soldier, is, that most of the German Princes are now come into it, and like it well: The Troops of Saxony, and Brunswic in particular, are cloth'd like those of Prussia.

The Prussian Troops, which are new cloth'd every Year, have Breeches of Woollen Cloth for the Winter, and of Linnen for the Summer; and they are allow'd Shirts, Necks and Spatterdashes: Their Pay is good and regular; the Soldier is compell'd to do his Duty, but when he does it, enjoys more Liberty than in the Service of any other Nation: so that were I to carry a Musket, I fancy it wou'd be in the Service of Prussia, where such a strict Discipline is observ'd, that the Soldier is no Swearer, and is not allow'd to game, and where in a word he does not23 abandon himself to Licentiousness. On Sundays and Saints Days they are requir'd to go twice a day to hear a Sermon: The Catholicks have the liberty of going to Mass. In short, good Manners are introduc'd and observ'd in those Troops to such a Nicety, that you would wonder at it.

All the Infantry is cloth'd in blue. It depends on the Colonel of every Regiment, to order what Waistcoats and Trimming he pleases for the Clothes. The Horse and Dragoons wear white, but the Houshold Troops blue, with Campaign Coats of Gold Lace. The Hussars Clothing is red, but the Garbs of the Officers both of Foot and Horse are plain, and only differ from the Apparel of the Soldiers in the fineness of the Cloth; tho' there are some Regiments whose Waistcoats are bedaub'd all over with Gold or Silver Lace.

The Colours, which are uniform in all the Regiments, are white, with the King's Device, representing an Eagle flying towards the Sun with this Motto, Nec Soli cedit. There's such a Uniformity preserv'd in all things throughout the Army, even in their Guns, Swords, Bayonets, &c. that in every Regiment they wear the very same, even to their Shoe-Buckles.

The same Regularity is observ'd in the Horse and Dragoons, which ride both upon black Horses; and indeed they are not permitted to have any others, the Officers themselves being not exempt from this Rule, when they are at the head of their Squadrons or Companies. The Housings and Equipage of the latter are of the same Pattern, and extremely rich. All the Horse wear Buff-Coats, and underneath Cuirasses. They perform their Exercise on Foot like the Infantry, and with the same Exactness. The Kettle-Drums and Trumpets of all the Horse are of Silver.

There is not a Captain in all the Prussian Army but has at least ten supernumerary Men; so24 that these included, the King's Forces amount to near 100000, all pick'd Men. You cou'd not but admire if you were to see how they behave; insomuch that whenever they take the Field, 'tis pity but Fortune shou'd favour them.

Not many Days after my Arrival here, the King being gone to visit his Kingdom, I had the Honour of waiting on the Queen. This Princess, whose Name is Sophia-Dorothea, is Sister to the present King of Great Britain, being the Daughter of George I. the late King, and of Sophia-Dorothea Princess of Brunswic-Zell. And she does every thing that is worthy of her August Extraction; for surely never did Daughter more resemble a Father; she has the same Benignity and Wisdom, the same Equity and Justice, and Sweetness of Temper. Like him she knows the Charms of a private Life, and Friendship, on a Throne: Like him she is ador'd by her Subjects and her Domestics, and is the chief Blessing and Darling of both. To extend Goodness and Affability farther, were impossible; there being no Foreigners but what are charm'd with the gracious Manner in which this Princess receives them. To a thousand Virtues worthy of Veneration, she has added the singular Talent of speaking the Language of several Countries which she never saw, with as much Delicacy as if they had been her Mother Tongues. The French Language especially, is so familiar to her, that one wou'd take her to be a Princess of the Royal Family of France; and the Grandeur and Majesty that accompany all her Actions, induce those even who don't know her, to be of Opinion that she was born to reign.

That which still more endears this Queen to her People, is the Care she takes of the Education of her Family; which consists of four Princes, and six Princesses. The eldest of the Sons is stil'd the25 Prince Royal[7]. This young Prince is handsome, charms every one by his Kindness and Good-Nature; and loves Reading, Musick, the Arts, and Magnificence: His Sentiments, his Behaviour, and his Actions, make it probable, that if he comes to the Crown, his Reign will be one of those mild and peaceable Reigns, which procure Kings that Love of their People, wherein consists their true Glory. The Care of the Prince Royal's Education was committed first of all to Madam de Camke, one of the Queen's Ladies of Honour, and Governess of the Children of Prussia. But this Lady left the Charge of the latter to the Sub-Governess, Madam de Rocoule, and her Daughter Madamoiselle de Montbail. Madam de Rocoule had also the honour to be Sub-Governess to the King; so that she was no Novice in the forming of young Princes. As she talks nothing but French, she has taught it to the King's Children; who speak it with as much ease as they do the German Language. At seven Years of Age the Prince Royal was taken out of the Hands of the Women; and the Count de Finck of Finckenstein, Lieutenant-General of the King's Forces, a Knight of his Order, and Colonel of a Regiment of Horse, was appointed his Royal Highness's Governour; and the Baron de Kalestein was made Sub-Governour. The King's Choice of both these Gentlemen was universally applauded.

The eldest of the King's Children is Frederica-Sophia-Wilhelmina, the Princess Royal; who was born in 1709. I was at Berlin at the Ceremony of her Baptism, which was performed in the Chapel of the Castle, in presence of Frederic IV. King of26 Denmark, Frederic-Augustus King of Poland, and Frederic I. King of Prussia. The Birth of this Princess, and the Circumstances of three Kings and a Queen attending at her Baptism, gave occasion to a great many Copies of Verses. All the Poets said that the Presence of these three Kings, was a Sign that she wou'd one day have Possession of three Crowns. They had then in view the Crowns of Great Britain, that were to devolve to the Family of Hanover; in which there was a young Prince[8], who, it was then imagin'd, was to be in time the Husband of this Princess. Whether this Match will ever take place, and whether the Princess will be Queen, I can't say; but if she is not, Fortune will not do Justice to her Merit.

The Princess Frederica-Louisa, the King's second Daughter, is lately married to the Margrave of Brandenburgh Anspach. 'Tis said that his Majesty's third Daughter, the Princess Philippina-Charlotte, is promised to[9]Charles, hereditary Prince of Brunswic-Bevern, Nephew to the Empress Regent.

The other Princes and Princesses, the King's Children[10], are as yet too young to furnish any Particulars for their Character. In a word, put them all together, they form a very fine Family.

The Margravine, Dowager of the Margrave27 Philip, Brother to the late King, is the first in Rank at Court, next to the King's Children: She was born Princess of Anhalt-Dessau. Her Royal Highness was lately chose Abbess of Herford, a sovereign Abby in Westphalia, (in a Town belonging to the King of Prussia, as part of the Principality of Ravensberg;) whose Canonesses must be all Princesses, or Countesses of the Empire. This Princess, tho' she is past her Bloom, is still the Ornament of the Court; and no Person can be more civil than she is to Foreigners; so that 'tis as much a Pleasure as a Duty to pay one's Court to her. When the King is at Berlin, and the Queen has no Drawing-Room, the whole Court repairs to the Margravine's House, where her Royal Highness daily keeps an elegant Table; to which she admits the Quality of both Sexes. She is the Mother of two Princes and a Princess; the Sons are the Margraves Frederic and Henry, and the Daughter is married to the hereditary Prince of Wirtemberg. The young Margrave Frederic resides at Schwedt upon the Oder, where he has a very fine House; but does not come to Court but when he can't avoid it. The young Margrave Henry resides commonly at Berlin. Both these Princes are handsome, lusty, and well shap'd.

The Margrave Albert, the King's Uncle[11], lives in his Majesty's Palace, tho' he is eight Months of the Year at Frederichsfelde, a Pleasure-House about a League from Berlin. He is the second Son of the Elector Frederic-William, and Dorothy of Holstein28 Glucksburg: He is well shap'd, has a noble Air, and has been in his time a very good Dancer: He is fond of Grandeur and Pleasures. At the beginning of the last War he distinguished himself very much at the Siege of Keyserswaert, and other Places, where he commanded the Troops of the King his Brother. His Royal Highness is Governor of Pomerania, Knight of the Black Eagle, and Colonel of a Regiment of Foot, and of another of Horse, in the King's Service: He has also a Regiment of Foot in the Service of the United Provinces; and is Grand Master of the six Commanderies of the Order of St. John of Jerusalem, who, at the Alteration of Religion in the time of Luther, withdrew from the Grand Master of Malta, and assum'd to themselves a Right of chusing a Grand Master under the Protection of the Elector of Brandenburgh. The Margrave marry'd a Princess of Courland, Heiress to the Freeholds of her Uncle Duke Ferdinand, the last of her Family. This Princess, tho' not reckon'd a Beauty of the first Rate, has a great Share of Charms and Good-nature, Modesty and Politeness. Their Royal Highnesses are perfectly civil to those who have Access to them; which is the reason, that notwithstanding the little Concern they have in Business, they have always a numerous Court. They have three Princes, and two Princesses. The eldest of the Sons is Charles, a Prince whose Person and Character are very amiable. The eldest of the Daughters is married to the Duke of Saxe-Eysenach.

The last Prince of the Royal Family, is the Margrave Christian-Lewis, third Son of the Elector Frederic-William by the second Marriage. This Prince is Governour of the City and County of Halberstadt; he has a Regiment of Foot, is Knight of the Order of the Black Eagle, and Commander of that of St. John. He studied at Leyden; after which, he29 serv'd with distinction in Italy. He now lives retir'd from Court at Malchau, a House about a Mile from Berlin, which the late King bought of the Heirs of M. de Fuchs, his Minister of State. There the Margrave, who has a Relish for the Pleasures of private Life, passes his Time in Hunting, Reading, and every innocent Pleasure that an agreeable Country is capable of furnishing. This Prince has been a handsome well-made Man; he has a grand Air, and there's something heroic in his Physiognomy: In the very Flower of his Youth he was a constant Admirer of Virtue, and might ever be quoted for an Example of Sobriety. He is so exceeding fat, that it's fear'd he won't live to be a very old Man[12].

All the Princes of the Royal Family wear the Prussian Order, viz. that of the Black Eagle; and receive it as soon as they are born. 'Tis an Orange Ribband, to which is appendant a Cross enamel'd with blue, resembling the Cross of Malta. A Star of Silver is embroider'd on the Coat; and in the middle of it is an Orange Escutcheon, over which is a black Eagle crown'd with Wings display'd, holding in one of its Talons a Crown of Laurel, and in the other a Thunder-bolt, with the Motto, Suum cuique, in Letters of Gold. This Order was instituted by Frederic I. the sixth of January 1701, O. S. on account of his Coronation at Koningsberg. He call'd it the Order of the Black Eagle, because a Black Eagle forms the Arms of Prussia; and he chose an Orange Ribband, in memory of the Electress his Mother, who was a Princess of Orange; in Right of whom he pretends to be next Heir to William III. King of England, and Prince of Orange.


The Princes of the Royal Family are not exempt from passing thro' the Degrees of military Service; and 'tis not here as in other places, where they have Regiments and Governments as soon as they are born. The King will have them to know how to obey, before they come to command; and 'tis an Encouragement to the Officers to find themselves so far honour'd, as to be on a Par in the Service, with those who are born to be their Sovereigns. The Prince Royal has a Regiment of Horse[13]. M. de Lopel[14], a Major-General, commanded that Regiment formerly, but the King preferring him to the Government of Custrin, this Regiment has for Colonel M. de Wreech, a Person of a good Family in the new Marquisate. His Father, who was one of the King's Lieutenant-Generals, had serv'd the late Elector Frederic-William, the late King, and his present Majesty. M. de Wreech, whom I am speaking of, was, at his return from his Travels, appointed by the late King a Gentleman of his Bed-chamber: After that Prince's Death, his present Majesty enter'd him into his Service, and gave him a Troop of Horse. This Gentleman distinguished himself greatly in 1708, at the Battle of Audenarde; where he was Aid de Camp to the Marshal de Natzmer, then General of the Cavalry: He had a Horse kill'd under him, and was taken Prisoner; but the Enemy in their Flight not watching him very strictly, he found means to get off when the Night came and put an end to the Battle. He lay hid in a Ditch till next day, in danger every moment of being knock'd on the head by our own Men; but when the Day broke, he rejoin'd his General, who had received a31 slight Wound in the Head. M. de Wreech is one of the richest Subjects the King has; but he is worthy of his Fortune, and uses it like a Man of Quality. He is certainly a valuable Gentleman, has a noble Soul, and Sense and Knowledge enough to capacitate him to serve his King and Country both in Peace and War.

Berlin is not a City where you ought to look for the most lively Diversions; the King, to whose Will every body conforms, not being fond of them himself. Yet when once a Man is known there, he will find Amusement enough; for the People are affable and civil, make plentiful Entertainments, and have very good Wine.

When the King is absent, the Queen has a Drawing-Room every Night, from seven o'clock till ten; when her Majesty sups with the Princes and Princesses of her Family, and other Persons of Distinction of both Sexes. But when the King is at Berlin, the Queen keeps no Drawing-Room, unless some Foreign Prince happen to be there. Then there are Assemblies in the City alternatively, among Persons of the first Rank, at which they sometimes dance; and the King and Prince Royal frequently honour these Assemblies with their Presence. When there is no grand Assembly, there are particular Societies, where they sup, and play at small Game.

The Ministers of most consequence at this Court are Messieurs d'Ilgen, Grumkau, and Kniphausen[15]; these are they who treat of Foreign Affairs, and thro' whose hands pass the Secrets of State: but the King's Prime Minister is the King himself, who is inform'd of every thing, and is desirous to know every thing. He gives great Application to Business, but does it with extraordinary Ease; and nothing32 escapes his Penetration, nor his Memory, which is a very happy one. No body knows better than he where his Government is strong, and where 'tis weak; and no Sovereign in the World is of more easy Access, his Subjects being actually permitted to write to him, without any other Formality than superscribing the Letter, To the King. By writing underneath, To be deliver'd into his Majesty's own Hands, one may be sure that the King receives and reads it, and that the next Post he will answer it, either with his own Hand or by his Secretary: these Answers are short, but peremptory, and they prevent a tedious painful Attendance. The King, who is an Enemy to vain Pomp and Pageantry, always goes abroad without any Guards, with only a small Retinue, and sometimes too walks on foot; he makes his Greatness to consist in solid Power, in the having his Troops well disciplin'd, his Places kept up in good Order, his Arsenals well provided, and his Treasury full enough to enable him to oppose his Enemy in case he be attack'd. He never aims so much as to disturb his Neighbours, much less to rob them: I heard him say one day, that he had no Intention of attacking any body, nor of beginning a War; but if he was attack'd, he would defend himself the best he could: a Conduct which he has religiously observed ever since he has been plac'd upon the Throne, even towards Charles XII. King of Sweden, notwithstanding what is said of him by a certain Author, who from sorry Memoirs has wrote that Prince's Life. But I will not deviate from my Subject.

There's no Town in all the King of Prussia's Dominions, except Neufchâtel, where he has not been; no Province which he does not know full well; not a noble Family but he can tell their Revenues; nor a Court of Justice but he is well acquainted with their chief Members. His Behaviour is plain; he33 knows no Gallantry, and does not easily pardon it in his Officers. He is so true to his Consort the Queen, that he wishes all Men would follow his Example, and that every Husband would live only with the Woman whom God has allotted him. His Diversion is Hunting; and for this reason, he resides commonly at Potzdam or Wusterhausen, which are Pleasure-Houses four Miles from Berlin. Yet he generally goes on Saturdays into his Capital, where he holds a Council on Sunday, and returns on Monday. In the Winter he makes a longer stay at Berlin: but let him be either here or there, he is on the Parade every Day at ten o'clock, when his Soldiers mount the Guard; after which he gives Audience to his Ministers, and holds a Council, or goes abroad for the Air. At Noon the King appears in a great Saloon, where are all the Generals and Officers, the Foreign Ministers, and all the Court in general: There he converses a few Moments, and then goes into another Room, where he dines with the Queen, the Princes and Princesses of his Family, and any other Persons whom he has caused to be invited. His Table is commonly spread for eighteen Guests. After he has sate about an Hour and half at Table, he retires to his Closet till six at Night, when he appears again in the Room where he held his Levee: There his Majesty gives Orders to the Marshal Wartensleben Governor of Berlin, and to the Marshal Natzmer Commandant of the Gendarmery. After this, he talks a while with those that are present, and then passes into a Room at some distance from his Apartment, to which the Queen repairs sometimes with one or two Ladies in company. There are ten or a dozen Officers whom the King honours with his Confidence, who play here at Picquet, Ombre, and Backgammon. Here they also smoak, and to this Place the King sends for such as he has a mind to34 talk with about special Affairs. I have been there twice upon such an account. Here there is no manner of Restraint, but every body sits down, the King dispensing with all the Respect that is due to him, and at eleven o'clock he dismisses the Company and retires.

The King hunts when he is at Potzdam and Wusterhausen; but in other respects he leads the same Life there as he does at Berlin. At Potzdam he hunts the Stag, having for that end caused a great Forest to be paled in, where he has made noble Roads.

The Castle at Potzdam, which is very convenient, was built by the Elector Frederic-William, who commonly resided at it; and after having run his glorious Race, died here the 29th of April, 1688. King Frederic I. made considerable Embellishments to it, particularly the great Gate opening into the main Court of the Castle, which is an admirable Piece of Architecture that was design'd by M. Bot, my Hero for Buildings. But all that the late King did, does not come up to the Works that have been added to it of late Years. The Town of Potzdam has been augmented two Thirds; the Streets are as strait as a Line, with Trees planted, and Canals cut in them after the manner of Holland; the Houses are uniform and built with Bricks. Besides a great Hospital, which the King has founded here for his Soldiers' Orphans, here is a considerable Fabric for Armourers, who make all those Arms for the Forces and Arsenals, which were formerly made at Liege.

This Town is the Garrison for the first Battalion of those Tall Grenadiers, so much talk'd of in Europe. I protest to you that they exceed the common Report, being the compleatest, the finest, and best-disciplin'd Body that can be imagin'd. The Men are of all Nations, there being scarce a Prince in Europe but takes a pleasure in sending Recruits35 to it. Some of these Grenadiers have had 1500 Crowns List-Money; and several receive two Florins per diem: Some of them are very rich; others there are who trade, and have good Houses at Potzdam. The tallest and the best Man among them all was one call'd Jonas, (lately dead) who work'd heretofore in the Mines of Norway. The famous Huguetan, whom Frederic IV. King of Denmark created Count de Guldenstein, took him from the Mines, and presented him to the King. He then stoop'd in the Shoulders, and hobbled in walking; but by tricking him up, they gave him that good Air which he wanted.

'Tis certain, there are no Troops in the World where the Peasant sooner shakes off the clownish Air, and more easily assumes the military one. This gigantic Regiment has requir'd great Pains, and considerable Sums to establish it; and I am assured it has cost the King more than six other Regiments. But 'tis all his Majesty takes delight in; and surely this Prince cannot but be commended for giving into a Pleasure so noble, and so innocent.

Having given you some Account of Potzdam, I must also mention Charlottenbourg, another Royal House, a Mile from Berlin. This Castle stands on the Spree, so that one may go to it by Water: but the common Way is thro' the Park which is at the end of the great Walk from the new Town.

In the late King's time, whenever he was at Charlottenbourg, all the Road from Berlin to this Palace was lighted by Lanthorns erected on both sides.

Charlottenbourg was formerly call'd Lutzenbourg. It was a small Village belonging to M. Doberginsky, Steward of the Houshold to the Queen, (the King's Mother.) He had built a trifling House there, and that Queen taking the Air there one day, lik'd the Situation of the Place so well, that she bought it, and set about building there; but she died before all the36 Works she had undertaken were finished. However, her Husband King Frederic I. caused them to be carried on, and made considerable Additions to them; and in order to perpetuate the Queen's Name, which was Sophia-Charlotte, he caused Lutzenbourg to be called Charlottenbourg. This Castle is one of the most considerable Structures in Germany; the Apartments are grand and splendid, and the Furniture very rich. There's a Cabinet adorn'd with the choicest Porcellane, ranged in such order as is surprising: In another Cabinet there are Lustres, a Tea-Table with Dishes, a Coffee-Pot, and the whole Equipage in short of solid Gold. The Chapel is one of the most superb that can be; every side being adorn'd with Gold and Painting. The Orangery is one of the most magnificent in Europe; not only with regard to the Beauty and Number of its Trees, but the Greatness of the Building in which they are kept all the Winter.

I could tell you of several more Houses which the late King had in the Neighbourhood of Berlin; but as they were suffer'd to run to ruin after he died, I think I had better entertain you with the Characters of the prime Nobility at this Court.

The Count de Wartensleben is the oldest Marshal. He is by Birth a Westphalian, and pass'd his early days in the Service of France. He was Commander in chief of the Troops of the Duke of Saxe-Gotha, when King Frederic I. called him to his Service. The Count de Wartemberg, who was at that time the Chief Minister, wanted a Person to be at the head of the Troops, who should be intirely devoted to himself: This was an Obedience he did not expect to find in the Counts de Lottum, Dhona, and Denhoff, nor in the other Generals whose long Services and Birth might make them aspire to this military Dignity. He believed the fittest Person to be his Tool would be a Foreigner that should be37 oblig'd to him for his Fortune: Therefore he caus'd the Marshal's Batoon to be given to the Count de Wartensleben, who answer'd to a tittle the Intention of the Minister his Benefactor. 'Tis true, that he never seconded his Revenge, but neither did he oppose it. He did the Business of his Office, and meddled not with the Intrigues of the Court. It may be said of him, that he never deviated from the Path of Equity, and in Justice to him it must be own'd that he always did good, when it was in his power. Since the Death of the late King, his Authority and Interest are very much lessened. Besides, he is too far advanc'd in years to concern himself with almost any Business at all.

The General whose Power is most rever'd, is the Prince Leopold of Anhalt-Dessau. In consideration of his high Birth, and the Rank of Sovereign which he holds in the Empire, I ought to have nam'd him first; only the Count de Wartensleben is the oldest Marshal.

The Prince of Anhalt is Marshal, Governour of the City of Magdebourg, Colonel of a Regiment of Foot, and Knight of the Order of the Black Eagle. This Prince, who is a Person of a good Stature and noble Presence, happy Features and a lively Aspect, was born with all the Qualifications of a General and a Soldier, being vigilant, laborious, indefatigable, equally patient of Heat and Cold, Want and Abundance; Brave even to Intrepidity, and possibly never equalled in this respect, unless we except Charles XII. King of Sweden: Being a Man of unexampled Rigour in Military Discipline, he will be obey'd; but then he rewards his Soldiers when they do their Duty, and sometimes makes himself familiar with them: A warm and constant Friend, but an implacable Enemy when he thinks himself not well us'd; haughty to his Equals, civil and courteous to his Inferiors. In his Youth, he was a Wine-Bibber, and a Deboshee;38 but it has been observ'd, that neither Wine nor Women can detain him, when he is in the pursuit of Glory. He is a religious Observer of his Promises, and never makes any but after mature Reflection. He is an Enemy to the Pomp and Constraint of the Lives of Great Men; an Œconomist, perhaps more than becomes his Dignity; and is an absolute Master in his Family and his Government, having poor, but dutiful Subjects, and well-regulated Finances.

The Care of the Prince of Anhalt's Education was committed to M. de Chalisac, a Native of Guienne. This Gentleman found an ungovernable Temper in the young Prince which he had much ado to manage. The Prince happen'd very early to have a liking for Madamoiselle de Fohsen, (whom he afterwards marry'd) which being not at all pleasing to his Mother, (who was born Princess of Orange) she thought the best way to cure him of his Fondness for her, would be to send him abroad; and therefore appointed M. de Chalisac to travel with him to Italy, and accordingly they made that Tour.

Chalisac, who was my particular Friend, and whose Memory I honour, told me that this Prince's extraordinary Vivacity and Intemperance, had often made his Heart ake; but that whenever he happen'd to run astray, he was sure to reclaim him by setting the Motives of Honour and Ambition in his View. To this purpose he related what happen'd when they were at Venice, viz. that the Prince came home one Morning very much in Liquor, after having spent the whole Night in a Debauch; and M. de Chalisac reproving him, perhaps a little too sharply, as the young Prince thought, he ran and snatch'd up a Pistol, and returning with it to his Governour, said, You Dog, I must kill you. M. de Chalisac, without appearing39 surpriz'd, looking sternly at the Prince, made him answer; Shoot me if you think fit; but think how worthy a Figure you'll make in History, when it shall be recorded that a Prince of Anhalt, a Prince of a Family that has given Emperors to Germany, murder'd his Tutor. These Words spoke with an Air of Authority made such an Impression on the young Prince, that he laid down his Pistol saying, You are indeed in the right; I should have committed a villainous Action.

The Prince on his Return from Italy to Dessau shew'd that Time and Absence had not that Effect upon him as they generally have upon Lovers. He returned as much in love with Madamoiselle de Fohsen as he was at setting out. He married her in 1698, and soon after, viz. in 1701, she was by the Emperor acknowledged a Princess of the Empire. He has had five Sons and two Daughters by her, the eldest of whom is dead.

But the Embraces of a tender Spouse cou'd not keep him at home; a Warrior he was born, and a Warrior he would be. The War being then kindled between the Emperor and the French, the Prince went to serve in the Army on the Rhine, and was present at the taking of Keiserswaert. Soon after, King Frederic I. gave him the Command of 6000 Men, whom he sent to the Emperor's Assistance in Italy, where he signaliz'd himself in every Campaign, but especially at the raising of the Siege of Turin. The Duke of Savoy, afterwards King of Sardinia, with whom the Prince had not a very good Understanding, doing me the Honour to talk to me about him one day, said, The Prince of Anhalt has too much Fire; but when he is ripen'd by Age, he will be a great General. He was born with the Genius of a Captain, and he has contributed to save my Crown.


When a Neutrality was agreed on for Italy between the Emperor, his Allies, and France, the Prince of Anhalt was recall'd, and the King gave him the Command of his Troops in Flanders, where he maintain'd the Reputation which he had acquir'd in Italy, and was continued in his Command till the Peace of Utrecht.

The Obstinacy of Charles XII. King of Sweden in refusing to hearken to a Treaty for the Sequestration of Stetin, having oblig'd the King of Prussia to make war upon him, the Prince of Anhalt serving under the King, who then commanded his Army in Person, had the Honour to defend the Isle of Rugen, against the King of Sweden, who came in the Night and attack'd it with Fury; but the Swedes were repulsed, after having lost a number of considerable Officers in the Action. Since the Treaty with Sweden, this Prince has had no occasion to signalize his Valour. He resides commonly at Dessau, or at Magdebourg; and does not come to Court but when Affairs call him. He has three Sons in the King's Service, of whom the two eldest have Regiments of their own, and the third commands his Father's.

The King, who has a great Affection for the Prince of Anhalt, makes no considerable Regulation with regard to his Troops, or in any thing relating to the War-Office, without his Advice. His Majesty has given him considerable Tracts of Land in Prussia, where 'tis said the Prince is building not only Villages, but entire Towns.

M. d'Arnheim is the third Marshal. This old Gentleman, who is past fourscore, learnt the Art of War under two Great Masters, the Elector Frederic-William of Brandenbourg, and Montecuculi the Rival of Turenne.

The Marshal de Natzmer is an old Soldier also, who has serv'd under several Commanders with very great41 Distinction; particularly the Prince of Waldeck, General of the Dutch Forces, the Prince of Orange afterwards King of England, and lastly under the Duke of Marlborough and Prince Eugene of Savoy; who had all an Esteem for his Valour and Military Experience; this Marshal having been in all the Battles which those Generals fought in the Netherlands, and having been always wounded or had a Horse shot under him.

After having mentioned the chief Commanders of the King's Forces to you, I think it incumbent on me to give you an Account of those Persons whose Credit or Employments have the greatest Influence upon the Government; in which you will please to excuse me, if I do not follow that Order I have hitherto observ'd in my Narrative.

The Baron d'Ilgen First Minister of State, was born of an obscure Family in Westphalia. After he had finished his Studies, he commenc'd Secretary to M. de Meinders, Minister of State to the Elector Frederic-William, and to King Frederic I. His Discretion and his Industry soon procur'd him the Favour of his Master, who put him Governour over his Nephew the Baron de Heidekam. M. d'Ilgen travell'd with the young Baron to Holland, England, and France, in which Tour they spent two Years. At his Return to Berlin, M. de Meinders enter'd him in Business, and the Elector Frederic-William dying not long after, he procur'd him the Office of Secretary to the new Elector. In this Employment he behav'd with such Circumspection that he is still continued in it, notwithstanding the many Changes that have happen'd in the Ministry. The Baron de Fuchs one of the most able Ministers that ever Germany produc'd, being charm'd with his Genius, gave him such a Recommendation to the late King, that he preferr'd him to a Seat in the Council, where Ilgen soon found out the way to make himself necessary. The42 Count de Wartemberg, whose Abilities were not so great but he stood in need of a Second, being then at the Head of the Council, consulted in all matters with M. d'Ilgen, who, after the Count de Wartemberg retired, had the Province of Foreign Affairs committed to him solely, and has kept it ever since.

M. d'Ilgen has both Gaiety and Solidity in his Temper, a lively, fruitful Imagination, and most pleasing Aspect. He is extremely sober, and an excellent Œconomist, being as great an Enemy to Pleasure, as he is a Friend to Riches. He is humble sometimes, even to excess; revengeful, crafty; a Master of his Temper, his Countenance, his Tongue, and his Eyes, which he accommodates altogether to the Situation of his Affairs. As by his Parts he raised himself, so by his Parts he supports himself. He is the sole Repositary of his own Secrets, having no Confident nor Favourite to share them. He is so indefatigable, that he composes and writes all himself, keeping his Secretaries only to copy. In short, he works like a Day-labourer, and makes the Ministry, as it were, a Handicraft. He speaks well, but writes better; he affects double Entendres in his Answers, and artfully has recourse, when he needs it, to an ambiguous Expression. He has so little scruple, in point of Oaths, that he takes and breaks them with equal Indifference. He never made himself a Creature, but always removed and humbled those that ever gave him any Umbrage. That which heightens his Character, and proves his Genius, is, that he has supported himself a long time, without Kindred, Friends, or Creatures, and perhaps without being too much honoured by the Favour of his Master[16].


M. de Grumkau Minister of State, Lieutenant-General of the King's Forces, Colonel of a Regiment of Foot, and Knight of the Orders of St. Andrew of Muscovy, and of the White Eagle of Poland, is descended of an illustrious Family in Pomerania. His Father was Grand Marshal of the Elector Frederic-William, and died in that Post, at the beginning of the late King's Reign. M. de Grumkau being left a Minor, was sent very young to France, to learn his Exercises, where he acquitted himself with Diligence, and the Approbation of his Superiors. At his return to Berlin, Frederic I. appointed him Gentleman of his Bed-chamber, and gave him a Company of Foot. Soon after which, he married Madamoiselle de la Chevallerie, who was Maid of Honour to the Queen Sophia-Charlotte. It was not long before he was advanced; and during the last War he served as a Brigadier in the Army in the Netherlands. At the same time he had the Care of the King's Affairs with my Lord Duke of Marlborough, and Prince Eugene of Savoy. His manner of


Behaviour shew'd that he was fit to be employ'd in great Affairs: but the Count Wartemberg, the Favourite, and Prime Minister, being jealous of his Genius, kept him as much as he could out of any Share in Authority, and chose rather to prefer him by War, than to employ him in the Ministry. The Favourites (Messieurs de Camke) who succeeded Wartemberg, perceiving M. de Grumkau's superior Abilities, were not more favourable to him than the Count was. He was preferr'd to be a Major-General at one of the last Promotions that was made by the late King; and Frederic-William, on his Accession to the Throne, made him Lieutenant-General, and Minister of State.

M. de Grumkau is good-natur'd, civil, and affable. He has the Manners and Sentiments of a Man of Quality, as he really is; he is generous, liberal, loves Splendor and Pleasures, but is not so much addicted to them as to neglect the Affairs of the Ministry. He is laborious, has a clear and quick Apprehension; a pleasant, lively, and penetrating Fancy; and is no Enemy to Satyr, when it does not attack his Neighbour's Reputation. As he is of a beneficent Temper, he has Friends, and makes himself Creatures. Of all the Ministers, he speaks to the King with the greatest Freedom; and I believe one may safely venture to put him in the Rank of Favourites.

The Baron de Kniphausen[17], Minister of State, and Commander of the Order of St. John, is descended of an illustrious Family in East-Friesland. In the late King's time, his Father was President of the Chamber, which is properly, Superintendant of the Finances. No Minister has been employed in more Embassies. He was the King's Resident in Spain, with Charles III. the present Emperor; he45 was the same in Denmark, Muscovy, and France; and every where supported the Dignity of his Master, and the Honour of his Character. So many Embassies had very much disconcerted his Affairs; and talking to me one day at Paris about his Lady, who was the Daughter of M. d'Ilgen, 'I know, said he, that her Rank is not equal to mine, and that I may be reproach'd for having married her; but I can return the same Answer which they report of the Count de Lude (Governor to Gaston of France, Lewis XIIIth's Brother) who, when he was ruin'd like me, married a Tradesman's Daughter; Could I do better, said he, when I was persecuted Day and Night by my Creditors, than to take Refuge in a Shop, rather than be carried to an Alms-House?'

M. de Kniphausen has a wonderful natural Genius, and would have every Talent requisite for a Minister, if he was not quite so averse to Labour; but being as lazy as his Father-in-Law is laborious, Affairs suffer in his hands by delay. Not but that he knows how to dispatch them, if he will, for nobody is more lively nor more vigilant than he, when he sets his heart upon a thing; but he is naturally indolent, being fond of his Ease and good Cheer.

The Baron de Gohren, who is Director of the Chamber of Finances, and of the Post-Office, is a Man of a good Family in the Marquisate of Brandenburg. He has not been many years in the Ministry, but has the Reputation of an upright Man, and one not to be corrupted. He is very reserved, and a Person of few Words, which gives him an Air that those who are not conversant with him mistake for Haughtiness.

M. de Creutz has a happy Physiognomy, being a mixture of hard Features with mild ones, that carry an Air of Probity and Frankness, which of all external Appearances is undoubtedly the most46 advantageous. He is polite, and magnificent; has an extraordinary Vivacity, an admirable Facility of expressing himself, and an easy, affable, and genteel Behaviour. He never promises but when he means to perform, and his Word may be safely depended on. I always found him very sincere, and I cannot help saying, I love him. Frederic-William called him to his Councils, he having been his Secretary when he was Prince Royal. His Assiduity and Punctuality in performing the Duties of his Office, had procured him the King's Affection to such a degree that his Majesty continues to honour him with his Good-will, and gives heed to his Representations[18].

M. de Creutz is one of the richest Subjects in the Country, having had a very great Estate by his Wife: She has also brought him a Daughter, an only Child, who is said to have a great deal of Wit; and being a rich Heiress into the bargain, she will not fail of Suitors.

M. de Vierec is a Man of Quality, and a Native of Mecklemburg; his Father was Counsellor of State to the late King, and his Envoy Extraordinary in Denmark. The Son, of whom I am now writing, quitted the Service of Duke Anthony-Ulric of Brunswic-Wolfembuttle, to be a Gentleman of the late King's Bed-chamber. When he came to Court, he had no Relations there, but he was so happy as to raise himself Friends; for his modest Air, and his polite and submissive Deportment, gain'd him the Good-will of the Favourites; and as he lov'd Play, he soon made himself acquainted with the47 Court-Ladies, who always gave him their good Word.

In 1711, when the Count de Dohna went as the King's Ambassador to Francfort, for the Election of an Emperor, he desir'd of the King that M. de Vierec, who was reckon'd the most sober young Man at Court, might be Marshal of the Embassy, which was perform'd at the King's Expence. M. de Vierec acquitted himself so well in that Employment, that he had the same Post at the Congress of Utrecht. He had afterwards, for a while, the Care of the King's Affairs at the Court of France, when the Duke of Orleans was Regent; and at his Return from thence, he was employed in the Regency of Cleves; from whence he was called home to better Preferment, by means of Gerstorf, whose Daughter he had married. For this General's only Son being killed in Sicily, his Majesty, in order to comfort the Father, whom he lov'd, and who he saw took it very much to heart, declared M. de Vierec his Son-in-Law, Minister of State. M. de Gerstorf's Daughter dying afterwards, M. de Vierec thereby came possessed of a very great Estate, and married again to the Daughter of the Count de Finck, who was formerly the Prince Royal's Governor.

M. de Vierec is perfectly polite, and altogether as modest now as he was before he was a Minister; but he is close and reserv'd, mysterious more than needs must, and jealous. His Circumspection, which extends to the minutest things, gave him the Air of a Minister, before he had a thought, perhaps, of ever being one. What with his Kindred, his Estate, and his Preferment, he is become powerful at Court.

These, Sir, are the Persons of the greatest Consequence at the Court of Prussia, with whom I had a particular Acquaintance. I am not so vain as to think I have painted them in their true Colours;48 but such as they appear'd to be in my eyes, I have represented them to you. Men are not always the same; nor do they appear in the same light to all that see them; every Man having his own way of thinking, and few judging solidly.

I have now told you all the Particulars that I know of this Court. What remains for me is to mention some things to you, which are worth your seeing, if ever you live to come hither.

Such are the King's Cabinets of Medals and Antiquities; that of Natural Curiosities, in which are a great many things not to be seen elsewhere; the Chymical Laboratory, with its Furnaces and Instruments of a new Invention; the magnificent Theatre, which the King caused to be built for Anatomical Demonstrations, with all the Curiosities and Instruments which are there kept; the Royal Library, one of the most valuable and compleat in all Germany, where, besides scarce Books and Manuscripts, is a very curious Chinese Printing-Press.

All these things would be worth particularizing; but to do this, a Man must have a larger Acquaintance here than I pretend to: Besides, my Relation is already spun to such a length that I believe 'tis time to conclude it.

I will, however, just acquaint you of a Foundation by the present King, in favour of the young Gentlemen of his Dominions, which are the Academies of Cadets, in Berlin, Magdebourg, and other Towns, where they are taught the Rudiments of War; so that 'tis a Nursery from whence the King makes a Draught of good Officers. His Majesty has moreover ordered his Generals of Foot to take each a young Gentleman, whose Fortune does not happen to be equal to his Birth, to keep them as Pages, and to make them learn their Exercises, and every thing that an Officer ought to49 know. An excellent Institution this, and a fine Resource for the poor Nobility!

I am preparing to set out forthwith for Hamburgh, Hanover, and the Court of Brunswic; and after I have made that Tour, you shall have a second Letter from me. Mean time, I am, &c.



SIR,Hamburgh, June 20, 1729.  

Nothing gives me greater pleasure, than the Approbation with which you are pleased to honour the Account I sent you of the Court of Prussia; which I esteem as an infinite Reward for the little trouble it cost me. You must not imagine that I can ever be weary of writing to you; I can never do any thing more agreeable to myself, than to contribute to your Amusement; and shall think myself exceeding happy, if I can succeed.

I set out from Berlin upon the 10th of June, and in less than four Hours came to Oranjebourg, a royal Seat, which King Frederic I. caused to be built, and to which he gave the Name of Oranjebourg, to perpetuate the Memory of his Mother, who was born Princess of Orange. This Prince, great in every Action, spar'd no Cost to render this House worthy of his magnificent Taste. The Situation of this Place is very charming, in the midst of fine large Meadows, with Canals cut in them after the manner of Holland. The Apartments of the Palace50 are grand, tho' the rich Furniture it had formerly has been removed to Berlin. The present King not taking a fancy to it, all runs to ruin; the Gardens, which were the finest in Germany, are not kept in order; the great Vessels of Porcellane; which were not to be match'd in Europe, the late King having procur'd the choicest Rarities of that Ware, that were in the Magazines of Holland; all these fine things, I say, are pass'd into the hands of the King of Poland, at Dresden. The Gallery and the Salon of Oranjebourg, which were furnish'd with them, and which were reckoned among the Beauties of Germany, are of no account now but for the Richness of their Cielings.

From Oranjebourg, I went and lay at Ferbellin, a Town which is only remarkable for a Victory gain'd here by the Elector Frederic-William over the Swedes. The latter enter'd his Dominions, while he was engag'd with his Army in defence of the Empire then attack'd by the French on the Upper Rhine. The Elector being inform'd of the Invasion of his own Country by the Swedes, came away from the Rhine with his Troops, and by one of the bravest Marches that ever any General made, deliver'd it from the Enemy. He surprized them in Ratenau, a Town in the Marquisate of Brandenbourg, the Garrison of which he made Prisoners; and then continuing his March, he came up with the Swedes near Ferbellin, at a time when the latter thought him still upon the Rhine, and gain'd a compleat Victory. A venerable old Gentleman, who was very near the Elector's Person at this Battle, told me, that before the Engagement began, the Prince being at the head of his Army, took out his Pistols, fir'd them in the Air, and lifting up his Eyes to Heaven, said, 'Tis to thy Glory, Great God, that I discharge my Arms; defend my Cause, thou knowest it to be just; punish my Enemies.51 Then drawing his Sword, and turning about to his Soldiers, My Comrades, said he, I desire no other Defence, nor no other Weapons, but the Protection of God, your Courage, and my Sword. Follow me therefore, my Friends, do as I do, and be assur'd of Victory.

In this Battle, Forbenius, the Elector's Gentleman of the Horse, perceiving that a white Steed which his Master rode, made his Person a very plain Mark for his Enemy, so that they had singled him out to fire at, desir'd the Prince to change Horses with him. The Elector, who had a great Soul, above all Fear, refus'd at first to do so, but upon the repeated Instances of Forbenius, he consented to it; and the Moment that the Gentleman mounted the Horse which the Elector quitted, a Cannon-Shot kill'd him dead upon the Place, so quick, that he expir'd without the Comfort of knowing that he had thereby preserved the Life of his Master.

HAMBURGH, a Hanse-Town in the Circle of Lower Saxony, is, without dispute, one of the richest and most considerable Towns in all the Empire of Germany. It depends solely upon its Magistrates, who are chose by the Burgers themselves. Its Liberty has been often contested by the Kings of Denmark, who as Dukes of Holstein, pretend that Hamburgh is built upon their Territory, and that therefore they ought to be the Sovereigns of it. The Electors of Brandenbourg, and the Princes of the House of Brunswic, always opposed the Incroachments of the Danes; nor will they suffer any Power whatsoever to oppress the City of Hamburgh, because, if it were possible, they would be glad to annex it to their own Domains. The City being exposed to these Attacks, has taken all the Measures possible to be in a condition to defend its Liberty. 'Tis very well fortified, maintains a good52 Garrison, and has an Arsenal provided with all Necessaries.

The Commerce of Hamburgh is considerable, tho' 'tis very much lessen'd since Frederic IV. King of Denmark, prohibited the Importation of Merchandize from Hamburgh to his Dominions[19].

The manner of living in this City is different from that of all the Hanse Towns. Here is a tolerable Opera all the Year round[20]; charming Walks, choice Company, much Visiting and hearty Cheer. There are several good Houses of the Nobility, where Foreigners are well receiv'd. The Merchants are affable and civil; most of them in their youth travel to the most remarkable Countries of Europe, where they then pass for Gentlemen of Holstein. As they are rich, they can easily afford to make a good Appearance where-ever they come. There they learn that polite Air, and that Behaviour which one would wish to see in all Gentlemen of good Families. The only thing for which I find fault with them, is, that they treat their Wives too much like the Levant People, where the Women are only suffer'd to go to the Mosques; so here, the Women scarce go any where but to Church, or if they at any time take the Air, 'tis in company with 53their Husbands: and a Foreigner is so seldom admitted to their Assemblies, that when he is, those poor Women are as much astonish'd at the sight of him, as a Sultana would be to see a Capuchin enter the Seraglio.

There's a great many worthy People here. I have made an Acquaintance with M. de Brocks, one of the Magistrates, who has acquir'd a Reputation for his Skill in Poetry, by such Compositions as cannot but convince Foreigners, who understand the High-Dutch, that as good things may be said in that Language, as in any other[21]. This M. de Brocks is of an amiable Character, civil, and complaisant, and has acquir'd the Love and Esteem of all that know him.

Most of the European Princes have Residents here, for which reason here are several Chappels of the Roman Catholicks, who otherwise would be obliged to go to the Church at Altena, as the Calvinists are forc'd to do, the Lutheran being the Religion that is uppermost at Hamburgh; but the Jews have their Synagogues here. What an odd Establishment is this in a Christian Country![22] how uncharitable, and even nonsensical! and how must it make the Turks laugh! We grant Synagogues to the Jews, the Enemies of Jesus Christ, who would crucify him again, if they had not done it already; and we refuse Churches and Temples54 to those that believe as we do in Jesus Christ! No, were you to call me Heretic a thousand times, I would say, Holland for ever! where 'tis a Maxim, to leave every Man to his Conscience; and where they think it would be a Contradiction to admit People to be their Fellow-Citizens, and to deny them the Liberty of worshipping God in their own way.

The Emperor's Minister, who has the Title of His Imperial Majesty's Plenipotentiary to the Circle of Lower Saxony, commonly resides at Hamburgh. The last Gentleman that had this Employment was the Count de Metsch[23]; and since his being made Vice-President of the Emperor's Aulic Council, it has not been fill'd up[24].

The Populace of Hamburgh, just such another ungovernable Herd as the Amsterdam Mobs, having taken it into their heads some years ago, out of a mad sort of Zeal for Religion, to plunder the House and Chapel of the Emperor's Resident; the City in order to make Satisfaction for the Insult, was condemned to build a House which was to be the Residence of the Emperor's Minister always for the future. For this end, the City bought the Palace of the late Baron de Gortz, a Man of great Fame in the History of Charles XII. King of Sweden; and whose Fortune and Catastrophe are worthy your notice.

Henry Baron de Gortz was born of an independent Family in Franconia, which is a Province that abounds with Nobility of Distinction. He enter'd young into the Service of the Duke of Holstein-Schleswic, and rose to be his Minister. He was a Man generous,55 noble, and magnificent, even to Profusion; vigilant, full of Projects and Stratagems; a Man whom nothing could surprize, nothing dissuade from a Design that he had once form'd; whose Ambition was boundless, and who always aim'd to do something to be talk'd of. In the North there was no Intrigue in which he had not a hand, and into which he did not likewise draw his Master, whom he push'd upon Enterprizes so far above his Power to execute, that he thereby lost his Dominions. The Baron de Gortz thought Holstein too narrow a Sphere for him to move in, and therefore he attach'd himself to Charles XII. King of Sweden, after that Prince return'd from his long Stay at Bender. Charles was just such a Master as the Baron wanted, and he just such a Minister as was necessary for the King of Sweden; nor was there ever in the World a greater Sympathy between two Men. Gortz was born to form great Designs, Charles to put them in execution; and the constant Design of both was only to throw Europe into a Ferment.

The Baron, besides other happy Gifts of Nature, had the Talent of insinuating and pleasing. He soon got an Ascendant over Charles, to such a degree that tho' this Prince was never to be advis'd by his Ministers, yet the Baron's Opinion was a Law to him. Gortz frighten'd Europe, and made Sweden tremble; being as much fear'd and dreaded there as the King himself. The Swedes were uneasy to see so great a Share of Authority vested in a Foreigner; and therefore form'd Parties and Cabals to strip him of it; but they durst not discover their Designs. The Minister knew all the while they envy'd him, but was in no manner of Concern about it; for being sure of the Favour of the King, he despised the Hatred,56 both of the Populace and the Great Men[25].

But after the Death of Charles XII. who was killed at the Siege of Frederickshall, in the Month of December, the Swedes did not fail to punish him; for the Baron, before he cou'd have Intelligence of the King's Death, was actually put under an Arrest; and upon that Occasion he said to the Officer, Surely the King must be dead! From that Moment he was never once heard to complain or murmur; for he was intrepid even to Death; the Sentence of which he received with a wonderful Constancy of Mind, chose to die like a Philosopher, and thought too freely of Religion to the very last. A Divine, who is now one of the King of Denmark's Chaplains, turn'd his Heart, and brought him to acknowledge that 'twas the Hand of God which smote him. He was conducted to the Place of Execution in a mourning Coach, in which the Chaplain rode with him. He had a long Robe of black Velvet, ty'd with Ribbands over his Shoulders; and as he was mounting the Scaffold, which was hung with black Cloth, perceiving one Duval, a Frenchman, who was his Steward, he held out his Hand, saying, Farewell Duval, I shall eat no more of thy Soups. When he was on the Scaffold, an Officer of Justice read a Paper to him with a loud Voice; in which it was declared that he was degraded from the Rank of Nobility, and that the Queen had order'd him to be beheaded. Alas! said he, I am born a free Baron of the Empire. Sweden cannot take from me what it never gave me; and if I had really deserv'd to be degraded, none has a Right to do it but the Emperor. Having requir'd one of his Valets de Chambre57 to undress him, he deliver'd the Ribband of the Order of the Black Eagle of Prussia to a Gentleman who stood near him, and enjoin'd him to carry it to one of his Kindred, that he might return it to the King of Prussia. Then he fell on his Knees, without shewing the least Sign of Fear; and receiv'd the Stroke of Death with a Constancy of which there are very few Examples. His Head being exposed to the People, was a pleasing Victim to their Hatred and Revenge. The Baron's Corpse was interr'd, at the Place of Execution, from whence one of his Footmen took it away in the Night-time, put it into a Barrel, and carry'd it to Hamburgh; where it was laid upon a Bed of State, and bury'd with all the Formalities fitting the Rank which he had held in the World.

Within a Cannon-Shot of Hamburgh, stands the Town of Altena, which belongs to the King of Denmark. The Swedish General, Steinbock, reduc'd it to Ashes, the 9th of January 1712, by way of Reprisal, as he said, because the Danes had burnt Staden: but there was this Difference, that the Danes had besieg'd Staden in form, and destroy'd it by their Bombs; whereas Steinbock acted the part of an Incendiary. As soon as he appear'd before Altena, he sent in a Message to advise the Inhabitants to retire with what they could carry off, for that he was going to destroy their Town. The Magistrates came out in a Body, and falling at his Feet, begg'd for Mercy, and offer'd him a considerable Sum of Money. Steinbock insisting on more, they granted him his whole Demand, only they desir'd Time to go to Hamburgh for the Money. The merciless General would admit of no such Delay. The poor Inhabitants were oblig'd to turn out; the Mothers carry'd out their Infants; the young Fellows, the paralytick old Men; some groan'd under Loads of Furniture; all lamented their Fate,58 and uter'd Cries that wou'd have almost pierc'd a Stone. The Swedes stood at the Barriers, with flaming Torches in their Hands, to see them pass; and before the poor Inhabitants were all gone out, they enter'd the Town, and set fire to all parts of it; not sparing even the Vaults of the Dead.

Never was a greater Desolation known; but what compleated the Ruin of the Altenois, was the Necessity of the Times, which was such as oblig'd the Hamburghers not to entertain them. Several prejudic'd Authors have said that the Hamburghers, insensible, if not overjoy'd at the Calamity of their Neighbours, kept their Gates shut, that they might see them perish. But the truth is, that the Hamburghers were oblig'd to be thus strict; because the Plague raging at that time in Holstein, the Elector of Hanover had forc'd them to stop all Commerce with that Country; threatning them, that if he heard they had the least Communication with Altena, he wou'd prohibit his Subjects from all manner of Correspondence with the City of Hamburgh. Besides, it wou'd not have been prudent in the Hamburghers to have open'd their Gates in the Night-time; for the Swedish Army being so near, they could not tell but the Swedes might come into the Town as well as the Altenois. To the Misfortune of the Times therefore must be ascribed the Distress of the Inhabitants of Altena, most of whom perished with Cold, Want, and Despair.

Frederic IV. King of Denmark, being touched with Compassion for the Misfortune of his Subjects of Altena, relieved them as far as the Necessity of the Times wou'd give him leave. He caus'd them to be supply'd with Materials for rebuilding their Houses; and now Altena has recovered her Losses: for the King of Denmark has not only granted it many new Privileges, but has caus'd a Harbour59 to be made there; and does all that is in his power to draw a Trade to it. This City being a privileg'd Place for Bankrupts, many of that Character come from Hamburgh to settle here; and there is a general Toleration for those of all Religions, who have their Churches and Temples here; which draws such numbers of People, that in time Altena will probably become Hamburgh, and Hamburgh Altena: For the Hamburghers, on the contrary, will tolerate no Christian Sects; tho' they grant the Jews the public Exercise of their Religion, as has been already observed. The Governour of Danish Holstein resides here, who is the Count de Reventlau, Brother to the[26]Queen of Denmark. I am, &c.





SIR,Hanover, July 5, 1729.  

This Letter is to acquaint you of some things that I remark'd in the Road from Hamburgh, and in this City itself; where I have now been these three Days.

I set out from Hamburgh the 22d of June, and went by Water to Harbourg, having sent my Chaise thither the Day before. This Town is a Dependant on the Dutchy of Lunenbourg, and belongs to the Elector of Brunswic-Lunenbourg. It has nothing very remarkable but its Castle, which is a Pentagon, lin'd with a good Cover'd-Way. Madamoiselle d'Olbreuse[27], whom the Duke of Zell marry'd, had the Title of Madame de Harbourg, till she was recogniz'd by the Emperor a Princess of the Empire. For by the Laws of Germany, a Prince of a Sovereign Family can marry none but a Princess, or a Countess. If he weds a private Gentlewoman, he not only marries below himself, but his Wife does not go by his Name; and the Children of such Marriage cannot succeed, unless the Emperor declare the Mother a Princess; as he commonly does in favour of Princes of antient Families.

Between Harbourg and Zell, which is twelve Miles, there is scarce any thing but Heath. The Post-Stages, which are of four Miles, are very ill 61serv'd, and the Inns the worst in Germany; all which together render the Road extremely disagreeable.

Zell is a little Town with great Suburbs. All its Buildings are of Timber, except the Churches, the Castle, and the House of Correction, which are of Brick. There is a Trade from hence to Bremen, by the River Aller.

After the Death of George-William, the last Duke of Zell[28], this City, and its Dependency, the Dutchy of Lunenbourg, devolv'd to his Nephew George, Elector of Brunswic-Hanover, afterwards King of Great Britain. This Prince had a Regency at Zell, which judged all Causes, without any Appeal but to the Council of State at Hanover. The President of it at this time, is the Baron de Friesberg, a Person of a good Family in the Country of Hildesheim; who has been a long time the Elector's Envoy at the Diet of Ratisbon, where I knew him, and received a world of Civilities from him. He is esteem'd for the prudent Management of his Office, and his noble manner of living. There are a great many Persons of Quality settled at Zell, who for a trifling Expence enjoy the Pleasures of agreeable Society. They visit and regale one another very much, and are not wanting in Civilities to Foreigners. Monsieur de Schulenbourgh[29], Lieutenant-General of the Hanoverian Horse, and62 Knight of the Prussian Order of the Black Eagle, is the Governour of this Town. He is a Gentleman of good Extraction, of Behaviour, Noble, Polite, and Easy; and though he is Father of a numerous Family, he affects to live grand, and keeps a very good Table. One of his Sons is in the Service of Prussia, the others are in that of the King of England. I mention them to you, because they are worthy Gentlemen; and whoever knows them, cannot but esteem them.

Here are a great many French People, Catholick as well as Protestant, of whom the former have a Chapel, and the latter a Church; but the Religion which is predominant, is the Lutheran. The last Dutchess of Zell, of the Family of Olbreuse, being a French Woman, fill'd her Husband's Court and Guards with her own Countrymen; who were even preferr'd before the Natives of Zell. I have been told that these Frenchmen really thought themselves so much at home, that there happen'd to be one day no less than a dozen of 'em at Dinner at the Duke's Table, who all except the Prince were Frenchmen; which one of them observing, said to the Duke, My Lord, this is really very pleasant; there is no Foreigner here but you!

In the Neighbourhood of this Town there's the Castle of Ahlen, where, (about nine Years ago,) the unfortunate Daughter of the last Duke of Zell, by Madamoiselle d'Olbreuse, ended her Days, after she had been retir'd thither about thirty six Years: She had been promised in Marriage to Augustus-William, the hereditary Prince of Brunswic-Lunenbourg-Wolfemhuttle; but her Father the Duke, by the Intrigues of the Princess Sophia, Dutchess of Hanover, marry'd her against her Will, and against the Consent of her Mother, to the hereditary Prince George-Lewis, who was afterwards King of Great Britain, by Right of his Mother, and who died in63 the Year 1727, as he came to make the Tour of his hereditary Dominions. She was sixteen Years old at her Marriage with that Prince, who was then twenty-two.

Tho' there's a good deal of Heath between Zell and Hanover, yet the Country is very well cultivated; for the Inhabitants not only make Turfs of the Heath for Fewel, but it serves also for Pasturage, and for Manure. 'Tis about five German Miles from one Town to the other, and I travell'd it in less than five Hours.

Hanover, the Capital of the Electorate of Brunswic-Lunenbourg, is bigger than Zell. The River Leine divides it into the old and new Towns, which are both encompass'd with Ramparts that scarce deserve the Name. There is nothing very extraordinary in the Palace or Castle, which is rather commodious than magnificent; and the Town of Hanover, generally speaking, is but ill built. The most remarkable Structure in it, is the Roman Catholick Church, which was granted to those of that Communion by Ernest-Augustus of Brunswic-Lunenbourg-Hanover; that being one of the Conditions which the Emperor Leopold demanded of him when he honour'd him with the Electoral Dignity. That Prince moreover engag'd to admit of an Apostolical Vicar in his Dominions, and to give him leave to reside at Hanover, as Spiga, who lately died at Francfort[30], did for many Years. Divine Service is perform'd in this Church as regularly as in a Cathedral; and they who officiate in it are Missionaries. The number of Catholicks is very considerable; but few Persons of Quality64 are of that Communion, the Nobility being all Lutherans.

When George I. King of Great Britain left his German Dominions to take possession of his Kingdom, he was willing that all Affairs at Hanover shou'd continue on the same footing as they were before he was called to the Throne; and he left behind him Prince Frederic his Grandson, now Prince of Wales; who not only had a Drawing-Room every Day, but the same Attendance as had the Elector before he was King.

His Majesty King George II. has made no Alteration in the Establishment of the King his Father. When he sent for the Prince of Wales to England, he order'd the Courtiers to continue their Assemblies at the Castle; and that his Table shou'd always be serv'd in the same manner as if he himself was at Hanover. His Majesty keeps up the same number of Gentlemen, Pages, Domestics, and Guards; and the same number of Horses, Grooms, &c. in his Stables. There's a French Comedy acted three times a Week at the Palace, to which all People are admitted gratis; and there are frequently Concerts, Balls and Assemblies. The Gentlemen who do the Court-Honours at these Entertainments, and who invite Persons to dine or sup at the King's Table, are either M. de Hardenberg, the Grand Marshal, or, in his absence, the Baron de Gortz[31], Chief Steward of the Houshold; or else M. de Rheden, Captain of the Castle of Hanover.

In the King's absence, the Government is compos'd of a Council of State, whereof M. de Hardenberg is Chief or President; which meets every day in an Apartment of the Castle. To this all the Courts of Justice in the Dominions of Hanover are subject, and accountable. The Council65 of State receives its Orders immediately from the King; and they are counter-signed either by the Count de Bothmar, or by M. de Hattorf, the two German Ministers that attend his Majesty's Person.

The Count de Bothmar[32] is an old Gentleman, who for a long time resided in quality of the Elector's Envoy at the Court of England, where, by his prudent Management for his Master, he cherished the most incontestable Right that a Prince can possibly have to a Crown; I mean, the Voice of the People.

M. de Hattorf is not only the Minister's Son, but has been his Co-adjutor, for they had both the War-Office in their Province; for which reason they were called Louvois and Barbesieux, a Comparison which does no Dishonour either to the one or to the other: for if the two Hattorfs have not made such a Blaze in the World, 'tis because they had not a Lewis XIV. for their Master, for they were not inferior to the French Ministers in Capacity, and Application to Business, and had not their Pride and Arrogance.

M. de Munchausen is one of those Ministers of State who bears the most Sway. He is of a Temper beneficent, mild, civil, very candid, sober, and religious. He lives with Dignity, and his House is as open to Foreigners as any in the City.

The Marshal Baron de Bulau, is Commander in chief of the Forces[33]. He has no manner of Dependance66 on the Council of State, and receives his Orders immediately from the King, by M. de Hattorf the Secretary at War. The Promotion which the King makes of Officers is by the Recommendation of M. de Bulau; and such as would enter into the Service must make their Application to him. He serv'd with Distinction in the Netherlands, under my Lord Duke of Marlborough. He has actually under his Command 18000 Men, which is the Complement of the King of Great Britain's Forces, as Elector. His Majesty indeed, keeps in pay 12000 Hessians,[34] and 4000 Men of the Troops of Wolfenbuttle. 'Tis true, those Forces are paid by England, but to me it seems they are only to defend the King's Dominions in Germany.

Tho' the Sovereign is absent, yet here are not wanting Amusements; there being many good Families, and a number of amiable Persons.

The lovely Countess of Delitz, Niece to the Dutchess of Kendal, cou'd not fail of Adorers, even in the most barbarous Countries; for the Charms of her Mind are not inferior to the Beauty, Sweetness, and Gracefulness of her Person.

No Lady can have a better Temper or Behaviour than the Baroness de Bulau, Daughter-in-law to the Marshal, and Daughter to the late Countess of Platen: her Husband is a worthy Gentleman, and keeps a very good House.

The Count de Platen, hereditary Post-Master-General, is one of the richest Subjects in the Electorate, and one that spends the most Money. A Foreigner will always have cause to speak well of M. de Rheden, Captain of the Castle, and M. de Wagenheim, the great Cup-Bearer. Messieurs d'Ilten67 live splendidly; and both the Brothers, the eldest of whom is a Colonel of the Guards, are amiable and infinitely polite. If ever you come hither, you will certainly have reason to be fond of their Company.

The Situation of Hanover is very agreeable; and in its Neighbourhood are several pretty Seats. Among these Herenhausen (the House of the Lord, or the Master) is a Castle which was built by Order of the Elector Ernest-Augustus, the King's Grandfather. This House, to which a strait Walk leads, bears no proportion to the Magnificence of its Gardens, which are undeniably some of the finest in all Europe; being particularly adorn'd with Water-Works that throw the Water up much higher than the famous Fountain at St. Cloud, which was always look'd upon as the most considerable of the kind[35].

Between Hanover and Herenhausen, there are two fine Seats; of which, one is call'd Fantasie, i. e. the Whim; and the other, Monbrillant, or, Mount-Pleasant. They were built by two Sisters-in-law, viz. Madame de Kilmanseck, (who after her Husband's Death, was by King George I. created Countess of Arlington) and the Countess of Platen. These two Houses are a Proof of the good Taste of those Ladies, who were really an Honour to Germany, for their Beauty, good Sense, Manners, and Genius. They both died in their Prime, a little time after one another; my Lady Arlington in England, and the Countess of Platen at Hanover, to which she was not only an Ornament, but a Lustre.


The Dominions of Hanover are so considerable, that I have been assured the Revenues are no less than six Millions of Crowns per An. Whether this be true, I do not know; but I tell you what I was told myself.

Hamelen upon the Weser is the only Town that can be reckoned a Place of Defence. Hanover, Zell, and Lunenbourg, have Ramparts; Harbourg, a Castle, or Citadel; but all so inconsiderable, that they are not worth mentioning.

There are few Sovereigns whose Finances are in so good a Condition as this Elector's; which has been the happy Produce of three succeeding Reigns; and the good Œconomy wherewith they were managed by the three last Princes of the Electoral Family, has contributed infinitely to the Figure it makes at this time. Mean-while, notwithstanding these Regulations, the People were never oppress'd, and the Princes always lived with a Splendor suitable to their Grandeur. Ernest-Augustus obtained the Electoral Dignity, not without making great Presents to the Court of Vienna, at a time too when his Power was limited to the Dutchy of Hanover, and the Bishoprick of Osnabrug. Tho' this Prince had a numerous Family to provide for, he lived with Splendor, was fond of Magnificence and Pleasures, gallant, generous, and liberal; and when he died, he left no Debts to pay, and his Finances were in a good State.

George I. his Son and Successor kept up a considerable Body of Troops, and had a very splendid Court. As his Acquisitions were great, he distributed his Favours where-ever he was inform'd there was a Necessity; and when he came to the Throne, he made no Reform in this Court; so that their not seeing him was the only Token of his Absence. At his Death, he left immense Sums in his Treasury,69 and so glorious a Character, that his Subjects still bless the Memory of his Reign.

George II. his Son, and the Heir of his Crown, his Dominions, and Virtues, behaves in the very same manner. While he lives and acts like a King, he neither gives, on the one hand, into the Extravagance of vain Pomp and Pageantry, nor on the other, into that sordid Thriftiness which debases Royal Majesty, and extinguishes the Love of Subjects. He accumulates Treasure without oppressing his People, who love him, and offer up their Prayers for him, as I do for your Preservation; and

Am, &c.



SIR,Blanckenbourg, July 30, 1729.  

I was six Hours travelling from Hanover to Brunswic, the Capital of the Dutchy of that Name, which is a very great City, with Houses for the most part of Timber. It was formerly a Free and Imperial City, and one of the Hanse-Towns; but falling under the Sovereignty of the Princes of the House of Brunswic, they reduced it to a level with the other Towns of their Dominions. It belongs to the Duke of Brunswic-Lunenbourg Wolfembuttle. The Duke Anthony-Ulric began to fortify it; and his Son Augustus-William, the present Duke[36], perfected70 what remained unfinished at his Father's Death, and made Brunswic a Place which cannot be besieged without a numerous Army: But then on the other hand, it would require such an Army to garison it as the Duke could not furnish without the help of his Neighbours, and which besides, wou'd not perhaps be extraordinary convenient for him to introduce. The said Duke has caused a new Palace to be built, which is large and magnificent, and the Furniture is rich, new, and excellently well chosen. Among the rest, there are very fine Pictures, and a Cabinet full of Curiosities.

The Duke of Blanckenbourg, Brother to the Duke of Wolfembuttle, has a particular Palace, where he resides in the Fair-time, but it did not appear to me to be a House of any consequence.

The Fairs of Brunswic contribute very much to make it a rich and famous City, there being two held every Year, and a considerable Trade carried on at both.

There is very good Diversion during these Fairs; for then all the Ducal Family is generally at Brunswic; to which foreign Princes come often, and there is always a great Concourse of the Nobility. The Duke sends every Morning to invite the Quality of both Sexes, who at Noon repair to the Palace. The Grand Marshal, for avoiding all Disputes about Precedency, causes the Ladies to be match'd with the Gentlemen by the drawing of Tickets; and sometimes it happens that a Dutchess71 is at the lower end of the Table, which is served with very great Magnificence and Elegance. When there are too many Guests to sit at one Table, the two Brothers keep each a separate Table at his own Palace. At Night, the Company repairs to the German Opera, which being ended, they pass into Rooms joining to the Theatre where they play, and sup, and then dance. The Ball is open'd by the Gentleman who happened to draw the first Number in the Morning, and continues till Day-break.

The Ducal Family of Brunswic-Wolfembuttle consists now but of two Brothers; the eldest of whom, the Duke[37] Augustus-William, has had three Wives, but no Issue. He is married to a Princess of Holstein-Norbourg.

These two Princes are so far advanced in Years, that the Duke Ferdinand-Albert of Brunswic-Lunenbourg-Bevern, Son-in-law to the Duke of Blanckenbourg[38], is looked upon as their presumptive Heir. Europe produces few Princes of more distinguished Merit, who have equal Knowledge, more Learning, and Integrity, or more Valour and Experience in War. He has acquired a noble Reputation in Hungary; and he is not only a Brother-in-law to the Emperor, but one of his favourite Generals, and has a Regiment in his Service[39].


His Family consists of four Sons and three Daughters[40] by his Wife Antonietta-Amelia of Brunswic-Blanckenbourg. These are very hopeful young Princes. The eldest, whose Name is Charles[41], is of a lovely Make, and has Sense infinitely beyond his Years. The eldest Princess, Elizabeth-Christina[42], at twelve Years of Age may pass for one that is compleatly grown; her Air is noble and modest; her Features regular; in a word, she is form'd to make that Prince happy who is one day to be her Husband.

The Court of Wolfembuttle is numerous, and when assembled does not want for Magnificence.

The Ministers of most Power are the Baron Stein[43], and the Count de Debn[44]. The former73 is descended of an illustrious Family in Swabia: He was in the Service of the Landgrave of Darmstadt, and his Envoy at the Dyet of Ratisbon, and several Courts, where he made himself considerable by his Eloquence, the Justness of his Sentiments, by the Ease with which he expresses them, and by his Politeness.

The Count de Dehn is a Native of Mecklemburg, where he was born of a good Family, and enter'd very young a Page to Duke Anthony-Ulric of Brunswic-Wolfembuttle. He had the Happiness to please that Prince, but much more his Successor, the Duke Augustus-William, who of his Page, made him his Favourite and Minister, heaped Wealth and Honours upon him, and match'd him to the Daughter of his Chancellor, who was one of the richest Heiresses in all Germany.

The young Minister finding himself rich and powerful, quickly thought the Court of Wolfembuttle too narrow a Stage for Action. He had chose the Count de Fleming, Prime Minister of the King of Poland, for a Model. He saw that this Minister, under pretence of important Negotiations, went to the chief Courts of the Empire to make a Parade of his Riches; and young Dehn long'd with Impatience to imitate him. He procur'd himself to be nominated the Duke's Envoy Extraordinary to Holland and France, where he vy'd in every respect with the Ambassadors of the chief Crowns. In fine, after having staid about eighteen Months at Paris, he went away very much lamented by the Merchants and Workmen with whom he had dealings. He came to Wolfembuttle to receive the Applauses of his Master,74 and to rest himself after the Fatigues he had undergone in his important Negotiations.

As Count Fleming was honoured with the Orders of Denmark, Russia, and Poland, his Rival too thought he could not do without one Ribbon at least; and thinking the Order of Dannebrock the most proper for him, because it was white, he demanded and obtained it of Frederic IV. the King of Denmark. When he saw himself thus adorn'd, he procured himself to be sent to Vienna. What business he had there, I know not; but he was scarce ever from the Emperor, and in order to be nearer to his Person, he lodged just by the Palace of the Favorita. He often relieved the Cares of the Ministry by making some Entertainment or Ball. He had an admirable Genius for Dancing, so that every body thought him the Inventor of Country-Dances. The Emperor gave him the Title of a Count, with which he returned to his own Court.

When Glory has once fir'd a noble Soul, nothing can keep it within Bounds. The Count de Dehn had lost his first Wife, who left him the Heir of three great Estates; and he married again to an amiable Lady, who return'd him Love for Love. Tho' he was dear to his Master, yet he could not resolve to continue at Wolfembuttle, because he had a Taste for nothing but Treaties and Negotiations. He returned a second time, as Envoy Extraordinary to the States-General, but did not stay long at the Hague; for after having had his publick Audience, wherein he assured their High-Mightinesses of the sincere Affection of his Master for their Republic, and of his own personal Joy to find himself seated in an Arm-Chair in their Assembly, he went over to England to reside at the Court of his Britannic Majesty. He was admired for his Grandeur, as much in England as elsewhere; but the Air of that Country not agreeing with the Delicacy of his Constitution,75 he return'd to Germany; and, after having made a tour to the chief Courts of the Empire, he is come back to Wolfembuttle, where he stays in expectation that some great Event or other will turn up, that he may be employ'd in some remarkable Embassy, whereby Europe, attentive to every thing that relates to him, may have fresh Proofs of his great Talents.

The Baron de Hagen is Commander in Chief of the Duke's Troops, which actually amount to above 4000 Men, and 'tis said, that his Highness's Revenues exceed two Millions of Crowns. His Subjects are not the worst used of any in Germany. 'Tis a good fruitful Country; the Peasants, who are sober and laborious, are as clownish and as stupid as those that herd with the Hogs in Westphalia; but they are robust, strong, and good Soldiers.

In Brunswic there is a Catholick Church which is small, but neat. The Duke Anthony-Ulric caus'd it to be built at the time he embraced the Catholick Religion; which he did, after full Conviction, not many Years before his Death.

Saltzdahl, a Pleasure-House belonging to the Duke, is a League from Brunswic, and from Wolfembuttle. It was built by Duke Anthony-Ulric, one of the most magnificent Princes of his Time, and one who had the most elegant Taste. This House is worthy of nice Observation. It has a great Gallery with a Collection of Pictures in it by the chief Painters, which is not to be met with elsewhere. In one great Cabinet there is very fine Porcellane; and in another, a vast number of Vessels and Urns painted by Raphael. In short, the Curious can't want here for Entertainment.

The Road from Brunswic to Wolfembuttle is as pleasant as most Roads. We cross a little Wood through which there are several Routes cut, and as76 we come near the Town, several pretty Seats appear in view.

The Town of Wolfembuttle is not half so big as Brunswic, nor is it better built, the Houses being of Timber. The Fortifications seem to me to be in good Repair. The Castle, or Ducal Palace, is ancient, and makes no great Appearance, but 'tis commodious, and has good Lodging-Rooms. That which most deserves the Attention of a Traveller, is the Library, which is one of the best chosen in Europe, and contains very scarce Books and Manuscripts.

As I had left the Court at Brunswic I did not stay many Hours at Wolfembuttle, but came to lie here at Blanckenbourg, where I have all that Heart can wish for.

The Duke is as affable and as civil a Prince as any in the World. In his Youth he visited the principal Courts of Europe, where he contracted a great Politeness, and a solid Taste of Elegancy. He loves the Belles Lettres, protects the Arts and Sciences, and looks out for Men of Ability to serve him. He is magnificent, generous, a good Prince, and a kind Master. He was at one and the same time, the Father of an Empress, and the Grandfather of an Emperor. As a Father, he has a considerable Pension from the Emperor of Germany; and as a Grandfather, he has been honour'd with the Order of St. Andrew of Muscovy, founded by Peter the Great, which is a blue Ribbon, with St. Andrew's Cross appendant to it enamell'd with blue. This Prince is also a Commander of Suplenbourg, a Commandery of the Order of St. John, annexed to the House of Brunswic. He has had three Daughters by his Wife Elizabeth-Christina of Oetingen.

The Dutchess, tho' advanc'd in Years, retains an Air of Grandeur and Majesty which strikes the Beholders, and her Features discover the Marks of77 that shining Beauty which she had in her Youth. But what renders this Princess more venerable than even her Birth, is her solid Piety, her just Discernment, her lively Imagination, her noble and easy manner of expressing herself, and her Principles of Humanity, accompany'd with a Generosity free from all Ostentation.

I had the honour to pay my Duty to her at Brunswic, some Years ago, when she receiv'd me with such Tokens of Goodness as rejoic'd my very Heart; and upon all Occasions since, she has been pleas'd to give me fresh Proofs of it. As I can be of no service to this Princess in any Case, nor so happy as to be able to contribute to her Glory, 'tis my Ambition to make every one, and you, Sir, in particular, sensible of the Respect and Attachment with which I am devoted to her, and of the grateful Sense I have of the Benevolence with which she has honour'd me.

The Courtiers of Blanckenbourg are, like their Master, very polite. M. de Munchausen is the chief of the Duke's Council, and was formerly in the Service of the Duke of Wolfembuttle. He is a Gentleman of great Learning, Labour, and Vigilance, and has a distinct and noble Manner of Delivery. He is heartily attach'd to his Master; and the Courtiers seem'd to me to have an Esteem and Affection for him. Men of solid Judgment, and who have been more conversant with this Minister than I, have assured me that he is one of the greatest Genius's at this present, in Germany[45].

M. de Sporck is the Grand Marshal, which Employment he acquits himself in with very great Politeness and Care. He is come of a good Family, his 78Father being Minister of State, and Director of the Dutchies of Zell and Lunenbourg. M. de Polentz[46] does the Honours of the Court under him, in quality of Great Cup-Bearer. As he had his Education at Court, he is vastly polite; and Foreigners cannot but be pleas'd with his good Behaviour.

The Duke and Dutchess delight to see Foreigners at their Court, whom they load with Civilities, and will have them always to dine and sup with their Highnesses. After Dinner, they take the Air, or make Visits; and in the Evening there's an Assembly in the Dutchess's Apartment, where they play, then sup, and afterwards every one retires. We have had a Comedy twice or thrice, which is acted by the young People of the Family, who perform their Parts very well; especially in the Tragedies of Corneille and Racine, translated into High-Dutch.

The Pleasures of the Carnival are more gay, at which time the Duke makes Entertainments: There's a Ball, a Masquerade, and Comedy at Court, every Day; and for the time there's so great a Concourse of Strangers here from the neighbouring Towns, that sometimes 'tis impossible to get a Lodging.

The Town of Blanckenbourg is small, and the Houses ill built, and inconvenient. The Duke has done all in his power to engage the Inhabitants to build; he has offer'd them Materials gratis, and has moreover endeavour'd to inspire them with a Taste for the Arts; but all without Success.

I never in my whole Life, saw People more indolent and clownish than those of Blanckenbourg, and the neighbouring Towns. They are so bigotted to old Customs, that they say, My Father liv'd so, and so will I; My Father did not do this, nor will I. I cannot conceive how People, so dull as they are, and so strongly attach'd to the Institutions of their 79Forefathers, came to give into Luther's Reformation.[47]

Blanckenbourg is a petty County, which Duke Anthony-Ulric yielded in his Life-time to his second Son, to make him some sort of Compensation for the Right of Primogeniture, which he had newly introduc'd into his Family, to that Son's prejudice: For the Princes of Brunswic had for a long time been us'd to a Partition of Lands in their Families. The Hanover Branch was the first that abolish'd that Custom, pernicious to great Families. Duke Anthony-Ulric was only restrain'd from it by Pr. Lewis his second Son, whom he lov'd more than his eldest; and not caring to leave him without Dominions, to the Discretion of a Brother, he gave him Possession of this State in his Life-time; because he was of Opinion, that after his Death, his Will wou'd have the Fate of not being executed by his Successor, according to the Custom introduc'd among Sovereigns. With them 'tis a Right of Regale, but for us to do so, is a Crime.

As the County of Blanckenbourg does not give Admittance into the College of Princes at the Dyet of the Empire, so it does not give the Rank of a Sovereign Prince to the Person in possession of it. The Duke, in order to procure himself both these Privileges, made a Treaty with the Elector of Hanover, whereby he got that Prince to yield him the Vote and Seat which he enjoy'd in the Dyet for his Dutchy of Grubenhagen: And the Duke, on his part, engaged never to vote at the Dyet but in conformity to the Sentiments of the Elector. After his Decease, or if he happens to succeed his Brother,80 the Vote and Session for Grubenhagen revert to the Elector[48].

This, Sir, is all that I can say to you at present. Their Highnesses being to set out in a few days for Oetingen, where they use to go every Summer, I propose to go forthwith to Leipsic and Dresden: And at the latter Place I hope to hear from you.

I am, &c.



SIR,Dresden, August 30, 1729.  

From Blanckenbourg we have till'd Lands, and fruitful Fields; with Woods of Oak interspers'd all the way, till we come to Magdebourg, the Capital of a Dutchy of that Name, formerly an Archbishoprick, but secularised at the Treaty of Westphalia, in favour of the House of Brandenbourg, to whom that Dutchy was yielded in exchange for their resigning Hither Pomerania to Sweden. This City has for these two81 Centuries past, suffer'd very much. It was besieg'd by the Emperor Charles V. who squeez'd considerable Sums from it. But it fared worse in that unhappy War which divided Germany during the space of 30 Years; for the Counts de Tilly and Papenheim commanding the Imperial Army in 1631, took it by Storm, put the Inhabitants to the Sword, and reduc'd the whole City almost to Ashes. Nevertheless, 'tis since pretty well recover'd, and has some fine Houses. The great Square before the King's Palace has few equal to it for its Extent, and for the fine Houses that encompass it, which are all uniform, three Stories high, and were all raised in this Reign. In this same Square there's an Arsenal, which really is not so magnificent as that of Berlin, but may be rank'd among the chief Arsenals in Europe. This is a populous Town, and has a more flourishing Trade than any other City in the King of Prussia's Dominions.

The great Church, which was formerly the Metropolitan, is ancient, and one of the largest and most magnificent Buildings in Germany. It has still some Reliques to shew, particularly the Basin in which Pilate washed his Hands, after having pass'd Sentence of Death upon our Saviour; the Lanthorn[49] which Judas made use of when he went to apprehend him; a Thorn of the Crown that was planted on his Head: and things of the like kind.

The Chapter of Magdebourg is still, bating the change of Religion, on the same footing as before the Reformation. The Canons must all make Proof of their Nobility; tho' 'tis a Punctilio with which the King, who confers all the Prebends and Dignities of the Chapter, sometimes dispenses. The present82 Provost is the Duke of Saxe-Barbi, who succeeded his Father in that Dignity, which brings him in 12000 Crowns a-year. He lives in a fine House on the great Square, fronting the Palace, built by the Order of King Frederic I. who also caus'd a Citadel to be erected here, on the other side of the Elbe, over which there is a Bridge. That King began likewise to fortify the Town; and King Frederic-William, who carried on, and finish'd the Fortifications, has now made Magdebourg one of the most important Places in Europe. M. de Walrave, Chief Engineer, had the Direction of those Works, which are a Proof of his great Ability.

The Margrave Albert of Brandenbourg[50], Brother to the late King Frederic I. is Governour of the Dutchy of Magdebourg; as is the Prince of Anhalt-Dessau of the Town, where he has a numerous Garrison under his command. The Arsenal, which is a fine Structure, and full of Cannon, and small Arms, is worth seeing.

The King of Prussia having it much at heart to render Magdebourg a flourishing Town, has transferr'd the Regency of the Dutchy hither, which was heretofore at Halle; and for this reason there are several good Houses in the Town. The Dutchy of Magdebourg is one of the best Provinces in the Prussian Dominions. It has a great Income from the Elbe, and the Salt-Works. The Catholicks are allowed a Toleration of their Religion in the Dutchy, and have Churches in the Town.

The Roads from Magdebourg to Leipsic, are so bad at this time, by reason of the Rains that have fallen for some Days past, that I have been three Days in getting from the one Town to the other. Indeed I went some Leagues out of my way, on purpose to see Barbi and Cohten. The first of these Towns belongs to a Prince of the House of83 Saxony, of the Branch of Weissenfeld; and has nothing considerable but the Prince's Palace, which makes a good appearance, and has commodious Apartments, elegantly furnished. There is a Salon, and a Closet, the Cielings of which are painted by Peine, and not the worst things he has done. The Palace has Gardens delightfully situate by the side of the Elbe. The Duke de Barbi is the only Prince of the House of Saxony who professes the Calvinist Religion, in which he was educated by his Father, who was at first a Lutheran. This Prince is a comely handsome young Man. He married N—— de Wirtemberg-Oels[51], but has no Children. He has been in the Service of Prussia, and is Grand Provost of the Chapter of Magdebourg, and Knight of the Order of the White Eagle of Poland.

Cohten, which is bigger than Barbi by one half, belongs to a Prince of Anhalt[52]; the only one of his Branch, tho' he has had two Wives. I desired leave to kiss his Hand; but he excused himself by pretending an Indisposition. I have observed that petty Princes are always more difficult of Access than great ones. The Town has no Fortifications; and I walk'd about a good while to see if there was any thing remarkable, but 'twas to no purpose; and I was oblig'd to confine myself to my Inn, which was one of the worst in Europe.

Leipsic stands in a fruitful Plain. This City, so famous for its Fairs, and for its University, may84 justly pass for the Jewel of the Electorate of Saxony; not only for the Beauty of its Structures, but for the considerable Revenue which it yields to its Sovereign, the King of Poland. 'Tis small, and fac'd with Ramparts, and a Ditch; but all these Fortifications are of little consequence. Its Castle, or rather Citadel, which joins to the Town, is a Place of greater Importance. There is always a good Garrison and Governour in it, who is at present General Baumgarten. As the Castle passes under the Denomination of the King's House, the Roman Catholicks have had a Chapel there ever since Augustus II. embraced their Religion.

The Suburbs of Leipsic are very large. The City has four Gates newly built of Free-Stone, which are magnificent, tho' not according to the Rules of Architecture.

At each Gate they have newly set up a Mile-Post, such as the Romans had formerly. There are the like Posts at the Gates of all the Towns, and even at the Villages in the Electorate of Saxony. From hence they count the Leagues, which are divided at the end of every Quarter of a Mile, by other Posts not so big, upon all the great Roads, shewing the Distances of the Places, and of the chief Towns; which is a mighty Convenience to Travellers, who were heretofore often impos'd upon by the Post-Masters, as to the Length of the Roads.

The Houses of Leipsic are large, very high, and substantially built of Free-Stone; and their being adorn'd with great fine Windows helps to set them off to the Eye. The Ground-Floors of most of the Houses are Warehouses, in which the foreign Merchants store the Goods they sell at the Fairs, which are three in number every Year, viz. at New-Year's-day, Easter, and Michaelmass. The Concourse of Foreigners here at the Fair-Season, is so great that 'tis often a hard matter to get a85 Lodging here for Love or Money. I myself saw in 1709, at the New-year's Fair, the late King of Prussia, the King and Queen of Poland, and 44 Princes or Princesses of Sovereign Families. The two Kings and the Queen lodged at the House of Appel, a Merchant; where the King of Poland always resides when he comes to Leipsic.

The University, formerly so famous, is very much decay'd: That of Halle, its Neighbour, and its Rival, in the King of Prussia's Dominions, takes away a great many Students from it. They say that for some time past there have been more able Professors at Halle, where besides 'tis much cheaper living than at Leipsic; and where the Students are not such Spendthrifts, nor so much addicted to Expence and Gallantry.

The Gardens of Messieurs Appel and Pose, Merchants, in the Suburbs, are worth seeing. The first is large and magnificent: In the second are very uncommon Plants, cultivated with very great Care. The Gardeners of Leipsic, who are reckon'd the best in all Germany, value themselves upon forcing Nature; so that I have seen here, at Easter Fair, the Fruits, Flowers, and Pulse, of all the Seasons. The Asparagus here is delicious, and extraordinary large. Another Nicety at Leipsic, is its Larks, which are sent over all Germany; nay, to Poland, Holland and Denmark. I was assured, but I will not vouch for the Truth of it, that the very Custom-Duty paid for Larks at Leipsic, amounted to 12000 Crowns a-year; which Sum I thought the more considerable, because I think I have heard it said, that 60 Larks pay but a Grosh[53] the Duty; judge then how many there must be to make up the Sum of 12000 Crowns. But be it true or false, 'tis certain that there is not a Country in the World where these Birds are taken in such quantities; for,86 from Michaelmass to Martinmass, the Fields are cover'd with 'em.

Another Singularity is the multitude of Nightingales, in the Woods near Leipsic; whereof they take great numbers, and keep them in Cages: The Innkeeper's Daughter, where I lodged, had seven of them; and I have seen a great many at other Houses.

'Tis surprizing that so plentiful a Country as Saxony shou'd have no better Ordinarys. I don't mean Leipsic and Dresden, where, considering one is in Germany, we come off pretty well; tho' were it so in Holland, the Netherlands, or in France, we shou'd not think ourselves well us'd. I mean the little Towns and Villages in a Road so frequented as that from Leipsic to Dresden. There's Provision to be had at these Ordinarys, but then 'tis so ill dress'd, and the Houses so nasty, that 'tis enough to turn one's Stomach.

Setting out from Leipsic, at the opening of the Gates, I came betimes to Wermstorf, or Hubertsbourg, (St. Hubert's Palace,) a magnificent Hunting-Seat, which the Electoral Prince of Saxony is building at the Entrance of a Forest, where there are several Roads cut. This House is five Miles from Leipsic, and eight from Dresden; and when 'tis finish'd, will be large and magnificent: Men are hard at work upon it, and the main Body of it is already compleated. Their Royal Highnesses, the Prince and Princess, generally hunt here at Spring and Autumn. The Equipage for the Stag-hunting is very fine, the Liveries being Yellow, with Facings of blue Velvet, and Silver Lace at all the Seams.

After I had walk'd an Hour or two at Hubertsbourg, I proceeded on my Journey, and came to Dinner at Meissen, the Capital of Misnia. This City has nothing particular, besides its Manufacture87 of Porcellane, which is so finely painted and enamell'd with Gold, that it is more beautiful than the Porcellane of Japan, and much dearer. The Invention of it is owing to an Alchymist, or one that pretended to be such; who had persuaded a great many People he cou'd make Gold. The King of Poland believ'd it as well as others, and to make sure of his Person, caus'd him to be committed to the Castle of Konigstein, three Miles from Dresden. There, instead of making Gold, that solid precious Metal, which puts Mankind on committing so many Follies, he invented Brittle Porcellane; by which, in one Sense, he made Gold, because the great Vent of that Ware brings a deal of Money into the Country.

After having pass'd the Elbe, over a wooden Bridge, going out of Meissen, I came in less than three Hours to Dresden, the Capital of the Electorate of Saxony. The City is pretty large, fortify'd with Art and Regularity; and very lightsome. Its Houses are high and substantial, the Streets broad, strait, well pav'd, neat, and in the Night-time well lighted. There are great Squares in it; and the whole City is so well laid out, that Dresden may be rank'd among the finest in the World.

The Elbe divides it into two Parts; which are distinguished by Old and New Dresden, and join'd together by a Bridge of Stone.

In order to give you a more perfect Idea of this City, I shall point out to you such things as I took most notice of. I shall begin with Old Dresden, which is the first that we come to from Meissen. At the Entrance of the Town, on the right hand, there is a great House, called the Palace of the Indies, or Holland House, which the King bought some Years ago of his Prime Minister, the Marshal Count de Fleming. All the Rooms of this Palace,88 which consists of three Stories, are so many Closets of Japan and China Wares. I don't believe that all the Warehouses in Amsterdam put together, are capable of furnishing such a quantity of uncommon old Porcellane, as is to be found here. The value of it is computed at a Million of Crowns. The very Houshold-Goods are Indian. There is one Set of Furniture, the like of which I never saw elsewhere: It consists of Feathers of various Colours, and all natural; inlaid with so much Art, that it might be taken for a fine flower'd Sattin.

This magnificent Palace has a Garden belonging to it, which looks towards the Elbe. It is adorn'd with Statues of white Marble, which the King caus'd to be purchas'd at Rome, of the Cardinals Annibal and Alexander Albani, Nephews to Clement XI. These Statues are much more priz'd here than they were at Rome.

Near the Palace of the Indies stands that of the Cadets; a magnificent Structure built by the States of Saxony, for maintaining two Companies of Cadets, all Gentlemen of the Country; who are there instructed in all the Sciences fitting for Persons of Quality.

Farther up in the same Street, there is an Amphitheatre, or Area, for the Battles of wild Beasts; of which a great number is kept for that purpose. Here are Lions, Tigers, Bears; in short, all the fiercest Animals from the four Quarters of the World.

The Bridge over the Elbe, which joins Old Dresden to the New, is scarce to be parallel'd, either for its Length or Substance. It has lately been made broader by forming Demy-Arches which support the Riders on each side. The Barriers are of Iron, well wrought. An Equestrian Statue of the King is going to be erected upon it.


The Palace or Castle joins to the Bridge, at the Entrance of New Dresden. This is an ancient Structure, which makes but a mean Appearance; and 'tis said, that the King intends it shall be pull'd down, and another built in its room; and that his Majesty has set apart eight Millions of Crowns for the Expence of it.

The inside of the Castle surpasses the outside. The State-Room is splendidly furnish'd. The Great Gallery contains several Curiosities, such as antique Busts, Vessels, and Pictures.

This Palace has two Chapels, one of which belongs to the Roman Catholicks, and the other to the Lutherans. The first was heretofore the Theatre for Operas, but the King turn'd it into a Chapel, upon account of the Marriage of his only Son with the Archdutchess, eldest Daughter to the Emperor Joseph; the second was always the Chapel of the Electors of Saxony. The King might, if he pleas'd, have order'd Mass to be celebrated in it, but he wou'd not give his Subjects that Handle for Complaint; besides, the late Queen, his Wife, having always stuck to the Lutheran Religion, in which she was born, he left her that Chapel for her use. The Treasure of it is extremely rich, and contains Vessels, Chasubles, and other things heretofore consecrated and given to this Chapel by the Piety of the Electors.

The Royal Treasury, commonly call'd the Grune Gewölbe, (the Green Vault,) is in the Palace. They are three arch'd Rooms, which contain immense Riches, and shine all over with Gold, Precious Stones, and Diamonds. 'Tis one of the finest Places in the World. There are several Sets of Brilliant Diamonds, Rubies, Emeralds, Pearls, Saphirs, and other Precious Stones. Every Set is compleat, and consists of Buttons for Clothes, Loops for Hats, Swords, Hangers, Canes, Sleeve-Buttons, 90Shoe-Buckles, Muffs, and Sword-Belts, Snuff-Boxes, Watches, Tweezer-Cases, Pocket-Books; in short, all the Jewels that can possibly be imagin'd, even to the Furniture of a Horse; so that were I to write down every Particular, I should furnish you a Volume. And they all look the better, for being ranged with wonderful Nicety in Cases of Crystal.

To the Castle belongs a Garden, call'd the Zwinger Garten, which is the Tuilleries of Dresden, but not extensive enough to deserve the Name of a Garden. 'Tis encompass'd with Buildings of Free-Stone, which are Green-Houses for Orange-Trees. The Structure consists but of one Floor, on which are rais'd six large Pavilions, viz. three in front at the Entrance, two on the sides, and one over the Portico at the Entrance; which have all a Communication with one another, by a Platform that has Balustrades adorn'd with Statues. It wou'd be hard to lay what Order of Architecture prevails most in this Edifice, the Carv'd-Work with which it is decorated, being more of the Gothic than the modern Taste.

Near to this Building there's a Palace which makes a great Shew, but the Apartments are by much too small, and too low for the Ornaments employ'd about them. The King caus'd this House to be built for the Countess de Cosel, at the time when that Lady was in high Favour. No Cost was spar'd in it; but 'tis pity that a more skilful Architect had not been pitched upon to conduct it.

There are five or six other Houses, which are here call'd Hotels, but in Italy wou'd certainly pass for Palaces. The Hotel de Fuhl in the Street of Pirnitz is one of this number. It was erected by the Great Marshal de Fuhl who on his Death-bed left it to his Wife, of whom it was purchas'd by the Count de Fleming. That Minister sold it soon91 after to the King, who made considerable Embellishments in it, and furnished it richly. In this Condition his Majesty gave it in 1728, to the Marshal de Wackerbarth, to make him amends when he had been burnt out of the House he liv'd in, as Governour of Dresden. After this, the Governour's House being rebuilt, the King bought the other House again of the Count de Wackerbarth, and has made it a Depositary of his Medals, Antiquities, and Curiosities.

To be sure you have heard that this Fire broke out at the Governour's House in the Night-time, while the King of Prussia was here. His Majesty actually lodg'd at the Governour's House; and was in Bed when the Fire burst out with such fury that he had but just time to make his Escape in his Night-Gown, and to save a little Box in which there were Papers of consequence; for the Floor of his Bed-Chamber fell in, the moment after the King was gone out of it. An Officer, his Wife, and her Maid-Servant perish'd in the Flames. The Count de Wackerbarth only sav'd his Wardrobe and his Plate; for his fine Library, and a noble Collection which he had of Drawings, one of the compleatest and best chosen Setts in Europe, were consum'd.

The Hotel of Hoyhm is the most considerable Building in Dresden. In about six Years time it had four different Owners. It was founded by the King's Favourite, the Count de Fitztuhm[54], his Great Chamberlain, and Minister of State; who having been kill'd in a Duel at Warsaw, by the Count de92 St. Gilles, a Piedmontese that came to Poland to seek his Fortune, his Widow sold it to Marshal Fleming, who dying at Vienna not long after he had purchased it, the House fell to his Son, a weakly Child, who did not long survive him. His Mother, who was a Radzivil, was his Heiress, and one of the greatest Matches in Europe. She was soon after married again to a Polander whom she follow'd into his own Country; and when she left Dresden, she sold her House to the Count de Hoym, who at present occupies it.

Not far from this House are the King's Stables, which are well worth seeing, there being a great number of wonderful fine Horses, and some of all sorts of the rarest Breeds. Over the Stables, are Rooms full of fine Equipage, consisting of sumptuous Saddles and Housings, Sleds and magnificent Harness. Many of these Equipages are of the Turkish Mode, and plated with massy Silver, adorn'd with precious Stones.

The Arsenal, which is much boasted of here, cannot be reckon'd a fine one by any but such as have not seen the Arsenal of Berlin, to which it is not to be compar'd. There are several Rooms in it full of Arms, Brass Cannon, Helmets, and Cuirasses, which are the Tapestry of Arsenals.

Thus, Sir, you have all that I observed in Dresden: it remains for me to give you some Account of its Suburbs, and of the Pleasure-Houses which the King has in the Neighbourhood of this City.

The Suburbs of Dresden are very extensive, but have no Building of consequence, except the Palace in the King's great Garden, built by his Majesty's Mother, and that call'd the Turkish Palace, because it is furnished entirely after the Turkish manner. The King gave an Entertainment at this Palace to the Princess his Daughter-in-law, on account of93 her Arrival at Dresden, which was so particular that I think it deserves a Digression.

Upon the Feast-Day, the whole Court appeared at the Turkish Palace, in the Habits of Turks. The King came in the Dress of a Sultan, but without any Attendance. His Majesty was soon after follow'd by the Princess his Daughter-in-law, with her Ladies. Her Royal Highness, for whom the Entertainment was made, found a Body of Janizaries drawn up in the Court-Yard of the Palace. The King receiv'd her at the Entrance of his Apartment, and conducted her into a Hall spread with fine Tapestry, and laid with Cushions richly embroider'd.

The King and Princess being seated, were served by twenty-four Negroes in sumptuous Dresses, with Sherbet, Coffee, and Sweet-Meats, in great Vessels of massy Silver; nor were scented Waters, and perfumed Handkerchiefs forgot. After this Collation, they drew near the Windows to see the Pillau (which is the Rice of Turky) and the King's Bounty-Money distributed to the Janizaries. This was follow'd by a Comedy, with an Entertainment of Turkish Dances. Then came the Supper, the Guests sitting cross-legg'd upon the Cushions, and the Courses being served up after the fashion of Turky, by the Negroes and young Turks. While they were at Table, the Company was diverted by the various Leaps and Postures of certain Tumblers and Rope-Dancers. Supper being over, they went into the Garden, which was illuminated with several Thousands of Crystal Lamps. There was Tilting, and shooting at the Mark, and whenever the Mark was hit, a Sky-Rocket was sent up, which for the time seem'd to sprinkle Thousands of Stars among those in the Firmament. After this, the Company retir'd into the Palace, where the King and the Princess open'd the Ball, and there was dancing till five o'clock in94 the Morning, when the Ball was concluded with a sumptuous Breakfast that was serv'd at the several Tables, after the manner of our own Country; which, with the leave of the Mussulmen, is as good as theirs.

The finest Royal Houses, are Pilnitz and Moritzbourg. The King, who is certainly of all Sovereigns the most magnificent, keeps Men continually at work, in embellishing those Places. The Works are carried on by the Direction of Mons. Bot, whom I think to be not inferior to Bernini, and I doubt not, such is my high Idea of him, that as he is supported by the Generosity of a Great King, he will accomplish such Works as are worthy of himself, and of his Master too.

I have now done with the Description of the Palaces and Royal Houses, in which, I own I have been defective, and would gladly have been excus'd from giving it; but you would have it, and I cou'd not help gratifying you. I pass now to something more important; and shall entertain you with the present State of the Royal Family, and the Characters of the most distinguish'd Persons at Court.

Frederic-Augustus II. King of Poland, and Elector of Saxony, is the Chief of this August Family. This Monarch, whom no Man surpasses in Strength and Dexterity, and whom few Princes equal in Generosity, is the second Son of John George III. Elector of Saxony. He succeeded his Brother John George IV. in the Electorate, and was chose King of Poland after the Death of the Great Sobieski, notwithstanding the Intrigues of the Emissaries of France who declared for the Prince of Conti.

When Frederic-Augustus ascended the Throne, he brought all the Virtues to it fitting for a Great King. The Agreeableness of his Person, his Majestic Air, his Heroic Strength, his Good-Nature, his Politeness, and his well-known Valour, were95 the least of his Qualities. Never was any Prince more magnificent, nor did any one either give more, or with a better Grace. As a General and a Statesman, he was never too much lifted up by Prosperity, nor shock'd by Adversity; so that he was observed, when in the depth of his Misfortunes, to act and treat even with his Enemies, with that Air of Complaisance and Satisfaction, which Men inur'd to great Affairs know how to assume, in the midst of the cruellest Mortifications. This Prince, in his Youth, travelled to the chief Countries of Europe, and where-ever he came, was admir'd for his Strength, his Air, and Dexterity. Amongst other Adventures, a very odd one befel him in his Travels, at Venice. There happen'd to be in that City a famous Astrologer, who had the Reputation of being well read in the Book of Fate. The King, who was only Prince at that time, had a mind that he should calculate his Nativity, and for that purpose went to the Astrologer's House, accompanied by two Gentlemen. They were all three dress'd in plain Apparel, and the Prince, to disguise himself still the more, had conceal'd his brown Hair under a fair Peruke. He enter'd the last Man, into the Astrologer's House, and seem'd to be rather as an Attendant, than a Companion of the others. But to him the Astrologer first address'd himself, calling him by the Titles of My Lord and Highness. The Prince told him that his Rank in the World was much too mean for such high Compliments; but the Astrologer made answer, he knew very well whom he spoke to, and that it was in vain for him to think of concealing himself from such a Man as he. The Prince and his small Retinue were then conducted by him into a Closet, where he shewed him a Looking-Glass. Cast your Eye on that Mirror, said he to the Prince, and there you will see the principal Events of your Life. The Prince without96 any scruple, look'd accordingly, and saw himself at first in the Habit of an Elector; afterwards, with a Crown on his Head, and a royal Mantle on his Shoulders; and at last, full of Wounds, and bath'd in his Blood.

This Story, which I should not give you for true, if I had not heard it from a great Nobleman who told me he had it from the King's own Mouth, is however, not without a Parallel; for it is pretended, that a Mason told Madam de Maintenon, when she was no more than Madam Scarron, what her Fortune and Rank would be in France. I could mention several other Instances to you of the same nature, which all surprize me, tho' they don't convince me. Be it as it will, two Articles of the Prediction made to the King of Poland are fully accomplished; as to the third, may Heaven confound the Astrologer[55].

The King of Poland spends part of his time in his Kingdom, and part of it in his Electorate. 'Tis true, that he seems to take more delight in Saxony than in Poland; and 'tis in my Opinion very natural for him to do so; Saxony being his hereditary97 Country, where he is so absolute that his Will is the Law of his Subjects, by whom he is rather ador'd than belov'd: besides, 'tis Saxony that furnishes him wherewithal to support his Dignity, and offers him every thing conducive to the Pleasures of a Great King; and it is there that he has a Court, the most brilliant in Europe, not only for its Splendor, but for Magnificence and Pleasures; whereas in Poland, he has only the vain Pageantry of Royalty; being under greater Limitations than any Sovereign in the World; so that the least Innovation, the least Act of Authority, makes the Poles clamorous, and they presently think they are excused from paying him that Obedience which they owe him. All the Gentlemen here are their own Masters; and the Noblemen behave so much like Sovereigns, that they never go to Court but to demand Favours, which if they obtain, they go away ungrateful, and if they are deny'd, they retire with the Intention of taking a Revenge on the first Opportunity: For the Climate being rough, the People are fierce; and the King, tho' adored in Saxony, is scarce beloved in Poland.

The Electoral Prince, this King's only Son, is lusty, proper, and well made, and like the King his Father is adroit in all bodily Exercises. He loves Pleasure, but 'tis with Moderation, and is heartily attach'd to the Religion which he has embrac'd. He is stiff and reserved, without being haughty, which is a Temper that he derives from the late Queen his Mother[56], whom he very much resembles. To such as have the Honour of Access to him, and of being known to him, he is gracious, familiar and very civil. His Royal Highness has been admit'd for his good Qualities in a great98 part of Europe, particularly in Germany, France, and Italy, where he has spent several Years. No Son can have more respect to a Parent than he has for the King his Father, whose Will and Pleasure he never oppos'd in any one Instance; and whose Person he has always honour'd even in his Ministers. Of all Pleasures he seems to bestow most Time in Hunting; nevertheless he makes it only as an Amusement without being passionately fond of it. His Royal Highness's Confident is Solckofski or Sulkowski[57], a Polish Gentleman who was once his Page; and by thus making him his Favourite, for which he cannot but be applauded, he shews that he is capable of distinguishing true Merit. I had frequently the Honour of making my Compliments to this Prince while he was at Paris, and this is now the second time that I have had the same favour at Dresden, where I find he is the same gracious Personage as ever. The last time that I had the Honour of being introduc'd to him he talk'd a great deal to me about Paris, and when he dismiss'd me, he said he was sorry to think that Dresden would not afford me so many Pleasures as Paris.

The same Day that I waited on the Prince, I was introduced to the Princess his Royal Highness's Consort, who is the late Emperor Joseph's eldest Daughter. The Voice of the People is unanimous in the Character of this Princess. All Mankind agrees that she has not her superior for Good-nature, Piety, Charity, Modesty, and in a word for all, the Virtue of the Soul: To please her Husband, and to give her Children an Education suitable to their Birth, is her principal Endeavour. 'Tis rare to find a happier Couple than their Royal Highnesses; for Marriage, which generally cools the warmest Passions, seems on the contrary to have animated their 99reciprocal Affection to such a degree that they are a Pattern for the Imitation of their Court.

Their Royal Highnesses Children are so young that I shall say but little of them[58]. Their eldest Son very much resembles the Pictures that I have seen of the Emperor Joseph when he was a Child. This young Prince seems to me to be of a very delicate Constitution, and has so great a Weakness in his Knees that he can scarce stand: The Physicians say it will go off as he grows up, but their Promises are no Gospel for me.

The two Princes of the Blood, who commonly reside at Dresden, are John-Adolphus of Saxe-Weissenfels[59], a Prince of uncommon Merit, whose Sentiments and Actions are no disparagement to his Birth; and Maurice-William of Saxe-Zeits, the last of his Branch. He was persuaded by his Uncle the late Cardinal de Saxe-Zeits to abjure the Lutheran Religion and to embrace the ecclesiastical State: He is Bishop of Konigsgratz in Bohemia, Provost of Alten Ottingen in Bavaria, and a Canon of Cologne, Liege, and Aichstedt, and is descended from such a Family that it may be presum'd, he will some day or other, be advanc'd to the Purple[60].

N. B. What follows, is a more particular Account of the Electoral Family of Saxony, translated from the Baron's State of it; which is prefix'd to the second Edition of these Memoirs.

Augustus III. King of Poland Great Duke of Lithuania and Elector of Saxony, was born the seventh of October 1696. He is the only Son of Augustus II. the last King of Poland and of Eberhardina of Brandenbourg-Bareith. His Grandmother, Anne100 Princess Royal of Denmark, Widow of John George the third Elector of Saxony, took care of him in his Infancy, and impress'd him with those Sentiments of Piety, Humanity, and Justice, which render him at this day the Darling of his People, and the Pattern of Kings.

At a proper Age, the King his Father took him out of the hands of the Women, and committed him to the Care of Monsieur de Miltitz, a Gentleman of a good Family; whom Learning, good Behaviour and solid Virtue render'd worthy of such an Employment.

The Prince, who always found Charms in Virtue, was sensible of the Merit of his Governor: He lov'd him, was inseparable from him, and receiv'd his Advice with a Docility, which, at his tender Age, was a presage he wou'd be possess'd of that Fund of Wisdom which now renders him worthy of his Throne.

While the young Prince was under the Conduct of the Women, God was pleas'd to touch the Heart of the late King his Father: That Monarch, who happen'd to be born a Lutheran, was converted to the Roman Catholick Religion, and not long after elected King of Poland; and his Majesty being convinc'd of the Purity of the Religion which he had embrac'd, was inclin'd to make a Convert also of the Prince his Son. Nevertheless, such was the Respect the King had for her Royal Highness his Mother, that he was loth that august Princess shou'd be an Eye-witness of the young Prince's renouncing a Religion which she had taught him, and to which she was strenuously attach'd: He resolv'd therefore to remove him, and sent him to Francfort to be present at the Coronation of the Emperor Charles VI. His Companion in this Journey, was M. de Miltitz; but as this Gentleman's Attachment to Luther's Doctrine made the King apprehensive that he wou'd thwart his Views, he101 recall'd him, and appointed the Count de Costa, and the Baron de Hagen, to be his Son's Governors.

The Count who was a Polander and Palatine of Livonia, was not only of noble Birth, but a Gentleman of solid Piety, profound Learning, great Probity, and as much respected for his Principles as belov'd for his good Behaviour and Politeness.

The Baron de Hagen was of a Family of some Distinction in the Electorate of Triers: He was Ambassador from the King at the Emperor's Election, and at his Coronation at Francfort: His Behaviour was more grave than the Count de Costa's, but he was not inferior to the Count for Learning, Integrity, and good Sense.

Under the Conduct of these two Gentlemen, the Prince set out to visit a part of Germany and Italy, where he embrac'd the Roman Catholick Religion; his Profession of which, was however for a long time as private as it is now exemplary; for he did not declare his alteration of Religion 'till after the Death of her most Serene Highness his Grandmother, who died the first of July 1717. During this the Prince made the Tour of France, where, tho' he travell'd under the Name of the Count de Misnia, Lewis XIV. caus'd all the Honours to be paid to him which were due to the Son of a great King.

The Court of France was charm'd with that Politeness, that noble Modesty, and that Fund of Wisdom which accompany'd this Prince's Actions and Conversation: They admir'd him and were sorry for his Departure. He travell'd a second time to Italy, where he acquired that fine Taste of Men and Things and that Knowledge of Architecture, Painting, and other curious Arts, which is so useful for great Princes. Germany, upon the return of this Prince, bless'd itself for having given him birth, and offer'd up Prayers that all its Princes might be like him. His Royal Highness stay'd a considerable while at Vienna,102 where he maintain'd the Reputation he had acquir'd in the several Countries he had seen. He returned at length to Saxony, where there was an universal Joy for his Arrival. The Saxons were charm'd to see the Prince that was design'd by Heaven to be their Sovereign, so worthy of that Command. One day or other, they said, we shall lose the most righteous of Kings, and the best of Masters, but we shall find restor'd in his Son, his heroic Stature, his majestic Air, his Magnanimity, the same Temper for Goodness, Equity and Generosity; the Spirit of the great Augustus will be always present with us; and all our Loss will be that of his Personal Appearance.

Not long after the Prince's Return to Dresden, Augustus Christopher Count de Wackerbarth[61] treated at Vienna for the Marriage of his Royal Highness to the most serene Archdutchess Maria Josepha, eldest Daughter of the late Emperor Joseph. The Count de Flemming, Prime Minister and Velt-Marshal of Saxony, solemnly demanded the most serene Archdutchess in Marriage; and the Prince repair'd to Vienna to espouse her. The Ceremony was perform'd in the Chapel of la Favorita, with all the Pomp suitable to so great a Match. Some Days after this, their Royal Highnesses set out for Dresden, where they were receiv'd with an unparallell'd Magnificence. Augustus II. the most splendid of Kings, and a Prince who had the best Fancy for ordering of Entertainments, outdid himself; he thought nothing too good for celebrating the Nuptials of his so worthy a Son, with a Princess whose Ancestors were all Emperors.

The Rejoicings having lasted forty Days, the King set out for his Kingdom, leaving the Prince Regent, as he always did whenever he went from his Electorate.


In 1726, the Prince himself took a Journey to Poland, to which Country he had once before accompanied the King his Father in 1711, but then made no long stay. There he won the Hearts of the chief Nobility, who from that moment thought him worthy of succeeding one day to their Governor, the Great Augustus. They were pleased to see, that he honour'd their Countryman, the Count Sulkowski, with his Confidence, and they thought it a happy Omen for their Nation, blessing their Stars, that the Prince distinguished Virtue in one born among themselves.

His Royal Highness being convinced that of all the Sums laid out by Princes, there are none less liable to censure than what they expend in Buildings, undertook that of Wermsdorf, which he afterwards call'd Hubertsbourg; and he finish'd that great Work in a little time, by the assistance of the King his Father: For, in short, it would have been impossible for his Royal Highness to have defray'd all the Expence of it himself. It was already very wonderful to see with what Prudence he directed his Finances. His Revenue being settled, his Expence was suitable to his Rank; he had a numerous Houshold, his Hunting Equipage was sumptuous, yet he did good to all that made their Necessity known to him; his Charities were truly Royal, every body was paid; the Noblemen and the Tradesmen receiv'd their Pensions and Salaries punctually; and his Accounts were so regularly kept and discharged by the Count Sulkowski, that the Prince was never in debt.

The Prince commonly spent the Season for hunting the Stag at Hubertsbourg, and employ'd the remainder of his time at Dresden, in all manner of Exercises, being admired in every Action, for the Grace, Strength, and Dexterity with which he perform'd it, as well as for the Sobriety and Regularity104 of his Manners; for he kept as regular Hours then, as he does now.

Augustus III. never knew what it was to be idle or vicious. Such is his Chastity and Fidelity to his august Spouse, that he never gave her the least Reason so much as to suspect his Honour. He games only for amusement, and never plays so high that the loss of the Stake can put those out of temper who have the Honour to be of his Party. But of all the Virtues of Augustus III. there is none, most certainly, which has made him more the Favourite of Heaven, than the inviolable Respect he always manifested for the King his Father, who tenderly lov'd him; and never was a Son, Heir to so powerful a Dominion, more affected for the loss of a Father, than he was when he heard of the death of his. His Affliction was impress'd deeply in his Countenance, when he receiv'd the homage of his capital City, at his first appearance in publick; and to this very day, he is ready to melt in tears at the sight of any Object that calls him to mind; for which reason the People of Dresden, rather than renew his Sorrow, forbear the mention of a King whom Europe has plac'd in the Rank of its greatest Men.

Prince Frederic-Augustus, when he became Elector, did not alter his Manners, but retain'd the same Piety, the same Regularity. He kept most of the Servants of the late King his Father, and settled Pensions on those whom he thought fit to dismiss. His first Care, when he came to the Electorate, was to provide himself with Ministers, whose Candor and Sincerity were above Envy it self. For this purpose, he call'd to his Cabinet-Council, the Count de Gabaleon-Wackerbarth-Salmour, M. de Baudissin, the Count Sulkowski, and M. de Bruhl; to the two last of whom he committed the Direction of Affairs.


All Saxony applauded this Choice, and doubted not of being very happy under the Reign of a Prince, who was capable of forming so true a Judgment of Persons for his Ministers. But what the Saxons saw with extraordinary Satisfaction, was the sure Proof the King gave of his Gratitude and Esteem for Virtue, in recalling M. de Miltitz, heretofore his Governor, who for some Years past was retired to his Estate. This Gentleman wou'd fain have been excus'd from returning to Court, alledging his great Age, and his being a Stranger to Business; when his Majesty sent him word, that he requir'd no more at his hands than what his Health wou'd permit; that he knew his Probity, his Love for his Country, and his Attachment to himself; that therefore he was willing he shou'd be near his Person, and assist him with his Advice, which he knew wou'd be solid, by what he gave him when he had the charge of his Education. In this manner Frederic-Augustus, by the display of his Gratitude, an uncommon Virtue (especially among Princes) encourag'd his Courtiers to do what might also give them a Title to it.

These great Qualities procur'd him the Suffrages of the most judicious Part of the Republic of Poland which chose him for King. His Majesty having sent the Count de Gabaleon-Wackerbarth-Salmour, and M. Baudissin to Warsaw, with the Character of Plenipotentiaries, to take care of his Interests, these Ministers found the Polish Lords very much divided: Foreign Gold, with the Intrigues, Cabals, and ensnaring Promises of a Minister who was lavish of it; all these had corrupted a great number of them, and others were oppress'd, and must undoubtedly have submitted to Violence, if they had not had a very great share of Courage and Love to their Country. God, who never abandons the Virtuous, was their Support and their106 Protector, as well as the Shield of the Plenipotentiaries, whose sacred Character could not guard them from all manner of Outrage. And tho' the Blood of the Jagellons, which flows in this Prince's Veins, tho' his being the Son of one of the greatest Kings that Poland ever had, as well as his own Dignity of a Sovereign, ought to have procured him the Respect of all the Poles, yet every Person and Thing belonging to him at Warsaw, was maltreated. Such was, at that time, the unhappy Fate of Poland; Oppression and Tyranny having succeeded the glorious, mild, and peaceful Reign of Augustus II.

Mean time, those generous Noblemen who had so bravely stood up in the defence of the Liberties and Honour of their Country, after having tried all their Efforts to reclaim their wandering Brethren, found they could not succeed, and therefore broke up; after which, they met in the very same Place where Henry de Valois had been elected, and there they chose and proclaim'd Augustus Elector of Saxony, King of Poland. They then sent a Deputation to his Majesty, to intreat him to come immediately, with the Queen his Consort, to take possession of the Throne. The King comply'd with their Intreaty, and set out from Dresden, after having return'd solemn Thanks to God, the sovereign Disposer of Crowns, and of the Fortune of Kings.

In a few days the Queen followed the King, and overtook him at Tarnovitz, where their Majesties received the grand Deputation from Poland; and after giving them Audience, proceeded in their Journey towards Cracow. There the King made his Royal Entry on the 14th of January 1734, and on the 17th of that Month, their Majesties were consecrated and crowned by Lipsky the Bishop of that See.


Some time after this august Ceremony, which, in Poland, is absolutely necessary and essential for a King Elect, the Queen return'd to Saxony; but the King staid at Cracow, where he held a Diet, in which he made several Regulations for restoring the Tranquillity of the Kingdom. When the Diet was ended, his Majesty march'd towards Dantzic, which the Russians, his Allies, had invested, in order to drive out the Primate and his Adherents, who were retir'd thither.

But after a March of several Days, which the Severity of the Weather render'd very painful, his Majesty yielded to the Instances that were made to him from Saxony, to assist in Person at the opening of the Assembly of States which he was under a necessity of calling; and he returned to Dresden, where his Arrival caus'd an inexpressible Joy. Mean time the Army, under the Command of the Prince of Saxe-Weissenfels continued its March towards Dantzic.

The King was accompanied by a great number of Polish Noblemen, who finding themselves unable to oppose the Rage of the Primate's Party in their several Countries, came to seek shelter in Saxony, where his Majesty receiv'd them, and still entertains them, in a manner which cannot but convince them of his Gratitude, and give them greater Hopes of what Favours they may expect, when the Tranquillity of Poland is restor'd.

The King, after his Return from Cracow, summon'd the States of his Electorate, and open'd the Assembly with the usual Ceremonies. He was seated on his Throne, accompanied by the chief Lords of his Court, as well the Polish as Saxons. M. de Miltitz, his Privy Counsellor, sat on the Right-hand of the Throne; and, in the King's Name, made a Speech to the States, wherein he declared to them that his Majesty intended to make no Innovation108 in the Affairs of Religion, but to let his Protestant Subjects enjoy their Privileges, as they had been granted and confirm'd to them by the late King. Then they told him the Motives which had engag'd the King to call them together, and demanded the necessary Subsidies for defraying the extraordinary Expences which his Majesty had been necessarily involved in thro' the Calamities of the Time. M. de Hesler, Administrator of the Office of hereditary Marshal of Saxony, return'd an Answer in the Name of the States, and spoke with a Dignity, and all the Decorum due to so august an Assembly. He assur'd the King of the respectful and inviolable Fidelity and Attachment of his Subjects to his sacred Person. And in truth, 'tis impossible for a People to be better affected to their Sovereign, and more disposed to contribute to every thing that is capable of augmenting his Glory.

The King's voluntary Declaration to his States that he would make no Innovation in the Affairs of Religion, won the Hearts of his Subjects to such a degree, that there is not a Saxon who would make any scruple to sacrifice his Life and Fortune for his Service. And the said Declaration does equal Honour to the Justice of the Monarch, and the Wisdom of his Ministers.

While the King was employ'd with his States in securing the Happiness and Tranquility of Saxony, his Majesty received Advice, that his Army, after having join'd the Russians, had obliged the Dantzickers to surrender, and that the Polish Lords of the contrary Party petition'd for leave to remove to some Place where they might pay him their homage. The King, in imitation of the great Emperor whose Name he bears, after having made a Conquest, thought, like him, of nothing more than to make those happy whom the Fortune of War had submitted to his Arms. His Majesty did not take 109any advantage of his Victory, but forgetting past Offences, repair'd to the Abbey of Oliva, near Dantzic, where he receiv'd the Submission of the Dantzickers, and the Allegiance of the Lords that were the Primate's Adherents. By his Modesty and Goodness, he charm'd the Vanquished, and convinc'd them of their Obligation to pay him that Esteem which before perhaps they did not think was their Duty to grant to him. The Greatness of his Soul, which inclines him to sympathize with the Misfortunes of the Unhappy, hinder'd him from entering Dantzic, the desolate State of that City being so afflicting a Scene to him, that he cou'd not bear to see it. The Dantzickers, by their submission, were become his Subjects; their present Misfortunes, and their past Mistakes, affected him to such a degree, that he was fearful of being put in mind of them, and refus'd to appear among them, crown'd with those Laurels which he had reap'd by their defeat. So much Modesty, worthy of the most glorious Triumph, gain'd him the Prayers of the People, in which his Majesty saw more Charms, than he wou'd have found in Trophies, and the most stately Triumphal Arches.

The King having provided for the pressing Necessities of his Kingdom, return'd to his Electorate, where the States continued their Deliberations ever since his Absence. Now that his Majesty is return'd, the Care of the State is almost his constant Employment. His Recreations are either taking the Air on horseback, Hunting, the Italian Opera, or else going to Concerts, which the Queen, who is a great Lover of Music, causes to be perform'd in her own Apartment. Their Majesties generally dine together, and admit the Nobility of both Sexes to their Table.


There, the King observes that Temperance which so much becomes sovereign Princes. All his Hours, as has been already observ'd, are regulated; and all his Actions accompanied with Devotion, good Order, and Equity. Never did King better discharge that sacred Character; being always firm and tranquil, Danger cou'd never affright him. He accepted the Crown, tho' he saw he cou'd never fix it on his Head without infinite Pains, Peril, and Cares. The Advantage he had gain'd over his Enemies did not seem to have flush'd him; he was sorry he had not been able to reclaim them by gentle Methods, and ascribes the happy Success of his Arms solely to Providence.

Thus have I given you a very imperfect Account of the Virtues and Actions of a King, which plainly denote that the perfect honest Man (a Title not unworthy even of the sacred Majesty of Kings) forms his Character. As for his Stature, 'tis such as, one wou'd think, those ought to have who are born to command. He has a robust and vigorous Constitution, a sound Judgment, a happy Memory, a generous and beneficent Soul, the necessary Constituents of the Hero and the Christian. His Conduct is regulated by a great Attachment to the Principles of Religion. His Aim and his Application are to render his Subjects happy; and he only longs for Peace that they may taste the Fruits of it.

As to her Majesty the Queen, the Name of that august Princess, whom Heaven has endowed with all manner of Virtues, to be the worthy Wife of a King, is Maria Josepha, who was born the 8th of December 1699, and is the eldest Daughter of Joseph Emperor of the Romans, and of Wilhelmina-Amelia of Brunswic-Lunenbourg-Hanover. Her Marriage to the King, then the Prince Royal, was celebrated at Vienna, the 20th of August 1719,111 betwixt 8 and 9 a Clock at Night, in the Chapel of the Palace of the Favorita, by the Pope's Nuncio, who next day perform'd the solemn Mass. In a few days after, this Princess set out with her Husband for Saxony. It has already been observed with what Pomp she was received by the King her Father-in-law; and the Veneration paid her by the Subjects, was equal to the Magnificence of her Reception by the King. The Returns that the Princess made on her part, manifested a Goodness which nothing cou'd resist; so that she had the Homage and the Hearts both of the Courtiers and the common People. Being the Daughter of a Princess, whom the World respects even more for her Virtues than for the Splendour of that extraordinary Grandeur with which she is inviron'd, her Royal Highness's sole Concern was to walk in the Steps of that august Mother, the Pattern of Princesses, and the Honour of Religion. She conceiv'd a Respect for the King her Father-in-law, and the Queen her Mother-in-law, from which she never departed; and now that she is a Sovereign, she has no other Cares than to render a Nation happy which is worthy of being so for its Affection and Fidelity to its Electors. She is inviolably attach'd to her Duties, full of Tenderness and Respect for her Husband, and always wisely employ'd in what may procure him solid Comfort. She continually gives him Examples of Piety and Charity; she is beneficent to all that make their Necessities known to her, and seems to think every unfortunate Subject merits her Protection. The Care she takes of her Children is not only the Care of a tender Mother, but of a Queen, who, in love to the State, is desirous to form their Minds, so as to render them worthy of being its Sovereigns, and to procure them the advantage of being more respected, if possible, for their Virtues than their Birth.


The Queen, who went with the King to Cracow, and there receiv'd the Crown, return'd after her Coronation to Saxony, where she is belov'd and reverenc'd by People of all Ranks. This august Princess seems to have an Air of Gravity, as have all the Princes of the most serene House of Austria; but as she is serious, so she is discreet, modest, and good-natur'd. She was educated, as are all the Archdutchesses, in the knowledge of Things useful for those who are born to govern States; she speaks several Languages very readily, and particularly the Latin, in such a manner as both charms and surprizes the Poles. She is Mistress of History and Geography, and has a solid Taste of Musick, Painting, and all the Sciences in general: Yet never did Queen take less Pride in her Talents; for, by kindly condescending to accommodate her self to the Capacities of those with whom she converses, she conceals all her Superiority. Her high Rank serves only to render her affable; she is the Mother of the People, and particularly of the Poor. And to sum up the Character of this great Princess, it may be said in short, that she is a virtuous Wife, a faithful Companion, a tender Mother, and a compassionate Sovereign.

His Royal Highness the Prince Royal and Electoral was born at Dresden, the 5th of September 1722, and baptized in the Roman Catholick Church, by the Name of Frederic-Christian: He is handsome, and has a Countenance full of Good-nature, and indeed his Goodness charms all that pay their court to him. His Knowledge and Learning are beyond one of his tender Years; he talks several Languages justly, and with ease; and his strong Inclination to follow the wise Counsels of his Governor, the Count Gabaleon-Wackerbarth-Salmour, is a sure Presage that when he comes to the Age of Maturity, he will walk in the glorious Steps of the King his Father.


As to their Royal Highnesses the other Princes, the eldest of them, Prince Augustus-Albert-Christian-Xavier was born the 25th of August 1730. He is handsome, full of Life and Spirit, and already discovers a great Inclination to every thing military. He is infinitely better pleased to see the Officers of his Regiment about him than the Women his Attendants. The Noise of Drums and Trumpets is the most agreeable Music to him, and according to all appearance, 'tis what he will always prefer to the Flute. When he went with their Majesties to Cracow, and heard talk of the Ravages committed by the Palatine of Kiow, he said, he had a mind to go and fight him, and cut off his Head. In fine, all the Actions of this young Prince give hopes that he will add one to the Number of Heroes descended from the august Blood of Saxony.

Charles-Christian-Joseph came into the World July 13, 1733, so that his Royal Highness is too young as yet for any Character in History; and I shall proceed next to their Royal Highnesses the Princesses.

Her Royal Highness Mary-Amelia, their Majesties eldest Daughter, was born at Dresden, the 24th of September 1724. She is fair, very well shap'd, and has the Air of her Mother. Her Features are regular, and 'tis heartily to be wish'd that the Small-Pox may spare them. The Care the Queen takes of her Education is so well bestow'd on her, that she is much better form'd than Princesses of her Age generally are.

Mary-Anne-Sophia was born the 24th of August 1728. She is brown, and likely to be much admir'd for her Beauty. There is something in her Physiognomy so subtle and witty, that she has already secur'd the Suffrages of the Courtiers.


The Princess Mary-Josepha was born the 4th of November 1731. Heaven has been pleas'd to grant her a share of Beauty with all the Princes and Princesses her Brothers and Sisters.

I should make some mention of all the Princes and Princesses of the Blood, viz. all the most serene Dukes, Princes and Princesses of the Family of Saxony, particularly those who are deriv'd from the Albertine Branch, as descending with the King from the Elector John-George I. who form'd the four Branches, viz. the Electoral Branch, and those of Weissenfels, Mersbourg, and Zeits. But as this is only an Epitome of Augustus III's Court, I shall only take notice of those Princes who reside there; viz. John-Adolphus Duke of Saxe-Weissenfels, and the Princess Christina of Saxe-Weissenfels.

The Duke, who was born September 4, 1685, is of a good Stature. His Air, Behaviour, and way of thinking, denote his Birth; and never was Prince more worthy of being so. He is beneficent, generous; and all the Qualities which attract Love and Esteem are united in his Person. After having spent his early Days in the Service of Hesse-Cassel, he enter'd into that of the late King; and in the several Campaigns which he made in Germany, Italy, Flanders, and Poland, he always signaliz'd his Valour; and particularly not long ago, when he supported the Reputation of the King's Arms before Dantzic in a conspicuous manner. His Goodness, his Modesty, and his Care to distinguish true Merit, gain him the Love and Veneration both of the Officers and Soldiers. This Prince is actually a Lieutenant-General in the Emperor's Army, General of the Saxon Horse and Foot, Colonel of the Life-Guards, and of a Regiment of Foot, and Knight of the Order of the White Eagle. He115 is the Widower of Caroline Princess of Saxe-Eysenach, and professes the Lutheran Religion.

The Princess Christina of Saxe-Weissenfels, who was born the 27th of July 1690, adheres to the Roman Catholic Doctrine, Prince Albert her Father being a Convert to that Communion. She is of a good Stature, has a grand Majestic Air, and her Behaviour is graceful and polite. Her most serene Highness receives all that draw near to her with Respect and Kindness, and demonstrates her high Birth only by discharging the Obligations of it. She is so firmly attach'd to the Queen by the Bands of Love and Virtue that she is caress'd and distinguish'd by her; and all the Court honours and respects her more out of Inclination than Duty.

You will not perhaps be sorry to know the Names, &c. of the late King's legitimated Natural Issue, who are rank'd immediately after the Princes of the Blood. They are four Sons and three Daughters, of whom I shall now give you an Account, and who were their Mothers.

1. Count Maurice of Saxony is the eldest of the late King's Natural Children, by Aurora Countess of Koningsmark, the most worthy of her Sex in Europe to be the Mistress of a great King; and of all the King's Favourite Ladies, she kept longest in his Favour, so that after her Retirement she acquitted her self so well that she continued in the possession of his Majesty's Esteem and Regard. She is still living, and after having been a Prioress of the Imperial Lutheran Abbey Quedlinbourg she rose to be the Abbess. The Count is a Lieutenant-General, and Colonel of a Regiment of Foot in France.

2. The next is the Count Rotofski or Rutowski, Lieutenant-General, and Colonel of the Crown-Guards, who owes his Birth to the King's tender Passion for Fatima a Turkish Lady who was taken Prisoner very116 young, and fell to the share of M. Schoning, a Lieutenant-General in the Service of the Elector of Brandenbourg, who carried her to Berlin, and had her baptiz'd without altering her Name, tho' she afterwards went by that of Madame de Spiegel. Madamoiselle de Flemming, known by the Name of Brebentau, having married the Palatine of that Name, took a fancy to her, obtain'd her of M. de Schoning, and carried her with her into Poland, where from a Slave she became the King's Mistress, tho' Madame Brebentau did not perceive it till Fatima's Waist betray'd her. She had as much Wit as Beauty, and every body said she deserv'd her Fortune. Nevertheless, she did not enjoy it long; for Madame de Lubomirski, who was Wife to the Great Chamberlain of the Crown, stole away the King's Heart from her. The Count Rutowski is a Major-General of the King's Forces, Colonel of the Life-Guards, and of a Regiment of Foot, and Knight of the Order of the White Eagle. This Nobleman very much resembles the late King his Father, having his Strength, Dexterity, Valour and Politeness. He had his Education in France, and from thence went into the Service of Victor Amadeus the late King of Sardinia. Then he enter'd for a little while into the Service of the King of Prussia, and at length fix'd himself in that of Saxony, when he signaliz'd his Valour at the Siege of Dantzic, and afterwards made the Campaign as a Voluntier in the Imperial Army on the Rhine. As for his Religion, he professes the Roman Catholic.

3. The third of the late King's Natural Sons is George Prince de Teschen, otherwise call'd the Chevalier de Saxony, whom he had by Madame de Lubomirski above-mentioned, who was Niece to the famous Cardinal Radjouski Archbishop of Gnesna, and Primate of Poland. After this Lady had indulg'd the King's Passion she got a Divorce from 117Prince Lubomirski, and took the Title of the Princess de Teschen, which was granted to her by the Emperor. This Son of her's was brought up in the Roman Catholic Religion. He is a Colonel in the King's Service, and Knight of the Order of the White Eagle. He is a well-set Man, has a noble Air, and supports his Title by a great share of Valour and good Sense. He is perfect Master of military Architecture, and has great Talents for War, which he cultivates to such a degree that his very Amusements are the Study of what a great Captain ought to know. This Desire of his to be qualify'd some day or other for the Command of an Army engag'd him, at his return from the Siege of Dantzic, to repair to the Army of Prince Eugene of Savoy to improve himself in the Art of War under that Great Master.

4. The fourth and youngest of the Natural Sons of the late King of Poland is the Count de Cosel, Knight of the Order of the White Eagle, whose Mother was the Countess de Cosel; which Lady is also Mother to the Countesses of Friesland[62] and Moschinski[63]. The Count is a tall handsome Youth, modest and reserv'd, and more prudent than might be expected from his Years. This Nobleman, who does not disparage his Birth, is now making the Campaign upon the Rhine in the Imperial Army. He is of the Lutheran Communion.

Madame de Cosel is of the Family of Bruchstorf, and a Native of Holstein. She was Maid of Honour to the Dutchess of Wolfembuttle, when the Count de Hoym Minister of State to the King of Poland married her: The Count soon after the Marriage carried her to Dresden, where the King fell in118 love with her, and no sooner made it known to her but gain'd her compliance. M. de Hoym enrag'd at this, demanded a Divorce from her, which his Wife readily came into; so that the Consistory of Dresden declared their Marriage null and void. M. de Hoym married again, and Madame took the Title of the Countess de Cosel; but this Lady at once lost the King's Favour and her Liberty into the bargain, and is kept close Prisoner in a Castle, where she has nothing to do but to indulge her melancholy Reflections upon the Revolutions of her Fortune[64].

The Natural Daughters of the late King are, 1. The Countess of Bilinski, (Sister of the Count Rutowski) who was born in Poland as well as her Brother, and educated in the Roman Catholic Religion. Augustus II. gave her in Marriage to the Count Bilinski. The Countess's frequent Ailments obliged her to go to Paris for her Health; so that not being of this Court, 'twill not be expected I should give her Character.


2. The Countess of Orselska, who was born at Warsaw, of one Renard a French Woman, and bred up in the Roman Catholic Faith: She is of a good Stature, and very charming. Of all the late King's legitimated Children his Majesty seem'd to be fondest of this. She was at first very much neglected, and it did not appear that the King ever intended to own her. But Count Rotofski seeing her at Warsaw in a Plight too mean for her Birth took the freedom to mention her to the King her Father, and told him that she merited some Kindness from him. The King thereupon desir'd to see her, and she came into his Presence in the Amazonian Habit, which was her favourite Dress. The King thought she resembled him very much, and not being able to resist the tender Impressions of Nature he embrac'd her, and call'd her his Daughter. At the same time he order'd the whole Court to acknowledge her in that Quality, gave her a magnificent Palace, with Diamonds without number, and settled great Pensions on her. 'Tis certain, in short, that never was Daughter more like her Father; she had the same Features, Temper and Genius. It was impossible for her to be handsomer with a more grand Air. She is fond of Magnificence, Expence, and Pleasures. One of her Diversions is to dress in Mens Apparel. It was in this Habit that I saw her the first time, when she was on horseback, in a purple Habit embroider'd with Silver, and wore the blue Ribband of Poland. Being all alone, I could not learn who she was, but really took her to be some young Foreign Nobleman whom I had not yet seen. I never beheld any body sit better than she did on horseback, or have a more amiable Air; insomuch, that many Ladies would have been glad of a Lover so handsome. The same evening I saw her at the Ball, where she was still dress'd like a Man, only her Habit was more rich than it was in the morning,120 and her dishevell'd Locks of Hair hung down in fine Curls about her Shoulders; so that Cupid himself was not more tempting when he appear'd before Psyche. Her good Mien, and the graceful Air with which I saw her dance a Minuet, made me inquire who this pretty Youth was? Count Rotofski, who overheard me, made answer, The young Man whom you admire wou'd do you no great harm if you were a Woman, but may possibly hurt you as the Case stands; but come along with me, continued he, taking me by the Hand, I will make him known to you, then leave you to come off with him as well as you can. I guess'd by these Words that the Person he was going to usher me to was the Countess Orselska; and I was confirmed in my Suspicion when I heard Count Rotofski say to her, Sister, here is a Gentleman who has all due Respects for you, and who, I'll engage will be ready to serve you in whatever you shall require of him. Madamoiselle Orselska smiling at this Discourse, I saluted her with all the Respect which I ow'd to her Rank, and she receiv'd me in the most obliging manner possible. I saw her next day in Womens Apparel, and thought her still more amiable. I visit her every day, and now whenever I go to her I generally find with her Charles Lewis, a younger Prince of the Family of Holstein-Beck, who 'tis said is the happy Man for whom she is design'd in Marriage[65].

3. The Countess Moschinski, Daughter of the Countess of Cosel, was born at Dresden, and match'd by the late King to the Count de Moschinski, a Polish Nobleman. Her sober and courteous Deportment,121 and the Goodness of her Temper, have procured her both Love and Reverence.

Having now treated of the Princes of the Royal Family, I proceed to give you an account of the chief Noblemen of the Court; and in the first place, of the Ministers of the Cabinet.—These are, 1. Waldemar Baron de Lowendahl Grand Marshal, Knight of the Saxon Order of the White Eagle, and of the Danish Order of the Elephant, who by his Post of Grand Marshal holds the first Rank at the Court of Saxony, because the Elector is Arch Grand Marshal of the Empire. He is a Dane by birth, and is descended from a Count of Guldenlowe, a natural Son of the Blood-Royal of Denmark. He spent his youthful Days in the Service of the States-General, and was made a Captain in the Blue Guards; which he afterwards quitted, and went into the Service of the Emperor Leopold, and distinguish'd himself in quality of a Lieutenant-Colonel in 1683, at the raising of the Siege of Vienna; after which he return'd to Denmark, where he serv'd with Honour. But leaving that Court upon some Disgust, he came into Saxony, where Augustus II. declared him President of the Chamber, which Office he held when the King of Denmark recall'd him home. It was with the Approbation of his Master the King of Poland that he return'd to Copenhagen, where his Danish Majesty gave him the Command of his Army in Norway against the Swedes; which Commission he discharged with so much Honour, that he was dignify'd with the Order of the Elephant, as he had already been by that of Dannebroc. He might, had he pleased, have enjoy'd the greatest Offices in Denmark; but he had promised Augustus II. not to forsake him, so that he refus'd all the Advantages which Frederic IV. offer'd him, and return'd into Saxony. After the death of the Count de Phlug, the late King appointed him Grand Marshal, which Office he still122 executes with Honour. Tho' he is now advanced in years he has a sound Constitution, and the Air, Behaviour, and Way of Thinking of a Man of his Quality. Being affable and polite, he does the Honours of the Court in a Gentleman-like manner, for which the Courtiers reverence him, and the King professes an esteem for him. His Majesty is the sixth King whom this Minister has serv'd. He has married to his second Wife a Lady of the Family of Rantzau, in the Country of Holstein, who bears a valuable Character, and is as polite as can be desired, speaking French as well as if she was born at Versailles. The Grand Marshal has two Sons by his first Marriage with a Lady of Revenclau: his youngest, viz. Woldemar Baron de Lowendahl is Major-General of the King's Armies, Inspector General of the Saxon Infantry, and Colonel of a Regiment of Foot. He was fourteen years old when the Grand Marshal sent him to Denmark; where he made a Campaign at Sea under Admiral Tordenschild. At his return to Dresden he carried a Musket, and afterwards pass'd through all the subaltern Degrees. When he was but a Lieutenant he accompany'd General Seckendorf to Vienna, where the Marshal Count Guido de Staremberg gave him a Company in his Regiment, and he distinguish'd himself in a particular manner at the Sieges of Temiswaer and Belgrade, and in Sicily. Since that, he enter'd into the Service of Augustus II. who gave him a Regiment. Afterwards he made two Campaigns as a Voluntier with the Imperialists in Corsica; and upon all occasions manifested that Valour, Skill, and Prudence, as he did lately in the Defence of Cracow; where, with a weak and sickly Garrison, he not only made a vigorous stand against the Attacks of the Primate's Polish Adherents, but also obliged them to retire. This General is so fond of signalizing his Bravery, that he was scarce return'd from Poland,123 but he went to make the Campaign as a Voluntier, with the Imperial Army on the Rhine. He lives magnificently, keeps a good Table, and is very civil to Foreigners.

2. Anthony Count de Lutzelbourg, who is by birth a Lorrainer, and an exemplary Professor of the Roman Catholic Religion, is Lieutenant-General of the Forces, Knight of the Order of the White Eagle, and General of the Horse. He is pretty tall, and has a chearful Countenance, with a noble easy Behaviour, which shews the Man of Quality. His Merit procured him the Honour of being the King's Governour after the Decease of the Count de Costa, which Post he held 'till his Majesty came of age, when he was appointed Steward of his Houshold, and was as much esteem'd by their Royal Highnesses as he is valued by the Courtiers, and belov'd by the Domestics of the Prince who are under his command: but his frequent Ailments oblig'd him to quit that Office: Nevertheless he was last year at Vienna, where he receiv'd for the King his Master the Investiture of the Feudatory States of the Empire, and concluded the Treaty of Alliance still subsisting between the two Courts.

3. Henry-Frederic Count of Friesland, is Great Chamberlain, General of the Infantry, Lieutenant-General of the King's Forces, and Knight of the Order of the White Eagle. He is descended from a Family which has for a long time been of illustrious Rank in Saxony. He spent part of his Youth in the Service of Peter the Great, Czar of Muscovy, and signaliz'd his Valour very much at the Battle of Pultowa; where Charles XII. King of Sweden in a few Hours lost all the fruit of nine years Toil, and of an infinite number of Victories. Soon after this great Battle he shew'd his Wisdom to be equal to his Bravery at the Battle of Pruth; which though it did not turn out so much to the Czar's Honour,124 was altogether as fortunate to him, since it extricated that Prince out of the worst scrape that perhaps ever King was reduced to. He enter'd afterwards into the Service of the late King; who being sensible of his Merit, raised him to the greatest Dignities of his Court, and married him to one of the Daughters that he had by the Countess of Cosel. The Great Chamberlain, who has the Looks and Behaviour of a Man of Quality, thinks and acts too like a Nobleman. Few Persons surpass him in Politeness and Learning: He is perfect Master of several Languages, and of every thing that forms the Minister and the General. He loves Literature and the Arts, and was always their Supporter. He lives handsomely, and has such a Presence as commands the Veneration of all that have to do with him.

4. Joseph Count de Gabaleon-Wackerbarth-Salmour, the adopted Son of the Velt-Marshal Augustus Christopher Count de Wackerbarth who succeeded Marshal de Flemming in the chief command of the Troops in Saxony, and was not only Marshal, but a Minister of State, Grand Master of the Artillery, Governour of Dresden, and Knight of the Order of the White Eagle. The Father was born of a good Family in Mecklembourg; but from his very youth he attach'd himself to the Elector of Saxony; and by his own Merit, and the Friendship of his Predecessor Count Flemming, he was raised to the chief Posts in the Army and the Court. In 1709 he had the Command of the Saxon Troops before Tournay, as he had in 1715 before Strahlsund, when 'twas besieg'd by the Kings of Denmark and Prussia, and defended by Charles XII. King of Sweden. M. de Wackerbarth was made Count of the Empire by the King his Master, while that Prince was Vicar of the Empire, after the death of the Emperor Joseph. After being grac'd with this Dignity,125 the Count de Wackerbarth was employ'd in sundry important Negotiations, especially at Vienna; where he married a Piedmontese Lady, the Dowager of Charles Margrave of Brandenbourg, Brother to Frederic I. King of Prussia, who when he was but very young at the University of Turin; married her by the Left-hand, as you know is the Fashion among our Princes when they marry below themselves. However the Lady went by the Name of Madame de Brandenbourg to the very day that the Count de Wackerbarth married her, being so proud of the Title that she was resolv'd never to part with it 'till she was married again: Notwithstanding the advantageous Offers made to her from the King of Prussia to engage her to renounce it, her refusal of which was the more generous because it was at a time too when she was in narrow Circumstances; yet her constant Answer was, that nothing in the Universe should tempt her to debase herself; and that she had rather be poor, and pass for the Wife of the Margrave of Brandenbourg, than be rich, and pass for his Mistress. Before she became Madame de Brandenbourg she was the Widow of a certain Count de Salmour, by whom she had a Son whom she engaged the Count de Wackerbarth, when she married him, to adopt for his own. I confess I never saw this Lady; for at the time of my former Voyage hither she was at Vienna; and now she is dead. They talk of her still as one of the acutest Women of her time. But to return to the Marshal; he is very civil, lives with great Splendor, and his House is open to all Foreigners. He is mighty intimate with the Count de Flemming, Prime Minister and Favourite of the King; so that they fully contradicted the Proverb, That Fire and Water can't agree; for Count Flemming was lively almost to the Degree of a Fury, whereas the Count de Wackerbarth, on the contrary,126 abounds with Phlegm[66]. We go back now to his adopted Son Joseph above-mention'd, a Piedmontese, at present one of the Ministers of the Cabinet[67].

He is also Knight of the Order of the White Eagle, and Governour of his Royal Highness the Prince Royal and Electoral. He bears the Name and Arms of Wackerbarth, by reason of his being adopted as above by the Velt-Marshal his Father-in-law; upon whose death, he succeeded to his Estate. He took to arms betimes; but having receiv'd a Wound in the Foot, which he feels to this day, he was oblig'd to quit a Profession in which he distinguish'd himself, and apply'd afterwards to Affairs of State. The late King sent him to the Courts of Bavaria and Vienna, where he supported the Prerogatives of his Character with Dignity, and gain'd the extraordinary Esteem of their Imperial Majesties and the Ministers. Augustus II. recall'd him from Vienna, and sent him to Rome, to the new Pope Clement XII. The Romans, those Masters in the Art of Politics, were soon convinced that this Minister knew more than they could teach him: They admired the Prudence and Resolution with which he behav'd when the Sbirri presum'd to invade the Franchise of his Quarter; and all own'd that the most experienced Minister could not have better supported the Honour of his Master. At his Return from Rome, the late King, to the Satisfaction of all Men, appointed him Governour to Prince Frederic, the present Prince Royal and Electoral; the Count having all the necessary Qualifications to fill that Post with Honour: For besides a127 good Share of Religion, he is a Gentleman of known Candour, great Experience in Business, and abundance of Good-nature, Politeness, and Modesty: And he is not only deeply learn'd, but always studious how to answer the great Trust repos'd in him by their Majesties; and as the Method he takes to instruct the Prince has won him his Royal Highness's Esteem and Friendship, so it cannot fail of procuring him one day the Praise and Gratitude of those who are concern'd for the Glory of the Royal Family.

When Augustus III. came to the Government he sent the Count, with M. de Baudissin, in Quality of his Plenipotentiaries, to the Republic of Poland; in which Post he answer'd the Expectation which the King had of his Capacity. His Wisdom got the better of all Opposition; and he had the advantage of triumphing over the Intrigues and Cabals of the Primate. After the King had been proclaim'd the Count swore, in his Majesty's Name, in the Church at Warsaw, to the Observation of the Pacta Conventa drawn up by the Members of the Republic; and then accompanied the Grand Deputation of the Polish Nobility at Tarnowitz. 'Twas he that made answer, in the Name of their Majesties, to the Harangues of the Bishop of Cracow declaring the Republic's Acknowledgement of his Title, and their Obedience. And the Answer he return'd was in the two Languages in which the Prelate address'd him: He spoke in Latin for the King, and in French for the Queen.

The Count being return'd to Dresden since their Majesties Coronation, is wholly taken up in the Education of the Prince Royal; and his care of him has been crown'd with such Success, that we may prophesy his Royal Highness will one day draw down that Blessing of God upon himself, which is upon the Head of the Just.


5. Wolff-Henry de Baudissin, General of the Horse, Colonel of a Regiment of Carabiniers, and Knight of the Order of the White Eagle, and that of Dannebroc, has all the Qualities requisite for a well-born Gentleman, viz. an agreeable Aspect, a good Stature, a noble Air, easy and engaging Behaviour, approv'd Valour, a Generosity free of all Ostentation; and finally what is superior to all these Qualities, he has a Fund of Probity and Candour which nothing can corrupt. He is a Native of Holstein, and spent his early Years in the Service of Sweden, and afterwards in that of the Duke his Sovereign, who gave him a Regiment, with which he serv'd all the last War in the Netherlands, in the Post of Major-General. Augustus II. calling him to his Service, made him Lieutenant-General of his Forces, and then General of the Cavalry. When Augustus III. came to the Government he summon'd him to his Cabinet-Council, and sent him as his Plenipotentiary to Poland, where he had a hand in every Transaction for the Advantage and Honour of the King. He afterwards commanded the Army which his Majesty was obliged to carry into his Kingdom for the Defence of his oppressed Subjects; and there he fell so dangerously ill that he was obliged to return to Germany, to make use of the Waters of Pyrmont; by which he found benefit; and he is now at Dresden, where his Seniority gives him the Command in chief of the Forces.

6. Alexander-Joseph Count de Sulkowski, Starost of Sokolnick, Chief Huntsman of Lithuania, Master of the Horse, Great Master of the Wardrobe, Major-General of the King's Forces, Colonel of the Crown-Guards and of a Regiment of Foot, and Knight of the Order of the White Eagle, is a Polander. Being taken into Service very young as Page to the King, then Prince Royal and Electoral, he accompanied him in his Travels, and there129 acquir'd a good Fund of Knowledge. His great Sobriety, his Assiduity, his Application to the discharge of his Duties, his Sense, and his sincere Attachment to Religion, won his Master's Heart, of which he keeps possession even to this day; with a Distinction that does him the more Honour, because he derives it from the King's thorough conviction of his Merit.

The Count is of a good Stature, has a noble and modest Air, and a Candour in his Conversation and his Action, which is very engaging. He is civil, and makes no other Use of his Favour but to do as much Good as he can, without prejudicing the Interests of the King whom he serves with Gratitude, Affection, and Zeal. He is a generous Minister, and his House is open to all Persons of Distinction.

After he had serv'd as a Page, he was by the late King made a Gentleman of the Bed-Chamber; and not long after that, his present Majesty, who was then still Prince Royal, declar'd him Director of his Hunting Equipage, and trusted him with the Management of his Domestic Affairs. The late King also appointed him one of his Chamberlains.

At the famous Camp at Zeithaim, the Count commanded an Independent Company. He discover'd so great Application, and such a happy Genius for the Art of War, that the late King, whose Penetration nothing cou'd escape, took it for a good Omen, and gave him a Regiment of Foot. Thus did the Count make his way towards the splendid Fortune which he now enjoys. M. de Bruhl resigning his Post of Great Master of the Wardrobe, soon after the King's Accession to the Government, his Majesty gave that Post to his Favourite. He afterwards call'd him to his Cabinet-Council; and at his Coronation, he made him Knight of the Order of the White Eagle. After the Court's Return130 from Cracow, the Count went to the Army before Dantzic; where he gave demonstration of his being as good a Soldier as he is an able Statesman. It being not compatible with his Ministry to be long absent, and Dantzic being on the point of capitulating, he went to give the King an account of the Success of its Siege, and the Prosperity of his Arms. He accompanied his Majesty to the Abbey of Oliva, and by his Prudence contributed very much to put such Polish Lords in mind of their Obedience, who had thought of being exempted from it. And his only View being more and more to deserve that Favour with which the King honours him, and being desirous of having it in his power to serve him, as well in his Armies, as in his Cabinet, he went last of all to the Imperial Army, in order to qualify himself for a Command under Prince Eugene of Savoy.

To complete the good Fortune of this Count, he married a Lady, who, besides her Birth and personal Charms, has a Character which gains her the Applause and Veneration of all that know her. She is hereditary Baroness of Stein; and when he marry'd her, she was Lady of Honour to the Queen. They are both Members of the Roman Catholic Church.

7. Henry de Bruhl, Knight of the Orders of Poland and Prussia, a Member of the Privy-Council, President of the Chamber of Finances, Director General of the Excise, and Vice-President of the Taxes, is the Son of John de Bruhl, who was of the Privy-Council to Augustus II. and Grand Marshal and Director of the Privy-Council to the Duke Regent of Saxe-Weissenfels. He is by Birth a Saxon, and has a Brother who is Knight of the Teutonick Order. He made great progress at Leipsic in the Belles Lettres, and in the Exercises suitable to a Person of his Extraction. His Recreations131 there, were Music, and Conversation with Persons of his own Taste. He sometimes made Verses, which were esteem'd for the bright Thoughts in them, and the Harmony of the Versification. When he quitted Leipsic, he was enter'd Page to the late King: In this Post he behaved with so much Sobriety and Assiduity, that his Majesty soon distinguish'd him from the Croud, admitted him to Familiarity with him; and finding he had a sound Judgment, a quick Apprehension, a Penetration beyond what might be expected from one of his Age, and that he was a Person of Discretion, and inviolable Secrecy, join'd with a noble Freedom, and such a happy way of expressing himself as to render the most difficult Subjects easy and pleasant; he readily judg'd that such a one was fit to be employ'd in great Affairs. He had a mind to instruct him; and having nominated him one of the Gentlemen of his Bed-Chamber, he had him under his Eye. M. de Bruhl improv'd so well from the Lessons of this great Master, so thoroughly study'd his Humour, and so exactly suited himself to his Genius, that he made himself necessary. His Application, his Love to Business, and the Ease with which he dispatch'd it, won him the intire Confidence of Augustus II. who declar'd him Great Master of the Wardrobe, and a Privy Counsellor; and to him he moreover committed the Direction and Regulation of Affairs, Foreign and Domestic. Never had the King shewn more Affection or Esteem for any of his Favourites; yet this Nobleman took ne'er the more State upon him for it, but living always humble, polite, and ready to do Services, he made himself Friends, and secur'd himself by that means against all the Hatred and Envy with which Courtiers are very ready to treat those who are in Power.


When the King of Prussia went to the Camp at Zeithaim, he conferr'd his Order of the Black Eagle upon M. de Bruhl: The late King also honour'd him with that of the White Eagle; but this was at a time when this Minister had no Relish for Honours, and wou'd have been glad to have renounc'd them for ever, if he cou'd thereby have prolong'd the Days of a Master so worthy of Immortality.

It was in those last Moments, when the Professions of Friendship cannot be so much as suspected, that Augustus II. gave his Favourite his Order, as a certain Token that he retain'd a value for him even to Death. This great King having finish'd his glorious Career, M. de Bruhl, without suffering himself to be too much cast down, knowing that an Ocean of Tears was too little to shed for the Loss he had sustain'd, thought of nothing more than paying the due Devoirs to the deceas'd Sovereign, and to the Prince, his Son and Successor. Having therefore caus'd the Corpse of the former to be embalm'd, and put a Seal upon all the Effects which belong'd to him, besides securing the Jewels and Papers of Consequence; he came to Dresden to join the Elector, now King of Poland, who received him with such Marks of Kindness, as were enough to have put the deceas'd Monarch out of the Minister's Thoughts, if his Gratitude had not dictated to him, that such a King and such a Master ought never to be forgot.

The King confirm'd him in all the Employments and Honours which he had held by the Favour of Augustus II. and moreover appointed him one of the Ministers of his Cabinet. Some time after this, his Majesty declar'd him President of the Chamber of Finances; consequently, this great, this true King, by distinguishing Merit, did farther Honour to the Memory of his august Father, since133 he did what that magnanimous Prince wou'd have undoubtedly done for his Favourite.

At this time the Minister resign'd to the King his Office of Great Master of the Wardrobe, which his various Occupations did not permit him to manage with that Care he thought was necessary. After the Return of the Court from Cracow, whither this Gentleman had accompany'd the King, he marry'd the Countess de Collowrat, one of the Queen's Ladies of Honour, whose high Birth was supported with such personal Qualities as can never be enough commended. The Bride being a Roman Catholic, the Ceremony of the Marriage was performed at Moritzbourg, in presence of their Majesties, by the Bishop of Cracow. Never was a Couple better match'd; the Lady's Person being a Collection of Charms, and M. de Bruhl a Man of as noble Presence as one wou'd wish to see; which he generally sets off with a rich Dress of a good Fancy. No body at Court surpasses him in a generous way of living; for he keeps a noble Table, and at his House Persons of Distinction have their Assemblies. This Minister has something so attracting in his Looks and Behaviour that he easily wins the Hearts of People who are the most indifferent to him. He is so polite, affable, and engaging, that he listens attentively to those who lay their Wants before him, returns them courteous and distinct Answers; and whenever he is constrain'd to give a Denial, he does it in such a manner as plainly demonstrates his Concern that 'tis not in his power to oblige. And 'tis owing to this Good-nature of his, and to the Kindness with which he treats his Inferiors, that he can boast of possessing the Love and Veneration of the Public.

In short, the Count de Sulkowski who has the first place in the Cabinet, and this Gentleman who has the second, are the Ministers who decide all Affairs134 with the King's good Pleasure. They are Gentlemen who know nothing of Jealousy nor Envy; and, as they act from one and the same Principle, so they have both the same View, which is to increase, if possible, the Glory of the King, and the Happiness of the Government.

The Office of all the above-mention'd, as Ministers of the Cabinet, is so eminent at this Court that it gives those who are invested with it the Precedence of all the Generals, both of Horse and Foot.

Besides these, there are three other Ministers of the Cabinet, who, tho' retir'd from Court, enjoy the Rank and Pensions annex'd to the Ministry. They are the Count de Manteuffel, the Count de Promnitz, and the Marquiss de Fleuri.

Ernest Count de Manteuffel, Knight of the Order of the White Eagle, is descended of a Family which has been for a long time of distinguish'd Rank in Prussian Pomerania. He was Gentleman of the Bed-Chamber to Frederic I. King of Prussia. Certain Ballads being handed about at Court, which were insulting Lampoons upon the Count de Wartemberg, the King's Prime Minister and Favourite, M. de Manteuffel was charged with being the Author of 'em; who knowing that the Favourite wou'd not put up with the Affront, retir'd to Saxony, where the Count de Flemming, who then bore the greatest sway at the King of Poland's Court, receiv'd him as his Countryman, and employ'd him in foreign Affairs; which he managed with the Approbation both of his Majesty and the foreign Ministers he had to treat with. M. de Manteuffel kept in with the Favourite without giving into the Flattery which that Minister expected from his Creatures; and while the King was Vicar of the Empire, he made M. de Manteuffel Count of the Empire. His Majesty had some time before honour'd him with the Order of the White Eagle, and preferr'd him to his Cabinet-Council; and after Marshal Flemming's135 Death, M. de Manteuffel[68] had the principal Direction of the foreign Affairs. But this able Minister, and one of the chief Ornaments and Confidents of the late King's Court, retir'd from it in 1730, to his Estate in Pomerania, and now resides at Berlin; where he still enjoys a Pension of 24000 Crowns, or 12000 Rixdollars, which was secur'd to him by the present Elector. It adds to his Character, that after he was retired, the Want of him was lamented.

He is pretty tall, well set, has a grand Air, and is one of the handsomest Men that I have seen. His Behaviour is noble and easy, he has a good Fund of Learning, an extraordinary Memory, and such a Happiness of expressing himself that when he talks he never fails to give Pleasure. He lives nobly, and when he was at Dresden his House was open to all Persons of Distinction and Merit. He married a Baroness of Pludouska, who is, as well as himself, of the Lutheran Religion.

Erdmann, Count de Promnitz, is more at his Estate than at Court; he is also Knight of the Order of the White Eagle. He married a Princess of Saxe-Weissenfels. He always distinguish'd himself by his Zeal, and his Attachment to the Royal Family; of which he gave Proofs by raising an Independent Company at his own Expence, for the Service of the late King, which he sent to reinforce his Majesty's Troops in the Camp before Zeithaim: And for the same Use he has since rais'd a Regiment of Horse.

Francis Vicardel, Marquiss de Fleuri and de Beaufort, is a Savoyard. He was the King of Sardinia's Minister, and his Envoy to the Court of Vienna, when the late King of Poland invited him into his Service, admitted him to his Cabinet-Council,136 and made him a Knight of his Order. This Minister is endow'd with all the Talents that can be desir'd in a Man who has an Employment. He has an agreeable Aspect, engaging Manners, a just Discernment, a quick Apprehension, and a very even Temper. But his frequent Ailments disabling him from the Exercise of his Talents, he desir'd, and obtain'd leave to retire to his Estate in Savoy; and the late King, who had always a great and noble Soul, being desirous that he shou'd be a Witness of his Goodness and Royal Magnificence, secur'd the Enjoyment of his Pensions to him; which the present King has also been pleased to confirm.

Another of the Cabinet Ministers, who was also formerly Prime Minister to the late King of Poland, was the Count de Hoym, descended from one of the principal Families in Saxony, and Brother to the Gentleman that married Madame de Cosel. I knew him intimately before he was advanced to the Ministry, at Paris, and at Vienna, as well as here at Dresden. You must have seen him in Silesia, where he has a very fine Estate. There is not a Minister at this Court more civil, more learned, or a better Friend to learned Men. During his long Residence at Paris as Ambassador from the King of Poland, his House was open to all Men of Learning as it is now at Dresden; and he had the splendid Title given him of the Mecænas of Saxony[69].


They who are actually Privy Counsellors, or Ministers of State here, are eight in number. They are descended from some of the best Families in Saxony, and profess the Protestant Religion. The Detail of their Characters, their Experience, and their Merit, wou'd oblige me to transgress the Limits of this Work, were I only to treat of those who are bound by their Employments to attend the King's Person, and who compose his Majesty's Houshold. But for the Reputation of the Privy Council, 'tis proper just to observe that all its Members are Subjects who do Honour to the King's Choice; that they are vigilant for promoting138 the Good of the Public, and that in their Deliberations they manifest their Zeal for the King, and their Affection to their Country.

The President of this Council, is Alexander de Miltitz de Scharffenberg, who is a Native of Saxony, the same that was the King's Governour; of whom so much has been already said, that I avoid to make any more particular mention of him here.

Two of the Privy Counsellors are Counsellors of the Conferences, which are held in presence of his Majesty, viz. Gotlob-Frederic Baron de Gersdorff, and Bernard Baron de Zech. The former comes from an ancient Family of Distinction, which139 has given several great Men to this State. The latter has acquitted himself with Success in the several Negociations wherein he has been employ'd. They are both laborious, vigilant, upright Men, and of great Experience in Business.

The King's Great Officers are,

I. The Grand Marshal; which Office is now held by Waldemar, Baron de Lowendahl, who has under him

The Gentlemen of the Bed-Chamber,
The Pages,
The Huntsmen,
The Musicians of the Chapel and the Chamber,
The Dancers,
The Comedians,
The Trumpeters,
The Footmen,
The Turks,
The Heydukes,
The Messengers,
The Negroes;

and in short, a considerable number of other Officers and Domestics of the King's Houshold. His Jurisdiction extends not only over those that I have mention'd, but also over all Foreigners of Quality who happen to be at Dresden; and there is a Tribunal or Court for this purpose, of which the Great Chamberlain, the Great Master of the Kitchens, the Great Cup-Bearer and the Marshal of the Court are Members.

II. The Great Chamberlain; who is at present Henry-Frederic Count of Friesland. 'Tis he that receives the Ambassadors and other foreign Ministers, and introduces them to an Audience of the King. He has under him the several Chamberlains.

III. The Master of the Horse, Alexander-Joseph Count de Sulkowski, is in possession of this Office, which is one of the best and noblest Employments140 at Court, the Person who is invested with it being serv'd by the King's Equipages and Livery, and having the disposal of all the inferior Offices appertaining to the Stables. He has under him the Equerries, the Prickers, and all the Workmen employ'd for the Service of the Stables, and the making of the Equipages.

He that is the only chief Equerry is Adolphus de Bruhl, one of the King's Chamberlains. He officiates in the absence of the Master of the Horse, is Brother to Henry de Bruhl Minister of the Cabinet, and resembles him in Candour and Integrity. His Honesty, which is imprinted on his very Countenance, reflects a Lustre on all his Actions. He is so sensible of the Charms of Friendship that he fulfils all the Obligations of it; and besides those Qualities of the Mind, he makes an agreeable Appearance, is dextrous in his Exercises, has a solid Relish of the Arts and Sciences, is perfect Master of Music, and plays on several Instruments.

He was heretofore in the Service of the Duke Regent of Weissenfels, and next in that of the Duke of Saxe-Weimar, who had such an Esteem for his Merit that to him he referred the Direction of his Court. Nevertheless he left this Prince, and enter'd into the Service of the late King, who conferred those Employments on him which he now enjoys. Since he came to Court, he married a young Lady of Quality of the Family of Opelen, whose Fortune and Charms into the bargain made her such a considerable Match that she did not want Suitors.

IV. The Great Huntsman. The Gentleman who at present possesses this Office, one of the most lucrative at Court, is Charles de Leubnitz. It gives him the Superintendance over all the Officers of the Venery, in which Number are included the Rangers, the Verdurers, the Gentlemen and Pages,141 and above a hundred Huntsmen or other Persons depending on them. The Great Huntsman is a Protestant, as well as his Lady, who is of the Family of Schaurot.

V. The Great Master of the Kitchens is Adolphus Baron de Seyffertitz, of a Family which has been for a long time distinguish'd in this Electorate. His first Step at Court was in the Employment of Gentleman of the Bed-Chamber. Augustus II. at the request of the late Czar Peter the Great, plac'd him Governor to the Czarowitz when that young Prince came into Germany. He continued in this Post till after the Marriage of the Czarowitz to the Princess of Brunswic-Wolfembuttle-Blanckenbourg. After his return to Saxony he accompanied the late King to Berlin, when his Majesty together with Frederic IV. King of Denmark, went thither to make a visit to Frederic I. King of Prussia. In 1711, M. de Seyffertitz was appointed Marshal of the Embassy which Augustus II. sent to Francfort, for the Election of an Emperor. His Imperial Majesty Charles VI. at the Ceremony of his Coronation, made him a Knight of the Empire, and at length the late King made him one of his Chamberlains, and then Great Master of the Kitchens, which Office he manages with Dignity and Politeness. He married a Lady of the Family of Haxthausen, Widow of the Count de Beichling the Great Faulconer. They are both of the Lutheran Communion.

In the absence of the Grand Marshal, the Great Master of the Kitchens officiates, and at the grand Ceremonies wears like him a Staff tipp'd with Silver gilt. Under his Province are the Comptrollers of the Kitchen and of the Houshold, the Clerks of the Kitchen, the Purveyors, the Cooks and Turn-spits, the Pastry-Cooks, the Pursers, Fishmongers, &c.


VI. The Great Cup-Bearer is John-Adolphus de Haugwitz, a Gentleman of good Extraction. His Father was Grand Marshal to the late King. He is a handsome Man, has a noble Mien, performs all sorts of Exercises with a Grace and with Dexterity, and does the Honours of the Court in a becoming manner. He is of the Protestant Religion, and married to a Lady of the Family of Beist. His Employment sets him above all the Officers of the King's Buttery, Cellar, and Pantry. In the absence of the Grand Marshal and the Master of the Kitchens, he officiates for them, and at great Ceremonies he carries like them a Staff of Silver gilt.

VII. The Great Faulconer is an Office held by Anthony Count de Moschinski, a Polish Nobleman, and a Roman Catholic. He was formerly Page to the King, and attended his Majesty in his Tours to France and Italy, where he acquir'd great Politeness, and a very engaging Deportment. At his return to Dresden, he was made one of the Gentlemen of the Bed-Chamber to the King, who was then the Prince Royal. Afterwards the late King appointed him one of his Chamberlains; and when the Count de Fitztuhm unhappily lost his life at Warsaw, his Majesty who had given his Office of Great Chamberlain to the Count de Friesland, bestow'd that of Great Faulconer, which was held by that Nobleman, upon the Count de Moschinski, who was grac'd almost at the same time with the Order of the White Eagle, and the Post of Treasurer to the Court of Poland. His Majesty also granted him in Marriage one of his natural Children, the Daughter of the Countess de Cosel. Never was a Person more deserving of Honours than the Great Faulconer, who is truly magnificent, and makes such an Appearance, that he does an Honour to his Character. By his Behaviour he engages the Friendship and Regard of all that have to do with him. He has143 under his command the Officers of the Faulconry or Mews where the Hawks are kept, the Faulconers, and in general all those Persons that have any relation to the Faulconry.

VIII. The Great Master of the Wardrobe is Alexander-Joseph Count de Sulkowski. He has under his Jurisdiction the Catholic Clergy, the Physicians of the Body, the Footmen, the Secretaries, Writers and Clerks of the Chamber, the Inspectors of the Chamber of Curiosities, the Ushers of the Chamber and of the King's Closet, his Peruke-makers, Surgeons and Taylors, the Negroes, Dwarfs, and Pages of the Back-Stairs, the Architects, Engineers and Designers.

IX. The Post-Master-General is Maurice-Charles Count de Linar, who is also one of the Chamberlains, and a Knight of the Order of St. John. He is descended from a Family which has been of Eminence for a long time in this Electorate. His good Mien is answerable to his Birth, and by his Politeness, his Manners, and his Expences, he does an honour to the Prince that employs him. The King, after his Coronation, sent him to Muscovy to notify the Accomplishment of that Ceremony to the Empress of the Russians, and he still continues at that Princess's Court, to take care of his Master's Interests, which he does in a way that cannot but turn to his own Advantage, and the Honour of the King.[70] This Gentleman was also employ'd by the late King at the Court of Prussia, and at the British Court when at Hanover, and always discharg'd his Commissions with such Success as was crown'd with his Majesty's Approbation.

X. The Marshal of the Court is John-George d'Einsiedel, who is also a Privy-Counsellor, and a Gentleman of a good Family, his Ancestors having 144possessed the chief Offices of the State. He has visited the principal Courts of Europe, where he contracted that polite Turn which is seen in his Behaviour. He is a handsome Man, has a noble Air, and his Demeanour is answerable. He knows a great deal, and performs all the academical Exercises very well. He married the Daughter of the General Count de Flemming Governor of Leipsic, who was a rich Heiress, and to be valued for the Qualities of her Mind. The Marshal of the Court and his Lady are both of the Lutheran Communion. His Office joins him in Commission with the Grand Marshal, the Great Master of the Kitchens, and the Great Cup-Bearer; and like those Officers he carries the short Staff of Silver gilt at the grand Ceremonies. 'Tis commonly he that makes the Court-Entertainments.

Curt d'Einsiedel Marshal of the Court, and one of the Chamberlains, is remarked for his genteel Mien and Extraction. His good Qualities and Deportment render him worthy of all Employments. He is of the establish'd Religion of Saxony, and lately married Madamoiselle de Schoneberg de Maxen, whose Personal Charms are an Ornament to the Court.

Ernest-Ferdinand d'Ermandsdorff, Marshal of the King's Houshold, and one of the Chamberlains, has procur'd himself Esteem by his Merit as well as his good Birth and Breeding. Besides his Knowledge of various kinds which qualifies him for Business, he is Master of several Languages, particularly the French. He married a Lady of the Family of Hesler, and they are both of the Lutheran Religion.

XI. The Chamberlains. Of these there are too many to be all mention'd here, so that I shall only take notice of the twelve Pensioners who are in waiting about their Majesties, and without regarding the Seniority of their Admittance. They145 commonly attend the King and Queen, each a whole Week in their turn, and have the Rank of Major-Generals. The finest Prerogative of their Employment; is the Honour of eating with their Majesties when they are in Waiting, and of being the Depositaries of the Petitions which are presented to the King in his Passage.

1. Henry Rodolph de Schonfeld, Lord of Lowenitz, is the King's first Chamberlain. He has a fine Presence and Behaviour, and a sweet and amiable Temper. He keeps a handsome Table and Equipage, suitable to his Fortune. He attended the King, by his Majesty's Order, to Cracow, and lastly to Oliva.

2. Helmuth de Plesk is of a Family in the Dutchy of Holstein, of some Note for their great Estate there, and for the Rank they bear at the Court of Denmark, where several Lords of Plesk are in the Ministry. The Gentleman here mention'd is actually the King's Envoy Extraordinary to the Court of Denmark.

3. Augustus-Henry Gottlob, Count de Callenberg, is of this Electorate, where his Family has for a long time enjoy'd a considerable Rank, and a fine Estate. He has been the King's Envoy Extraordinary to the Courts of France, Brussels, Cologn, Triers, and the Elector Palatine, to notify the Death of the late King, and the Accession of their present Majesties to the Electorate. He married the Countess of Bose, lives nobly, and adorns the Court by his Politeness. He is of the Protestant Communion.

4. John-George de Carlowitz is of the same Religion. He is a Saxon, and married to Madamoiselle de Neitsch. He has a peculiar Talent of gaining the Love of all Mankind; which he owes to his Travels, and his natural Genius.

5. Frederic-Augustus de Brandstein, after having finish'd his Studies at Wittenberg, travell'd to good146 purpose to the principal Countries of Europe. At his return the late King declar'd him a Gentleman of his Bed-Chamber, and some time after one of his Chamberlains. He is well descended, and what is convenient for a Courtier, he adheres to the Religion which is uppermost in the State.

6. Detler-Henry d'Einsiedel, Brother to the Marshal of the Court, honours his Name by his personal Qualities. He is a handsome tall Gentleman, has a grand Presence, and few Gentlemen surpass him in Good Manners, Address, and polite Literature. He study'd at Wittenberg, and afterwards made a Visit to the principal Courts of Europe: The last he made was to that of Sweden, whither he was sent by the King to notify the Death of his late Majesty, and the Accession of his present Majesty to the Electorate.

7. Sigismond d'Arnim, is not only one of the King's Chamberlains, but Colonel of a Regiment of Horse. He is of an ancient Family which has Lands in Lusatia. His Employments are owing both to his Birth and personal Merit. He is of the Religion of the Country.

8. Maximilian, Count d'Herzan, is of Bohemia. The late Countess his Mother was the Queen's first Lady of Honour, and attended her Majesty hither from Vienna. He is able to cut a Figure at Court, but is absent above half of his time; and is a Roman Catholic.

9. Charles-Christian de Minckwitz, is a Gentleman of a fine Mien. As he has been a great Traveller, he has acquir'd a great share of Knowledge and Politeness. He was born a Saxon, but has embrac'd the Roman Catholic Faith; tho' he has defeated himself by it of the Reversion of a considerable Inheritance.

10. Henry-Augustus de Breitenbauch, is a Gentleman of fine Sense and Manners suitable to his Extraction.147 Such is his good Taste and Skill in Music, that he has been singled out for the Direction of the King's Pleasures. He is of the Communion of the Country, and marry'd to a Lady of the Family of Schonberg.

11. Nicholas-Schwizinski is a Native of Poland; he has valuable Qualities, and a great Attachment to the Roman Catholic Religion.

12. N. N. de Sehgutt-Stanislawski is of a Family which was formerly possess'd of a great Estate in Silesia, with the Title of the Counts de Sehgutt, till the Conquest of the Country by the Teutonic Knights, when his Ancestors remov'd to Prussia; and spreading afterwards in Poland, they assum'd the Name of Stanislawski, as what was more agreeable to the Poles. This Chamberlain is a Person of strict Honour and Integrity, without any manner of Guile. He spent his Youth at the Academy of Berlin which was erected by King Frederic I. and afterwards enter'd as Gentleman of the Bed-Chamber to Augustus II. who not many Years after made him a Chamberlain of Poland, and put him upon the Establishment of Saxony; and when the present King came to the Government, he continued him in his Employment. His Majesty also made choice of him to attend him to Cracow, and lastly to Oliva.

XII. Of the Steward of the Queen's Houshold. Since the Queen's Arrival at Dresden, there have been four Stewards of her Majesty's Houshold. The Count de Diedrichstein was the first that had this Place, which he resign'd for the Grand Priory of Bohemia. His Successor was the Count de Konigsegg who actually commands the Emperor's Army in Lombardy. This General being recall'd to Vienna, was replac'd by the Count de Wratislau, and he by the Count de Waldstein who lately quitted that Post to go and take possession of148 the Office of Landshauptmann, or Intendant of Silesia, which was conferr'd on him by the Emperor. The Count de Wratislaw, who has the care of his Imperial Majesty's Affairs at this Court, officiates there again as Steward. This is the Officer who leads the Queen, and gives Orders to all her Officers and Domestics, and who must be apply'd to by those that solicite for an Audience of her Majesty.

XIII. The Queen's first Lady of Honour, is Theresa Baroness of Stein, and Countess Dowager of Collowrat; who honours her Station by her Virtues, and by the Dignity with which she fills it. The late Count de Collowrat her Husband was Great Chamberlain of Bohemia, and one of the chief Noblemen of that Kingdom. This Lady, his Relict, is a Roman Catholic, and is such in an exemplary manner. Those Ladies who want to kiss the Queen's Hand, or to pay their Duty to her, must apply to this Lady, who introduces and presents them. She has the Precedence before all other Ladies, and only yields it to the Princesses of the Blood.

XIV. Of the Governess of the Ladies of Honour, and of the Ladies of Honour themselves. In the absence of the first Lady of Honour, the Governess of the Ladies officiates. The Baroness Dowager of Rohr worthily fills this Station, and has under her six Ladies, two of whom, viz. the Countesses of Waldstein and Kokersowitz, are Ladies of the Bed-Chamber, a Title which procures them Admittance to the Queen's Closet. All the Ladies of Honour must always appear in the Court-Dress. Their manner of Living is such that it obliges Calumny itself to respect them.

XV. Of the Lords and Ladies that are attach'd to the Court by their Offices, or by the Favours of the King.


Tho' the Polish Lords cannot be put upon the Establishment of the Court of Saxony, that there may be nothing in common between the two States, yet it may be thought inexcusable not to mention in this place John-Alexander Lipski, Bishop of Cracow, Duke of Servia, and Great Chancellor of Poland; not only because this Prelate, who is descended from one of the best Families in the Kingdom, was appointed Bishop of Cracow by the late King, but because he has given signal Proofs of his Gratitude and Attachment to the august Family of his Benefactor. The Virtues of this Gentleman intitle him to Respect: He is pious without Hypocrisy, generous without Ostentation, magnificent without Pageantry, officious meerly for the Pleasure of obliging, a Courtier without Servility, a Man strictly attach'd to his King and his Country, learned without being positive, a great Orator, a good Bishop, and a wise Minister, always ready to embrace a good Proposal, and firm to support it, laborious, vigilant, acting only out of Principle, and by consequence susceptible of Friendship, and scorning Revenge. The late King, out of his Esteem for the Qualities of this Prelate, made him Bishop of Cracow, Great Chancellor of Poland, and honour'd him with his Order of the White Eagle. By this means he so rivetted him to his Interest, and to that of the Prince his Son, that after his Majesty's Decease, his most Reverend Highness directed Affairs in such a manner that the Republic chose his Son for their King. Augustus II. being proclaim'd accordingly, the Prince and Bishop was appointed Head of the Embassy which the States of the Kingdom sent to the new Monarch at Tarnowitz, to carry him the Diploma of his Election. He spoke upon this occasion with a noble Eloquence, rendering to their Majesties all due Respects, and yet maintaining the Dignity of the most Serene150 Republic. Having discharg'd this Commission, he went before the King to Cracow, made his Entry there, and took possession of the Bishoprick. Some days after this, he consecrated and crown'd their Majesties in his Metropolis. When the King return'd to Saxony, the Prelate followed him, and attended him to Oliva; and 'twas he that receiv'd the Allegiance and Homage of the Dantzickers to his Majesty. He is since come hither to rejoin the Court, is belov'd, reverenc'd, and every one does Justice to his Virtues.

Charles-Lewis, Prince of Holstein-Beck, Colonel in the Service of the King, and Knight of the Order of the White Eagle, is the second Son of the late Lewis-Frederic Veldt-Marshal of Prussia, Governour of Koningsberg, and Knight of the Order of the Elephant. This Prince married Anne Countess of Orselska, the legitimated Daughter of the late King.

George-Ignatius, Prince de Lubomirski, Sword-Bearer of the Crown, Lieutenant-General of the King's Forces, Colonel of the Life-Guards, and Knight of the Order of the White Eagle, is descended from a Family of very great Distinction in Poland. After he return'd from his Travels, being attach'd to the Court of Augustus II. he married the Daughter of the Count de Fitztuhm, who was Great Chamberlain; a Lady of such Beauty, such personal Charms, and such fine Sense, that she engages the Veneration of all that know her. Prince Lubomirski is a jolly handsome Man, very polite, thinks and acts agreeable to his Birth, has a good share of Literature, and is perfect Master of Music. He lives in a handsome manner very suitable to his Rank.

The Princess of Teschen is a Polish Lady, and ally'd to the greatest Families in the Kingdom. Her Uncle was the famous Cardinal Radjowski, 151Archbishop of Gnesna, and Primate of the Kingdom. She was formerly marry'd to Prince Lubomirski, Great Chamberlain of the Crown; but the Marriage was dissolved, so that she quitted the Name of Lubomirski for that of Teschen, which she still bears, tho' she afterwards marry'd Prince Lewis of Wirtemberg. This Princess supports her Rank with Dignity, has a grand Air, is respected for a noble distinguish'd and engaging Behaviour, and lives in so handsome a manner, that she is one of the most shining Ornaments of this Court.

Josepha Countess de Lagnasco is the Daughter of the Count de Wallenstein, who was Great Chamberlain to the Emperor Joseph, and one of the most worthy Noblemen of the Imperial Court, by Eleonora Countess of Losenstein; a Lady whose Memory is with Justice rever'd by all Vienna. The Countess de Lagnasco was the Widow of Count Thaun, when she marry'd the late Count de Lagnasco, Minister of the Cabinet to Augustus II. General of the Saxon Cavalry, Captain of the Horse-Guards, and Knight of the Order of the White Eagle. Since that Nobleman's Decease, which was in April 1732, his Widow has always liv'd at Dresden; where she enjoys the Esteem of their Majesties, and the Veneration of the Courtiers. This Countess is Mistress of several Languages to Perfection, thoroughly understands Music, and sings with Grace and Method. Her noble generous way of living, and her graceful and distinguish'd Behaviour cannot be express'd, nor indeed equall'd to any thing but the Goodness of her Temper. The late Count de Lagnasco is of a good Stature, and his Behaviour polite and civil. I think you know that he was of a Family in Piedmont of some Distinction. How, or when he first enter'd into the Service of the King of Poland, I cannot tell you; but I know that he presently insinuated himself152 into his Master's Favour, by his very great Assiduity, agreeable Temper, and by a vast Complaisance to enter into his Pleasures. He establish'd himself so firmly in the King's Favour that the Count de Flemming look'd upon him as the only Rival he had to fear, and therefore he never much lik'd him. The Count de Lagnasco was employ'd in several Embassies; and when he had finish'd that at Rome, which was his last, there was a Talk that he was to go Ambassador to Vienna, and that the young Count de Wackerbart was to go to Rome. I must further acquaint you that M. de Lagnasco was happy in all respects, even in Marriage, not only with his first, but his second Wife, who, when he married her, was a young, rich, brisk Widow. His first Wife was the Daughter of the Count de Noyelles, Lieutenant-General in Holland, a Lady of great Virtue, esteemed by all the People at the Hague, and possess'd of a considerable Estate, of which, dying young, and without Issue, she made her Husband sole Heir.

Francis, Count de Montmorency, is a Name too well known to speak of his Extraction. He was a Colonel in France when he went into the Service of Augustus II. who receiv'd him with that Demonstration of Esteem which that King was so ready to grant to Persons of Merit. His Majesty first appointed him Major-General of his Forces, and some time after he declar'd him a Lieutenant-General, and Captain of his Horse-Guards. At that time the Count married Madame Potschin, Widow of the Great General of Lithuania; a Lady whose Birth, Qualities, and Fortune, recommended her for a very considerable Match. The Countess de Montmorency, in the time of her former Husband, went to Paris for the Recovery of her Health, and receiv'd extraordinary Honours at the French Court, where she was admir'd for her Politeness,153 the Delicacy of her Sentiments, and the Ease with which she express'd them in the Language of France; from whence they conceiv'd an advantagious Idea of the Court of Augustus II. not imagining how 'twas possible for the Manners of a Foreign Lady so much to resemble their own. She is also as much rever'd at Dresden as at Paris; and all that know her, agree she is highly to be valued for her Sentiments.

Antoinetta of Lichtenstein, Countess of Wallenstein, is Wife to Leopold Count de Wallenstein, heretofore Great Master of the Queen's Houshold; a Lady both belov'd and honour'd at this place, for her Virtues and civil Deportment; and as she is preparing to follow her Husband into Silesia, she will carry with her the Esteem of their Majesties, and leave the Court sorry for her Absence.

XVI. Of the Foreign Ministers who reside at this Court.

Francis-Charles Count de Wratislaw, one of the Emperor's Privy Council, and Knight of the Orders of Russia and Poland, resides at this Court in quality of Ambassador from his Imperial and Catholic Majesty. He is descended from one of the greatest Families in the Kingdom of Bohemia, and a Family which has given wise Ministers to the august House of Austria. This Gentleman has been for a long time in the Management of the most important Affairs: He was Ambassador for the Kingdom of Bohemia to the Dyet of the Empire at Ratisbon; From thence he went in the same Character to Poland, where he was present at the Dyet of Grodno. The Emperor afterwards nam'd him Great Master of the Houshold to the Princess Royal and Electoral, now Queen of Poland. The Count having worthily acquitted himself of that Office, was for several Years Ambassador154 at Russia, where he concluded that happy Alliance subsisting between the two Empires, and acquired the Esteem of the Empress, who honor'd him with her Order of St. Andrew; Augustus II. having before given him that of the White Eagle.

This Minister, since his Return from Muscovy, has moreover been charg'd by the Emperor with important Commissions to the Courts of Prussia, Brunswic, and Holstein. At length he is come back again to this Court, as Ambassador from his Imperial and Catholic Majesty; and officiates also as Great Master of the Queen's Houshold. This Nobleman is of a middling Stature, of a happy Physiognomy, is civil, beneficent, and loves Grandeur and Pleasures, but does not abandon himself to them so far as to neglect the Interests of his Master, whose Affairs he negociates with a noble Candour which has render'd him as much esteem'd at the Courts where he has resided, as he is beloved for his Affability and Politeness. His Wife is the Countess of Kinski, whose Father was Great Chancellor of Bohemia, under the Emperor Leopold, and whose Brother is now in that Office under the most August Charles VI.

Hermann-Charles Keyserling, Plenipotentiary Minister from the Empress of the Russians, is of a Family of Note in Courland. He study'd at Koningsberg in Prussia. After he had visited the principal Courts of Germany, and return'd to his own Country, he was made Gentleman of the Bed-Chamber to the Dutchess of Courland, Anne of Muscovy, the present Empress, who employ'd him in several Commissions to the Courts of Prussia and Poland. Nevertheless he quitted her Service for one of the judicial Offices in that Country.

When Anne came to the Throne, the States of Courland deputed M. Keyserling to that Princess,155 who offer'd him an Employment at her Court, and appointed him Vice-President of the Chamber of Justice of the Russian Empire. Some time after, she made him President of the Academy of Sciences at Petersbourg, and sent him to this Court, where he discharges his Ministerial Office with universal Approbation. The Wife of this Minister is the Daughter of the Starost Forchs, who, for opposing the Pretensions of a certain Power which challeng'd more Respect, was assassinated at Mittaw. Both he and his Lady are of the Lutheran Communion.

John-Hartwig-Ernest, Baron of Bernsdorff, Gentleman of the Bed-Chamber to the King of Denmark, and his Majesty's Envoy at this Court, is of a Family which is possess'd of a fine Estate in Mecklembourg, and has given an able Minister to the House of Hanover. The Envoy, of whom mention is here made, does honour to his Character, and behaves with a Prudence not inferior to Ministers of the greatest Experience.

By the Detail I have now given you, Sir, you must have observ'd that the chief Employments of the Court are in the hands of Foreigners, and that Saxons have little to do in Affairs of State, for which they are oblig'd indeed to the Count de Flemming. This vain, haughty, and imperious Minister expected every one shou'd truckle to him. He found that Foreigners were much more submissive than the Saxons, who are by nature stately, and Enemies to Slavery in any shape. Count Flemming being dead, it's probable that the Saxons will be more employ'd than they have been; and indeed they have Capacities equal to any Nation in the World. They are well made, robust, agile, laborious, good Soldiers, cunning Courtiers. They have naturally more Spirit than the French allow to the Germans; they improve in the Sciences, and156 in bodily Exercises, and they have good Writers among them upon all sorts of Subjects; witness the Works of M. Leibnitz, the famous Philosopher, and of Thomasius, one of the most able Civilians of his time. The Saxons are addicted indeed to all Pleasures in general, but to none so much as the Bottle and Gaming. They love Pomp and Expence, and are naturally not very engaging, being exceeding ceremonious, and affecting more than all the Germans to ape the French, with whom they sympathise very much, particularly in their Fondness for new Fashions, their Forwardness to make new Acquaintance and Friendships, and perhaps too in their Readiness to fall out with them upon very trivial Occasion.

Since I have spoke so much of the Men, I must also give you some account of the Saxon Women. They are all of a fair Complexion, and there are among them the finest Faces in the World. They are generally well shap'd too, which is what they are chiefly taken notice of for: They are tall and slender; they dance well, and have a surprising genteel Air, which they take great care to improve by rich Dress. One Fault I find with them is, that they are very affected, and that they have too much Action when they talk. As to their Tempers, they are reckon'd to be good-natur'd; but then they are subtile and crafty. They love Dress and Ornament more than all Women that I ever saw. They are lively and gay, and passionately fond of Dancing and Merriment. When they are told that they are handsome, they are so far from being surpriz'd that they look upon it as a Compliment due to them. When once they love, they love with Tenderness; and there are among them such Examples of Constancy as would eclipse even a Cleopatra, or a Clelia. These heroic Sentiments of Love they learn from Romances, which they are157 vastly fond of: But this must be said to their Honour, that Gallantry does not take up so much of their Time and Thoughts as to make them neglect their Business; for they are laborious, dextrous, and amuse themselves with all sorts of Work. They do every thing too with a good Grace; and in a word it may be added to their Praise, that a Saxon Woman wants nothing more to make her amiable, but an Inclination to acquire that Character.

Pleasures and Recreations commonly attend the Ladies so closely, that in treating of the one I can't but remember the other; and the Inhabitants of Dresden are so much devoted to Pleasures, that I think I ought to put them into a separate Article. When the King is at Dresden there are Pleasures in abundance, such as Plays, Masquerades, Balls, Feasts, Running at the Ring, and Races on Sleds, Turnaments, Hunting-Matches; but when the King is in Poland there's a very great Vacuum. The Electoral Prince and Princess are often at Wermstorff, alias Hubertsbourg; and even when their Royal Highnesses are in Town, they are pretty retir'd: They see Company while they are at Dinner, but for the rest of the day none come near them besides the few that have the honour of their Confidence. The rest are scatter'd up and down the Town to the great Disappointment of Foreigners that happen then to be here; for there's no body keeps open House, they being all select Societies to which 'tis very difficult to gain admittance. If one is invited to dine with some Lord of the Court, one has a good Dinner 'tis true, but after Dinner is over a Man knows not how to bestow himself. One is sure of finding Company no where except at the Houses of Madame de Brebentau the Widow of the great Treasurer of Poland, and of the Countess de Lagnasco; nor are their Houses always open, for Madame de Brebentau is158 often sick, and Madame de Lagnasco often abroad, or engag'd in Parties with the Electoral Princess, and then one knows not where to go; for there's no Play to be seen, and as for the young People, they amuse themselves with the common Pleasures of that Stage of Life; they drink, they game, and do something more.

When the King is at Dresden, the People partake in most of the Pleasures of the Court, the generality of the Entertainments which the King gives being public. Plays and Masquerades are free for any People of Fashion; there's nothing to pay, and all divert themselves as they like best. The Citizens Wives are more tractable here than in any Town in Germany: They love to imitate the Ladies of Quality, and 'tis sometimes as good as a Comedy to see what Airs they give themselves.

They are extremely fond of Dressing, which Luxurious Taste extends even to Wives of the Mechanics, and of the Livery; so that were a Stranger to come hither on a Sunday or a Holiday, when every body is dress'd, he wou'd be tempted to think that Plutus had scatter'd all his Wealth among these People; and a very great Nobleman, who 'tis like was not acquainted with the God Plutus, returning home once from Dresden, told his Wife that he was come from a City to which the Devil had carry'd all the Money.

The Parsons here do indeed cry aloud against these Abuses, but the worst on't is, that like the Clergy in many other Places, they preach what they don't practise; and while they are declaiming against Luxury and new Fashions, they suffer their Wives and Daughters to be the first to set off their Charms with the gayest and the newest Patterns.

While I am speaking of the Pastors, I must be a little more particular. These Gentlemen stand very high in the Opinion of the Laity, and are 159ready to think themselves Bishops. Having such Notions as these in their Heads, they anathematise all that are not Lutherans: The Catholics and the Reform'd, or, to speak as they do, the Papists and Calvinists, all Christians in short who are of a contrary Opinion to those charitable Ecclesiastics are damn'd without Mercy. Yet by the Appearance of these severe Judges, one would think they preach'd only Peace and Paradise; and they have such a meek, humble, modest, and timorous Air, that you wou'd be apt to take them for Saints.

A few days ago I had an Adventure with one of those Clergymen, which I will acquaint you of, because I think it may give you an Idea of their Character; for he that sees one of them, sees all.

I happen'd to be making a Visit to a Lutheran Lady, who passes for a very devout one: There was already a pretty deal of Company, and who should come in to add to it but a Minister that was a Doctor, and by consequence a Man of Importance; as such too he was receiv'd by the Mistress of the House, who said to me as soon as she saw his Face, You will now see a holy Man. The good Man, or Saint, as he wou'd be reckon'd, enter'd the Room with his Eyes cast downward, making profound Reverences, and prostrating himself in such a manner as if he had said Domine non sum dignus. At last, after a great many Compliments, he sat down, was silent for a few Moments, and then he spoke. His Words were all sacred, and his Sentences such as if the wise Man himself had spoke with his Lips: God be prais'd was in every Phrase, and he was hearken'd to with as much Attention as an Oracle. I listen'd to him first like the rest, but at length I thought I might as well talk to a pretty young Lady that sat just by me. The Doctor offended to see the little Regard I paid to what he said, enquir'd of the Mistress of the House who I was.160 She told him my Name, and withal that I was once a Calvinist, but that I was turn'd Papist. What a Thunder-stroke was this to the Doctor! He threw himself to the back of his Chair, lifted up his Eyes to Heaven, sigh'd, and cry'd out, Das Gott erbarme, i. e. God help us. Then transported by a Fit of Zeal, he turn'd about to me and ask'd me what had induc'd me to embrace a Religion which he treated as Idolatry? I told him that I did not think he need to give himself any Trouble about my Conversion, since according to his System I was damn'd when a Calvinist as well as when a Catholic. The Case is not quite the same, said the Minister; but to turn Papist! cry'd he, to adore Baal! to become a Disciple of Antichrist! alas! it were better to be a damn'd Calvinist! I own that I had much ado to help laughing outright at the Minister's impertinent Zeal: yet I had the Discretion to contain myself, for I had a mind to see to what length he wou'd carry his sanctify'd Rant. He said indeed a great deal, and because I made no Answer, he thought he had convinc'd me, if not touch'd me to the quick. He was actually applauding himself for the good Work he had wrought upon my Soul, when I told him that he ought not to conclude from my Silence that he had convinc'd me; that it neither consisted with my Character nor my Temper to dispute about Religion, that I left every Man to his own Opinion, and that I knew which to adhere to. What Blindness is here! cry'd the Doctor again, What a mad Papist are you? If you will not be of our Communion, return to the Religion which you have abandon'd, in which there are some Hopes at least that God will pardon you.

The fanatical Doctor concluded his Exclamations by a Prayer, in which he begg'd God to preserve every good Lutheran Soul from the Errors of 161Popery; and then he went away, leaving the Company more scandaliz'd than edify'd by his Zeal.

Formerly the Preachers had the pleasure of venting their Choler in the Pulpit, but the King by a wise Decree, which indeed ought to be followed in all Countries, has confin'd them to the Preaching of the Gospel, and to treat of Controversial Matters no farther than is merely necessary for the People's Instruction. For the rest, the Parsons need not fear being soon supplanted, for the Saxons are hearty Lutherans; and if they tolerate the Catholics, 'tis because they can't help it. They have excluded them from Offices in the Courts of Judicature, and from the Privilege of enjoying Lands; but they have not been able to keep them out of Places in the Ministry, or at Court, nor from Employments in the Army, which are three very engaging Articles to make Proselytes among the Gentry.

Thus, Sir, you have all that I can say to you relating to Dresden and Saxony. 'Tis now high time to put an end to my Legend. I kiss your hand, and am, &c.





SIR,Weimar, Sept. 5, 1729.  

Before I write you an account of what became of me when I left Dresden, I shall endeavour to give you the Intelligence you desire concerning the late Count de Flemming, Prime Minister and Velt-Marshal of Saxony. That Nobleman was of a good Extraction, being descended of a Family which pretends to derive its Origin from that of Flemming, which has been of considerable Rank for a long time in Scotland, Sweden, Germany, and Poland. My Lord Wigtoun is the Chief of that Family in Scotland.

James-Henry Count de Flemming, whose Pourtraiture and Character you desire of me, was born the 8th of March 1667. His Father was President of the Regency of Stargard, the Capital of Prussian Pomerania, who had three Sons, of whom this Count was the second. He had an Education suitable to his Birth. He study'd first at Francfort upon the Oder, and afterwards at Utrecht under the celebrated Grevius, where he learnt Latin to such a degree that he always spoke it with very great Eloquence. After he had finish'd his Studies he enter'd into the Service of Brandenbourg, where the Baron de Span, his Uncle by the Mother's side, was Velt-Marshal. His first Preferment was to a Pair of Colours; but in a little time he had a Company given him, which he commanded at the Battle of Orbassan in Piedmont. In 1694, he enter'd as a 163Lieutenant-Colonel into the Service of John-George IV. Elector of Saxony; upon whose Death, and the Succession of Frederic-Augustus, Flemming obtain'd a Regiment, and accompany'd the new Elector into Hungary, where he commanded the Emperor's Army against the Infidels during the Campaigns of 1695, and 1696. There it was that Flemming kill'd in a Duel the Baron de Lovel, who was Lieutenant-Colonel in the Service of Saxony. In 1697, he was sent into Poland, where, by the Interest of his Cousin-german, the Daughter of Velt-Marshal Span of Berlin, Wife of M. Brebentau Palatine of Marienbourg, who died Great Treasurer of Poland, and by the Credit of Benedict Sapieha he had the Happiness of getting his Master chose King of Poland. This Negotiation obtain'd him the Post of Major-General, and laid the Foundation of his Fortune. In 1700, he was made a Lieutenant-General, and in that Quality laid siege to Riga, which the King of Sweden oblig'd him to raise. In 1702, he marry'd Sapieha, a Daughter of one of the chief Noblemen of Lithuania. He was wounded the same Year at the Battle of Clischhoff, at which time the King of Sweden being every where victorious, demanded that the King of Poland shou'd deliver up Flemming to him. But upon this he retir'd to Brandenbourg, till King Stanislaus had made Charles XII. easy. Flemming being return'd to Saxony, fought a Duel with M. de Schulembourg, who giving him a Fall, insisted that he should beg his Life; but Flemming got out of this ugly Scrape by a scurvy Joke, and Schulembourg gave him his Life. The latter was a younger Lieutenant-General than Flemming, but in every respect his Rival, and wou'd have been a Marshal if his Fortune had been as good as his Valour. At the Battle of Frauenstad in 1705, where he was defeated by the Swedes, Schulembourg quitted164 the Service of Saxony and went into that of Venice. By this means Flemming, who had now no Rival left, was made a Marshal, and happen'd to be at Dresden when the King of Sweden made that strange Visit to the King of Poland; at which time, if Augustus had been as ungenerous as Flemming, Charles wou'd have been detain'd. Many People accuse Flemming of having persuaded the King his Master to deliver up Patkul: This I can't pretend to affirm, but that there was a mortal Antipathy betwixt him and the Minister of Russia is certain; for the latter having presented a Memorial to the King of Poland, setting forth the wretched condition of the Muscovite Troops in the Pay of Saxony, concluded it with these Latin Words,

Dixi, et Salvavi Animam.

Which Memorial, when Flemming had read, and found himself not very well used in it, he took a Pen and underwrote these Words,

Maledixisti, et Damnaberis.

After the Disaster which Charles XII. met with near Pultowa, Flemming contributed very much to the Re-establishment of King Augustus in Poland. He confirm'd the Alliance betwixt his Master and the Czar, made Peace with the Confederates, and concluded another Alliance with Denmark. The Czar and the King of Denmark honour'd him with their Orders of Knighthood, and he had that of Poland before. He went Ambassador to the unsuccessful Congress at Brunswic, and was afterwards at Hanover to attend George I. King of Great Britain. When the King of Sweden return'd to Pomerania, Flemming left no Stone unturn'd to draw the King of Prussia into his Master's Alliance. He had some Years before procur'd him the Sequestration of the Town of Stetin, and 'twas lucky enough165 for him that the Pride and Obstinacy of the King of Sweden obliged the King of Prussia to declare himself his Enemy. At that time Flemming was rather a Courier between Dresden, Berlin, and Warsaw, than an Ambassador and Prime Minister, which Dignity he enjoy'd after the Death of the Prince de Furstemberg his Predecessor. When the Peace of the North was settled, Flemming went Ambassador to Vienna, where he concluded the Marriage of the Electoral Prince of Saxony with the Archduchess, eldest Daughter to the Emperor Joseph, tho' the Contract had been settled before by the Count de Wackerbarth, who it may be said had the Pains to negotiate it, and Flemming the Glory of finishing it.

At this time Count Flemming had resign'd all the Salaries of his Employments in Saxony, and only reserv'd to himself the private Perquisites and the Franchise of the Post-Offices; and his Journeys, which were very frequent, were all at the Expence of the King. It was about this time that he caus'd his Marriage with Sapieha to be dissolv'd, and marry'd one Radzevil, by whom he had a Son, who was but a Year and a half old when the Count died at Vienna, to which place he was return'd with the Character of Ambassador. He left all his Estate to this Child, without making any Intail on his Family; so that when this Son died, who did not long survive him, his Estate went to Madame de Flemming, who by marrying again carry'd the Bulk of it into another Family. They say that his Inheritance was worth sixteen Millions of Crowns, exclusive of what he had expended during the Splendor of his Fortune, which lasted thirty Years, or thereabouts. Whether Richelieu and Mazarine got greater Estates, I cannot say; but in Germany there is not an Instance of one sooner acquir'd, more resplendent, and better supported than his was. He was Prime Minister, Velt-Marshal of166 Saxony, and Master of the Horse of Lithuania; by which Offices he gain'd immense Sums. He made considerable Purchases in Silesia and Poland, but very little in Saxony. Whether he left any thing to the King is not said; tho' he ought really to have made him some Restitution, and he might naturally have given up with a good Grace what he cou'd not but foresee wou'd be taken by force from his Heir. As it was just that his Succession shou'd pass thro' the Purgatory of a Chambre Ardente, the King establish'd one, which 'tis said has adjudg'd eight Millions to his Majesty, and the same to his Widow; which is a very fair Dividend.

Count Flemming was taller than ordinary, but a handsome Man; he had very regular Features, a lively Eye, a disdainful Sneer, a haughty Air, and he was really proud, and beyond measure ambitious. He was generous to a degree of Ostentation, and always aim'd to do something to be talk'd of. He was vigilant, laborious, indefatigable, allow'd himself little Sleep; and whenever he took a Debauch, a Nap of two Hours set him to rights again. It was no more for him to go from a Debauch to Business, than from Business to a Debauch; and he never fatigu'd himself, but dispatch'd the greatest Affairs with so much Ease as if they were only a Diversion. He lov'd to banter, but did not always make use of the Terms suitable to his Character; and Persons who did not dare to answer him again, were commonly the Butts of his Raillery. He was polite when he had a mind to it, but in the general Course of his Behaviour he carry'd an Air fitter for a Captain of Dragoons than for a Marshal and a Prime Minister. He never did a thing for any body without some View; he scrupl'd neither Cunning nor even Perjury, and provided he could gain his Ends, all ways were alike fair to him. All his Life-time he took care to do his own Business167 first, and then his Master's the King's; and I question whether I do him any Injustice if I say that he was the King of Prussia's Minister, much more than the King of Poland's.

This, Sir, is all that I have to say to you concerning Count Flemming. I have told you very nakedly what I always thought of him, and I don't believe that I have mistaken his Character. Be this as it will, my Decision is of too little weight to do either Good or Harm; the Publick will always judge of him according to their best Information. I proceed now with the Narrative of my Travels.

After I had set out from Dresden I went to Altenbourg in hopes of finding the Court of Gotha there, which I had been told, intended to spend the Remainder of the fine Season there; but it was set out the Night before for Gotha, where I hope to see it to-morrow.

The City of Altenbourg is the Capital of a County of that Name, of which the Duke of Saxe-Gotha is the Sovereign. This Prince has a Palace there which makes a handsome appearance, but I shall say nothing more of it because I neglected to go and see it. The Peasants of the County of Altenbourg are the richest in Germany, and may almost vye with those of Holland. I have been assur'd that some of them have given 20 or 30000 Crowns in Marriage with their Daughters; and like the Dutch Peasants, they take care to match them to none but the Sons of substantial Farmers.

As I left Altenbourg I came upon a fine Causey with a Row of Trees on each side, which brought me to the Frontiers of the County. I afterwards fell into very bad Roads all the way to Leipsic, where I stay'd but a very few Hours, and proceeded the same day to Mersebourg. This City was much more considerable formerly than now. It was the168 See of a Bishop, but was seculariz'd by the Treaty of Passaw in favour of the House of Saxony. Its Situation is charming, with Gardens and Meadows all round it, and its Walls are wash'd by the River Sala. The great Church which was formerly a Cathedral is a Gothic Building, where there is a stately Tomb of the Emperor Rodolph of Schwartzbourg, who died after he had lost one Hand in a Battle he fought with the Emperor Henry IV. with whom he was Competitor. This Prince a few Moments before he expir'd, took up his Hand that was cut off, and holding it up to those who were about him, said to them, Behold this Hand; 'tis the same that I lifted up when I promis'd Faith and Allegiance to my Emperor and Lord; but by your Advice and Instigation I have not kept my Promise to him, for which you will one day give an account to God. Some time after this unfortunate Prince's Death, the Emperor Henry IV. coming to Mersebourg and taking a view of Rodolphus's Tomb, of which he admir'd the Magnificence, certain Flatterers told him that the Tomb ought to be destroy'd as too pompous for a Rebel; but the Emperor scorning such a pitiful Revenge, made answer, Wou'd to God that all my Enemies were thus pompously interr'd.

The City of Mersebourg is the Residence of a Duke of the House of Saxony, who is Sovereign of all the Country that formerly constituted the Bishoprick, which enables him to keep a splendid Court[71]. The next day after my Arrival I had the Honour to pay him my Compliments, and had a very satisfactory Reception. The Prince conducted me into a Hall which was hung with Bass-Viols from the Bottom to the Top, in the same manner as an Arsenal is with Helmets and Breast-Plates. In the middle of the Hall there was a Viol which was169 distinguish'd from the rest. It reach'd up to the very Cieling, and there was a Ladder set, which such as had the Curiosity to take a particular View of it were oblig'd to ascend, for surely it was the most stately Instrument of the kind that ever was made. The Duke made me take particular notice of it, and was pleas'd with the Admiration which I express'd of it. He regal'd me also with some Airs upon another Bass-Viol which he call'd his Favorite, and which was but one fourth part as big as the other.

After this Concert I din'd with the Duke and Duchess. This Princess is the Daughter of the late Prince of Nassau-Idstein, than whom there cannot be a more amiable Lady. She has an Air of Mildness, Goodness and Prudence diffused over all her Features; and her Wit is of the same Stamp as her Beauty, amiable without Parade and Ostentation. Some of her Courtiers assur'd me, that her Mind is as charming as her Person. If that be true, which I am loth to doubt of, this Princess deserves a more splendid Fortune than what she enjoys.

After Dinner, I was one at a Match of Quadrille with the Duchess, and at night there was dancing, and I never saw any body dance with a better Grace than this Princess. The Ball held till the Night was far advanced, when there was a grand Supper, which was no sooner over than I took leave of the Duke and Duchess and retir'd to my Quarters, with a design to set out in a few Hours and proceed in my Journey. At my Lodging I found a Gentleman from the Duke, who said to me, 'That as he was passing by he saw my Men packing up my things, and that therefore he came in purely to wish me a good Journey. He assured me that he had a secret Kindness for me; that I might safely take his Word; that he was Sincerity it self; and that he wish'd 500000 Devils might twist his Neck if he was not heartily my Friend:170 And to give you proofs of it, said he, I will treat you with some Trifle, such as a Dram of Anniseed, Orange-Water, or Ratasia. Upon my word my Apothecary has what is choice good; he lives but at the end of the Street; Come, I will shew you the way to his House.'

While he harangu'd me in this manner he reel'd, being so drunk that he cou'd not stand. I thank'd him therefore for his Love, and told him that I did not drink Drams, but that if he had a mind to any Liquor of that sort, I would send for some for him; and I bid my Landlord fetch it. The Apothecary, as ill luck would have it, was not yet got up. 'Soho, here, said my new Friend, there is nothing to drink but Aquavitæ; here, Landlord, a Glass of Brandy, Pipes and Tobacco. You must have something, said he, to be doing.' Every thing he call'd for being brought, my Gentleman drank two or three Glasses of Brandy, and smoak'd as many Pipes of Tobacco. I hoped to see him tumble down, and by consequence to get rid of him, when he took it into his head to call for some Dishes of Tea that I had order'd to be made for my self, and which made him so sober that he recover'd his Reason. I laid hold of this happy Interval (for I heard him calling out for Brandy, which I apprehended would occasion a Relapse) and talk'd to him about his Master's Bass-Viols; upon which, without much Intreaty, he said to me, 'You know, Sir, that every Man almost has his particular Whim, Princes as well as private Persons. One is an Admirer of Magnificence, another of Troops, and a third of Mistresses. As for my august Master, his Fancy runs only on Bass-Viols, and whoever sollicits him for an Employment or any other Favour, can't do better than to accommodate his Arsenal with one of these Instruments. That very large one, said he, which you saw in the Room where all his Viols are, was 171presented to him by one who wanted to be a Privy-Counsellor; his Petition was granted, and had he ask'd for any thing else he might have had it.' This officious Gentleman told me a great many other Particulars which let me into the very Chronicle of the Court of Mersebourg; but I don't trouble you with it, because the Truth is not to be told at all times.

My Equipage being ready, I set out for Naumbourg, where I arrived at Noon. This City was formerly the See of a Bishop. Its ancient Cathedral is still standing, and tho' Lutheran, has a Chapter and Canons who must prove their Nobility both by the Father's side and Mother's side, by sixteen Descents. When this Bishoprick was seculariz'd it was said that no Catholic Prince could ever be possess'd of this State. Therefore when the last Duke of Saxe-Zeits, Administrator of Naumbourg, turn'd Catholic, the King of Poland as eldest of the Saxon Family and Executor of the Pacta or Conventions made between the Princes of that Family, took possession of Naumbourg. The Duke's being reconciled to the Lutheran Communion was to no purpose, the King did not restore his Dominions to him, but still possesses them, tho' he is more a Catholic than the Duke of Zeits perhaps ever was. You know that this Prince has left a Nephew who wou'd have been his Heir, if he had not been a Catholic and a Priest. This is the Prince who, I acquainted you from Dresden, was Bishop of Konigsgratz in Bohemia. He was born a Lutheran, as are all those of his Family. His Uncle the Cardinal of Saxe, Brother to the Duke of Zeits, made him embrace the Roman Catholic Religion when he was very young, and afterwards persuaded him to enter into Ecclesiastical Orders, by which step he deprived his Nephew of the glorious Prerogative of being a Sovereign Prince, and transferred his172 Rights to the King of Poland his distant Cousin.

Naumbourg is famous for its Fairs, which next to those of Leipsic, are the most considerable in Saxony. The Suburbs of this City are almost all Vineyards; but why, I know not, for the Wine is so detestably bad, that they give it away in a manner for nothing.

Finding nothing at Naumbourg which was worth my while to stay there for, I only chang'd Horses and came hither. As one approaches this Place, we meet with Corn-Fields and Hop-Grounds instead of Vines, and the Country rises into Hills, so that one does not see the Town of Weimar till we are just upon it. The City, which is not more considerable than Naumbourg, is the Residence of the Duke of Saxe-Weimar, who has a Palace here which does not want for Magnificence, and tho' unfinish'd, has an air of Grandeur. The Connoisseurs in Architecture highly extol the grand Stair-Case there, which two Persons may ascend and descend at the same time without meeting one another, and yet always keeping each other in view. It consists of two Flights of Stairs upon one Spindle, laid one over the other in the same Well of a square Form. The Curious who have observ'd it, admire it, because there are few such to be seen.

The great Hall which is an oval, is beautiful, but not lightsome enough. There are the Pictures of all the Dukes of Saxe-Weimar at full length, from the first Duke that ever was down to the Father of the present. They are all drawn on Horseback, and done by no mean Hand.

In the same Palace is the Duke's Library, which tho' not very large, consists of sundry scarce Books. 'Tis open twice a week, when the Curious are not only permitted to peruse them, but even to borrow them, upon leaving a Note with the Librarian.


The Duke of Weimar spends very little Time in his Capital, but commonly resides at a Seat which he has caus'd to be built about a League out of Town. He has given it the Name of Belle-Vue, because of the fine Prospect which it commands from the Apartments of the first Story. The House is small and not very commodious, so that the chief Beauty of it is its Situation, which is very charming. The Gardens which are begun upon very good Plans will be beautiful when finish'd, as well as the Pheasant-Walk and Menagerie where there are Turkeys and all sorts of Fowl.

The Duke of Weimar's Name is Ernest-Augustus: He is the eldest of the Ernestine Branch which lost the Electorate when Charles V. was Emperor. He marry'd a Princess of Anhalt-Cothen, who I have been told, was a Lady of distinguish'd Merit. She died and left him a Son and three Daughters.

The young Prince is about ten Years of age[72]. He can neither hear nor pronounce well, and is withal of a very tender Constitution. The Physicians say it signifies nothing, and that as he grows up he will acquire a Freedom of Speech. But I question it, and am apt to think rather that those Disciples of Æsculapius will send him into the other World. The only Hopes of any Male Issue of Weimar are founded upon this Child. The Duke of Saxe-Eysenach who is the next a-kin has no Children; so that the Dominions of Weimar and Eysenach too are ready to devolve to the Family of Saxe-Gotha. The Duke of Weimar's Subjects teaze him very much to marry, but the Prince does not seem to be in a Humour to satisfy them; for I have often heard him say that he can't bear the mention of Marriage.


No body presumes to go to Belle-Vue without being sent for, except only on Mondays when poor People are permitted to go thither with their Petitions which they deliver to the Secretary, and he gives them to the Duke. Persons of Quality, whether Foreigners or others, that have a mind to speak with the Duke, apply for it to the Marshal of the Court, but are seldom admitted to an Audience.

The Duke has rarely any other Company at Belle-Vue but two young Ladies whom he calls his Maids of Honour, and three young Women, Citizens Daughters, who go by the Name of his Chamber-Maids; a Major of his Troops, and the Officer of his Guard, who is a Lieutenant or an Ensign. I had forgot to mention the Baron de Bruhl, who is the Duke's Favourite and his Master of the Horse.

'Tis with these Persons that the Prince passes his Time. He wakes early in the Morning, but makes it late before he rises; for he takes his Tea in Bed, and sometimes plays on the Violin. At other times he sends for his Architects and Gardeners, with whom he amuses himself in drawing of Plans. His Ministers also come to him while he is in Bed to talk upon Business. About Noon he gets up, and as soon as he is dress'd, sees his Guard mount, which consists of 33 Men, commanded by a Lieutenant or an Ensign. He exercises his Soldiers himself, and corrects them too when they commit any Fault. This done he takes the Air, and at two or three o'clock sits down to Table, where the two Maids of Honour, the Master of the Horse, the Major, the Officer of the Guard, and even Foreigners if any happen to be there, are of the Company. The Dinner holds a long while, and 'tis sometimes three, four, and five Hours before they rise from Table. The Glass never stands still hardly, and the Duke talks a great deal, but the Conversation is commonly on Subjects that are not very agreeable. When Dinner is over they drink175 Coffee, after which the Duke retires for a few Minutes, and then plays at Quadrille with his two young Ladies and the Major; but sometimes he does nothing but smoak Tobacco, and he often retires to his Chamber where he amuses himself with Drawing or else playing on the Violin till he goes to Bed.

There scarce a Week passes but the Duke gives an Invitation at least once or twice to all the Persons of Quality of the Court, and all the Officers of his Troops, at which time there are two great Tables spread, where they dine, play, sup, and afterwards dance till next Day.

The Duke's Troops consist of a Battalion of 700 Men, a Squadron of 180 Troopers, and a Company of Cadets on horseback. His Infantry consists of pick'd Men. Since the famous Bernard de Weimar who was Pensioner to Lewis XIII. King of France, no Duke of Weimar had so many Troops, and really they must be chargeable to the Duke whose Revenues 'tis said don't exceed 400000 Crowns. This Prince has made a Treaty with the King of Poland, whereby he engages to assist the King with his Battalion whenever his Majesty thinks it necessary for his Service; in which Case the King promises to give that Battalion the same Pay as he does his own Troops. Mean time the Duke is obliged to clothe them all according to the Pattern which is sent to him from Dresden; and indeed their Clothes are very rich, especially those of the Officers and Cadets, which are so bedaub'd with Gold and Silver Lace, that a Foreigner who comes to Weimar cannot but admire it.

The Duke's Family is very numerous, for besides the Prince his Son and the three Princesses his Daughters, he has a Sister, and a Mother-in-law, who is a Princess of Hesse-Hombourg: Mean time he176 has a numerous Court, and may boast that some of them are Persons of very great Merit.

The Gentleman who is at the Head of Affairs is the Baron de Reinbabe, who has the Title of President of the Council of State. He is a Person of a good Family, in Silesia, has very great Abilities, and withal so much Good-nature and Modesty as are seldom to be met with. When he was young he travell'd very much abroad, where he learnt what was valuable in every Country that he came to. He speaks several Languages well, is a great Historian, a learned Civilian, and a good Poet. Notwithstanding the Business that goes thro' his Hands, and his Care of a numerous Family, he is always almost at his Studies, and never better pleas'd than when he is in his Library; yet he is no Enemy to Pleasures, but enjoys them without abandoning himself to them, and takes them as they fall in his way without pursuing 'em. To finish his Character I will add what was said of him by a Prince who knew him intimately: If Probity was intirely lost in the rest of Mankind, said he to me, I think I shou'd be sure to find it again in the Baron de Reinbabe.

The Baron de Schmiedel is Marshal of the Court and Director of the military Chest. He is a Person of great Piety, whose Aspect is not indeed the most engaging, yet a very good Man to have to do with. He is a sincere Friend, loves to do a kind Thing, is exact in the Duties of his Offices, an Enemy to Vice, and very much attach'd to the Interests of his Master, tho' he does not always please him because he has not the Talent of Dissimulation so necessary at Courts.

The Baron de Studenitz a Silesian is a Privy-Counsellor, and President of the Chamber. He was formerly in the Service of the Duke of Saxe-Barbi, and afterwards he enter'd into that of the Duke of Saxe-Hilburgshausen, whose Finances he177 directed for several Years, in which he acquired a Reputation, and came to Weimar where he was continued in the same Employment. He is a Gentleman of very great Learning and Integrity, and having travell'd a long time in his Youth, very well knows how to carry himself.

M. de Hering is of a noble Family in the Country of Anhalt-Cothen. He is the Duke's Aulic Counsellor, a Gentleman of Worth, and both Learned and Polite. He is on the point of leaving this Court, which will be a Loss to the Duke that he will not easily repair.

M. de Bruhl the Duke's Master of the Horse and Favourite, is a Saxon. His Birth, good Qualities, and especially his sweet Temper render him very worthy of a Sovereign's Favour. Yet I doubt whether, notwithstanding so much Merit, he has a firm Footing in the Duke's Friendship; he has too much Candor, too much Sincerity, and is too zealous to do Services; and perhaps also too much attach'd to the Interests and Honour of his Master: for tho' these Qualities have the Appearance of Virtues, yet they are sometimes Errors in the Eyes of Princes.

Thus, Sir, have I given you the Names of the most distinguish'd Persons at the Court of Weimar. I set out to-morrow for Gotha. I hope for a Line from you at Wurtzbourg, and don't propose to write again to you till I know whether you are living or dead.

I am, &c.




SIR,Gotha, Sept. 9, 1732.  

I set out from Weimar at 5 o'clock in the Morning, and by eight was at Erfurt, where I walk'd about an Hour, and came at Noon to Gotha.

'Tis all a flat Country abounding with Corn. In time of Rain the Roads are so bad that sometimes it takes up a whole Day to come from Erfurt to Gotha. Erfurt is a City belonging to the Elector of Mentz, is the Capital of Thuringia, and may be rank'd among those of the second Class in Germany. Its Inhabitants are almost all Lutherans, yet the principal Churches belong to the Catholics. Erfurt is fortified with good Ramparts, and by a Castle on a Hill which absolutely commands the Town. There is always a good Garison in the Place, which consists of the Emperor's Soldiers and those of Mentz; and the Elector has a Governor here with the Title of Stadtholder, who presides in the Regency.

Gotha, which is not near so big as Erfurt, is a City situate in the middle of a fine fruitful Plain, so that which way soever one approaches it, one always perceives the Castle or Palace of the Duke, which stands on an Eminence by itself, and has a Prospect of a vast Extent of Country. This Castle, which is one of the biggest in Germany, was built by Ernest Duke of Gotha, surnamed the Pious; who179 caused both that and the Town to be encompassed with Ditches and Ramparts. To the Glory of this Prince, he undertook and finished these Great Works, at a time when Germany was so impoverished by intestine Wars that few of its Princes were able to erect Palaces[73].

As of all the Saxon Princes of the Ernestine Branch, the Duke of Gotha is the most powerful, so his Court is of all the Saxon Courts next to that of Dresden, the most Numerous and the most Magnificent.


Nevertheless the Subjects of the Duke of Gotha[74] are the least burthen'd with Taxes of any in Germany. To this Prince's wise Management of his Finances is owing not only his own Happiness, but that of his People too, by whom he is ador'd; and really he treats them more like a Father, than a Sovereign; and never makes them sensible of his Power, but when he is to do them Justice. He is a kind good Master, easy of Access, temperate in his way of Living, gives very great Application to the Affairs of his Government, loves Reading, understands Books, and knows every thing which a Prince ought to be acquainted with. As to his Person, he is handsome and comely; is civil in his Deportment, but reserv'd; and therefore seldom speaks to Strangers, if he can help it; but endeavours first of all to know those he has Business with, and when he has found out their Character, talks with them upon such Subjects as he thinks they are best acquainted with. He keeps regular Hours, rises at seven o'clock, first spends an Hour in Prayer, and the reading of some pious Treatise; and then gets himself dress'd, and gives Audience to his Ministers, or to other Persons that desire it. At Noon he dines with the Duchess his Wife, the Princes his Children, and other Persons of Distinction; stays about an Hour and a half at Table, and then takes a Walk in the Gardens of the Palace, or if the Weather does not permit, he employs himself in his Closet, or spends the Time in reading till five o'clock. Then he goes to the House of some Person of Distinction at his Court where all the Nobility have an Assembly, and plays at Ombre, after which he returns to his Palace, sups in the manner that he din'd, and at nine o'clock retires.

There is a Drawing-Room at Court three times a Week when the Company meets in a great Hall,181 where they make Parties at Ombre and Piquet. At seven o'clock a large Table is spread, which is free for all the Company. Then a Carver cuts up the Victuals, which are handed to that, and to all the Gaming-Tables that are cover'd with Napkins. Those who don't play may sit down at what Table they like best. The Duke, the Duchess, or the Princes, generally do Foreigners the Honour to admit them to their Table. During the Supper there is a Concert of Music, and at nine o'Clock all the Company retires.

The Duke by his Marriage with Magdalen-Augusta of Anhalt-Zerbst, has seven Sons and two Daughters[75]: The eldest is the Hereditary Prince, who has been twice in Paris, and once in Italy, England, Holland, Denmark, Sweden, and at all the Courts of Germany, in which Travels he has acquir'd a great deal of Politeness and valuable Knowledge. I had the Honour of making my Compliments to him both at Paris, and the Hague, and found him of such a Temper as induces me to think that the Subjects of Gotha will be as happy hereafter under his Government, as they are under that of the Duke his Father. He was lately married to his Cousin-German Louisa-Dorothea of Saxe-Meinungen, a very lovely young Princess, who, with all her Graces and Charms, has abundance of Good-nature and Modesty[76].

The Duke has all the Great Officers common to other Sovereigns. The Count de Ronaw is Great Marshal, and the chief Man at Court. They give him here the Character of Favourite; whether he is such I know not, but this I know, that he is not182 unworthy of it. I was very well acquainted with him at Ratisbon in 1720; he was not then in any Place, and expressed a Friendship for me; and now that I see him here in a Post, I find him the same Man as at Ratisbon, always a Friend to his Friends; which for a Favourite is a very great Character.

The Duke's Revenues are computed at a Million of Crowns a year, with which he maintains near 3000 Men of regular Troops. His Family is large and his Livery fine; his Guards are very well cloath'd; his Table is serv'd with more Delicacy than Profusion; his Palace is well furnish'd; every body punctually paid; and no body dissatisfied.

I don't mention the Library to you, nor the Chamber of Rarities, because I am not yet well enough inform'd of such Things there as are worth observing. I propose to take another Round before I go hence, and shall not fail to transmit to you what Observations I shall make there. Mean time, I am, &c.[77]




SIR,Wurtzbourg, Sept. 22, 1729.  

When I came hither I had the very great Pleasure to find your Letters, and to hear that you enjoy perfect Health. Continue, I beseech you, to write to me; that being the only Means by which you can persuade me what I wish to be convinced of more than any thing in the World, that my Letters are acceptable to you.

I have been in one of the most disagreeable Roads in all Germany; and tho' the Country abounds with Provisions of all sorts, I had like to have been famished in the Public Houses.

From Gotha, I went to Eysenach, thinking to pass a few Days at that Court, but I found the[78] Duke sick, and the Hereditary Prince and Princess[79] absent, so that I had only my Labour for my Pains.


As the Town of Eysenach offers nothing at all to View which is worth a Traveller's Attention, I set out the same Day for Fulde, where I arrived the next. You know, that this City is the Capital of the Principality of Fulde, the Sovereign of which is an Abbot, a Prince of the Empire, and Chancellor to the Empress. The present Sovereign is Adolphus Baron of Bahlberg, who was chose by the Chapter of the Abbey Church in 1726, in the room of Constantine Baron of Buthler, who died suddenly, and not without suspicion of Poison. Fulde is a dirty little Town open on all sides, and has nothing remarkable but the Abbey Church, and the Prince's Palace, which are two Freestone Buildings that make a very grand Appearance. The Apartments of the Palace are very richly furnish'd. The last Abbot being a Man of good Understanding and great Views, caused this Palace to be so adorn'd as to demonstrate the Wealth of the Abbey.

The Prince Abbot has a Grand Marshal, a Master of the Horse, a Marshal of the Court, several Privy and Aulic Counsellors, a Number of Gentlemen, a Company of Horse-Guards well cloathed and well mounted, a Regiment of Foot Guards, eight Pages, a Number of Footmen, and several Sets of Horses. He gives a rich Livery, and in a word, his Houshold is spruce and magnificent. There are very few Sovereigns in Germany whose Table is better served; for there is plenty of every thing, particularly delicious Wines, of which they tipple to such Excess that in a very little time they are not capable of distinguishing their Liquor. There are, I believe, the hardest Drinkers here in Europe; and I being on the other hand but a Milksop, thought that Fulde was not a Country for me to pitch my Tent in. I dined with the Prince, went home drunk to my Quarters, slept sound, and next day185 set out for Wurtzbourg, where I am happily arriv'd after having gone through such horrible bad Ways, and met with such dismal Lodging, that I wish my Enemies were but condemned to travel this Road four times a Year.

Here I make myself amends for the Mortification which I met with coming hither. Wurtzbourg is a considerable City though not very large. The Main divides it into two Parts. It is the Residence of the Prince Bishop of Wurtzbourg Duke of Franconia. The Person who now enjoys that great Dignity is Christopher-Francis de Houtten[80]. He was elected by the Chapter to succeed John Philip Francis Count de Schonborn, who was one of the greatest and most magnificent Prelates that perhaps ever fill'd the Episcopal See of Wurtzbourg. This Prince, in the five Years time that he has been Bishop, has done more things for the Embellishment of Wurtzbourg than ten of his Predecessors put together. He has furnished one Part of the Town with new Fortifications, and has laid the Basis of a stately Palace, which will be one of the greatest, the compleatest and most regular Fabrics that we have in Germany; he having for that end consulted the most skilful Architects, and sent for the most celebrated Sculptors from Italy. As he was a passionate Admirer of the Arts and Sciences, and perfectly understood them, especially Architecture; he chose the best Parts of all the Designs that were presented to him, and from them he compos'd the Plan of the Work, which was executed with such diligence that in four Years time two thirds of the Building were rooft. His unexpected Death put a stop for a while to this Great Work. The 186present Bishop took it in hand again, but after having made considerable Alterations in those great and magnificent Projects, the Work advances so slowly that when it will be finished no body knows.

The deceased Bishop Schonborn has also caused a Chapel to be built near the Metropolitan Church, which he has lined with very uncommon Marble brought for the purpose from Italy at a very great Expence. Brass, Gilding, and every thing that can render a Chapel superb, has been employed in it in a very curious manner. This stately Edifice is as yet imperfect, and will require great Sums to finish it. As it was designed for the Burial-Place of the Bishop and his Family, it is to be presum'd that the House of Schonborn, now so rich and so powerful, will not suffer a Monument to lie unfinish'd which is to perpetuate the remembrance of its Grandeur.

The Great Hospital founded by a Bishop whose Name was Julius, is worth seeing. 'Tis a stately Building, which looks more like the Palace of a Prince than a Hospital. Four hundred Persons of both Sexes are maintained in it. There are two fine Halls which are particularly made use of upon Holy Thursday. In the one, the Bishop performs the Ceremony of washing the Feet of the Poor, who are afterwards sumptuously feasted in it; and in the other, he regales his Chapter, and all his Family.

The Castle stands upon an Eminence on the other side of the River which we pass over a Stone Bridge, adorn'd like that of St. Angelo at Rome, with twelve fine Statues representing so many Saints. This Castle is a strong Place, and entirely commands the Town. The Form of it is quite irregular, it consisting of several Buildings erected by several Bishops. Those Prelates always liv'd in it, till the last, who, while he was building a new Palace in the Town, lodged in a neighbouring Gentleman's 187House, from whence he could see how the Work went on. The Apartments of the old Castle are spacious and noble. I found in them all that Furniture with which they were adorn'd for the Reception of the Archduchess Mary-Elizabeth, when that Princess came to Wurtzbourg in her way to the Government of the Netherlands. I have not seen richer Furniture at the Palace of any Prince of the Empire.

In this Castle there are two things that are well worth seeing; the Arsenal and the Vault; the one full of all the Stores invented by Mars and Bellona, for the Destruction of Mankind, and the other furnish'd with every thing to satiate the Thirst of an Army of Drunkards. If ever you come hither and should have the Curiosity to visit these Magazines of Mars and Bacchus, I advise you to begin with the Arsenal, especially if you can get some Courtier to go with you; for these Gentlemen, tho' very civil, think, that the least thing which a Foreigner ought to do for them is to forfeit his Reason to them in this Vault. I am sure, I speak by dear Experience. Three days ago I told the Bishop that I had a mind to see the Castle. This Prince was so complaisant as to order one of his Gentlemen to go with me. My honest Companion fearing, 'tis like, that a Conversation tete-a-tete would be too melancholy, chose two Topers to bear us Company, whom Silenus would not have disown'd for his Children. Being a stranger to the Virtues for which those Gentlemen were eminent, I put my self entirely under their Direction without the least Apprehension of my Misfortune. When they had shewed me the Apartments, the Arsenal, Fortifications, and every thing, they carried me at last into the Vault, which I found illuminated like a Chapel wherein I was to lie in State; and indeed, my Funeral Obsequies were perform'd in Pomp, for the Glasses served188 instead of Bells, and Torrents of Wine gush'd out instead of Tears: At length, after the Service was over, two of the Prince's Heydukes carry'd me to a Coach, and from thence to Bed; that was my Tomb. Yesterday I rose again, but scarce know at this Moment whether I am quite come to myself. 'Tis true that this does not give me much Concern, for ever since I have been here, I have followed the laudable Custom of getting drunk twice a day. You perceive that I am improv'd by my Travels, and that I am apt enough to learn the pretty Manners of the Countries where I make any Stay. I fancy that you will find me very much alter'd for the better. There is nothing that accomplishes a Man so much as travelling; judge you of this by the Life which I lead here.

I rise at ten o'clock, my Lungs very much inflam'd with the Wine I drank the Night before: I take a large Dose of Tea, dress myself, and then go to make my Compliments to the Bishop. The Baron de Pechtelsheim the Marshal of the Court invites me to dine with the Prince: He promises, nay, and sometimes swears too that I shall not drink. At Noon we sit down to Table. The Bishop does me the honour to drink two or three Healths to me. The Baron de Zobel, Master of the Horse, and the Baron de Pechtelsheim, toast the same number to me, and I am under a necessity of drinking to no less than fourteen Persons at the Table; so that I am drown'd in Liquor before I have din'd. When the Company rises, I wait on the Prince to his Chamber-Door, where he retires, and I think to do the same, but I find an Embargo put upon me in the Antichamber by the Master of the Horse, and the Marshal of the Court, who with great Bumpers in their Hands drink the Prince's Health to me, and Prosperity for ever to the most laudable Chapter of Wurtzbourg. I protest to them that I am the189 Bishop's most humble Servant, and that I have a very great Veneration for the most laudable Chapter, but that to drink their Healths wou'd destroy mine, and therefore I beg they wou'd excuse my pledging them; but I may as well talk to the Wind; these two Healths must be drank, or I shall be reckon'd no Friend to the Prince and his Chapter. If this were all my Task I shou'd be well off; but then comes M. de Zobel, one of the most intrepid Carousers of the Age, who squeezes me by the Hand, and with an Air and Tone of perfect Cordiality, says to me, You love our Prince so well that you can't refuse drinking to the Prosperity of the illustrious Family of Houtten. And when he has made this moving Speech, he takes off a great Glass to witness his Zeal for the Life of his Master; after which an officious Heyduke brings me a Glass, and being infected with the Goust that prevails at this Court, assures me that this Wine cannot possibly do me Harm, because 'tis the very same that the Prince drinks. By a Persuasion, founded on so just an Inference, I have the Courage to venture on t'other Glass, which is no sooner drank but I reel, and can drink no more; when in order to finish me M. de Pechtelsheim, one of the honestest Gentlemen living, but the staunchest Wine-bibber that I know, accosts me with a Smile and says, Come, dear Baron, one Glass more to better Acquaintance. I conjure him to give me Quarter, but he embraces me, kisses me, and calls me Herr Bruder, (his dear Brother.) How can a Man withstand such tender Compliments! At last I put myself in a fit Posture to run away; I sneak off, steal down the Steps as well as I can, and squeeze myself into a Sedan which carries me home; where my People drag me out like a dead Corpse, and fling me on a Bed, as if the next thing was to lay me out. I sleep three or four hours, awake in a perfect Maze, put myself190 to rights again, and prepare to make Visits, or to receive them; but whichsoever I do, I presently find my self in such a pickle again, that I cannot walk alone. There's no such thing as Conversation here betwixt one Friend and another without the Bottle; so that I am tempted to think the Inhabitants of this City are descended from Silenus, and that the old Sot left them the Faculty of hard drinking for a Legacy, as St. Hubert bequeath'd to his Family the power of curing a Frenzy.

I din'd yesterday with the Reverend the Scots Benedictine Fryars, who gave me a hearty Welcome, and an excellent sort of Liquor call'd Stein Wein, or Stone-Wine, probably because it grows on a Rock; which is the only time that I have departed from the Regimen I keep to here, I mean that I was not drunk. The House of these Benedictines is one of the five Houses which form a sort of a Republic in their Order, and which, without depending on their General, chuse a President out of their number who has the direction of all their Affairs. These five Houses are in five different Towns, viz. at Vienna in Austria, at Ratisbon, Wurtzbourg, at Doway in Flanders, and at Dieulegarde, near Pont-a-Mousson in Lorrain.

These Benedictines put me in mind of the Reverend Fathers the Jesuits, who have a very fine House in this City: These are they who are Directors of the University, and instruct the Youth with a Zeal which cannot but confound their Enemies.

The Prince and Bishop lives in very great Splendor, and is one of the most powerful of our Spiritual Sovereigns. His Dominion includes seventy Bailywics, and his Country is the finest and fruitfullest in Germany. The only thing that is scarce here is Money, and this is owing to their want of Trade, and to the great number of Monks and191 Priests who ingross all to themselves. The Bishop has 50000 Crowns a-year for his Privy-Purse. The Chamber is oblig'd to maintain him in every thing. It furnishes his Wardrobe, his Table, and pays his Houshold and his Troops, which actually consist of 3500 Men, who are commanded by General Eib, the Governour of Wurtzbourg. In time of War the Bishop has no less than 10000.

The Court is numerous, and I can assure you that upon Festival-Days 'tis very magnificent. On St. Quilian's Day, who is the Patron of Wurtzbourg and Franconia, the Bishop repairs with a great Train to the Metropolitan Church. Six of the Bishop's Coaches, drawn each by six Horses, begin the March, attended by twenty four Footmen and sixteen Pages; and above fourscore Gentlemen richly dress'd walk before the Bishop's Coach, guarded by two Files of Halbardiers. The Master of the Horse and the Marshal of the Court walk by the sides of the Coach, the latter bearing the Sword of the Duke of Franconia with the Point uppermost; and the Coach is surrounded by Heydukes, and followed by a company of Life-Guards.

The Bishop of Wurtzbourg has one Prerogative which the other Bishops have not; for while he officiates, his Great Marshal bears the Sword of the Duke of Franconia naked and upright till the Consecration of the Elements, and then he puts it up in the Scabbard, and carries it before the Prince with the Point downwards; which is a Distinction I take to be altogether as extraordinary as that of the Abbot and Count de Gemblours, the first Nobleman of the States of Brabant, who has the Privilege of celebrating Mass with his Boots and Spurs on.

The Bishop's ordinary Expence is perfectly suitable to the Dignity of a great Prince; and his192 Table, which is commonly spread for eighteen Guests, is serv'd with a Magnificence to the degree of Profusion; not that this Prince affects Pomp, but because he is oblig'd to conform to the antient establish'd Customs of his Court. This Prelate gives very great Application to the Affairs of his Government, for which purpose he rises early in the Morning: When he is dress'd he spends some time in Prayer, and then confers with his Ministers, or with the Chiefs of the several Tribunals. At ten o'clock he hears Mass, and afterwards goes to Council: At Noon he dines, and after having sate an Hour and an half at Table, he retires, and spends the Evening with his Family, which is numerous, and compos'd of Persons of Worth. In Carnival-time he makes great Entertainments twice or thrice a week for all the Nobility of Wurtzbourg, and there is sometimes a Ball and even Masquerades at Court. In the Winter-time Persons of Rank have Assemblies for Gaming; and during the Carnival there's a Ball three times a week in a House kept by the Undertaker, at which they bespeak Places beforehand, and where Foreigners are admitted gratis. All this wou'd be pretty enough if the Company was not sometimes disturb'd by People in Liquor, tho' 'tis true that such are not very chagrining to the Natives, who are us'd to such Sights; and the very Ladies, who elsewhere fly such Company, do not seem to have a staunch Aversion to them. Foreigners have reason to applaud the Civilities both of the Prince and his Courtiers. As for my own part I am infinitely oblig'd for the Respect they have been pleas'd to shew to me. The Prince heaps his Favours on me, and the Nobility their Courtesies. If it were not that one is forc'd to drink hard, I shou'd like the Town very well. Two Days hence I shall set out for Anspach, and193 from thence I shall go by the way of Nuremberg and Bareith to Prague. I shall write to you by the very first Opportunity: Mean time I am, &c.



SIR,Anspach, Sept. 29, 1729.  

I came in one day from Wurtzbourg to Anspach, which is twelve Miles, and pass'd thro' two or three little Towns not worth naming. Anspach is the Capital of the Margraviate so call'd, and the Residence of the Margrave of Brandenbourg, Chief of the second Branch of that Family settled in Franconia. 'Tis a small but pretty Town, and very well built. It has no Fortifications, and is only shut in by Walls surrounded with Walks which form a Bulwark. The Prince has a large Castle or Palace building here, which when finish'd will be magnificent. The late Margrave, Father of the present, had begun to build it according to the Models of an Italian Architect; but as he did nothing to answer the Opinion conceiv'd by the Germans that the Italians are the best Architects in the World, perhaps because he was oblig'd to patch up old Walls for the sake of some Rooms: Madame the Margravine Regent, Mother of the young Margrave, continued what her Husband began, but changed the Architect, and makes use of the Baron de Zochau to carry on those Works; who, tho' oblig'd to conform to what was done by the Italian, has succeeded much better than that Foreigner. Madame the Margravine Regent has likewise194 caus'd some noble Gardens to be laid out; and this Princess spares no Cost for embellishing the Town of Anspach.

The Margravine Regent[81] is of the Family of Wurtenberg, and may be compar'd for Beauty with the finest Princesses in the World. Being left a Widow at twenty nine Years of Age, she renounc'd all Pleasures, and thought of nothing but the Education of her Son, and the Affairs of her Regency; both of which Duties this Princess discharges in such a manner that her Subjects bless her Government, and the young Margrave cannot but have very great Obligations to her.

Madame the Margravine, besides a charming Person, has a sparkling Wit and a solid Judgment, which she has taken care to cultivate by great reading, and maintains by a Piety and Charity truly Christian. There is in all her Actions such Politeness, and so much Good-nature, as gain her the hearts of all Persons. In fine, without flattering this Princess, I can assure you that her Life is a Pattern of Virtue. She is wean'd from all the Vanities of the Age; she wears neither Gold nor Lace, and has given her Diamonds, which were of very great value, to her Son. She keeps so retir'd to her Apartment, that she is never seen but at Church, at Table, or when she gives Audience; which she never refuses to any body unless when she is tir'd. She is incessantly employ'd, and takes delight in it. She is her own Minister, and her Counsellors are only the Executioners of her Orders.

'Tis pity that Germany is so soon like to lose a Princess who does her Country so much Honour: The Margravine is in so declining a Condition 195that there's no hopes of her Recovery. The Physicians have actually told her so; but the Princess, far from being terrify'd at the sad Tidings, receiv'd it like a Christian Heroine: God gave me my Life, said she to her Physicians, he will take it from me when he pleases, his Will be done. She continues to live in the way she always did; and the Approach of Death, which she sees advancing to her with slow Pace, gives her no Trouble nor Tremor; but submitting to the Decrees of Providence, she waits with Resignation for that awful Moment which often makes the stoutest Hearts tremble.

The young Margrave is actually at Paris, so that I cou'd have given you no manner of Account of this Prince, if I had not had the Honour to see him two Years ago. He was born the 12th of May, 1712. He is a handsome, comely, lively Man, has an extraordinary Memory, and if Age matures his Understanding, bids fair to be one day a Prince of a sublime Genius. His Governour was M. de Bremer, a Gentleman of Livonia; and his Præceptor M. Neukirch[82], celebrated for several Essays in Poetry.

Notwithstanding the Reform which Madame the Margravine made in her Court when she came to the Regency, 'tis still very numerous. The Count de Castel is the first Man at this Court, and has the Title of Lord Steward. His Lady commonly attends Madame the Margravine, and does the Offices of Lady of Honour without affecting the Title. M. de Bremer, the Baron de Seckendorf, and the Baron de Zochau, are Privy Counsellors; and the Baron de Kinsberg is Marshal of the Court. As to the Troops the Margravine Regent only keeps up196 such a number as is necessary to furnish her Quota to the Empire, and to guard her Person.

The Margraviate of Anspach is very much interspersed with Woods, which makes it a fine Country for Hunting. 'Tis said that it brings in 500000 Crowns every Year to its Sovereign. The Principal Towns are Anspach and Schwabach, in which Manufactures are erected that do great Prejudice to the City of Nuremberg.

I think I ought not to omit acquainting you with two things which are fondly believ'd by the common People, and which the Landlord of the House where I quarter'd affirm'd to me to be Facts. The one is, that there are no Rats in all the Country of Anspach, since one of the Family of the Rat-killing St. Hubert pass'd that way. The other is of the same Tenor, and admitted for a certain Truth by every Subject in the Dominions of the House of Brandenbourg, viz. When any one of this Family dies, whether Prince or Princess, a Woman in White always appears just before in the Palace. I know not whether you ever heard any thing concerning this Prophetess of Ill Luck. Be that as it will, the Story which is told of her is this:

Joachim II. Elector of Brandenbourg, having a mind to enlarge his Palace at Berlin, wanted to buy in several Houses; but an old Woman, the Owner of one of those Houses, resolv'd not to sell it to him upon any Terms. The Elector finding her so obstinate sent her the Purchase-Money and turn'd her out of it; upon which the old Woman swore in a Rage that she wou'd be an eternal Plague to Joachim and his Posterity. They pretend that the good Lady keeps her Word, and that she haunts all the Palaces of the Brandenbourg Family. Yet I never heard any body at Berlin say they had ever seen her there, tho' that is the Place where she ought naturally to have taken up her head Quarters.197 My Landlord added to these fine Stories that the Margravine would not die yet a while, because the Woman in White had not yet appear'd to any body at Court.

I am, &c.



SIR,Carlsbad, October 10, 1729.  

When I took leave of the Court of Anspach, I was honour'd with a precious mark of the Margravine's Goodness, viz. a weighty Gold Medal; and now I am again upon my Journey. I was not many hours in travelling from Anspach to Nuremberg, thro' a Country extremely sandy, but very well cultivated, and interspers'd with considerable Villages which in our Country wou'd be reckon'd Towns.

So much has already been said by others of the City of Nuremberg, that I have very little to add to it. I assure you this Town is the most disagreeable Place in Europe to live in. The Patricians are the People of the first Rank there, and lord it like the petty Nobles of Venice. The Government here too has very great Resemblance with the Venetian, and they have a sort of Doge. In short they are very much like the Frog in the Fable that strove to swell it self to the Size of the Ox. Of these Patricians some are very rich, but they are so rude that no body visits them, and they scarce visit one another. Perhaps you will ask me what I mean by the Term Patricians? 'Tis this; they are Gentlemen:198 There are Patrician Families old enough to dispute Antiquity with any of the Nobility whatsoever, and who were formerly admitted into all the Chapters. But now the case is otherwise; for the Nobility not only exclude them out of the Chapters, but dispute their being Gentlemen; pretending that they derogate from the Title by their Magistratical Offices. Such is, you know, our Germanic Vanity; the things which are honourable in other Countries, are with us diminutive: The Court, the Sword, and the Church, are the only Professions that a Gentleman can follow: If he has not the Talents proper for one or other of these, or if Fortune frown upon him, he had better be out of the World than take any Offices of the Magistracy upon him, or enter into Trade: He had better beg Alms nobly than marry beneath himself. But I shall not here set up for a Censor of the Germanic Customs. Let us talk of Nuremberg. This City has 6 Gates, 12 Conduits, and 118 Wells. Of the Churches St. Laurence's is the biggest: There's a great many Reliques in it, particularly a part of the Manger in which our Saviour was laid, a piece of his Garment, and three Links of the Chains which bound St. Peter, St. Paul, and St. John. As the Lutherans make no great account of those Reliques, they wou'd do well to give them to some poor Catholic Convent, which would thereby soon be enrich'd.

You know that the Government here is altogether Evangelical, i. e. Lutheran. The Catholics have a small Church in the House of the Teutonic Order: The Calvinists go to the Church in the Territory of Anspach; but the Jews are not tolerated because 'tis said they formerly poisoned the Wells. They live in a Place not far from Nuremberg, but come to Town every Morning, paying something for their Entrance, have an old Woman set over199 them, who is commonly both their Guard and their Guide, and are permitted to trade and trick wherever they can till Night, when they are obliged to retire.

In the Church of the Hospital is kept Charlemain's Crown, said to weigh fourteen Pounds, the Sceptre and the Globe, in short all the Ornaments of Empire except Charlemain's Sword said to have been brought from Heaven by an Angel, the same very likely that carry'd the holy Vial and the Oriflamb to France. That Sword is kept at Aix la Chapelle.

The Trade of Nuremberg is very much fallen off; for besides that the Toys and Knick-knacks which were formerly made in this City are much out of fashion, especially in Germany, the Manufactures which the Margraves of Bareith and Anspach have settled in their Dominions do considerable Prejudice to Nuremberg.

The Inhabitants of this City may be, (at least I think 'em so) the honestest People in the World, but they are the most horrible Complimenters that I know. I cou'd not set my Foot in a Shop, but the Master, the Mistress, the Children and the Apprentices waited on me into the very Street, than king me for the Honour I had done them. My Landlord too, who saw me go in and out twenty times a day, receiv'd me always with great Ceremony, and ask'd me how I did. And when I went out he pray'd me not to leave his House long in Contempt, without honouring it with my Presence.

Nuremberg is the richest and most potent Imperial City next to Hambourg. The Domain of Nuremberg is even much larger than that of Hambourg, but the latter bears the Bell for Wealth. 'Tis said that Nuremberg has seven other Towns in its Territory, with 480 Villages and Parishes. Yet for200 all this 'tis not a rich City; for the Patricians pocket all the Money, and the Citizens are poor.

Next Day after my Arrival at Nuremberg I set out for Christian-Erlangen, a Town in the Margraviate of Brandenbourg-Bareith, which owes its flourishing State to a Colony of French People who fled out of France on account of their Religion.

Forty Years ago Erlangen was but a little Village in the middle of a Forest of Fir-Trees. The Margrave Christian giving shelter to the French who left their Country after the Revocation of the Edict of Nantz, assign'd them Erlangen to settle in. When they cut down the Woods they built the Town, to which they gave the Name of Christian-Erlangen, in Memory of Christian their Benefactor. All the Streets are in a strait Line. The French have set up all sorts of Manufactures here, and have made it one of the prettiest Towns of Germany. Madame[83] Elizabeth-Sophia of Brandenbourg, second Daughter of the Elector Frederic-William, and third Wife of the Margrave Christian Founder of Erlangen, caus'd a very handsome Palace to be built in the great Square of this City, to which there are noble Gardens. 'Tis at present occupy'd by Sophia of Saxe-Weissenfels, Widow of the last Margrave of Bareith. This Princess was to have dwelt at Neustadt, which was settled on her for her Dowry; but as 'tis a lonesome, melancholy, scoundrel Place, the Margrave Regent was willing she should live at Erlangen. The Margravine Dowager was one of the most beautiful Princesses in the World, of which she still preserves the fair Remains, and none can have an Air more grand. She lives201 at Erlangen with all the Dignity becoming her Rank. Foreigners are very well received at her Court, and particularly by the Princess herself, who for Politeness has few Equals.

From Christian-Erlangen I went in less than a Day to Bamberg, tho' I stay'd two or three Hours at Forcheim a Place in the Bishoprick of Bamberg, whose Buildings appear'd to me to be old and out of repair.

The Bishoprick of Bamberg is the first Bishoprick of the Empire. The Bishop is Suffragan to no Archbishop. He depends only as to Spirituals upon the Holy See, and receives the Pall as an Archbishop. He has moreover this Distinction, that the Electors are his great Officers as they are those of the Empire, and he has the Privilege of summoning them to come and do the Duties of their Offices on the Day of his Installation. I have not heard that any Bishop ever made use of this mighty Prerogative, for the Retinue which those great Officers would bring along with them might be a Charge to him. The great Privileges which this Prelate enjoys are counter-balanc'd by one Mortification; for if the Electors happen to chuse an Emperor who has no Dominions, the Bishop of Bamberg would be oblig'd to yield him his Episcopal City and Palace. 'Tis said that the Emperor has the same Right to Rome, and that if he should chuse that ancient City of the World for his Residence, the Pope wou'd be oblig'd to yield him the Palace of the Vatican and to retire to that of St. John de Lateran. But I really think that the Holy Father and the Bishop of Bamberg will not be so soon turn'd out.

The late Elector of Mentz, Lotharius-Francis de Schonborn, who was also Bishop of Bamberg, embellish'd the City with a new Episcopal Palace, a great and stately Building that stands on an Eminence,202 from whence there is an extensive Prospect of various Beauties.

The City of Bamberg is very well built, and has beautiful Churches. Herein is to be seen the Tomb of the Emperor Henry II. and his Wife the Empress Cunegonda. This Princess lies at the right hand of her Husband, because she kept her Virginity to her Death. Was not this abusing the Sacrament of Marriage?

The Bishop who fills the Episcopal See of Bamberg is Frederic-Charles, Count de Schonborn, Vice-Chancellor of the Empire. This Prelate being Minister of State to the Emperor commonly resides at Vienna, and is now there, so that I have nothing to say to you of his Court; but I reckon I shall be able to give you some Account of him after I have paid my Respects to him at Vienna.

The Neighbourhood of Bamberg is very agreeable, but as one comes to it from Nuremberg thro' a certain Forest of Fir-Trees, it strikes a Man with Horror to find an Avenue to it a quarter of a League in length form'd by Wheels and Gibbets. This, at first sight gives a Stranger no very great Idea of the Honesty of the People; but he is of another Opinion when he comes to know that these expos'd Malefactors are for the most part Foreigners. The Bishoprick of Bamberg is contiguous to seven or eight different States, and the Town it self lies in the greatest Road of all Germany, which is the Reason that 'tis so infested by Rogues from all Quarters. In the time of the Elector of Mentz, Bamberg was their Ne plus ultra, for that Prince gave them no Quarter: Being an Enemy to Wickedness, and one of the greatest Justiciaries that we have had in Germany, he sent all to the Gallows that deserv'd Hanging.

About a League out of the Town the Bishop has a charming Pleasure-House; but there is nothing in203 all Germany more magnificent than the Castle of Pommersfelden belonging to the Count de Schonborn, which is three Leagues from Bamberg. Francis Lotharius de Schonborn Elector of Mentz caus'd this stately Fabric to be built, the whole of which forms a great Body of Building flank'd by two Pavilions with two advanc'd Wings. The whole is regularly built, and decorated with well-fancy'd Architecture. The Entry is supported by several Colonnades, where the first thing that presents it self is the grand Stair-Case, which is extraordinary magnificent, and perhaps one of the best contrived in Europe. This Entry leads into a Salon which serves as a Passage to the Garden; 'tis in form of a Grotto adorn'd with several Fountains, Columns, and Statues of Marble: The Cieling is painted as well as the Sky-Light of the Stair-Case, and the Arches of the principal Apartments. They are all painted by Hands that the Elector sent for on purpose from Italy. I don't give you the Particulars of the great Salon, nor of the Apartments, because it would take up a Volume. The whole are laid out with Art, and furnish'd with great Choice, Judgment and Splendor.

The Stables answer exactly to the Castle which they front. They are built in form of a Half-Moon with a Pavilion in the middle, which is an oval Salon, from both Sides of which you see all the Horses. The Mangers are of Marble in form of Shells, and the Racks of Iron neatly wrought in form of a Basket or Scuttle.

The Salon in the middle of the two Stables is painted in Fresco, and looks one way to the Court, and the other to the Riding-House, where the Elector us'd to see the Horses manag'd belonging to the Studs of his Bishoprick near Bamberg, one of the best in Germany.

The Gardens of Pommersfelden are very answerable to the Magnificence of the Buildings: In a204 word, every Thing belonging to this fine House is worthy of it. The Builder of it had sublime Ideas: He spared no Cost to leave Monuments of his Grandeur and Wealth to Posterity, and has made a House of Pommersfelden which really surpasses some Royal Palaces. But 'tis time to take you out of this fine Place and to carry you back to Bamberg.

There is a good Number of the Nobility settled in this Town. The Chapter consists of Persons of Quality: It has the Right of chusing the Bishop; and 'tis he who governs in the Absence of the Prince. Such a Resort as here is of the Nobility makes the Time pass away agreeably; but they drink as hard here as at Fulde and Wurtzbourg, so that it looks as if Drinking was an inseparable Function of the Ecclesiastical Courts. Having some Relations in this Town I stay'd there three Days, during which I had the Pleasure of Drinking every Day with one of my Cousins out of a great Goblet of solid Gold which weigh'd to the Value of a thousand Ducats. You can't imagine how well the Wine went down out of a Cup of that Value. I heartily wish'd that my Cousin wou'd have dealt by me as Joseph did by Benjamin, and that he had put up his Cup in my Portmanteau, provided he wou'd not have sent to fetch me back again, as the Governour of Egypt did his Brother; but this was what my dear Cousin did not think fit to do. He made me drink my Skin-full of Wine, and only wish'd me my Pockets full of Gold.

From Bamberg I went to Bareith the Residence of the Margrave of Brandenbourg. The elder of the two Branches of that Family settled in Franconia. John George Elector of Brandenbourg divided his Dominions between his three Sons: He left the Electorate with its Appendages to his eldest Son, and gave the Margraviate of Culmbach to Christian his second Son, and that of Anspach to his third Son.205 Christian form'd two Branches, that of Bareith and that of Culmbach. The Branch of Bareith became extinct in 1726, by the Death of George-William, whose Widow lives at Erlangen. George-Frederic-Charles Margrave of Culmbach his Cousin, succeeded him. This Prince has five Children, viz. two Princes[84] and three Princesses[85]. He marry'd Dorothy of Holstein-Beck at Berlin in 1709. I had then the Honour to see him: He was a Prince of a noble Aspect, very civil, good-natur'd, and temperate, and a Lover of Books and Men of Learning. He did an Act of Generosity that perhaps is not to be parallel'd, and which I relate to you as the most authentic Testimony that can be of his Good-nature and Integrity.

His Predecessor had left an empty Exchequer and a great many Debts; and the Margrave at his Accession to the Regency was oblig'd to pay the King of Prussia 460000 Florins, upon condition that his Majesty wou'd renounce any Pretensions he might have to the Margraviate, by virtue of the Resignation of all Rights to the Succession which had been made by the Margrave of Culmbach his Father, in favour of Frederic I. King of Prussia. To raise this Sum on People already overburden'd by the common Taxes, was to seek their Ruin. The Margrave in pity of their miserable Condition, chose rather to borrow this Money of the States of the Circle of Franconia at great Interest. When he found himself in peaceable possession of his Dominions by the Payment made to the King of Prussia, he undertook to pay off not only his own, but the Debts of his Predecessor. To enable himself to do206 this, he began by turning off his Court, kept but a small Number of Counsellors and Gentlemen, and disbanded 3000 Men of the Troops which the late Margrave kept in pay to no purpose. He reduc'd his Table to the greatest Frugality; his Clothes were plain, and he avoided Magnificence and Gaming. Some time after this, he made another Reform in his House, and kept up but a very small Number of Domestics. He establish'd a Council of Regency, and to save the Expence which his Rank as a Sovereign would have engag'd him in whether he wou'd or not, he left his Dominions, and went to live incognito with the Hereditary Prince his Son at Geneva. I believe that both of them are actually at Montpellier[86]. He is resolv'd not to return to his Dominions till all his Debts are paid off. Mean time his Subjects wish for his Return with Impatience, for he has such a Kindness for them, and governs them with such mildness that they look on him as their Father and Benefactor. This Retirement of the Margrave from the Splendors of Sovereignty is the more to be commended because 'tis absolutely voluntary: He was not at all oblig'd to pay the Debts of his Predecessor; for they were of such a Nature as not to be rank'd among the Debts of the Government. Nevertheless it was his Pleasure to do it, and he chose rather to abridge himself of the Charms of Sovereignty than that People, whose Faith in the Government had made them part with their Money, shou'd lose their Debts. Such a glorious Action as this, is in my Judgment equal to the Laurels of twenty Victories: This was owing to his Virtue, whereas Victory is generally the Consequent of Chance and Fortune.

You will easily imagine that while the Sovereign is absent this City is not very gay. It appear'd207 to me the more melancholy because I had seen it in the time of the late Margrave, at whose Court there was continual Feasting and Jollitry.

The City of Bareith is inferior to Erlangen. The Margrave's Palace is a great old Pile, but not very commodious, and meanly furnish'd. This Prince has a very pretty House, a League from Bareith, call'd the Hermitage, which was built by Order of the late Margrave.

It stands in the middle of a thick Wood, in which there are a great many Pavilions built, without any Symmetry indeed, but very ingeniously contriv'd within for the Use to which they serve. When the late Margrave came to the Hermitage, he and his whole Court were in the Dress of Hermits. There were certain Hours in which the Hermit Brothers went to pay a Visit to the Hermit Sisters, who liv'd in the Pavilions. The Brothers and Sisters who gave each other Collations, were subject to certain Rules from which they could not be dispensed but by the Remission of the Superior of either Sex, who were then the Margrave, and his Lady the Margravine. In the Evening they met again in the Hall of the Castle, where they supp'd; and that every thing might be done according to the Rules, at the beginning of the Supper certain Verses were read, or some little Story compos'd by one or other of the Hermit Brothers; then Silence was broke, and every one gave his Opinion upon what had been read, upon which there ensued a general Conversation. The Supper held till pretty late, and was commonly followed with a Ball. No body could be admitted into the Order without the general Consent of the Chapter. And the Superior himself had no Right but to propose such as were Candidates for Admission. To give you all the Statutes of this Society, would be too tedious; besides I should be afraid of adding or diminishing208 to them, because I only have them from Tradition.

The Margrave has a Mother still alive, viz. Sophia-Christina Countess of Wolffenstein, who lives at Copenhagen with her Daughter the Princess Royal[87] of Denmark. The King of Denmark grants her the Title of Royal Highness, and causes the same Honours to be paid to her as to the Princesses of his Family.

The Margrave has also three Brothers and two Sisters. The eldest of the Brothers is a Major-General and Colonel of Foot in the Service of the Emperor, and the two others are in the Service of Denmark. The two Princesses are marry'd, one to the Prince Royal of Denmark, the other to George-Albert Prince of East-Friesland. So that the intire Family of Brandenbourg-Culmbach consists of Princes and Princesses to the number of twelve.

The Revenues of this Margrave are pretty near the same as those of the Margrave of Anspach. His Fortress is the Castle of Plassenberg.

From Bareith I came in two Days to Carlsbad, a Place of Fame for its hot Waters, of which there are two Sorts differing from one another both in Strength and Heat. They derive their Source from the middle of a River form'd by Torrents from the neighbouring Mountains, whose Waters are extremely cold; yet they make not the least Alteration in the heat of the Mineral Waters. They are said to be very wholesome for all sorts of Maladies, particularly for the Gravel, and for the Barrenness of Women. M. Hofman, a celebrated Professor of Physic at Hall, has published a Treatise, wherein he examines the nature of those Waters, and prescribes how they ought to be used. The Manner is very disagreeable; you are obliged to be shut up in a Room, and be the Weather ever so209 hot, the Stove must be heated, you must be tormented by taking off two or three Pots of Water, which are almost equal to thirty Chocolate Cups; besides walking about very much, and sweating great Drops.

To make amends for the Fatigue of the Morning, there is good Company to be seen here all Day long; for Abundance of Strangers come to Carlsbad, particularly the Nobility of Bohemia and Austria. There are publick Walks and a great Room adjacent, where they play, dance and walk till the Evening. They who love to live by Rule retire without Supper.

Whoever would be well accommodated at Carlsbad must carry three things thither with him, his own Bed, Wine, and Cook; tho' a Foot-boy may serve for the Cook, because one is generally invited by the Bohemian or Austrian Noblemen, who always keep a great Table, and love Company to dine with 'em.

The Inhabitants of Carlsbad are generally Armourers, who work very neat and vastly cheap. At the Season for using the Waters, Merchants flock hither from all Parts, and Carlsbad is superior to many great Towns. I had a great deal of Amusement during the two different Seasons that I pass'd there, and I contracted a World of good Acquaintance, who, I hope, will be of Service to me at Prague, for which Place I propose to set out to-morrow. I am, &c.





SIR,Prague, November 15, 1729.  

I have now been a Month in this City, yet it seems but as a Day; for I find infinite Amusements here, and a thousand things that I like, only I want your Company. The City of Prague is ancient, and has been time out of mind, the Seat of the Kings of Bohemia. 'Tis without dispute one of the Biggest Towns in Europe. 'Tis encompass'd with Ramparts, and as well fortified as a Place of that Extent can be, and commanded by several Hills, which 'tis impossible to level. This City is divided by the River Molde or Muldaw, into two Parts, viz. Old Prague and Little Prague; and during the Course of the last Century, it suffer'd the greatest Cruelties that a City can possibly undergo in a time of War. The Archduke Leopold Bishop of Passau surpriz'd and plunder'd the lesser Part, and would have done the same by the old Town, if the Emperor Matthias King of Hungary had not come in time to relieve it. Nine Years after this, Prague was again plunder'd by those who were most concerned to preserve it; I mean the Imperialists, who, after the Battle at Weissenberg, near Prague, wherein they defeated Frederic Elector Palatine whom a Party had chose King of Bohemia, enter'd the City, and carried off inestimable Booty. Prague was used no better in 1631, by the Elector of Saxony, after that Prince made himself Master of Bohemia. The Great Walstein of so much Note for211 his Glorious Actions, and his Tragical Exit, recover'd Bohemia from the Saxon in 1632, and took Prague by Storm. Some time after this the Swedes attack'd it, and took the lesser Prague; but could not force the old Town, it was so courageously defended by the Students and Burghers. The Swedes thereupon retired, and carry'd off immense Wealth. At length the Peace of Westphalia restored Tranquillity to Bohemia and the City of Prague, which has been subject ever since to the House of Austria; and the Kingdom which before was Elective, had the Mortification to become Hereditary.

The Situation of Prague is pleasant in the midst of Gardens and fine Fields, and 'tis adorn'd with noble Buildings, of which the Houses of the Counts Tschernin and Sternberg are as fine as any. The Furniture of the former is extremely rich; there is a Gallery adorned with excellent Pictures, a Cabinet of choice Porcellane with entire Services of the finest Indian Lacca; and another Room full of fine Arms and other Curiosities. Count Sternberg's House is not so large, yet better contriv'd; and in Rome it self would pass for a fine Palace. But there is one built by the late Count de Gallasch, who died Viceroy at Naples, that bears the Bell above all. You know that Nobleman was prodigiously rich and magnificent. He spared no Cost in his Buildings. 'Tis pity the House is not well situate, but it certainly would be so, if the young Count de Gallasch was of the same Way of Thinking with his Father, who intended to have had five or six old Hovels belonging to it pull'd down to the ground, by which means he would have had a fine Square.

The Convents of both Sexes are another Ornament of this Great City. The House of the Reverend Fathers the Jesuits is one of the most magnificent. They have lately caused a Church to be built, which is one of the best adorned that I have212 seen out of Italy. If you were but here, we would go together and see all those Buildings. I would carry you first of all to the Cathedral, which is in lesser Prague, on the Top of the Hill call'd Ratschin, and from thence we would go and take a View of the Castle which is upon the same Hill.

The Metropolitan Church is a very antient Structure, which was burnt down by the Swedes, and is only rebuilt in part. Its Magnificence and Beauty consist in the thickness of its Walls and Arches; and the Architecture of this Church is such, that I fancy it would appear Gothic to the very Goths themselves. 'Tis in this Cathedral that the Kings and Queens of Bohemia are consecrated. The Archbishop of Prague's Office is to perform the Unction upon both; but the Abbess of St. George, whose Abbey is also upon the Hill of Ratschin, is to place the Crown upon the Head of the Queen, and in this Function she is assisted by the Wives of the Great Officers of the Crown.

In this Metropolitan Church are preserved with great Veneration the Bodies of a couple of Saints extremely dear to the Bohemians. The one is St. Wenceslaus King of Bohemia, the other St. John Nepomucene. The latter was very lately canonized by Pope Benedict XIII. at the Request of the States of this Kingdom, who were at the whole Expence of the Ceremony, which was performed in the Church of St. John de Lateran at Rome with extraordinary Pomp.

The Story of this Saint is very singular: He was Confessor to the Wife of that cruel Emperor Wenceslaus, who was deposed by the Electors. That Prince being jealous of his Queen enjoined St. John Nepomucene to reveal that Princess's Confessions to him. He employed Presents, Prayers and Threats, to persuade the Saint to make this Discovery, but all to no purpose; upon which he caused him to be213 cast headlong from the Bridge into the River of Molde. The Body was seen floating at some distance from the Place, attended with five Stars swimming on the Water; then he was added to the Number of the Saints and Martyrs, and his Corpse was taken out of the River, and carried with Pomp to Prague, where it was interr'd in the Church of Dain in the old Town, of which he was a Canon. His Corpse being found some Years ago, his Tongue appearing to be as fresh as ever, was taken out of his Mouth and put into a Silver Gilt Box; the Body was enclosed in a stately Coffin, and the whole carried with great Ceremony to the Cathedral. An Altar being erected in the middle of the right Wing of the Choir, there the Saint was interr'd in a Tomb of Silver Gilt; and the Tongue put into a sort of Tabernacle where it has wrought and does still work great Miracles. There is a great Concourse of People hither from all Parts to invoke this Saint, whose Tomb is loaded with precious Gifts, and adorned by the Empress with a rich Canopy. But no body has given more illustrious Proofs of Devotion to St. Nepomucene than the Prince de Schwartzenberg[88] Master of the Horse to the Emperor, and the Count de Martinitz Marshal of the Imperial Court; who both ascribe the Conception of their Wives, and the Birth of their Sons, to the Protection of that Saint, tho' I should have thought all this feasible enough without a Miracle. The Princess de Schwartzenberg had not been married many Years before she had a Daughter[89]; her Husband had not seen her for fourteen Years after this, during which she had no Children. This is no more than common; after they came together again Madam is brought to Bed of a Son, in which tho' there is nothing but what is very214 natural, yet 'tis cry'd up for a Miracle; the Birth is ascribed to the Devotion which the Princes paid to the Tomb of St. Nepomucene for nine Days together, and to make the Saint some amends, his Tomb and his Altar are adorn'd by a great many Vessels of Silver and Silver gilt.

As to Count Martinitz there seems indeed to be better colour for a Miracle in his favour. He had been married fourteen or fifteen Years, and his Lady never given the least Sign of Teemingness. She was in good plight of body, her Husband liv'd with her, and they went together several times to the Baths of Carlsbad, but all had signified nothing. The Count longing passionately for a Son had perform'd more than nine days Devotion successively, for he went the last Holy Year to Loretto and to Rome. But Heaven deaf to his Cries granted him no Heir; at last knowing not what Saint to pray to, his Lady propos'd, that they should go and worship nine days together at the Tomb of St. Nepomucene. They set out, they arrive at Prague, they prostrate themselves before the sacred Tomb. Soon after, Madame de Martinitz proves with Child, and at nine Months end is delivered of a Son. You may say whatever you please, but such a Favour sure was worth some Lamps of solid Silver before the Saint's Tomb; and the Count de Martinitz full of Zeal and Gratitude has given some that are very magnificent.

The Bohemians have so great confidence in St. John de Nepomucene, that they have almost forgot St. Wenceslaus their old Patron. There is no Church where St. John has not a Chapel, no Bridge without his Effigy; every body Gentle and Simple, Men and Women, wear his Picture as if it were the Badge of an Order, hanging to a straw-colour'd Ribbon, and you would swear that all the Bohemians were Knights of St. Louis. In short, St. Nepomucene is215 the only Saint in vogue; and Presents are heap'd upon him to such a degree that if it continues much longer, he will be as rich as our Lady of Loretto.

The Palace or Castle which joins to the Cathedral is a great Building composed of several Main Bodies without Symmetry or Architecture. The Apartments are but low and plain, but here is one of the most beautiful Prospects in the World. The great Hall in which the Royal Feast is kept on the Day of the Coronation of the Kings is the largest of the kind, next to the spacious Hall of Westminster. The Palace-Gardens are large, but have nothing to recommend them besides their Situation. The Tribunals of the Regency meet in the Palace: The first of these consists of Stadtholders who are of the Emperor's Privy Council. They are to the Number of twelve, and represent the Sovereign. Most of them are the great Officers of the Crown. There must be always two of them private Gentlemen to take care of the Interests of the Gentry against the Nobility; for you must know that the Princes, Counts, and Barons, who compose the Nobility, form a separate Body here, and would think it a Disparagement to be call'd Gentlemen; tho' Henry IV. King of France counted it an honour to be the first Gentleman in his Kingdom, and King Francis I. whenever he affirmed a thing, said, Upon the Word of a Gentleman.

The Chief of the Council of the Stadtholders is call'd the Great Burgrave, whose Dignity is the highest in the Kingdom. He represents the Person of the Emperor, and is inferior to none but the Chancery of Bohemia which always attends the Emperor.

The Bridge over the Muldaw which joins little Prague to the old Town, is one of the longest and most substantial Bridges in Europe. It has on both216 sides the Statues of several Saints, which if they had been done by a better hand, would have prov'd an Ornament. There is a Crucifix also which is pretended to be of Gold, and to have been erected formerly at the Expence of the Jews, pursuant to an Order of the Government, as a Punishment for their having crucified a Christian Infant upon Easter-Day, to insult the Memory of our Saviour's Death.

The Jews are the only Sectaries that are tolerated in Bohemia. There are some Hussites still subsisting, but they keep so close, that the Government does not seem to know that there are any at all. I was assur'd that in Prague alone there were no less than 80,000 Jews; whether there are quite so many, I know not; but 'tis certain they are very numerous. Their Quarter in the old City forms a little separate Town. They have all the Trade in their own hands, follow all sorts of Callings, and by their receiving all old-fashion'd things in Payment, they quite ruin the Christian Handicrafts-men. As these People multiply like Rabbets, 'tis said the Emperor is going to issue an Ordinance prohibiting any but their eldest Sons to marry; the Report of which is so alarming to the Jews, that they would advance great Sums to prevent its taking effect.

If we except Rome, Paris, and London, there is no City where there are more Gentry, or a Gentry that is more wealthy: Every body here lives grand; and in no Part of the World do the Nobility keep greater State, or take more Pride in their Substance. They are polite and civil to Strangers, whom they know to be Persons of Quality. For my own part, I like them prodigiously, and I can safely say it, I have hardly met with a Foreigner who has not the same Notion of Prague that I have.


There is not a Gentleman in this Country but has seen at least Holland, France, and Italy, and indeed they are under some necessity of travelling, for the Education they have at home is none of the best. But they don't travel as People of their Birth and Fortunes ought to do. They are commonly attended by a sort of Governors, who make it their Profession to ramble abroad with young Gentlemen, and are for the most part Walloons, Luxemburghers, Lorrainers, or Liegeois, Soldiers of Fortune, without Education, and without Manners; who think 'tis enough for their Pupils to see Houses and Churches, and having not the Courage or the Capacity to put themselves forward, or even to shew their Heads, don't care that their Gentlemen should keep Company. They tell young Master, that my Lord his Father, who put him under their Care, recommended Œconomy to them; that they might game at Assemblies, but that 'tis not well to play while they are travelling: Therefore the Spark is oblig'd to keep in his Quarters, or if he is perhaps permitted to go to the public Shews, even this Pleasure, because it is not to be had without Money, must be taken in Moderation; the Governor's Aim is only to crib all he can, and sink his Pupil's Money into his own Purse. This is so true that I have known some who never eat Suppers, yet always brought them to Accompt; many of 'em get a Profit by every thing they buy, and they make such hard Bargains that 'tis ten to one if they don't chouse the Merchant as well as their Pupil. If the Governor does not like the Place they come to, he must be gone, tho' it were the most proper Town in the World to form the young Gentleman; for the Governor only writes to the Father or Mother that the Air did not agree with their Son, and that therefore he had remov'd him. The Generality of these wretched Guides maintain that six Weeks or218 three Months Stay at most is sufficient to know Paris; a Fortnight to be thoroughly acquainted with the Genius of the English; a Month to know Rome; a Week to see Naples; and so of the rest: And when they have shewn their Gentleman at Paris, the Anatomical Wax-work and the Observatory; at London, the Lions in the Tower; at Rome, the Catacombs; and at Naples, the Liquefaction of St. Januarius's Blood, and Mount Vesuvius; they think they have done great matters, and away they go without having made an Acquaintance with one Soul at any of the Courts. They have seen the King of France touch for the Evil; The King of England go to the Parliament-House; and the Pope sitting in his Elbow-Chair, distributing his Benedictions. With a Mind thus adorn'd, the young Man, after eighteen Months or two Years Absence abroad, returns home. The Governor has two or three thousand Florins, and sometimes more as a Gratuity, besides his Stipend. Again, the worthy Mentor makes a Bubble of the Father who trusts his Son with him, and behold now, he is ready for another Tour. One would think that, instead of travelling in this manner, it were better to send abroad for the Plans of all the Towns, I am sure 'twould be cheaper; the Parents would have the comfort to see their Sons at home, and they would also have wherewithal to furnish a little Box in the Country.

There are no People of Quality in the World more addicted to an expensive way of Living than those of Prague, which is the Reason that for all their immense Revenues they are sometimes over Head and Ears in Debt; but by good Luck they have a Settlement which prevents them from total Ruin: For most of their Lands are intail'd for ever on the eldest Son of the Family, so that he can neither alienate nor incumber them without the Consent219 of the whole Family, and of the King himself, which is a Thing very hard to be obtain'd. When an eldest Son of a Family has squander'd his Freehold, and runs himself more and more in debt, the Creditors, and sometimes the Parents themselves, present a Petition to the King and desire a Sequestration. The King after being inform'd of the List of the Debts, and of the Majorat (which is the Name they give here to the Lands that are intail'd) names Trustees for the Administration of the Estates of the Spendthrift, who is allow'd a Pension till all the Debts are paid. There's another very good Establishment here for securing the Sale of Landed Estates and Mortgages. Every Nobleman gives in a Particular of his Estate to a Tribunal which is call'd the Landtaffel, where the same is register'd. When a Person wants to borrow Money or to make a Sale, the Lender or the Purchaser has recourse to the Landtaffel's Office, where he sees whether the Lands are incumber'd; and if the Borrower's Debts don't exceed two Thirds of the Price at which they are rated by the Landtaffel, he may lend his Money very safely.

Tho' the Bohemians are brave and good Soldiers, yet they don't love the Service, I mean the Gentry: Most of them prefer the Civil to Military Employments, and a private Life to Posts in the Army or at Court. They are so us'd to be absolute Masters at their Estates where the Peasants are their Slaves, and to be homag'd like Petty Sovereigns by the Burghers at Prague, that they don't care to reside at Vienna, and to be oblig'd like other Subjects to pay their Court to the Sovereign and the Ministers. As soon as a Gentleman of Bohemia comes of Age, he is oblig'd to take an Oath of Fidelity to the Emperor as his King; which is a Law as much binding on the Nobility as the Gentry; and none of 'em dare to go out of the Kingdom without express220 Leave from the Emperor, on the Penalty of forfeiting his Estate. When the Noblemen are return'd from their Travels to France and Italy, they put in to be Chamberlains, not so much for the sake of engaging themselves to Attendance at Court as to procure a Precedency for their Wives, it being a Custom with most of 'em to marry as soon as they come of Age. Afterwards they aim to be Counsellors of State, and Stadtholders, and this is the Ne plus ultra of their Preferments. The Counsellors of State challenge the Title of Excellency: But this is what those who are not of that Denomination, and of as good Families as themselves, scruple to allow them, so that generally speaking they have it only given them by their Domestics and Dependants. So that one may say of their Excellencies what the Duchess of Elbœuf of the Lorrain Family said in France concerning the Princes of Bouillon, that they were Domestic Highnesses, because none but their own Servants give them the Title of Highness.

Of all the great and wealthy Families, those of Lobkowitz, Kinski, Schlick, Collobradt, and Martinitz are the only ones that make a Figure at the Imperial Court. 'Tis true there are several other Noblemen at Vienna who have Lands in Bohemia, but then their Families are not originally descended from that Kingdom.

The Kinski's Family is actually the most splendid at Court. There are five Brothers of it in Employments. The eldest is the Great Chancellor of Bohemia[90]. The second who is call'd Count Stephen, is Great Marshal of Bohemia, a Minister of State, and the Emperor's Ambassador at the Court of France[91]. The third, Count Philip, is the Emperor's 221Minister Plenipotentiary to Great Britain; and the two youngest are in the Army, where one of them is a Lieutenant-Colonel. Count Philip was sent Ambassador when but twenty nine Years old. He has demonstrated by his Conduct that Wisdom does not always stay for Age, and that he is the worthy Son of one of the greatest Ministers that[92] the Emperors Leopold and Joseph ever had. The City of Prague is a very great Loser by his Absence, for he liv'd there with Splendor, and his House was always open, particularly to Foreigners. For my own part I receiv'd such Civilities there as I shall never forget.

As I have told you that the Nobility of Bohemia are the richest in the Empire, I must also acquaint you that the Peasants there are miserable to the last degree; their Persons, and all they have, are at the Command of their Lord. The poor Wretches have often not a Bit of Bread to eat, in a Country which is one of the most plentiful in Europe for all sorts of Provisions. They dare not go from one Village to another to work, nor learn a Handicraft without their Lord's Consent. So much Subjection keeps the poor Creatures always trembling and humble, so that if you do but speak to 'em they are ready to lick the Dust off your Feet. The Severity with which these People are us'd is really terrible, but 'tis as true on the other hand, that gentle Usage has no Effect upon 'em; for they are excessively lazy and stubborn, and being moreover us'd to harsh Treatment from Generation to Generation, Blows scarce terrify them, tho' tis the only way to make 'em good for any thing.


The Bohemians have a great many Talents for Music, so that there's no Village, be it ever so small, but the Mass is sung in Concert, and they are very happy at winding the Hunters Horn.

'Tis certain that this Kingdom is one of the best Countries in the Emperor's possession, and next to Hungary, brings him in most Money.

Bohemia is a Country of States, whom the Emperor as King of it, summons every Year to the City of Prague. They consist of the Clergy, Nobility, Gentry, and Towns. The Assembly is open'd by a Commissioner of the Emperor's Nomination, who lays before them his Imperial Majesty's Demands. The States, such is their Submission and Zeal, grant the full Demand which is commonly a very great Sum; yet for all this, the Bohemians wou'd not complain of Taxes if the Emperor resided among them, but they are sorry to see their Country exhausted to enrich the Austrians to whom they have a natural Aversion, and the Austrians as heartily hate the Bohemians.

I own to you I shall be sorry to leave Prague. I take the Bohemians to be the best People upon Earth, and Prague to be one of those Towns of the Empire where a Gentleman may have most choice of Company. The Ladies here are very amiable. Gaming, which may be call'd the universal Pleasure, is carry'd as high here as they please in Houses of the Quality, where Assemblies of both Sexes are held every Night, with good Cheer, particularly Pheasants and Ortolans in plenty; and upon Fish-Days, there are Trouts, Salmon, and Cray-Fish; and that there may be nothing wanting, Bohemia likewise furnishes good Wine. At the Estate of the young Count Tschernin at Melneg, there is a red sort not inferior to Burgundy. Of all these good Things many partake together, and for my part I own I am taken more with this223 Pleasure than any other, because we make it last as long as we will, and then 'tis suited to all Ages.

There is a tolerable Italian Opera here. In Winter they have Races in stately Sledges: There is great Masquerading, and they dance till they are ready to drop to the ground: For this end there are public Balls which are extraordinary splendid, and might be compar'd, if any can be compar'd, with the Balls at the Hay-Market in London.

In the Summer-Time when there is not so much Company in Town, these Assemblies are thinner. The Gentry meet at Night in a Garden belonging to the Prince de Schwartzenberg, where they game, chat, and walk up and down, after which they always go to some House or other to sup. When one has a mind to go to the Country, we are sure of a good Reception, and the longer one stays the greater Pleasure one gives to the Master of the House. Here they pass the Time in Hunting of all sorts. Many of the Nobility keep Packs of Hounds, and others Hawks. The Generality keep Musicians in their Service, so that let the Weather be what it will, one may be always amused in this Country. Besides, one enjoys all the Freedom here that can be. After this, Sir, can you blame me for being sorry to leave Bohemia? But 'tis what I'm now preparing to do, and I purpose to go to Vienna. You will be so good as to let me have a Line from you there; for to be plain with you, to write three Letters for one is too hard. 'Tis true that your's are of inestimable Value, and that therefore you are in the right not to be lavish of them; but the same Reason justifies me in desiring them. Adieu, Sir: Love me always a little, and be assur'd that no Man is more than I, &c.




SIR,Vienna, Nov. 30, 1729.  

The Court of Vienna consists of so many Princes and Noblemen, that it cannot be deny'd to be the greatest and most magnificent Court in Europe. Nevertheless Ceremonies, and the Etiquette, a Name by which they call ancient Usages, give it an Air of Constraint that is to be seen no where else. There's a universal Out-cry against the latter, and even the Emperor sometimes seems to be disturb'd at it, yet 'tis observ'd as strictly as if it was an Article of Religion, and nothing cou'd set it aside but an Oecumenical Council.

Notwithstanding this, a Foreigner of Quality (for such he must be here) finds Advantages at this Court which he does not meet with either at Paris or London, I mean Opportunities of making Acquaintance. After a Person has been to wait on their Imperial Majesties he need only be introduc'd into one single Family to be soon made known to all the rest, with this Advantage too, that go where you will, they speak the German, French, Italian, and Spanish Languages; whereas a Foreigner at Paris is under a Necessity of speaking French, and at London English; but a Man may shift very well at Vienna without the High-Dutch or German Language.

The Ministers and great Lords of the Court are Civil, Courteous, and of easy Access, especially to such as want no Favour of 'em, and come to Vienna225 only for Curiosity or Business. The Way of these Gentlemen is to return no Visits: but they invite People to their Tables, which being always well fill'd, a Man soon gets a great deal of Acquaintance.

'Tis a very easy matter to be admitted to kiss the Hands of their Imperial Majesties, and even to obtain a private Audience of 'em; for there needs nothing more than to give in your Name to the Emperor's Great Chamberlain and the Empress's Great Master of the Houshold. When you kiss their Hands you bend one Knee to the Ground, and the Time for it is generally when their Majesties pass by to Dinner. But private Audiences are attended with more Ceremonies. The Great Chamberlain having appointed the Hour of meeting in his Antichamber, which is commonly five o'clock in the Evening, he repairs thither at that Time, and introduces to the Audience; and if he be absent, 'tis done by the Chamberlain in Waiting. The Ceremony observ'd is this: The Emperor stands up under a Canopy, leaning with his Back against a Table, and an Arm-Chair by his Side, A Screen of red Velvet with Gold Fringe is plac'd at the Entrance of the Room, so that the Emperor is not perceiv'd at the opening of the Door. Behind this Screen near the Door, stands the Great Chamberlain. As soon as the Person comes in sight of the Emperor he bends the Knee, which he repeats as he advances a little farther, and again when he comes near to his Imperial Majesty. To these Genuflexions the Emperor gives a Nod of the Head, hearkens very attentively to the Person who addresses him, and returns a succinct and gracious Answer. Then the Person kneeling with one Knee on the Ground kisses his Majesty's Hand, after which he retires, going backwards and making three Genuflexions as he did at Entrance. The same Ceremonies are observ'd at an Audience of the226 Empress, who gives it standing just as the Emperor does, with this Difference only that the Emperor is all alone, and the Empress is attended with one of her Ladies of Honour, who nevertheless stands off at such a Distance that she can't hear what is said.

The Emperor commonly eats with the Empress and the Arch-Duchesses. But there are particular Days, such as the Installation of the Knights of the Golden Fleece, when the Empress herself is not allow'd to sit down at Table with his Imperial Majesty. The Dinner is commonly in the Emperor's Apartment, and the Supper at the Empress's. At Dinner two Chamberlains hold the Ewer for their Majesties to wash, and the Steward, or in his absence the Great Chamberlain presents them the Napkin, which is done after the manner of Spain, with one Knee on the Ground. The Number of Dishes at the Emperor's Table is forty eight, and the same at the Empress's; but tho' their Majesties eat together they are each serv'd by their own Officers and Cooks. They commonly drink both together at the first Time; and till they have drank, the Ambassadors, Courtiers, and Ladies all wait at Dinner. After the Emperor has drank, the Steward, the Master of the Horse, the Great Chamberlain, and the Captain of the Guards receive his Orders: The Lady of Honour in Waiting and the Empress's Steward receive her Orders in like manner. None remain in the Room but the Officers necessary for the Service, and some curious People who are not us'd to see Sovereigns eat. On Sundays, Saints Days, and Days of Gala, which is the Name they give here to Days of Festival and Ceremony, the Dinner is attended with Music. I forgot to acquaint you that the Emperor is always cover'd at Table, and that when he puts his Hat on the Ambassadors put on theirs.


At Supper the Lady of Honour who is in waiting presents the Napkin, and the Ladies of the Bed-Chamber not only carve and hand the Victuals, but taste both the Meat and the Wine. The Pages carry the Dishes and Plates, and fetch the Wine from the Beaufet which they give to the Ladies, and they to their Majesties. During the Supper as well as at Dinner all the Gentlemen and Ladies stand up, so that here neither Princes nor Princesses have any Distinction shew'd them, but all Ranks are levell'd and confounded, and no body sits down in presence of the Sovereign.

On the Days of Gala the Court is extremely gay, and nothing is to be seen but Gold and Diamonds. The Days of this kind that are celebrated with most Splendor are those of St. Charles and St. Elizabeth, the Name Days of the Emperor and Empress. The Emperor, who commonly dresses very plain, is cover'd all over with Diamonds upon St. Elizabeth's Day. And as for the Empress, her Apparel is commonly rich, and so loaded with Jewels upon St. Charles's Day that she can scarce stand under it. Except on these Days of Gala the Court dresses very plain. 'Tis true that these Days are very frequent, and that consequently plain Clothes are not very much wore, for if it be a Holiday, or the Birth-Day of some Minister, or if some Lady of Distinction sends but for a Surgeon to bleed her, 'tis enough to put the whole City in Gala. These Gala's may be divided into three Classes; the Court Gala which is universal both for the Nobles and Plebeians; the Grand Gala which is kept in the City is for the Festival of some Minister; and the third and last is the Little Gala, which is when the Ladies are let blood. A Husband makes a Gala here for his Wife, the Wife for her Husband, the Children for their Parents, and Brothers and Sisters for one another; so that to be sure two Thirds of Vienna are 228always in Gala; which made a French Jester say, 'twould take up a great deal of Brimstone to cure the Austrians of the Gale[93]. However, they take care not to appear in this domestic Gala before the Emperor and Empress, because it would be reckon'd a Disrespect to them.

On the great Festival-Days the Emperor goes with a grand Retinue to St. Stephen's Cathedral: He takes up one whole Side of the Coach, and the Empress sits fronting him. Their Majesties are preceded by the Chamberlains and Knights of the Golden Fleece on horseback: The Pages and Footmen walk bare-headed immediately after the Coach of the Master of the Horse, and their Imperial Majesties Coach is guarded on each side by a File of Archers, and attended by the Coaches of the Arch-Duchesses and the Ladies. Then the Horse-Guards appear with their Kettle-Drums and Trumpets, and the March is clos'd by the Pope's Nuncio and the Ambassadors with their Train, which consists of three magnificent Coaches and six Horses each.

On Corpus Christi Day the Emperor accompanies the Holy Sacrament, when the Streets thro' which the Procession passes are cover'd with Planks. Their Imperial Majesties repair in the Morning with great Attendance to St. Stephen's Cathedral, and after assisting at Divine Service join in the Procession. The Emperor is immediately follow'd by the Empress, who is accompany'd by all the Ladies in rich Dresses, which renders this one of the most magnificent Processions in the World.

The same Honours and Respects are paid to the Empress Dowager as to the Empress Regent. She has her separate Houshold, and her own Guards. She has an Apartment in the Palace, but commonly lives in a Convent of her own founding in one of the Suburbs, and does not come to Town except on the great Festivals or for some extraordinary Function.229 You know, without doubt, that the Empress Dowagers can never quit Mourning; their Apartments must be always hung with Black, and their Coaches and Liveries are of the same Colour: Nor can they be present at any Play, Ball, or Concert. In short by losing their Husbands they must renounce the Pleasures of this Life. These severe Obligations on a Widow are fully discharg'd by the Empress Dowager. Being retir'd to a Convent where she is almost continually prostrate before the Altars in Prayer and Supplication, she makes her Mansion a Place of Piety and Peace, and never appears in public but when Conveniency requires. This Princess was always an Example of the most uncommon Virtue. In the Life-time of her Husband the Emperor Joseph, she lov'd Pleasures and Grandeur; but when she became a Widow she renounc'd all, and only employ'd herself in Works of Piety, and in the Education of the two Arch-Duchesses her Daughters, whom she has now the Comfort of seeing marry'd to two powerful Princes of the Empire[94]. There's not a Person that draws near her Imperial Majesty but admires her eminent Qualities. I have not yet had the Honour this Journey of casting my self at her Feet, but the first Time I was here I had the Advantage of paying my Duty to her at Schonborn, where she then pass'd the Summer. I was receiv'd by her with such Proofs of her Kindness as charm'd me, and which I shall always remember with Pleasure and Respect. This Princess is the Daughter of John-Frederic Duke of Brunswic-Hanover and of Henrietta-Benedictine Princess Palatine. After the Death of the Duke her Father, who left no Son, she went with the Duchess of Brunswic to France, where this Princess was very glad to retire to her Sister the Princess of Condé. The Empress who was230 then the Princess Amelia, spent some Years in France, where she learned the Language and Politeness of that Nation to perfection, and in short acquir'd that Merit and Virtue for which she is now so much admir'd, and which perhaps have contributed equally with her illustrious Extraction to gain her possession of the first Throne in Christendom. The Marriage of her elder Sister to Renaud d'Este Duke of Modena obliging the Dutchess of Brunswic to leave France, and go and settle at Modena, the Princess Amelia follow'd her also into Italy. She had no reason to be sorry for her leaving France, and rejecting the Addresses of a French Nobleman who had presum'd to court her, for not long after her Arrival at Modena she was marry'd to the King of the Romans, afterwards the Emperor Joseph. This Empress is not only endow'd with the Christian but all the Moral Virtues, and there are few Princesses of a more generous Soul, of greater Courage, or of a Genius more sublime, more refin'd, or more adorn'd. There was a Time when she might be rank'd among the most beautiful Princesses of Europe: she still retains all the Marks of it; and therewith preserves such a majestic Air that whenever I behold her it revives the profound Veneration I have for her sacred Person.

The Emperor Charles VI. is of a middling Stature, and in good Plight of Body: He is of a swarthy hale Complection, has a brisk Eye, and thick Lips, for which last his Family in general have been remarkable. This Monarch is the second Son of the Emperor Leopold by Eleonora of Newbourg, and the fifteenth Emperor[95] of his Family. Being design'd when a Minor for Successor to Charles II. King of Spain, he had a grave Education suitable to the People whom he was one day to govern. This 231made him contract an Air of Seriousness, which, to those who have not the Honour of Access to him, favours of Severity; yet he is affable and very humane. He hears those with Attention that speak to him, and his Answers are full of Good-nature. When he attain'd to an Age hardly ripe enough for the Crown of Spain, he met with various Fortune in that Kingdom; but he supported himself in every Event with an heroic Magnanimity, being always submissive to the Will of that Providence which he knew was the Master of the Fortune of Kings. The Adversitys with which it pleas'd God to try his Patience by the Siege of Barcelona which he carry'd on in Person, and by the Loss of the Battle of Villa Viciosa, only serv'd to confirm his Constancy, and his natural Integrity, a Principle which renders him even more venerable than the Splendor of his Crowns and the vast Extent of his Power. Heaven, which always rewards Virtue, has granted this Monarch one of the best and most fortunate Reigns that any Emperor has had since Germany has been the Seat of Empire. He wants nothing to crown his Happiness but a Male Heir, which is so much the Desire of the People, as well as of the Emperor and the most virtuous Empress the World ever saw, that God grant he may have one.

This Princess is descended from the august House of Brunswic, to which Europe is at this Time oblig'd for two Empresses[96], one King[97], and a Queen[98]. She is the Daughter of Lewis Rodolph Duke of Brunswic-Blankenbourg[99] by Christiana-Louisa Princess of Oetingen, of whom I gave you232 an Account in my Letter from Blankenbourg. The Character of this august Princess for her Affability and Goodness is so well known in the World that 'tis needless to speak of it here. You know likewise how beautiful and handsome she was when she was marry'd to the Emperor. And notwithstanding the Pimples in her Face and her present Corpulency she may still be reckon'd in the number of the beautiful Princesses. Such an Air of Modesty, Mildness, and Majesty, accompanies every thing she does, as inspires those that approach her with equal Courage and Respect. Her Duty is her Law, and her principal Care is to please the Emperor, whose Wisdom she knows to be sufficient to govern his Dominions, and to him she therefore leaves all Affairs. Indeed she is very earnest with him to get Favours for those who petition her, which she thinks a Happiness to obtain, and she bestows them in such manner as is very affecting to the Receivers. This Princess is charitable, generous, and magnificent. She maintains her Dignity without Conceit, and supports her solid Piety without Ostentation. She was educated in the Lutheran Religion, but abjur'd it at Bamberg when she came thither in her Way to be marry'd to the Emperor, then King of Spain, and is now a good Catholic, yet without any Hatred to the Protestants; being convinc'd that the Love of one's Neighbour is one of the Duties which God most strictly enjoins upon Mankind, and that Charitableness and good Examples are the best Means to reconcile those to the Church who are separated from it.

In the same sublime Sentiments of Virtue does the Empress educate the Archduchesses her Daughters, and those young Princesses are like to make worthy Proficients. The eldest Archduchess Mary Theresa is brought up in the agreeable Prospect of being one day Mistress of the vast Dominions possessed233 by the Emperor[100]. This young Princess has very much of the Air of the Empress her Mother; and if Heaven designs her for the Sovereignty of the Empire, God grant she may also resemble her in her Virtues!

The Emperor has three Sisters. The eldest is the Archduchess Mary Elizabeth Governess of the (Austrian) Netherlands; the second is Mary-Anne Queen of Portugal; and the third is the Archduchess Mary Magdalen, who 'tis said is intended to be Governess of Tirol. The intire August House of Austria consists at present of the sacred Person of the Emperor and of eight Princesses[101], of whom three are married; and God grant it may be augmented by the Birth of a Prince; for without setting up here for a zealous Subject, I don't think that the Houses of Austria and Bourbon ought ever to be extinct, both of them having made the Fortunes of an infinite Number of Gentlemen.

The Emperor's ordinary Pastime (when he has a Desire to unbend his Mind from Affairs of State, to which he applies with all the Earnestness of a Monarch that loves his People) is Hunting, or Shooting at a Mark; and the Empress is generally a Sharer in his Diversions. His Imperial Majesty goes sometimes also to the Riding-House, where he exercises himself in Riding: At other times Music is his Amusement, which the Monarch not only performs by Book, but is also a Composer; and some Years ago an Opera was acted here of his composing. All the Actors as well as the Dancers and the Musicians of the Orchestre were Persons of Quality. The Emperor himself made one, and the two eldest Archduchesses his Daughters danced. The Spectators were the Empress Regent and the Empress Dowager, and every Actor had the Liberty234 of carrying two of his Kindred or intimate Friends.

Tho' their Imperial Majesties are very fond of Music they have seldom more than two Operas in a Year, viz. on the Days of St. Charles and St. Elizabeth, and sometimes the same Operas are play'd again during the Carnival. At this time, which is devoted to Mirth, there is a Ball at Court, and on the Flesh-days there is commonly a great Masquerade representing a Country-Wedding. In the Palace there is a very magnificent Theatre, which indeed is almost the only thing there that is worth seeing, for the Imperial Palace is so wretched a Mansion that few Monarchs are lodged worse than the Emperor. The Furniture too is old-fashion'd and not very rich, which is somewhat unaccountable, because the Wardrobes are full of costly Pieces of Tapestry, stately Pictures, and other fine Goods which probably they are restrained from making use of by the Etiquette. The Emperor's Pleasure-Houses are no better than his Palace in the City. The Castle of the Favorita which is in one of the Suburbs, is a great Building full of Turnings and Windings like the Street which it looks into, and has more of the Appearance of a great Convent of Capuchin Fryars than of the Dwelling of a Prince who is the Head of so many Sovereigns. The Gardens are as mean as the House, and only considerable for their Extent. Laxembourg is still very much inferior to the Favorita; but the Court is there no more than a Month or six Weeks, during the Hunting of the Heron. The Ministers that are obliged to attend the Emperor thither have Houses there, which though not very grand, are commodious. When a Person goes to Laxembourg to pay a Visit to the Court he is under a Necessity of returning to Vienna for a Bed, which is a very great Inconveniency.


The Emperor Joseph had begun a very fine House at Schonborn about a League from Vienna, but did not live to finish it; and the Empress Amelia to whom the Emperor gave it, instead of carrying on the Works which her Husband had begun, lets it run to ruin; which is great pity, for if that Building had been finish'd the Emperor wou'd not have had a Versailles, but he wou'd at least have had a Mansion-House suitable to his Dignity. 'Tis said that a new Palace is going to be built for the Emperor; which, if true, 'twere to be wish'd that better Architects may be employ'd in it than those who have had the Direction of the new Stables and of St. Charles's Church, which are Buildings lately erected with very great Expence, but without any Taste. The Stables are a Range of Buildings of a vast Length, divided into seven Pavilions which appear at first sight to be so many different Houses. The middlemost Pavilion which is design'd to lodge the Master of the Horse is much higher than the other six, which sink gradually on the two sides. Nor are the inner Rooms better contriv'd; for the Horses stand all in one Row, and the Stable is so narrow withal, that one is every Minute in danger from the Horses Heels; which is purely owing to the Indiscretion of the Architect, who having ground enough and to spare might for the same Expence have made something grand and noble.

Whether the same Architect that built the Stables had the Direction likewise of St. Charles's Church, is what I know not; but if they are two different Men their Head-pieces are very much alike. This Church would perhaps have been admir'd in the Days of the Goths, but in so refined an Age as the present, one cannot look on it without being sorry for the Sums of Money laid out in it.

This bad Taste as to Buildings prevails too much at Vienna, not but that there are Hotels and even236 Palaces in which the Rules of Architecture are observ'd, but then the Builders are got into such a way of ornamenting and charging their Houses with Sculpture as is altogether contrary to the noble Simplicity of the ancient Architecture. The Palace of Prince Eugene of Savoy is stately, but situate in a narrow Street with a very little Court before it. The Stair-case is very well contriv'd were it not too much confin'd. The Apartments of the first Story are as well laid out as the Ground wou'd admit of. We enter first into a spacious Salon adorn'd with great Pictures representing the chief Victories of Prince Eugene over the French and the Turks. In the two Rooms next to this are very rich Hangings wherein the Maker Devos at Brussels has very correctly delineated the whole Military Science. The Bed-chamber beyond that has a Set of Furniture of green Velvet richly embroider'd with Gold and Silk. In the same Room there is a Lustre of Rock Crystal which is said to have cost 40,000 Florins. All the other Furniture is extraordinary magnificent, and wou'd be cry'd up at Paris it self, where it must be allow'd a Taste for fine Furniture prevails more than any where.

The Palace of Lichtenstein is bigger than that of Savoy, and not less magnificent. 'Tis worth seeing were it only for its Paintings. I pass over the Hotels of Schwartzenberg, Daun, Diedrichstein, Harrach, and several other noble Edifices, lest my Letter shou'd swell into a Volume.

The Palaces of the Suburbs are infinitely more grand than those of the City, and they have both Court-yards and Gardens. The most noble are the Palaces of Trautsheim, Rofrano, Schwartzenberg, Altheim, and Eugene of Savoy. This last especially is a superb Structure with magnificent Gardens, a fine Orangery, and a Menagery stor'd with the most uncommon Creatures that the four Parts of237 the World can furnish. 'Tis in this fine great House that Prince Eugene passes the beautiful Season of the Year. There is not so fine a Sight as an Assembly at this Prince's House, for not only the outer Court, in which there's a fine Piece of Water, but the Gardens are illuminated by an infinite Number of Lanthorns made in form of a Bowl of extraordinary white Glass, which cast a very great Light and make a glorious appearance. The Assembles at this Prince's House are always very numerous; for his Birth, Employments and Interest, draw a great Court to him.

Prince Eugene is of a middling Stature, and well made. His Air is extremely serious, and his Deportment grave and reserv'd; but notwithstanding that Reservedness he is a hearty Friend to his Adherents. He is a thorough Judge of Merit, and loves to distinguish it. He is perfectly genteel and civil, very polite to the Ladies, respectful and submissive to his Lord and Master, but without Flattery or Servility. He is generous and noble in every thing excepting his Apparel. He is an Enemy to Ostentation, Ceremonies, and Constraint. In his youthful Days he lov'd Pleasures, but he abandon'd them as soon as he was animated with a Thirst for Glory. He was born in France, but left that Kingdom in 1683, out of disgust that he was no more taken notice of, and came to Vienna just before the Turks laid siege to it. He made the Campaign as a Volunteer, and distinguish'd himself in such a manner that the Emperor Leopold gave him in December following that Regiment of Dragoons which still goes by his Name. When the Siege of Vienna was rais'd, he serv'd in Hungary under Duke Charles of Lorrain, and Maximilian-Emanuel Elector of Bavaria. The first time that he obtain'd the Command of the Imperial Army was in 1697, when he began with the Victory at Zenta whereby 22,000 Turks lost their Lives; a Loss which they could not recover,238 and which put them upon suing for the Peace that was granted to them at Carlowitz in 1699. The Prince afterwards commanded in Italy, Germany, Flanders, and lastly in Hungary; and wherever he went Conquest attended him. To give you a Detail of his Achievements would be to anticipate the History which is to immortalize them, and to which you will not take it ill if I refer you. As to the Dignities and great Employments of this Prince, he is Chief Counsellor of the Council of Conferences; President of the Aulic Council of War; Commander in Chief or Lieutenant-General of the Armies of the Emperor and Empire; his Imperial Majesty's Vicar-General in Italy; Colonel of a Regiment of Dragoons; and Knight of the Golden Fleece. All his Employments may be worth about 300,000 Florins a year to him. Besides this, he has a considerable Estate in Hungary and in the Neighbourhood of Vienna, which brings him in about 100,000 Florins per Ann. more. He holds those Lands by the Emperor's Bounty who gave them to him as a Reward for his important Services.[102]


The Marshal Count Guido Staremberg is one of those Gentlemen also who deserve particular respect for their Virtue. He is descended of a Family which has given great Generals and wise Ministers to the Emperors of the Austrian Family, and has supported the Glory of his Ancestors in a signal manner; Hungary, Italy, and Spain, have been Witnesses of Bravery and consummate Wisdom in the Art of commanding Armies, and have admir'd him the more because they saw him always gaining Victories with Armies ill paid, destitute of all Necessaries, and very much inferior to his Enemies. This General enter'd very young into the Service in quality of an Ensign, and advanc'd himself by degrees. He was made Lieutenant-Colonel a little before the Turks Undertaking against Vienna, and while it was besieg'd, serv'd as Adjutant to his Cousin Ernest-Rudiger Count de Staremberg, the Defender of Vienna. This Count Guido, after having been a few years in the Service, was preferr'd to the Regiment of Foot of which he is still Colonel.240 When he was very young he was made Great Commander of the Teutonic Order. I do not mention his Exploits to you, because they are so much celebrated by Fame that you cannot but know them. This General, tho' very much advanc'd in years, retains all his juvenile Ardor, and wou'd still be very capable of commanding.

Having mention'd two of the Emperor's greatest Generals you will not be sorry, I fancy, if I shou'd give you some Account also of his chief Ministers. They are five in Number, and are call'd Counsellors of the Conferences. Prince Eugene of Savoy is the first Counsellor, but without the Title of Prime Minister, that being a Dignity not known at the Imperial Court.

The Count Lewis de Zinzendorf, Chancellor of the Court, and Knight of the Golden Fleece, is the second Counsellor of the Conference. He is a Nobleman descended of a Family which has been for a long time eminent in Austria. His Mother was a Princess of Holstein, who married to her second Husband the Marshal Count de Rabutin Governor of Transylvania, but died a few years ago in a very advanc'd Age. I had the honour to know her the last time I was here; her House being the Rendezvous of all People of Rank. Count Zinzendorf was in the Ministry in the Reign of Leopold. He was that Emperor's Minister Plenipotentiary in France, while the Marshal de Villars was at Vienna with the same Character from Lewis XIV. At the Death of the Emperor Joseph, the Count de Zinzendorf was that Prince's Ambassador to the States-General, in which Character he was confirmed by the Empress Eleonora who was Regent during the Absence of King Charles. He repaired from the Hague to Frankfort to assist at the Coronation of Charles VI. and officiated at the Ceremony as Vicar to the Great Treasurer of the Empire, a Dignity which is Hereditary in his Family.241 At the Congress of Utrecht which was open'd not long after, the Count de Zinzendorf assisted as the Emperor's first Ambassador. He afterwards went to the unsuccessful Congress of Soissons, and from thence to Versailles, where he succeeded so well with the Cardinal de Fleury, that he kept him tight in those pacific Sentiments which the Enemies of his Tranquillity, if not of his Glory, aim'd to make him give up. The Count is now return'd hither, and almost the only Man that acts in the Province of foreign Affairs. His Interest is very great, for besides the Esteem which the Emperor has for his Person and Services, he is related to all the most distinguished Persons at Court, and strictly attached to the Interest of Prince Eugene of Savoy, of whose Integrity and disinterested Zeal for the Emperor he is very sensible. The Count de Zinzendorf is pretty tall and has a happy engaging Aspect. His Deportment is noble. He is pretty reserv'd, but civil. He is very polite to Strangers, and his House is open to them. He keeps the noblest and most elegant Table at Vienna. He is magnificent in every thing he does, and all his Actions favour of the Man of Quality. He is Father of a numerous Family. The second of his Sons is a Cardinal and Bishop in Hungary[103]. Another is Knight of Malta, and Lieutenant-Colonel. As these are the two with whom I am best acquainted, so they are the only ones I shall mention. I know not whether 'tis possible for a Man to be more sprightly than they both are. The Chevalier has more Mettle and Life than a Gascon: He is very blunt in his witty Sallies, but the variety of them pleases, and their novelty and justness are surprizing.

The Count Gundacker de Staremberg, President of the Chamber of Finances, and Knight of the242 Golden Fleece, is the third Counsellor of the Conferences. His Integrity is very much cry'd up, and he has manag'd the Finances in such a manner as to guard against the Public Hatred.

The Count de Schonborn, Bishop of Bamberg and Wurtzbourg, Vice-Chancellor of the Empire, is the fourth Counsellor of the Conferences[104]. You know, Sir, that the Schonborn Family has given us several worthy Gentlemen; but I may venture to say, with all due Regard to the Memory of those great Men, and without flattering the Vice-Chancellor, that of all the Family he has the greatest Capacity for Business, the most generous Temper, and the most engaging and most civil Behaviour. As this Prelate has not his Equal at Vienna for Grandeur and Riches, so he has not his Fellow for Magnificence. The Emperor has a singular Esteem for him. The Vice-Chancellor has the Chancery of the Empire under him, and no body above him but the Emperor, and the Elector of Mentz, who is the Great Chancellor of the Empire.

The Count de Konigseck, Vice-President of the Aulic Council of War, is the fifth Counsellor of the Conferences. This Nobleman, whose Extraction is from a Family of Distinction in the Empire, is one of the tallest and handsomest Men at Court: He is the Emperor's Ambassador Extraordinary at the Court of Spain. His Family has for a long time past been attach'd to the House of Austria. He studied at Besançon, and was design'd for the Church; but he quitted the Band, took to Arms,243 and enter'd into the Service of the Emperor Leopold; in which he had not been many Years before he had a Regiment of Foot, and the Emperor Joseph made him his Chamberlain. He also gave him the Government of Mantua, from whence he was recall'd by Charles VI. and sent to take possession of the Netherlands in the Name of the Emperor, to whom they were evacuated for that purpose by the Maritime Powers. The Count de Konigseck, during his Administration of the Netherlands, concluded the Barrier Treaty with the States-General. At Brussels he married Madamoiselle de Lanoi la Motterie, a young Lady of a good Family, and distinguish'd Merit. When he left the Netherlands he went Ambassador from the Emperor to the Court of France, where he gain'd great Esteem, especially from the Duke of Orleans, the Regent; a Prince who was an excellent Judge of Merit, and very sparing of his Applause. After three Years stay at Paris, the Count return'd to Vienna. He attended the Archduchess, Wife to the Electoral Prince of Saxony, in quality of Steward, to Dresden; and at his return went to the Government of Transilvania. But the Emperor recall'd him from this Post and sent him his Ambassador Extraordinary to Spain; where the Count is as much esteem'd as he was at Paris. 'Tis said that he is in entire Favour with their Catholic Majesties; nevertheless he makes such earnest Application to be recall'd, that 'tis said he will obtain his Request, and that his Nephew[105], who is the Emperor's Minister Plenipotentiary to the States-General, is already nominated to relieve him[106].


In the Council of Conferences the most important Affairs of the Empire are taken into Consideration, and the Emperor is always present.

Besides the five Ministers whom I have now mention'd to you, there are several others whose Interest is more circumscrib'd. Every Kingdom subject to the Emperor has its Minister and particular Chancery.

Count Badiani directs the Affairs of Hungary, in quality of its Vice-Chancellor.

The Affairs of Bohemia are in the Province of Count Kinski, the Chancellor of that Kingdom, who has a Vice-Chancellor under him, with a great many Assessors and Counsellors.

The Council of Spain consists of a President, Vice-President, and Counsellors. Its Authority extends over all the Kingdoms that were formerly subject to Spain, but yielded to the Emperor by the Peace. The Count de Monte-Santo, a Grandee of Spain, Brother to the Count de Cinfuentes, Constable of Castile, is President of this Council[107]; in which Office he succeeded the Archbishop of Valentia, who quitted his See to follow the Emperor whom he had acknowledg'd for his Sovereign in Spain.

Of all the Tribunals at Vienna the Aulic Council is the most venerable; because 'tis the Parliament of the Empire. It is compos'd of a President, viz.245 the Count de Wurmbrandt; a Vice-President, who is the Count de Metsch; and of eighteen Counsellors, among whom there must be six Protestants, and of these one must be a Calvinist. This Tribunal judges of all Civil Causes between the Princes and private Men of the Empire. Its Authority terminates with the Emperor's Life; and 'tis on this account only that the supreme Tribunal of Wetzlar, which subsists even during the Vacancy of the Imperial Throne, challenges Precedence of the Aulic Council. 'Tis a Mistake to think, as many Foreigners do, that the Aulic Council takes Cognizance of Affairs of State; for its sole Business is to do Justice: It registers no Edict unless it be its own Sentences[108]; and is much more limited than the Parliaments of France, which have at least the Privilege of losing Time in Remonstrances.

I perceive too that I am in a fair way to make you lose a great deal, if I don't put an end to my Legend; which therefore I now do, and refer the rest of the Remarks that I have to entertain you with to another Post.

I kiss your Hand, and am, &c.




SIR,Vienna, Decem. 10, 1729.  

There are some other Articles which I cannot but add to those I have already given you from Vienna. The Police of this City is administer'd by a Stadtholder. The Person that now fills that Post is the Count de Kehvenhuller; who is also a Minister of State, and Knight of the Golden Fleece. His Functions are the same with those of the Lieutenant of the Police at Paris, and nothing makes the Difference but the Title; only it must be observ'd that the Stadtholder is always a Person of noble Extraction, and a Gentleman of the Army, whereas the Lieutenant of the Police at Paris is often of mean Extraction, but always a Gentleman of the long Robe.

The Governour of Vienna had seldom any other Title than Colonel of the City. The present Governour is the Marshal Count de Daun, the same that defended Turin, who was six Years Viceroy of Naples, six Months Governour of the Netherlands, and afterwards four Years Governour of Milan[109]. His Lieutenant-Colonel, who is the Count Maximilian de Staremberg, Lieutenant-General of the Emperor's Forces, and Colonel of a Regiment of Foot, commands in his absence, and has the Direction247 of the Fortifications, the Arsenal, and the Garison. This Garison consists of a Regiment of Foot, compos'd of veteran Soldiers, or the Burghers and Artificers of Vienna, from whence this Regiment never stirs. The Employments in this Corps are very lucrative; but as they don't lie in the Road to the Temple of Honour, they are not much solicited by Persons of any considerable Extraction. Yet this Regiment, as little esteem'd as it is, perform'd very good Services during the Siege of Vienna by Kara Mustapha, Grand Vizier to Mahomet IV. It acted then under Ernest-Rudiger Count de Staremberg, who was Commandant in the City; and both the General and his Garison acquir'd very great Glory by the Resistance which they made. But perhaps with all their Bravery they cou'd not have prevented the Place from being taken, had it not been for the Avarice of the Grand Vizier, who hoped to be Master himself of the vast Treasures that he knew were in the City, and was therefore against storming the Town, for fear lest if it were carry'd by that means, the Soldiers would have shar'd the Plunder.

The Siege of Vienna being foreign to my purpose, I shall say nothing of it. You know that it was raised by the Assistance that was brought to it by the brave John Sobieski King of Poland; who defeated the Turks on the 12th of September, 1683, and return'd home laden with Glory and Booty, having made himself Master of all the Grand Vizier's Equipage. Upon this occasion he said a pleasant thing in a Letter which he wrote to the Queen his Wife, who had not a very implicit Faith in the Maxims of Seneca on the Contempt of Riches; 'You shan't say when I come home, as the Tartary Women do to their Husbands when they return from the Army without Booty, You are not a Man for me, because you come empty-handed; for the248 Grand Vizier has made me sole Heir of all he had.'

You need not be told that this was the second time the Turks were forc'd to raise the Siege of Vienna; for Soliman the Sultan besieg'd it in the Reign of Charles V. but with no better Success than Kara Mustapha. 'Tis true that the Disappointment he met with was not so fatal in its Consequence to the Sultan as the other was to the Vizier of Mahomet IV. who was strangled at Belgrade when Mahomet was there: And the Head of this Minister is still to be seen in the Arsenal at Vienna. The Translation of this Turkish Relique hither from Belgrade was pretty extraordinary. Some Years after Kara Mustapha had been strangled, when the Germans took Belgrade, the Soldiers being inform'd where the Grand Vizier was buried, open'd his Tomb in hopes of Treasure, but found nothing except the Body in its Shirt, on which there were several Arabic Characters, and an Alcoran. The Governour being told of it, remember'd that this very Grand Vizier, when he laid Siege to Raab, which he was oblig'd to raise, said, That if he took the Town he wou'd have the Head of its Bishop cut off, who was then the Count Leopold de Collonitz, and send it to the Sultan, to be reveng'd of that Prelate for taking Money out of the Convents, and encouraging the Garison therewith to make a vigorous Resistance. The Governour of Belgrade remembring, I say, the Menaces of the Grand Vizier, thought it wou'd be a very agreeable Present to the Count de Collonitz, now a Cardinal[110], to send him the Vizier's Head and Body too, together with the Shirt and Alcoran; and he put up the whole very neatly in a Crystal Shrine, adorn'd with Silver Plates, and sent it accordingly to his Eminence; who not thinking this odd Present a proper Relique to be deposited in his Chapel, gave it to the Arsenal here at 249Vienna, where I have both seen the Mussulman and felt him. I wou'd fain have pluck'd some of the Hairs of his Mustachio, but the Guardian of the precious Treasure watch'd my Fingers too narrowly. They say that a piece of the Halter by which a Man hangs himself is lucky, and why mayn't there be the same Virtue in the Mustachio of the Grand Vizier? Be it so or not, 'twill always deserve an honourable Station in some Cabinet of Rarities.

Since the Siege of Vienna this City is much inlarg'd. Its Fortifications are so augmented too that if the Turks should ever be prompted by their ill Fate to besiege it again, they wou'd find a stouter Resistance, and a greater number of their Mustachios sindged than they imagine.

The Emperor has lately given new Lustre to his Capital, by prevailing with Pope Benedict XIII. to erect it into an Archbishopric. Several Bishops, particularly the Archbishop of Passaw, have dismember'd their Dioceses to aggrandise its Jurisdiction. The Cardinal de Collonitz is the Person who at present enjoys this Dignity, which gives him the Character and Rank of a Prince.

The Roman Catholic is the only Religion exercis'd in Vienna, and in all Austria; but the Ministers of the Protestant Crown'd Heads have the Liberty here, as well as elsewhere, of keeping a Chapel. When the holy Sacrament or the Viaticum is carried to any sick Person, 'tis always attended by Guards who oblige all People that meet it to kneel. I have seen the Emperor, when the Viaticum was passing by, alight out of his Coach and accompany it to Church. This Prince, and indeed all those of his Family, always paid a very great Devotion to the holy Sacrament of the Altar. Of this Philip IV. King of Spain gave a very edifying Proof; for this Monarch going the very day that the King his Father died, from the Palace of Madrid to the Monastery of St. Jeronimo del Passo in a close Coach, that he might250 be incog. alighted out of it to accompany the Viaticum which they were carrying to a sick Man; whereupon the Condé Duke d'Olivarez told him, That the King his Father was so lately dead that he ought not to have been seen in public. My Lord, said the King, this Custom cannot excuse me from paying that Worship to God which I owe him.

It may be said of the august House of Austria, That as few Princes equal them in Piety, so there are few that equal them in Birth. There may be Families that have been longer grac'd with the Diadem; but of these there are very few that have such great Alliances. There is no King, and not many Sovereign Princes but what are related to them; and there are very few Kingdoms to which the House of Austria has not given Queens. 'Tis now 300 Years that it has been Mistress of the Empire; and since Albert II. it has given thirteen Emperors to Europe successively. One of the Princesses of Austria had so many great Relations that I cannot help mentioning her. This was the Empress Mary, Wife to the Emperor Maximilian, Son to Ferdinand I. This Princess was Sister to Philip II. King of Spain, and the Daughter, the Wife, the Daughter-in-law, and the Mother of five Emperors; the Grand-daughter, the Daughter, the Sister, and the Aunt of four Kings of Spain; and the Mother-in-law of two Kings, viz. Charles IX. King of France, and Philip II. King of Spain. A modern Author says, that the Origin and Kindred of this Princess infinitely surpassed those of Agrippina, who, according to the Report of Tacitus, was the Daughter of Germanicus, the Sister of Caligula, the Wife of Claudius, and the Mother of Nero. But when I consider how perfect a Master you are, both of History and Genealogy, I ought to beg your pardon for my Impertinence in troubling you with these Instances.


What remains for me now, is to communicate some Remarks to you which I have made upon the Austrians in general. I shall begin with the Women, whom I shall paint to you, as Burrhus says, with the Freedom of a Soldier, who is not the best Limner.

The Women here, as in all other Countries, are either handsome or ugly. In general they are rather handsome than pretty, for they are dull Beauties. They are all tall and well shap'd; they walk well, but when they curt'sy, do it in such an aukward manner, that one would think their Backs were in danger of breaking. In their Dress they affect Finery rather than a good Fancy. Two or three excepted, there's none that lay on the Red, much less the White, and Patches are very little worn; in a word, they have nothing about them that denotes Coquettry. As to their Humour, they are reckon'd frank, tho' not easily made familiar; they are naturally vain, and like all our German Women, pretty reserv'd, and not so fond of Gallantry as they are of Gaming, Luxury, and Magnificence. Such is their Indolence that they concern themselves no more about their Houshold Affairs than if they were Strangers. They know no Books but their Prayer-Books, are extremely credulous, and give into all the Externals of Religion: This makes their Conversation sometimes insipid; and unless now and then a Love-Story falls in, Rain and Fair-Weather are their general Topics. They have at least as great a Conceit of Vienna as the Parisians have of Paris; for out of Vienna they think there's no Salvation. But all these little Defects are repair'd by an uncommon Greatness of Soul, and Generosity. They are hearty Friends, and warm Protectors of those whose Interests they espouse. When they are in love, their Passion is sincere; and instead of ruining their Lovers, there are some who have252 made the Fortunes of those to whom they have taken a Fancy. Upon this Head I have been told, that in the Reign of the Emperor Joseph, when Gallantry was more in vogue than 'tis now, there was a Lady, who being in love with a Gentleman, and having a mind to make his Fortune without the Censure of the Public, thought fit in an Assembly where her Spark cut at Basset, to punt against him. She set a Bett, without telling a Soul how much she stak'd. Her Husband coming into the Room where they were at play, she rose up, took the Marks that were against her, threw them on the Ground, and said to the Banker, loud enough to be heard by her Husband, I owe you, Sir, 40000 Florins. The Husband in a very great Surprize ask'd what was the matter? I have been such a Fool, said she, pointing to the Banker, as to lose 40000 Florins to Monsieur N——. You have reason to chide me; but however my Debt must be paid. The Husband indeed grumbled very much, and said he wou'd not pay. What! reply'd the Wife, won't you pay the Gentleman? It shall fare the worse with you if you don't, for I am resolv'd to pay him in some Coin or other. The Husband perceiving his Wife so resolute, and that if he did not deposite the Money it wou'd subject him to the Loss of what was more precious, chose rather to part with the Cash; and indeed he had no reason to repent of it, for the Lady's Heart was so won by it, that she renounc'd the Sight of her Lover from that Moment, and made a very sober Wife.

This, Sir, is all I have to give you concerning the Temper of the Women. Let me tell you also how they spend their Time. They rise late. As soon almost as their Eyes are open, they call for Chocolate, and send to their Husbands to know who they have invited to Dinner, and whether there is room for any more Guests. If the Lady does253 not like the Company, she sends notice to some Lady of her Acquaintance that she intends to dine with her; but if there be room at home, as a polite Husband always takes care to leave some at the Disposal of his Wife, she sends an Invitation to whom she pleases. After this she dresses and goes to Mass; for here the Ladies are all so devout that there's none but what hears at least one Mass in a day. There they read in five or six different Prayer-Books, kiss all the Pictures that are at the head of the Prayers, and very devoutly toss their Beads. After the Office is over, they commonly chat a quarter of an Hour in the Church. Then they go abroad and make some friendly Visits, or else go home to receive them. At these Visits, they hear all the News in Vienna. During this they have all a little Box of Indian Lack upon their Knees, in which they thread Gold till Dinner-time. When that's over, they drink Coffee or play at Quinze till Night, when they go to Court. From the Empress's Apartment they adjourn to the Assembly, where they divert themselves at Piquet, or at Quadrille; and then retire, undress themselves, go to Supper, and thence to Bed, well pleased to think with what Indolence and Idleness they have spent the Day.

The Women of the second Class, in which I include the Gentlewomen that have no Titles of Honour, viz. the Wives of the Assessors, Referendaries and Agents of the Court, discover such an Air of Plenty and Prosperity as is remarkably surprizing. Their Houses are richly furnished, and their Tables well served. If a Referendary has a mind to a nice bit, no body must offer to take it; and the best of every thing is what they are sure to lay hands on. Belly Cheer is one of those things which the Austrians generally think of most: They require a great many Dishes, and those well-cramm'd.254 They are so very much accustom'd to this Profusion of Eatables that I have known some young People in Austria affirm they don't know what good Eating is in France, because they don't serve up a couple of Loins of Veal in one Dish. Different sorts of Wines are what they are also very much us'd to, which certainly is very expensive because foreign Wines pay considerable Duties; yet nothing less will serve them than eight or ten sorts of Wine, and I have been at Houses where there have been no less than eighteen. They place a Note upon every Plate expressing the several sorts of Wine at the Beaufet.

The Burghers and common sort of People mimick the Nobility as far as their Purses will afford; and it may be said that no Nation in the World is so extravagant as this.

The Austrians are naturally proud and haughty, and expect all Mankind should stoop to them. As their Sovereign is in the first Rank among the Christian Princes, so they think theirs to be the chief Nation in the World. Nothing is more vain nor more insupportable than a young Austrian, whose Father is in any Rank at Court. They are intoxicated with Pride and Presumption; and as they know themselves to be rich, and their Fathers to be great Lords, they think they may despise all the World, and lay aside that courteous and polite Behaviour which would so well become their Birth. Yet what I here observe to you concerning the young People is not so universally true as not to admit of great Exceptions, which is the Case of every thing asserted in the general.

The Court is not without Ladies who are much to be valued. The Empress Regent honours with her Confidence Madame the Countess de Fuchs, whose Husband was Minister of State to the Emperor, and his Plenipotentiary at Hambourg, where he died. This Countess is Sister to the Count de 255Molard, Steward of the Emperor's Kitchens. She is a very polite Lady, and is so far from being envy'd for being a Favourite that all Persons of Distinction agree she deserves it, because she supports it with Modesty, and makes no other Use of it but to do good.

Madamoiselle de Klenck has a very great share in the Favour of the Empress Dowager, which I take to be a Reward due to her long Services, and to her Merit. She is chief Maid of Honour to that Princess, and has been engag'd to her ever since she has been at Vienna. If the Character of a thorough Gentlewoman may be attributed to any of the Sex, Madamoiselle de Klenck deserves it more than any other, it being impossible for a Person to have more Integrity, and more Generosity.

The Countess Dowager of Altheim, of the Pignatelli Family, in regard to whose Rank I ought to have mention'd her first, if I observ'd a very strict Order in my Writings, is a Native of Spain. The Count d'Altheim married her at Barcelona. Her Beauty was the more admir'd in Spain because she was fair. This Lady has a noble Air, and has a Genius capable for Affairs of the greatest Consequence. Their Imperial Majesties pay her great Distinction, and all the Courtiers honour and respect her, so that now in her Widowhood she continues in good Credit, and almost as much Authority as she had when that great Favourite her Husband was living.

The Gentry of Austria, and of all the Emperor's Hereditary Dominions, are so fond of the Title of Count, that the Gentlemen buy and sollicit it as eagerly as if it was a great Estate. 'Tis well for them that the Dispatch of their Patents does not cost much; for the greatest Privilege which this brings them is all a Chimæra. These Counts may be said to hold the same Rank among the ancient Counts256 of the Empire as the King's Secretaries in France do among the Gentlemen of good Families.

As for Gentlemen, they are so common here that there are scarce any others to be seen. All the Agents of the Court, and all the Referendaries procure themselves a Title, tho' I know not why; for neither they nor their Wives dare to rank themselves among the Prime Nobility. This Madness of theirs to be enobled is so common, and so easy to be gratified, that I have known a Man, who was formerly Messenger to the Emperor Joseph, purchase the Title of Baron; and his Children begin to mix with the Grand Monde.

These, Sir, were all the Remarks that I made upon the Austrians. I must give you a few Particulars concerning the Emperor's Person. I have already said something to you of his Character: What follows is to shew you how grateful he is, and how friendly, Virtues which are the more to be esteem'd in him because they are not the most familiar to great Men.

The Emperor shows all possible Marks of Gratitude to those Spaniards who adher'd to him while he was at Barcelona. He has loaded them with Wealth and Honours; and if it's possible for one's native Country to be forgot, he has put them in a Situation to forget theirs. This particular Goodness of the Emperor extends to all that followed his Fortunes in Spain; whom he distinguishes upon all Occasions, and does them good preferably to his other Subjects. As to Friendship, no Monarch ever had more for any Favourite than Charles had for the late Count d'Altheim, his Master of the Horse. This Nobleman was the Emperor's Page, when he was only Arch-Duke; and he attended that Prince to Spain, where his Care, his Services, his Assiduity, and above all his Honesty and his Integrity, won him the intire Confidence of the young257 Monarch. When this Prince became Emperor he rewarded the Count with Honours, Wealth, and Dignities. He lov'd him as long as he liv'd, and his Memory is still dear to him. As soon as he died, the Emperor declar'd himself Guardian to his Children, gave Orders in what manner they shou'd be brought up, and now treats them much more like his own Children than his Subjects. But what wou'd you say of the Emperor's tender Love for the Empress? Some time ago this Princess being dangerously ill, the Emperor not only sent for his Physicians, and conjur'd them to employ all their Art to save her Life, but promised them Rewards suitable to that Service, and actually watched with her several Nights to see her take the Remedies they prescrib'd. Does not a Conjugal-Love so perfect, deserve to be rewarded by the Birth of an Archduke? Adieu, Sir. If I were Emperor, you shou'd be my Count d'Altheim; but in the Condition I am in, you are the Person whom I honour most of all Mankind; and am, &c.





SIR,Munich, Jan. 5, 1730.  

As I came hither from Vienna, I stay'd two Days at Lintz, the Capital of Upper Austria. This City lies on the Danube, over which there is a wooden Bridge. 'Tis a little Town, but well built, and has fine Churches. Its Inhabitants are thriving, and they drive a great Trade in Linnen-Cloth. 'Tis the Residence of a great many Persons of Quality, and of the Regency of the Province, of which the Count de Thirheim is the Chief. This Nobleman lodges in the Imperial Palace, which stands upon an Eminence, and commands the City. The Building is commodious enough, but not so magnificent. The Emperor Leopold stay'd here during the Siege of Vienna; till not thinking himself safe in it he retir'd to Passaw. The Neighbourhood of Lintz is very agreeable. All the way hither from Vienna the Danube is lin'd on both sides with Vineyards; but from Lintz to this Place, instead of Vines, there are Plantations of Hops.

Munich, in the German Tongue Munchen, stands in the middle of a large Plain, and in the Center of Bavaria, of which it is the Capital City. The Walls of it are washed by the River Iser; 'tis a small Town, but better built than fortified, for within these few Years several fine Houses have been259 rais'd in it. The Elector's Palace is one of the biggest Piles of Building in Europe, but it wants a great deal of being so handsome a Structure as Misson and several other Authors have represented it; for its Magnificence consists principally in its Bulk. The chief Front, which looks towards a very narrow Street, has the Resemblance of a fair Convent; to which the Image of the Virgin Mary over the great Gate contributes not a little. That for which 'tis held in most Esteem is the great Apartment which is call'd the Emperor's Apartment. The Connoisseurs in Painting admire the Pictures in the great Hall, which represent both Sacred and Prophane History, and are performed by the Hand of Candi. The Chimney-piece in the same Room is very much esteem'd: Among other fine Figures with which it is adorn'd, there's a Statue of Porphyry that represents Virtue holding a Spear in the Right Hand, and in the Left a gilt Palm-Branch. In 1632, when Gustavus Adolphus King of Sweden made himself Master of Munich, he thought this so beautiful a Room that he was sorry he could not get it transported to Stockholm. In the Reign of Ferdinand Mary, Grandfather to the present Elector, great part of the Palace of Munich was reduc'd to Ashes, which Accident was, 'tis said, the Occasion of that Prince's Death; for being at Straubingen when he received the sad News of the Fire, he took Horse immediately and rode with such Fury to Munich that he receiv'd a Fall which in a little time prov'd his Death.

The present Elector Charles-Albert-Cajetan has embellish'd the Palace with a new Apartment, which, tho' not so big as the Emperor's, exceeds it in Magnificence. 'Tis adorn'd with noble Pictures, antique Busts, and Vases plac'd upon[111] Tables of very260 great Value; and among other Things there's the Picture of the Virgin done by St. Luke.

There's a secret Passage from the Palace thro' little Galleries to all the Churches and Convents in the Town. The nearest Church is that of the Theatins, which together with their Monastery was built by Maria-Adelaide of Savoy Wife to Ferdinand-Mary. The Fryars of this Convent must be twenty seven in number, and all Men of Quality. They subsist by charitable Donations; but dare not ask Alms, and must wait for such Provisions as Providence shall please to send them. When they have suffer'd extreme Want at any Time for three Days together, they are permitted to ring a Bell as a Token of their Distress; but it has been observ'd that this never happen'd above twice since their first Establishment, because the Electors are too charitable to let them want. The Tomb of the Princes of Bavaria is in the Church of these honest Fryars.

The Church of our Lady is the parochial Church of Munich. In it is the stately Tomb of the Emperor Lewis of Bavaria who died of Poison. 'Tis adorn'd with a great many fine Figures of Brass and Marble. In this Church the Elector on the 24th of April last instituted the Order of St. George, by Authority of Pope Benedict XIII. The Ceremony was perform'd with a vast deal of Pomp, and the Elector of Cologn officiated at the High Mass. The Promotion consisted of three Grand Priors, six Grand Crosses, a Commander, and six Knights. Some time after this first Promotion the Elector made a second, in which he appointed one Grand Cross, and nine Knights. 'Tis said there will speedily be a third Promotion of eight more Knights, the whole Number being to consist of forty[112].


The Elector intends to annex Commanderies to his Order. They who are admitted into it must give Proofs of their Extraction from sixteen Descents; and this is so strictly observ'd that his most Serene Electoral Highness, as Grand Master of the Order, has renounc'd all Power of granting any Dispensation from it. According to the Statutes of this Order all the Knights are oblig'd to be Catholics, to defend the Faith and the Church, to protect Widows and Orphans, and to practise all the Christian Virtues. The Badge of the Order is a large Sky-blue Ribbon border'd about the breadth of an Inch with a black and white Stripe; and at the end of the Ribbon hangs a Cross enamell'd with blue, in the middle of which there is a St. George.

The Church and Convent of the Reverend Fathers the Jesuits are two very magnificent Structures. The Roof of the Church which is one single Nave is a Work of Skill and Ingenuity, wherein the Apertures are contriv'd with very great Art; for which reason, the Curious look upon this Fabric as a Master-piece of Architecture.

The Church of the Reverend Fathers of St. Austin, tho' but of a moderate Size, contains Beauties that are not always to be met with in greater Fabrics. The Pictures with which it is adorn'd are highly esteem'd, and good Judges agree there are few that can parallel them.

Tho' the Houses of Munich are all very well built, there are few that can be call'd Hotels or Palaces. The Count Piosas a Piedmontese has caus'd one to be built of late Years which is a considerable Structure with regard to the true Proportions of its Outside, and to the ingenious Distribution of the Apartments, which have fine Decorations and good Furniture.

The Court of Bavaria observes most of the Customs of the Court of Vienna in matters of Ceremony,262 but as for the rest, their Way of living is different; here being more Freedom, and more Diversion.

The Elector Charles-Albert delights in Pleasures and bodily Exercise, and acquits himself therein with a Grace. He is a comely Personage, and has a grave, noble, and majestic Air, so that he is taken for a proud Man; yet few Princes are more gracious and more civil to Strangers, and to his Subjects also he is easy of Access. He was full of Life and Spirit when he was a Prince, and now that he is a Sovereign is become sedate and moderate. He is genteel, talks French, Italian, and Latin well, is Master of History, and perfectly acquainted with the Interest of Princes in general, and that of his own Family in particular. He sticks to Business, and above all seems to be very earnest in redressing his Finances which he found in great Disorder when he acceded to the Electorate. The Elector was born the 6th of August, 1697. He is Son of Maximilian-Emanuel famous for his Victories and for his Disgrace, and of Theresa-Cunegunda-Sobieski, Daughter of John Sobieski King of Poland. When Charles came into the World he had a Brother living who was born of the Arch-Duchess Mary-Maximilian, Emanuel's first Wife. This young Prince who all Europe expected wou'd be the Successor of Charles II. King of Spain, dying at Brussels the 6th of February, 1699, Charles thereby became the Electoral Prince: He was bred up at Munich with four of his Brothers, but both he and his Brothers surrender'd Prisoners to the Emperor Joseph after the Battle of Hochstet, which subjected all Bavaria to his Imperial Majesty. That Monarch had the young Princes remov'd to Gratz, where he caus'd them to be treated in a manner not so suitable to their high Birth as to their decay'd Fortune. When Joseph died, his Successor Charles VI. used the Princes263 with less Severity, caus'd them to be honourably attended, and sent them Masters to instruct them; and upon the Peace of Rastadt which reinstated the Elector Maximilian-Emanuel in his Dominions, the Princes his Children were restor'd to him. They finish'd their Studies at Munich, after which the Elector sent the four eldest to Rome, where the second, whose Name was Duke Philip, died not long after he had been chose Bishop of Munster and Paderborn. Charles returning from Italy went to Vienna, made the Campaign of Belgrade, and some Years after that, he marry'd Mary-Amelia-Anne of Austria, the late Emperor Joseph's second Daughter. In 1725, Charles and his three Brothers were at Fontainbleau, at the Marriage of Lewis XV. and next Year he succeeded his Father who died at Munich lamented as he was ador'd by his Courtiers.

The Electoress who is a little Woman, very much resembles the Empress her Mother, and has more Vivacity than is common to the Princes of the House of Austria. She prefers Hunting to all other Pleasures, and there are few Days but she partakes of that Diversion with the Elector, who, as well as the Princes his Brothers, is fond of it.

The Elector has by his Marriage two[113] Princes and two Princesses. The eldest of the Sons who has the Title of the Electoral Prince is call'd Maximilian-Joseph, and was born the 28th of March, 1727. His most serene Electoral Highness's three Brothers are Duke Ferdinand, the Elector of Cologn, and the Bishop of Freisingen and Ratisbon. Of these Princes Duke Ferdinand is the only one who resides at Munich. His most serene Highness is a Lieutenant-General, and has a Regiment of Cuirassiers in the Emperor's Service. He is also a Knight of the Golden Fleece, and Grand Prior of the Order of St. George. He marry'd Mary-Ann-Caroline of264 Newbourg, by whom he has two Sons and one Daughter. I have already told you that he was educated with the Elector his Brother, with whom he made the Campaign of Belgrade, travell'd several times to Italy, and last of all to France, where those Princes were admir'd for their Splendor, their Politeness, their good Taste, and their fine Understanding. One shan't find a Man more affable than Duke Ferdinand who is even ador'd at Munich, and is dearly belov'd by the Elector his Brother. The Duchess his Wife who is the best-natur'd Princess in the World makes grand Entertainments, and is particularly civil to Strangers.

The Bishop of Freisingen and Ratisbon spends more of his Time at Munich than in his Diocese. He is a Prince of great Penetration, Spirit and Vivacity, is generous, liberal, and charitable, extremely civil, and 'tis impossible to be acquainted with him without adding Love to that Respect and Veneration which are due to his Birth and Character. He enter'd very young into Orders, and was consecrated Bishop by his Brother the Elector of Cologn. 'Twas thought at first that he wou'd have made but an indifferent Ecclesiastic, but he has demonstrated that he knows how to reconcile the Gravity of a Prelate with the Magnanimity of a Temporal Prince.

The Court of Bavaria is without dispute the most gallant, and the politest in Germany. We have a French Comedy here together with Balls and Gaming every Day, and a Concert of Music three Times a Week, at which all the Company is mask'd; and after the Concert there's Gaming and Dancing. These public Assemblies, at which the Elector and the whole Court are present, bring in a great Revenue to the Elector's Valets de Chambre; for besides the Money which every one pays at Entrance, they are also paid for the Cards, and are265 concern'd in almost all the Banks; so that those Domestics have almost all the Cash of the Nobility, with whom they don't scruple neither to rank themselves. Besides these noisy Pleasures we have others that are more tranquil, I mean those of civil Society. Of this kind there's more here than in the other Towns of Germany; but more still among the Foreigners that are in the Elector's Service than among the Bavarians; for these are generally proud, tho' 'tis certainly more owing to their Opinion that it gives them a good Air to be so than to their Temper; and they actually become more sociable when they are made sensible that their grand Airs are not astonishing.

The Title of Count is as common here as at Vienna, and the Bavarian Counts have no greater Privileges than those of Austria, for they are as much Subjects as the meanest Gentlemen. I find that those in Places, and who bear any Rank at Court are much more polite than others. The Counts de Thirheim, Torring, and Preising who have the chief Employments are so civil that I believe there's few Foreigners but will give them their Encomium.

The Elector has a very large Houshold, and a number of great Officers. I'll mention some of them to you.

The Count Maximilian de Torring-Seefeldt is Steward of the Elector's Houshold, a Minister of State, and Knight of the Golden Fleece. This Nobleman who is advanc'd in Years, is good-natur'd and civil, speaks little, is naturally grave, not fond of Pomp, and lives retir'd in the middle of a Court, but when he makes any Entertainment does it with Grandeur. He never once abandon'd the Elector Maximilian-Emanuel his former Master, but follow'd him in his Fortunes both good and bad.


The Count Sigismond de Thirheim is Great Chamberlain, a Minister of State, and Grand Croix of the Order of St. George. He is very tall, and tho' his Air is not the most affable, he is courteous and civil. He lives very nobly, and does the Honours of the Court very handsomely; consequently he is generally beloved and esteem'd. He was Governor of the Elector, who, contrary to most Princes that are not apt to retain an Esteem for those who once had the Care of their Education, gives great Proofs of his Regard for the Count de Thirheim.

The Count Maximilian de Fugger is Grand Marshal[114]. As he does not live at Munich, I have nothing particular to tell you of him.

The Count Maximilian de Preysing Master of the Horse, President of the Chamber of Finances, a Minister of State, and Grand Croix of the Order of St. George, is a very polite Nobleman, but serious and grave to the last degree. 'Tis difficult for any Man to be more attach'd to his Religion, to have more Candor, and to be more upright than this Minister. His Probity has brought Envy upon him, but it has procur'd him the Elector's intire Confidence, of which however the Count makes no farther Advantage than is requisite for his Master's Business. He is accus'd of being close-fisted, and of dissuading the Elector from giving Gratuities; but 'tis agreed that he is very charitable to the Poor. 'Tis a hard matter for a Minister who has the Direction of the Finances to please every body, and he is commonly the Butt of public Censure.

The Count de Rechberg Great Huntsman[115], Minister of State, President of the Council of War, Lieutenant-General, and Grand Croix of the Order of St. George, is Commander in Chief of the Elector's267 Forces: He accompany'd the late Elector to France where he acquir'd the Reputation of an experienc'd skilful General.

Ignatius-Joseph Count de Torring is a Minister of State, Grand Master of the Artillery, and a Grand Croix of St. George. He followed the late Elector into France, and after that Prince was restor'd he went as Minister Plenipotentiary to the Imperial Court, where he negotiated the Marriage of the present Elector with the Archduchess, youngest Daughter to the late Emperor Joseph.

I cou'd tell you of many other Persons of Distinction at the Court of Bavaria, only I fear that being too particular wou'd tire your Patience. The Ministers who bear the greatest Sway are the Counts Maximilian de Preysing and de Torring, and M. d'Unertel. The first is Director of the Finances; the second has the Province of Foreign Affairs; and the third takes care of Affairs Domestic and Military. These three Ministers are the Arbiters of Bavaria, and to them the Tribunals of the several Provinces must apply.

Bavaria is divided into four Cantons or Provinces, viz. the Cantons of Munich, Burghausen, Landstrut and Straubingen. Each of these Provinces has a Regency or Parliament; and an Appeal lies from Sentences therein pass'd to the Elector's Council of State.

'Tis certain that Bavaria is one of the best States in the Empire. 'Tis said that it brings in seven Millions of Florins, and I have been assured by Persons who have Opportunities of being inform'd of the State of the Finances, that there was a time when the late Elector received eleven Millions per Ann. The Riches of Bavaria are owing to the Exportation of Salt and Corn, and to the Consumption of the Beer brew'd in the Country, which is as good as any in the World. Tirol, and the Country 268of Saltzbourg, have almost all the Corn which they spend from Bavaria, and the Elector has a Florin for every Sack that is exported. Another thing which is a Treasure to Bavaria is the Fir-Trees, a Wood that serves for every Use that can be imagin'd, whether for Building, or for Houshold-Stuff. There is not a Province in the Empire where Provisions are cheaper, and in the mean time there's a vast Home-Consumption; for besides that the Bavarians love good Eating and Drinking, the Country is very populous; and 'tis computed that the Inhabitants of Munich alone are above 40,000.

Of all the Sovereigns in Europe, next to the King of France, the Elector of Bavaria has the finest Pleasure-Houses, for which he may thank the Elector his Father who had a wonderful good Fancy and Judgment.

Nymphenbourg a short League from Munich is a charming Place. The Castle is to be seen a great way off by reason of its Situation in the middle of a great Plain, so that from the Apartments of the second Story one discovers a vast Tract of Country, and an infinite number of Rural Beauties that are in the Neighbourhood of Munich. Mary-Adelaide de Savoy (Mother to Maximilian-Emanuel) who was extremely fond of the Arts and Sciences, and knew them perfectly well, was the Person who laid the Foundations of that Castle. The Man that she employ'd to build it was an Italian Architect whom she sent for out of Italy for the purpose. But all this Palace consisted only of one great Pavilion. Maximilian-Emanuel thinking the Castle too small, caused several Mansions to be added to it, together with fine Stables and grand Gardens; in short, he put the whole into that magnificent Condition we see it in at this day. His most serene Electoral Highness lets the Pavilion stand in pure respect to the Memory of his Mother who built it,269 but 'tis pity he does; for 'tis much higher than the rest of the Edifice, and is no good Ornament to the main Building. In order to give you a more perfect Idea of this House, I will tell you that it looks towards a great and magnificent Canal terminated at each end by a spacious Basin adorn'd with Water-works and double Rows of Trees on each side which form the Avenues. We enter into the Castle by an Ascent of Marble Steps: The first Room we come to is a very great high Salon adorn'd with Architecture of Plaister of Paris very well executed. From each side of this Salon there is a Passage into several Apartments of which I shall not stop to give you the Detail, because I don't think it in my power to convey a suitable Idea to you of the Richness of the Furniture, and all the fine things that are in it. Imagine only that the late Elector who had an exquisite Taste, and a noble Soul, spar'd no Cost to adorn these Apartments. I pass to the Gardens which one enters from the Great Hall by a Descent of Marble Steps. The first thing that strikes the Eye is a Parterre of a vast Extent, at the Entrance of which there is a great Bason ornamented with a Group of Figures of mill'd Lead gilt with Water-Gold representing Flora receiving Flowers from Nymphs and Cupids. At the end of the Parterre there is one of the most agreeable Woods in the World, which is cut by three Walks in form of a Goose's Foot. The middlemost fronts the great Pavilion of the Castle, and has a large Canal in the middle of it of which one can't see the end: 'Tis terminated by a fine Cascade form'd by several Blocks of Marble, and adorn'd with fine Statues. The second Walk on the right hand leads one to the Mall which forms a Semi-Circle, and is one of the finest and longest I ever saw. At the Entrance of this Mall there is a Pavilion call'd Pagodebourg (the Castle of the Pagode;) 'tis two Stories270 high, and built in form of the Pagodes Temples. I believe there never was any thing prettier. All the Furniture of this little Palace is Indian, of a charming Contrivance and Elegancy; and the whole is so well laid out that notwithstanding the smallness of the House, the Elector has every Convenience in it that can be desir'd. Over-against Pagodebourg on the other side of the Canal in the third Walk is Badenbourg (the Castle of Baths) which is a more considerable Building, and has all the Beauty of the Modern Bagnios. The Baths are spacious and lin'd with Marble. There is an Apartment consisting of several Pieces adorned with Stucco, and Pictures representing Venus in the Bath, Diana in the Water with her Nymphs, and the other Subjects of the Fable. The whole Apartment glitters with Gold, and the Furniture of it is rich, and of a charming Fancy. This beautiful House is surrounded with fine Pieces of Water adorned with Cascades and Statues. These Baths wou'd most certainly deserve a particular Description, and I am angry with myself for not being able to give it.

'Tis certain that next to the Gardens of Versailles, there is none so magnificent as those of Nymphenbourg; which is a Place that Art and Nature seem to have joined their Forces in order to render noble and agreeable.

The Castle of Schleisheim is a more regular Building than that of Nymphenbourg, and makes so grand an Appearance that I don't know any House in Germany that can compare with it. The great Stair-Case and the Salon in the large Apartment are the only Pieces in their kind. They are fac'd with Marble, and painted in a most correct and beautiful manner.

Taco, Furstenriet and Starenberg are Houses fit for the Solacement of a Great Prince, and will be271 Testimonies to Posterity of the Elector Maximilian-Emanuel's grand and happy Taste.

Of all the Elector's Houses Nymphenbourg is that where the Court resides most. It is as well a Hunting-House as a Pleasure-House, by reason of a Park in the Neighbourhood which is eight Leagues in compass, and cut out into a great number of fine long Roads. Here the Elector comes to rouze the Stag; and there is a little Park adjoining to the Gardens, which, as well as the adjacent Fields, abounds with Pheasants, Partridges, and all other Game of that sort.

When the Court is at Nymphenbourg the Electress has a Drawing-Room there three times a Week where there is Gaming, and when that is over the Ladies sup with their Electoral Highnesses, who sometimes admit Gentlemen of their Court to their Table, but commonly all Foreigners. They who prefer taking the Air to Gaming, find open Calashes every Evening drawn by two Horses, at the bottom of the Steps on the side of the Garden: A Gentleman drives the Calash, two Ladies ride in it, and a Gentleman stands behind. And such as prefer the Water find very neat Gondolas finely gilt upon the Canal at their Service; so that there is no want of any thing to add to the Pleasures of all sorts in this inchanting Place.

Were I to enumerate to you all the various Pleasures of this Court I should never have done. For the present I shall confine myself to these already mentioned. I am resolved to set out in three or four days for Stutgard. I shall lie at Augsbourg, and at Ulm. A Frost which has held for a Month without ceasing has made the Roads so hard that I hope I shall roll along finely. I expect to hear from you at Stutgard. Pray take care that I be not disappointed, and believe that I am very sincerely, &c.




SIR,Stutgard, Jan. 14, 1730.  

There is nothing remarkable between Munich and Augsbourg except it be the fine Abbey of Furstenfeldt, which is in possession of the Bernardin Fryars. It was founded by Lewis the Severe Duke of Bavaria to attone for his Wickedness in putting Joan of Brabant his Wife unjustly to death. The History of Bavaria relates the Fact thus: Joan was a very beautiful Princess. Her Husband who was doatingly fond of her being obliged to take a Journey, put her under the Guard of one of his Aunts. While he was gone Joan wrote frequently to her Husband, and sometimes to his Prime Minister and Favourite. One day she put her Letters into the hands of a Domestic, charging him to deliver them as they were directed; but the Man made a Mistake, and gave the Letter which was for the Duke to his Favourite, and that which was for the Minister to the Duke. Lewis thought that his Wife's Style was too obliging to a Subject, and was even mad with Jealousy. He first kill'd his Favourite, and then taking horse posted to Donawert where his Wife was. He came to the Castle in the Night-time, murder'd the Porter with his own hand, put his Aunt and all with whom he had left his Wife in charge to Death; and then like another Herod, caused the unfortunate Joan to be beheaded. The Night after this barbarous Action, the Heirs of273 Lewis's Head turn'd gray, tho' he was but twenty-eight Years old; which Accident made him sensible of his Guilt and of the Innocence of his Wife. As his Barbarity was great, so was his Repentance. He went on foot to Rome to beg the Pope's Absolution for his Sins, and obtain'd it on condition that he wou'd cause a Church to be built, and found a Monastery in his Dominions. Lewis returning from Rome founded the Abbey at Furstenfeldt. The first Establishment was only for eight Fryars; but the Piety of the Princes of Bavaria having wrought upon them to bestow their Favours upon this House, it now maintains thirty Fryars and an Abbot, whom the Monks have the Prerogative to chuse out of their own Body. These good Fathers are actually erecting a very stately Church, and they enjoy all the Conveniences of Life.

The Country between Munich and Augsbourg is level and intermix'd with Woods and Plains. Augsbourg which is a Bishop's See, and an Imperial City, is the Capital of Swabia, and one of the biggest and handsomest Towns in Germany. A small Branch of the Leck passes thro' it, and supplies it with plenty of Water. The Streets of Augsbourg are broad, strait and lightsome; the Houses well built, and many of 'em full of Paintings. The Inhabitants look upon Augustus to be the Founder of their City. 'Tis true that Emperor sent a Colony thither, but the Town was founded before. It is not said what Name it went by before the Name of Augusta Vindelicorum was given it to distinguish it from the other Towns that bore the Name of Augusta. The clearing up of this difficulty is what I shall leave to the Antiquarians, and confine my self to the Transactions at Augsbourg for about two hundred Years past. What will render this City for ever famous is the Confession of Faith which the Protestant Princes presented here to the Emperor Charles V.274 in the year 1530. Tho' the Protestants were at that time very powerful in Augsbourg they cou'd not keep their ground, for they were drove out by the Bavarians; but Gustavus Adolphus restored them in 1632, since which time they have kept their Footing there, and share the Government with the Roman Catholics. In 1687, the Emperor, Spain, the United Provinces, and the Electors of Saxony, Brandenbourg, and the Palatinate concluded that famous League at Augsbourg against Lewis XIV. who was beginning to inforce the Claim of the Duchess of Orleans his Sister-in-law to the Succession of the Elector Palatine Charles-Lewis, who was that Princess's Brother. In 1690, Joseph Archduke of Austria King of Hungary, the eldest Son of the Emperor Leopold, was consecrated and crown'd King of the Romans at Augsbourg, at which Ceremony the Emperor, the Empress, the Electors of Mentz, Cologn, Triers, Bavaria, and the Palatinate were personally present.

In 1703, the Elector Maximilian of Bavaria, made himself Master of Augsbourg in one Week's time. This City had demanded and obtained a Neutrality, but having afterwards received an Imperial Garrison the Elector made use of that Pretence to lay Siege to it. He caused the Fortifications to be demolish'd, foreseeing, no doubt, that he should not be able to keep the Place. Augsbourg was set free again by the Battle of Hochstet, and still enjoys its Freedom under its own Magistrates, the Bishop having no Authority in the City as to Temporals. The present Bishop is of the Family of Neubourg, and Brother to the Elector Palatine. This Prince has the same Goodness of Temper which is so natural to all his Family. As his Bishoprick is not one of the most considerable in Germany, so his Court is none of the biggest, but275 his Houshold is well regulated, and every thing conducted in it with Order and Splendor.

The Chapter of the Cathedral consists of Persons of Quality who are oblig'd to make Proof of their Nobility. The Canons have the Prerogative of chusing their Bishop, who like all the Prelates of Germany is a Sovereign Prince. He dwells at Augsbourg, tho' he ought to reside at Dillingen. The Episcopal Palace is old, and not very commodious: It joins to the Cathedral, which is a Gothic gloomy unwieldy Fabric, but its Ornaments are very rich.

The most considerable Building is the Town-house, a very substantial Pile built all of Freestone except the Portico, which is of Marble. The Rooms are very fine, and the great Hall especially is to the last degree magnificent. The Walls are cover'd with Painting, being such Emblems and Devices as have relation to the Government. Nothing can be more beautiful than the Cieling which consists all of Compartments whose Frames are carv'd and gilt in an extraordinary manner, the whole enrich'd with Pictures and other Ornaments perfectly well dispos'd.

Before the Town-house there's a very stately Fountain, where, among other fine Figures of Brass, the Statue of Augustus which is represented in a most noble Attitude is highly esteem'd.

The City of Augsbourg is in my Opinion something like Antwerp with regard to the Spaciousness of the Streets and the Substantialness of its Buildings; and formerly when the Venetians were Masters of all the Commerce, it resembled it in Trade; for Augsbourg was then the Staple for Merchandize, which was from thence transported to a great part of Europe. But since London and Amsterdam are become the Warehouses of the whole World, and the Commerce of Venice decays, the greatest Trade of Augsbourg consists in Goldsmith's Wares, with which this City furnishes Germany, Poland, and in general276 almost all the North. These Wares are much cheaper here than elsewhere, and when the Patterns are furnish'd People are well serv'd. Notwithstanding the Decay of its Commerce there are several very rich Families; but whether any can do what Fugger did to the Emperor Charles V. is a Question. That Monarch passing thro' Augsbourg lodg'd at Fugger's House, who entertain'd him like an Emperor. The Fewel he burnt in every Chimney was Cedar, and after the Repast, which was extraordinary sumptuous, Fugger took a Bond for a very considerable Sum which the Emperor ow'd him, and threw it into the Fire.

The Nobility assemble commonly every Evening at the Three Kings Inn where I quarter. There's a very fine Hall well lighted, where they game, club for a Supper, and after Supper dance. Be not scandaliz'd that the Nobility have their Assembly at an Inn, it being one of the best Houses in Germany and the most superb Inn in Europe. There's very good Attendance. I have supp'd at it twice, and one cannot be better accommodated in any House whatsoever.

From Augsbourg I came to Ulm another Imperial City. Tho' all the Country is even, yet 'tis very tiresome to Travellers because of the Pavement of the Causeys; but Thanks to the Snow which has levell'd the Ways, I have not been much incommoded; tho' on the other hand I had like to have been lost in the Snow, such a quantity of it having fallen for two Days that one could not distinguish the Roads. I found my self at a Post-Stage where my Guide, tho' he was a Man that had grown grey in the Business of Postilion upon the same Road, did not know the Way. I was in danger every Moment of tumbling into some Ditch, when just as we entered a certain Valley my Postilion sounded a Horn to give notice to any277 Carriages or Horses that might happen to meet us to make way, when a Voice from the Hollow call'd out to the Postilion, Who's that? Stephen? Oh! cry'd the Postilion, Is it you, Christopher? God be thank'd that I met with you! Then turning towards me, he said with an Air of Satisfaction, Now you are out of all Danger, for here's a blind Man that will conduct us to the Place we are going to. I thought the Droll jok'd with me, but we had not gone many Yards farther before I really saw a poor Wretch who could not see, yet offer'd to be my Guide, and promis'd he wou'd conduct me very well. I abandon'd my self to him, and he walk'd so fast before my Chaise that the Horses follow'd him in a gentle Trot till we came safe to the Stage. There he told me that 'twas fifteen Years ago that he lost his Sight by the breaking of an Imposthume in his Eyes, after having suffer'd such horrible Pains for two Months that he bless'd himself for the Loss of his Sight; so that when I ask'd him if he was not very much concern'd at it, he said that at first it made him melancholy for some time, but that he always comforted himself by the Remembrance of the Torture he had undergone in the Loss of his Sight, and that he thought it were much better to be blind and to have his Health than to see, and suffer the Pains that he had endur'd; but that now he was so us'd to his Condition it gave him no Concern. Indeed, when I ask'd him, if he should not be very glad to recover his Sight? he said, Yes, if it were possible; but that if he must undergo the same Pains to recover it as he had felt in the Loss of it, he had rather by a thousand times continue blind. When I told him of my Surprize that he should find out the Way better than those who see, he told me that since he had been blind he came regularly on Sundays and Saints Days to the Place where we were to hear Mass, and that therefore the Road278 was become very familiar to him. He added, that he sometimes went alone to beg three or four Leagues from his Village, which was a quarter of a League from the hollow Way where I met with him. I sent the Man away, after giving him some Relief; and could not but admire the divine Providence, which tho' it had afflicted the poor Wretch with what to me seems more terrible than Death, gave him Strength to bear his Misfortune with Patience.

The City of Ulm is not above half as big as Augsbourg, but is much better fortify'd. The Danube which washes its Walls, becomes navigable at this Place, and a Boat goes from hence every Week for Vienna, which is a great Ease to People who are not in a Condition to lay out much Money; for it costs but a Creutzer, which is one Penny a German Mile. Tho' the City of Ulm maintains a very numerous Garison, and is very well fortify'd, and furnished with a good Arsenal, the Elector Maximilian of Bavaria took it by Surprize in 1702, it being a Place necessary for him to secure his Dominions on that side, and to facilitate the Passage of the French Troops that were to join his Army. General Thungen robb'd him of this Conquest the 10th of Sept. 1704, after about a Week's Siege.

Then it was that Ulm became again subject to its Magistrates who are all Lutherans. The Catholics cannot enjoy Offices, but have several Churches. This City drives a great Trade in Linnen, but few of the Gentry live here except the Patricians who are not more sociable than those of Nuremberg and Augsbourg. The Burghers and the Women in particular go dress'd like those at Augsbourg. To see them go to and come from Church is next kin to seeing a Masquerade, and 'tis certainly one of the most diverting Sights in this City, where really I did not give my self time to be tired, for I set out279 again the very next Day after I came, and arrived in this Town, where I have now rested my self a couple of Days.

Stutgard lies in the middle of a Valley surrounded with Vineyards. 'Tis pretty large, has Streets broad and strait, but the Houses are of Timber. 'Tis the Capital of the Duchy of Wirtemberg, and was formerly the Residence of the Sovereigns of the Country; but Eberhard-Lewis the present Duke of Wirtemberg established his Seat some Years ago at[116] Ludwigsbourg, a new City and a new Palace of his own building.

The Duke's Castle is an old Structure of Freestone, compos'd of four Piles of Building, flank'd at each Angle by a Tower. The Walls of it are wash'd by Ditches which give it the disagreeable Air of a Prison. The Duchess who is the Duke's Wife, and Sister to the Margrave of Baden-Dourlach, has an Apartment in this Palace. You know that this Princess and her Husband don't live well together. The Prince[117] about twenty Years ago preferr'd a Mistress to her[118], who certainly has neither the Beauty, nor the Merit of the Duchess. The Princess is remarkably patient under the Indifference of a Husband, and the Contempt of the most haughty Rival that ever was. The frequent Visits paid her by her only Son are all the Comfort she has. The Court neglects her, no body dares280 to go near her, and whoever pays the Duchess the Respects that are naturally due to her, is sure to incur the merciless Hatred of the Mistress. I may be able perhaps to give you a farther Account of this Princess and her Rival when I have been at Ludwigsbourg, whither I propose to go to-morrow, and where I hope for a Line from you.

I am, &c.



SIR,Ludwigsbourg, Feb. 2, 1730.  

The Duke of Wirtemberg is a Prince of a middling Size, and before he grew so fat was very well shap'd. He is genteel, affable, and well-belov'd, and few Princes treat their Courtiers with more Familiarity. He has been one of the best Dancers of his Time. He also sits perfectly well on horseback, and performs all bodily Exercises with infinite Gracefulness, and incomparable Dexterity. He takes pleasure sometimes in driving his own Coaches, and I have seen him drive eight Horses without a Postilion, and manage them with as much Ease as if there was but one Horse in the Harness. He is a Prince that loves Magnificence, is generous, gallant, and amorous. Tho' 'tis above twenty Years that he has kept one and the same Mistress, he is as passionately fond of her, and gives as shining Proofs of it as ever. During the last War his most Serene Highness commanded the army of the Empire on the Upper Rhine. He has281 an only Son marry'd to Henrietta of Prussia, Daughter of the Margrave Philip, Brother to Frederic I. King of Prussia. This young Prince is called the hereditary Prince. He is short of Stature, but handsome. He has one of the best Tempers that can be desir'd in a Sovereign, being humane, good-natur'd, affable, and civil. It may be said that the Father and the Son are the two politest Men at the Court of Wirtemberg. The Father has spent several Years in Holland, Lorrain, Geneva, Turin, Italy and France. When he return'd from his Travels he went and marry'd at Berlin. He has an only Daughter who is very amiable. The hereditary Prince is vastly fond of Grandeur, Dancing, Plays and Music: He fatigues himself very much, and commonly rides seven or eight Horses in a Morning. His tender Constitution and the little Care he takes of it make me apprehensive he will not live to be an old Man[119].

The hereditary Princess has an Air of Grandeur and Majesty suitable to her Rank. She is tall and handsome, has a noble Mien, and tho' she is not a regular Beauty, 'tis certain that she has a very good Look. She is extremely grave, and does not seem to take a great share in the Pleasures of the Court. She seems to be most of all taken with Dress, and her Apparel is not only splendid but well-fancy'd. Her Royal Highness, which is a Title given her because she is the Daughter of a King's Brother, is extremely gracious and civil to all Mankind, but particularly to those whom she knew at the Court of Prussia. She does me the honour to discourse with me sometimes. I find she thinks very justly, and that her Sentiments are very agreeable to her Birth. This Princess is of the Calvinist Religion, and she keeps a Chaplain who preaches to her in her own Apartment; so that now while the Prince282 Alexander de Wirtemberg is here, there are three Chapels in the Castles of as many different Religions.

The Countess de Wurben is the first Lady at Court next to her Royal Highness. She has been the Duke's sole Favourite for a long time. She is Gravenitz by Name, and is descended of a noble Family in Mecklembourg. The Duke first fell in love with her when she was but a Girl. She had the Assurance after she had been some Years in Favour to insist that the Duke should get a Divorce from the Duchess his Wife, by whom he had a Son, and marry her. When the Duchess was inform'd of her Rival's Demand she sued for the Emperor's Protection, and obtain'd it. That Monarch signified to the Duke that he would do well to remove his Favourite, who was therefore oblig'd to retire to Swisserland. The Duke who could not bear her out of his sight, followed her thither and stay'd there with her for some time, but at last being oblig'd to return to his Dominions, and not being able to take Madamoiselle de Gravenitz to him without reviving the just Suspicions of the Duchess, he look'd out for a Husband for his Mistress. The Count de Wurben a Gentleman of a good Family, and in mean Circumstances, but a very eager Stickler for the Favours of Fortune at any rate whatsoever, made an offer to marry Madamoiselle de Gravenitz. She was bestowed upon him with a Pension of 24000 Florins, and the Character of the Duke's Envoy Extraordinary to the Imperial Court. He engag'd never to make use of the Husband's Prerogative and never to require of his Wife to leave the Court. Upon this Condition he obtain'd even before he set out for Vienna the Office of Landthoffmeister or Lord Lieutenant of Wirtemberg, which is the highest Dignity in the Country. When the Marriage was concluded, Madam de Wurben returned to Stutgard, where she283 had Lodgings in the Palace. All her Aim was to insult the Duchess, in hopes of provoking her to commit something so outragious as might embroil her with the Duke, and make him resolve never to forgive her; but this Princess equally virtuous and prudent, and always patient, bore all this Mortification without murmuring. The Mistress, who could not endure to see her in the Palace, obtain'd an Order from the Duke for her Retirement to the Estate which was settled on her for her Jointure; but the Duchess would never comply to it, saying, that if she had not been unfortunate enough in the Loss of her Husband she would not retire to her Jointure. This Refusal, how reasonable soever it was, affronted the Duke, who acquainted the Duchess that he did not look upon her any longer as his Wife, and gave orders that she should be treated no longer as a Sovereign. During this, Madam de Wurben became a Widow; whereupon all the Hopes reviv'd that she had presumed to entertain when a Maid. She persuaded the Duke to leave Stutgard, and to found Ludwigsbourg. As soon as this House was in a Condition to be occupy'd, the Duke and his Mistress came and liv'd in it. There's no sort of Intrigue which this Favourite has not try'd to put herself in the Duchess's Rank, but hitherto she has not been able to succeed. Mean-while she enjoys all the Honours of a Sovereign. 'Tis at her Apartments that the Court is kept. Whenever the Duke plays 'tis there, and there it is he diets. In short she is treated in every thing upon a par with her Royal Highness. Her Excellency (which is the only Title given to this imperious Favourite since the Death of her Husband) is drawing on to fifty Years of Age, and yet carries a mighty Sway. She employs all the Remedies imaginable to cancel the Injuries which Time has done to her Complexion, and also to conceal her natural Temper; for Artifice284 and Dissimulation are the Compounds of her Character. She is so eager in amassing of Riches that she makes it her chief Business. While she pretends a mighty Respect for the Duke, she expects like another Astarte that every Knee should bend and tremble before her. As she is the Reservoir of Favour, greater Court is made to her than to the Duke himself, and Woe be to those that dare to disoblige her! I must own however that she knows how to behave as well as any Woman in Germany, when she has a mind to shew her Politeness. The worst on't is, that she is not always so inclin'd; for she has been so long us'd to give herself great Airs that they are become habitual to her. The principal Offices of the Court are distributed among her Kindred or Creatures. Her Brother the Count de Gravenitz is Grand Marshal and Prime Minister. I hardly ever saw a handsomer Man: I must also do him the justice to declare that he is as civil as his Sister is haughty. Some Years ago the Duke obtain'd for him the Dignity of a Count of the Empire, in which Quality he was admitted also at the Dyet, and he has a Seat there on the Bench of the Counts of Swabia. His Authority is never oppos'd but by his Sister, to whom he will not always be obedient. 'Tis said their Divisions have sometimes gone so far that the Favourite has done all in her power to turn out her Brother, and he has try'd all Ways in his turn to remove his Sister, but the Duke has always been so good as to reconcile them. The Prime Minister and his eldest Son are honour'd with the Order of Prussia. There is no Court in Europe where there's such a Variety of Orders and Ribbons. The Duke bears alternatively the Danish Order of the Elephant, the Prussian Order of the Black Eagle, and his own Order which is that of St. Hubert.


The Hereditary Prince has the Order of Prussia and that of the Duke his Father.

The Prince Charles-Alexander wears the Fleece, and the Order of Wirtemberg[120]. Prince Lewis his Brother wears the Polish Order of the White Eagle.

The Baron de Schunck heretofore the Duke's Minister of State, and at present Great Bailiff of a Bailywic, is Knight of the Order of Dannebrog.

I should never have done were I to give you the Names of all the Knights of the Order of St. Hubert, and the many petty Sovereigns that have been the Grand Masters.

The Duke's particular or Cabinet-Council is compos'd of the Hereditary Prince and the Counts de Gravenitz, Father and Son, the Baron de Schutz, and M. de Pollnitz[121]. There are many other Counsellors of State, but not being admitted to the Cabinet-Council they are not in so much Esteem as the others.

His most Serene Highness keeps the Estimate of his Forces to himself. I think that he has now 4000 Men without reckoning his Life-Guards, which are two Companies, the finest of all the Guards in Germany. One of these Companies is commanded by the Lieutenant-General Baron de Phul, and the other by a Count of Witgenstein. They are dress'd in yellow, and are only distinguish'd by the Facing of their Clothes and their Bandeliers, 286one of which is Black and the other Red. Their Regimental Clothes are Yellow with Silver Lace. The Duke has also a Company of Cadets on Horseback, all Gentlemen. They are dress'd in Red, with black Velvet Facings and Silver Lace. They mount Guard at the Duke's Apartment only. Two of them always stand Centry before his Highness's Chamber-Door.

The Court of Wirtemberg is one of the most numerous in Germany.

There's a Grand Marshal, who as I have told you is the Count de Gravenitz, Brother to the Favourite.

A Marshal of the Court, who is second Son to the Grand Marshal.

A Travelling Marshal, who is Brother-in-law to the Prime Minister.

A Great Cup-bearer, who is the Baron de Frakenberg.

A Master of the Horse.

A Great Huntsman.

Four Chamberlains.

A Number of Gentlemen of the Bed-Chamber, and Gentlemen of the Court.

Two Captains of the Guards.

A considerable number of Counsellors of State and Aulic Counsellors.

Twenty Pages, all Men of good Families.

And finally a great many Footmen, and Officers of the Kitchen, Pantry, and Buttery.

The Duke's Stables are the best furnish'd of any in Europe. One shall not see finer Horses, or any that are better manag'd. The Hunting Equipage is also very magnificent; and I don't know one thing that is wanting. His Highness keeps a Company of French Comedians to whose Performance every body is admitted gratis. We have often Balls, Masquerades, and Concerts of Music. There287 is an Assembly at the Favourite's House every day, where the Company plays at Piquet, Quadrille, and Pharo; so that here are all the Pleasures of a great Court. The Duke's Table is serv'd with very great Cost and Delicacy, and is commonly spread for sixteen Guests. The Duke sits at the upper end, between her Royal Highness and her Excellency. The Gentlemen are plac'd according to the Rank which they derive from their Employments, and the Ladies according to the Offices which are borne by their Husbands.

There's a Ceremonial observ'd here which is not known in any other Court, viz. the Duke's Ministers give place to no Foreigner, unless he be a Minister like themselves to some Prince, or unless he be a Count of the Empire. These have so distinguish'd a Rank at this Court that all who are not Counts must give place to them. A Count of the Empire, tho' he be a Cadet in the hundredth Generation, a Lieutenant or an Ensign, as it sometimes happens, in the Duke's Service, takes place of all Ministers and great Officers who are not Counts. This is a Regulation which her Excellency made after her Brother was created a Count, to the end that her Family might have the more Honour, and that the greater Respect might be paid to her own Dignity of Countess without a County.

I have told you that the Duke had transferr'd his Residence from Stutgard to Ludwigsbourg, and the reason which made him abandon the Capital of his Dominions; but why he preferr'd the Situation of his new Town to a hundred others that he might have chose more agreeable, is what I cannot account for.

Ludwigsbourg is remote from any River, great Roads and Forests. The Duke at first only built a small Mansion-House with two advanced Wings, so disposed that the Court lay between the House and the Garden; but he has since made great Additions288 to it, and is actually building a large Mansion between the Court and the Garden, to which the Wings of the former Building are to be joined. One Frisoni, an Italian, has the direction of these Works; in which it appears that he is a much better Mason than an Architect. The new Building runs so far out that it discovers all the Effects of it. The Front of the Mansion consists of three Stories, including the Ground-Floor; but on the Garden side there are only two of a moderate Height, so that one wou'd take this Building rather for an Orangerie than for the Palace of a Sovereign. The great Stair-Case is dark, the Apartments want Light, the Chambers are long and narrow, and have very few Outlets. However, this single Building was undertaken by Frisoni for 700000 Florins, exclusive of several sorts of Materials with which he was furnished.

The old Mansion, which fronts the new, is not near so large, tho' it is three Stories high every way. The Apartments are small and too inconvenient to live in, yet no Cost has been spar'd to adorn them; Carving, Gilding, and Painting being employ'd in them with more Profusion than Judgment. The Furniture is rich, but of a very odd Fancy. The best thing in all the Palace is the Chapel, which would every where be reckon'd a fine noble Structure. But notwithstanding all the Faults which are observ'd in the Palace, it must be allow'd that whoever lives to see it finish'd will find it a magnificent Piece of Work. In the Gardens there are several Terrasses, which rising by degrees one above another, intirely bound the Prospect of the Palace. 'Tis certain that when the Duke's Architects saw this Prince resolutely determin'd to build at Ludwigsbourg, they ought at least to have advis'd him to place his Palace at the very spot where his Gardens end: In this case it would have stood in the middle of a Plain, the Apartments would not have been cramp'd by the289 Buttresses, with which the Palace is encompass'd, and the Gardens wou'd have had a gentle Descent; and for a very little Expence there might have been a fine Piece of Water at one end, betwixt them and a Coppice, which is a Walk for Pheasants.

The City of Ludwigsbourg is as irregular as the Palace; and its Scituation, which is very disadvantageous, will always render it a very incommodious Town, because of the unevenness of the Ground. Most of the Houses are of Timber, and slightly built; for those who build them do it with an Ill-will, either out of Necessity, or to please the Duke who seems to be fond of building. This Prince has ruin'd Stutgard, and will never make a good Town of Ludwigsbourg; for if the Court was absent from it but one Year, 'twou'd be one of the meanest Villages in Wirtemberg. This Town is in no respect very agreeable. The Nobility here don't seem very fond of Strangers, and there are no Entertainments but what are made by the Duke. No body here, not even the Prime Minister keeps a Table; and all the Expence of the Courtiers is in their Dress, and their Horses. Yet there is not a Prince of the Empire who gives handsomer Salaries, except the Electors; so that the Case is the very reverse here to what it is at almost all other Courts, for here People grow rich, whereas elsewhere they are beggar'd. I have known Persons that came to this Court in mean Circumstances, and in a few Years got Estates. The Duke is by nature generous and beneficent, and wou'd be more so if his Liberality was not curb'd. He has given several Gentlemen Materials for building gratis; and the Houses were no sooner up but he purchas'd them, and paid as dear for 'em as if he had not contributed a Shilling towards raising them. I have been assur'd that his most Serene Highness's Revenues amounted to four Millions of Florins. 'Tis certain that he is290 Master of one of the finest Countries in all Germany; a Country which has plenty of every thing, but Money is scarce by reason of the Fertility of the neighbouring Provinces, viz. the Palatinate, Bavaria, Franconia, and Alsace. The People are desirous of a War upon the Upper Rhine, in hopes of putting off their Commodities.

The Lutheran is the only Religion tolerated in the Duchy of Wirtemberg, tho' the Duke has permitted Frisoni the Director of his Buildings to erect a Chapel for the Use of the Catholic Workmen whom he has sent for from Italy to build the Palace; which Chapel however is design'd to be demolish'd as soon as the Works are finish'd: But I am rather inclin'd to think that the Court itself will one day have a Catholic Chapel; for if the hereditary Prince shou'd happen to die without Male-Issue, Wirtemberg will fall to the Share of Prince Alexander, (Cousin-german to the Duke) who has embraced our Religion; and who having Children by the Princess of Tour and Taxis whom he marry'd at Brussels, sees them brought up in the Catholic Faith.

I kiss your hand, and am, &c.

Since I wrote the above, the Countess de Wurben is fallen under Disgrace, which I have been told happen'd by this means.

The Duke's Carriage to his Mistress had been cold for some time, when the King of Prussia came to Ludwigsbourg and exhorted him to be reconcil'd to his Wife, in order to get Heirs. The Duke cou'd not persuade himself to take the Duchess again; but however the King's Representations prevail'd so far, as to put him quite out of conceit with his Mistress. He just kept up a bare Acquaintance with her, and that was all; which she291 perceiv'd, and made no scruple to try the most extraordinary Methods to maintain herself in Favour. The Duke having been blooded in her Presence, she secreted a Napkin stain'd with his Blood. What Use she propos'd to make of it I know not, but she carry'd it to her Apartment. The Duke's Valets de Chambre missing the Napkin acquainted their Master of it. M. de Roder, a Gentleman of the Bed-Chamber, and a Favourite of his Highness, said that no body cou'd possibly take it but the Countess, and that to be sure she did it for no good. The Duke order'd M. de Roder to go to the Countess's Apartment and enquire into the Fact. Roder ask'd for the Napkin. The Countess deny'd her having it; but Roder affirm'd he saw her take it, upon which she was in a Passion with him, and told him she wou'd make him repent of his Ill-manners to her. Roder made answer, that all the Airs she gave herself were out of season, that her Reign was over, and that he wou'd oblige her to return the Napkin. The Countess not us'd to be talk'd to at such a rate, was frighten'd, and restor'd the fatal Napkin, which completed her Ruin. The Duke, when inform'd by his Favourite of what had pass'd, sent an Order to the Countess not to stir from her Apartment: And this Prince setting out soon after for Berlin, charged the hereditary Prince his Son to command Madamoiselle de Wurben to retire to her Estate. The Countess obey'd, and being indulg'd to carry what she had a mind to along with her, retir'd to a Territory of hers depending immediately on the Empire, not many Leagues from Ludwigsbourg. There it was that she heard of the Duke's Reconciliation with the Duchess, upon the Duke's return from Berlin. This News extremely shock'd her, because she always flatter'd herself that the Prince wou'd return to her: And perceiving now that she had no Hopes of being restor'd292 to Favour by the power of her own Charms, she had a mind to try what she cou'd do by I know not what Charm in the Magic Art. To carry her Point she was under a necessity of having a little of the Duke's Blood; and she wrote to his Valet de Chambre, promising him great Rewards if he cou'd procure her some. What does the Domestic but carry the Letter to the Duke? who immediately gave Orders to Colonel Streithorst to arrest the Countess, and carry her to some Place of Security. The Colonel taking a Detachment of Soldiers along with him, contriv'd it so that he came to the Countess's Seat at Night, and immediately surrounding the House, knock'd at the Gate, but no body making answer he thunder'd so hard at the Gate, that at length Madame de Sultman the Countess's Sister put her Head out at the Window, and ask'd who it was that dar'd to make such a Noise. Streithorst told her his Name, and said he came thither by Order of the Duke. Madame de Sultman made answer that the Countess was not well, and cou'd not be spoke with. The Colonel, who knew the contrary, said, that if they did not let him in he wou'd break open the Doors; upon which they thought fit to open them. During this the Countess was got to Bed; and Streithorst entring her Chamber found her there with her Sister and her two Brothers-in-law, the General N—— and Sultman, who was formerly at Berlin Equerry to the Countess of Wartenberg, and afterwards Privy-Counsellor to the Duke of Wirtemberg. The Colonel having signify'd his Order to the Countess, she affected to be in a dying Condition; but said that if she was able enough to get up she did not intend it, she being at home, and in a free House of the Circle of Swabia, from whence she did not think the Duke had Authority to remove her. The Colonel threaten'd that his Grenadiers shou'd pull her out of Bed; and the Lady seeing that she must obey,293 thought fit to rise. She fell on her Knees to Streithorst; but the hard-hearted Officer was deaf to her Cries, and conducted her to a place of Security where she is closely confin'd, and like to be a Prisoner as long as the Duke lives.



SIR,Carlsrouhe, Feb. 15, 1730.  

I Deny that any Man can be happier than I am at this Juncture. You have wrote an excellent long Letter to me; you assure me that you are well, and that you have still an Affection for me; what more is there wanting to compleat my Joy? I am preparing to make you the best amends I can, and instead of a Letter to write you a Volume.

I came in one Day from Ludwigsbourg to Carlsrouhe, which is the Residence of the Margrave of Baden-Dourlach. The Name Carlsrouhe signifies Charles's Rest. The present Margrave Charles of Baden-Dourlach was the very Man that laid both the Plan and Foundation of this City, and its Castle. Nothing is so pretty as the Disposition of the whole: I wish I were able to give you an Idea of it. Imagine the Margrave's House to be at the Entrance of a great Forest, in the Center of a Star form'd by thirty two Walks, the chief of which behind the Palace is three German Leagues in length. Two large Wings advance from the main 294Body of the House, which deviating from each other in proportion as they lengthen, the whole together looks like a Theatre. Behind the principal Building there's a very high Octogon Tower which commands all the Walks. The Space between the two Wings forms the Court, and then come the Gardens and Parterres, at the end of which there's a Semi-Circle of Houses of an equal Height, built Arch-wise, and three Stories high including the Ground-Floor. Between these Houses there run five Streets, the middlemost of which fronts the Palace. At the end of the three chief Streets opposite to the Palace are three Churches; one belonging to the Lutherans, another to the Calvinists, and a third to the Roman Catholics; to which three prevailing Religions of the Empire the Margrave gave equal Liberty of Conscience when he founded the new Town.

The chief part of the Town lies behind the Houses that front the Palace. This properly speaking consists but of one Street, which is of a prodigious Length. All these Houses as well as the Margrave's are of Timber, so that you are not to look for fine or substantial Buildings at Carlsrouhe; but the Contrivance and Distribution of the whole taken together is really wonderful. I took the Freedom to tell the Margrave that I was surpriz'd that he had not at least employ'd Brick in the building of his Palace, and of the Houses which form the Half-Moon about his Gardens. 'I was wil'ing, said the Prince, to make myself a Place of Retirement, and to build without putting the Burthen on my Subjects. I chose moreover to have the Comfort of enjoying what I built. If I had us'd Bricks it wou'd have cost me a great deal more Money; and I cou'd not have finish'd my Buildings without laying an extraordinary Impost upon my Country. It wou'd have taken me up295 abundance of Time too, and perhaps I shou'd never have had the Satisfaction of seeing an end to my Labours. Another Reason was, that my Country is so scituate as to be liable to be the Theatre of Wars, and I am not in a Condition to make this a strong Place, nor cou'd I encompass it with Walls. Do you think therefore that I shou'd have been justified in laying out a great deal of Money on a Place to see it burnt down before my Face, as I did my House at Dourlach, and my other Houses which the French reduc'd to Ashes. I am but a petty Sovereign; I have built a House according to my Condition, and I had rather it shou'd be said of me that I have but a mean Habitation, and owe no Money, than that I have a stately Palace and am over Head and Ears in Debt.'

I have given you this account of what the Margrave said to me, because I thought it wou'd let you into an Idea of his Character. This Prince, to whom I was introduc'd on the very day of my Arrival here, took the trouble himself to shew me his Palace, and all about it. I thought the Apartments very well laid out, but there is not room enough to lodge the hereditary Prince, who lives in one of the Houses in the Semi-Circle fronting the Palace.

The Pheasant-Walk, which joins to the Castle, is the prettiest thing in the World. 'Tis a very large Inclosure, dispos'd in various Walks planted with Fir-Trees cut in the shape of a Fan. There's a great Basin in the Center always full of wild Ducks. 'Tis encompass'd with four Pavilions, made in the Form of Turkish Tents. Two of the Pavilions are Volarys, and the two others Summer-Houses, with Window-Curtains of Green Cloth. There are Sofas and Couches, after the manner of the Eastern Countries. In this Place of Retirement and Rest296 the Margrave spends some Hours every Day, and he is generally accompany'd by some young Ladies whom he teaches Music; so that they perform agreeable Concerts.

The Margrave was in the right to give his House the Name of Charles's Rest, for he leads the most tranquil Life here that can be. Far from being infatuated with vain Grandeur, he has the Charms of it, without the Check and Constraint of it. This Prince is of a very robust Constitution, and tho' he underwent a vast deal of Fatigue in his Youth, he is as fresh-colour'd and as vigorous as if he was but forty Years of Age. He travell'd when he was a young Man into the principal parts of Europe; and during his Father's Life-time was several Years in the Service of Sweden. When he return'd to his Dominions he serv'd in the Army of the Empire on the Upper Rhine, under his Cousin Prince Lewis of Baden. Tho' the Margrave is very fat, yet he uses a great deal of Exercise. He rises in Summer at five o'Clock in the Morning, and walks in his Gardens till the Heat of the Weather obliges him to retire within doors; then he does Business with his Counsellors, or else employs himself in Experiments of Chymistry, and sometimes he draws. He commonly dines at four o'clock, and is attended by Waiting-Women, of whom there are no less than threescore, tho' no more than eight wait upon one Day. These, when the Margrave goes abroad, attend him on horseback, dress'd like Hussurs. The Generality of these Damsels understand Music and Dancing; they also perform Operas at the Theatre of the Palace, and are Musicians of the Chappel. They have all Lodgings in the Palace. After Dinner is over the Margrave grants Audience to his Subjects; and upon particular Days of the Week hears all that come. Few Princes render Justice more speedily, and more punctually. Sometimes he goes a Hunting.297 He makes very light Suppers, and retires early to Bed. He delights in Agriculture, and is one of the greatest Florists living. This Prince is never unemploy'd. There are few things which he does not know, and very many which he understands to Perfection. His Conversation is as agreeable as any I know. He speaks several Languages well. His Behaviour is obliging and courteous. He loves Foreigners, treats them with Distinction, and loads them with Civilities. Upon Sundays and Holidays he eats with the Prince his Son, and the Princess his Daughter-in-law. His Table, which is then spread for sixteen Guests, is serv'd with more Delicacy than Profusion.

The hereditary Prince[122], only Son to the Margrave, is pretty short, and has not the Life and Spirit of his Father. He is very complaisant and civil, and seems to me of a good-natur'd Disposition. He has been at Paris, in England, and in Holland, where he marry'd the Daughter of the unfortunate Prince of Nassau, who was drown'd in 1711, as he was passing the Maerdyke to the Hague, to adjust with Frederic I. King of Prussia, such Differences as related to the Succession of the late King William of Great Britain, to which they both laid Claim. The hereditary Princess seems to me to be well behav'd; and she makes very handsome Entertainments. The Court assembles at her House every day, viz. at Noon, and at five o'clock in the Evening; and there they dine, game, and sup. Foreigners are very well receiv'd there, and both the Ladies and Gentlemen are very civil and complaisant.

The Grand Marshal, and his Brother the Great Huntsman, are Persons capable of making a Figure with Distinction in the greatest Courts.298 The first marry'd a legitimated Daughter of the Margrave.

The Baron d'Ixter, President of the Regency, and Chief of the Council, is a Person of signal Merit, and capable of any Business, be it ever so great.

Generally speaking the Margrave's Court is extremely well regulated. This Prince is fond of the Nobility, and seeks to do them a Pleasure. He has none but Persons of Quality in his Service. 'Tis great pity that this Court does not come together again. The Margravine, who is Sister to the Duke of Wirtemberg, resides at Dourlach, and never comes to Carlsrouhe but when 'tis a Holiday, or when some foreign Prince is there. This Princess is actually very much indispos'd, so that I don't think I shall have the Honour of kissing her Hand. The Margrave also educates at his Court three young Princes his Nephews, the Sons of his Brother. They are under the Government of the Baron de Gemming, who takes very great Care of their Education.

As to the Margrave's Revenues, I cannot be positive what they are, because I found that People who ought to know best, vary in their Calculations not a little; some assur'd me they were 400,000, some 500,000 Florins, and others much more. Be it as it will, 'tis certain that the Margrave lives nobly, that every body is well paid, and that the Subjects are not over-burthen'd. Farewell, Sir, I set out to-morrow for Rastadt, and shall write to you as soon as I can, &c.




SIR,Strasbourg, Feb. 28, 1730.  

It took me up no more than four Hours to go from Carlsrouhe to Rastadt. As soon as I alighted there I notified my Arrival to the Grand Marshal, with a Request that he wou'd procure me the Honour of paying my Compliments to their Highnesses of Baden-Baden. I had for answer, that the Margrave was out a Hunting, and that therefore I cou'd not have an Audience before next day. I had patience to stay; and having by Good luck some Books at hand, I spent all that day in Reading, and the next day too, but did not hear a Word from the Grand Marshal. Mean time as I did not come to Rastadt purely to read, and as 'tis a Town does not afford much Amusement, since a quarter of an hour is enough to know all the Streets, I was very chagrin. I sent a second Message to the Grand Marshal, but had the same Answer as before. I thought it improper to insist any farther, and gave over all hopes of seeing the Court of Rastadt. However I went to see the Margrave's Palace, which his Father the late Prince Lewis of Baden built from the ground. It is very much like to the Palace of St. Cloud near Paris, and seems to be a Building conducted with more Regularity than I observ'd in several new Houses in Germany left solely to the Direction of ignorant Masons, who without a Taste for Building have the Assurance to call themselves Architects.


The principal Stair-Case is large and lightsome. The Apartments have all the Conveniences they can admit of. Those which are contiguous to the grand Stair-Case are distributed into several Partitions, for Shew and for Convenience. They are painted, gilt, and gaily furnish'd. The Margravine Dowager to Prince Lewis put them in this Condition against the Marriage of her Daughter to the Duke of Orleans; and the Furniture is indeed rich and well fancy'd. The Keeper shewed me the Closet in which Prince Eugene of Savoy and Marshal Villars sign'd the Peace in 1714. 'Tis pity that this truly magnificent Palace has no Gardens to it. There's Ground mark'd out for that purpose, and if Prince Lewis had liv'd they wou'd have been finish'd.

After having seen the Apartments and the Chapel, which is small, but exceedingly adorn'd, not knowing what to do with myself I went to a Billiard-Table fronting the Palace, where I found some Gentlemen of the Court as idle as myself. They treated me as a Foreigner, and were complaisant to me. A young Fellow of a good Appearance, and who seem'd to have an Air of Politeness, having refus'd as well as myself to play, enter'd into a Conversation with me: And by degrees that Sympathy of our Tempers, which was a Stranger to the Laws of Reason, made us talk to one another with as much Freedom as if we had been old Acquaintance. I complain'd to him that tho' I had been three days at Rastadt I cou'd not get an Opportunity of paying my Duty to their Highnesses of Baden. He told me that I need not be surpriz'd at it; that since the Death of the late Prince Lewis, the Margravine his Dowager, who was hereditary Princess of Saxe-Lawenbourg, had introduc'd into her Court the Ceremonial of the Eastern Princes; that she never appear'd but in a full Divan,301 and that she did not permit any one whatsoever to come near to her Son except the Bashaws and Dervizes who were of the Council. The young Gentleman's manner of accounting for this matter made me smile, and put me upon asking him several Questions. 'How! said I, according to the Character I have had of the Margravine, she is very much of a Christian, and of that virtuous Heroine which the wise Man, if he had been still living, wou'd have propos'd to us for a Model. Indeed, said the Gentleman, the Character you have had of her is right enough: The Margravine has Piety and Virtues that render her valuable; but she has a Haughtiness, and a certain Particularity in her Temper, which is hardly to be parallell'd. For instance, if she had receiv'd you it wou'd have been standing under a Canopy by an Arm-Chair, with as much State as the Empress. She wou'd have ask'd you two or three Questions, after which she wou'd have assur'd you of her Protection, and then have dismiss'd you without detaining you to dine with her, as is the manner of all the Princes of the Empire; but 'tis not the fashion here, continued the Gentleman. The Margravine commonly dines in private, and we who are of her Court don't see her but at Mass. The young Margrave our Master wou'd like well enough to see Company, but his Mother giving him to understand that she does not care for it, he conforms to her Pleasure. The young Margravine, who is the Daughter of the Prince de Schwartzenbourg, has no Authority, because tho' naturally obliging and civil she durst not put her good Qualities in practice, because the Margravine Dowager reproaches her that she does not know how to carry it like a Sovereign; by which means this poor Princess is oblig'd to be proud against her Inclination. If you were to see her302 you wou'd be charm'd with her; for she is tall and handsome, of a lively fair Complexion, but not languid, and has a very noble Air. When the Margrave marry'd her she was an only Daughter, and the Princess of Schwartzenbourg her Mother, who had not lived with her Husband for near fifteen Years, was not like to have any more Children. But the Event has proved contrary; for the Prince and Princess of Schwartzenbourg are reconcil'd, and the Princess has had a Son, who has frustrated the Hopes of our young Margravine of being some day or other one of the richest Heiresses in the Empire. This has not advanc'd her in the Favour of her Mother-in-law, who often snaps at her; but there being no Remedy, the young Princess bears her Ill-humours with Patience. As she is just brought to bed too of a Son, we hope she will have more Interest; at least 'tis what we all wish, because she is a very good Princess. 'Tis not a Year, continued the Gentleman, that our young Margrave has been of Age, nevertheless his Majority is so controll'd by the Ascendancy which the Dowager keeps over her Son, that it may be said 'tis she who governs still. This Prince accustom'd to obey knows not what is the Pleasure of commanding. There's the same likelihood of his being a Dependant as long as his Mother lives; and indeed he ought to humour that Princess, as well because she was always a good Mother to him, as for the Advantages she is capable of doing him; for she is very rich, and has a noble Estate in Bohemia, which she wou'd perhaps give to her youngest Son, who is Canon of Cologne and Augsbourg, if the Margrave disobliged her; tho' I believe it must be a great Offence indeed that wou'd provoke her to disinherit him, because he was always her Darling, and perhaps too the most dutiful of303 all her Children. Such is her Tenderness for this Son that when there was a Talk of his going abroad she wou'd needs go with him; and she actually accompany'd him all over Italy. Some People were indeed so ill-natur'd as to say that 'twas not out of Love to the Prince, but because she was afraid he wou'd wean himself from her Company, and break quite away from her. 'Tis said however that she is going to quit the Court, and to retire to Etlingen, which is the Place assign'd for her Jointure. We all wish it, not that we have any reason to complain of this Princess, but because we hope then to have a gayer Court. For the rest, to do the Margravine Dowager Justice, she has manag'd her Son's Finances with a great deal of Œconomy. When the late Prince Lewis died he left a heavy Debt upon the Country, which was also ruin'd by the late War. But the Margravine Regent has paid off all, and so happily retriev'd the Government and the Finances, that when her Son came of Age she gave him considerable Sums, and the Country was in a better Condition than ever.'

There the Gentleman concluded. After putting several Questions to him I learnt that the Duchess of Orleans had been promis'd in Marriage to Prince Alexander of Tour and Taxis[123], that the Presents were made for the Wedding, and that the same was very soon to be celebrated: But when the Duke of Orleans actually sent M. d'Argenson his Chancellor to Rastadt to demand the Princess in Marriage, the Margravine her Mother thinking this a better Match beyond comparison, call'd back the Promise she had made to the Prince de la Tour, and concluded the Treaty with the Duke of Orleans. The young Margrave marry'd his Sister by Proxy, in 304presence of M. d'Argenson, and the Princess was conducted to Strasbourg, where finding a Set of Domestics sent from Paris to receive her, she turn'd off all her German Servants and proceeded on her Journey to Chalons, whither the Duke of Orleans went to meet her.

The same Gentleman from whom I learnt all these Particulars told me likewise that the young Margrave, before he marry'd the Princess of Schwartzenbourg, was to have had the Daughter of King Stanislaus, but that the Margravine broke off the Marriage-Treaty which was very far advanc'd, because the King was not able to pay down a hundred thousand Crowns ready Money for his Daughter's Dowry. It was undoubtedly owing to that Princess's happy Star that the King could not raise the Sum, for in such case his Daughter would not now have worn one of the first Crowns in the World. The Gentleman told me moreover that the Margravine was mortify'd to the last degree when she heard that the Princess whom she had refus'd for her Daughter-in-law was become the Queen of France. She was apprehensive too that this Princess or the King her Father would take revenge for the Slight she had put upon their Alliance, and she wrote a Letter to King Stanislaus to congratulate him on an Event so glorious to him, and to recommend to him the Duchess of Orleans her Daughter. I intreat you, Sir, said she, to prevail with the Queen your Daughter to honour my Daughter and all my Family with her Favour. I will presume to say that both I and Mine deserve it at your Hands for the Respect we have always had for you. This Letter, which was as submissive as the Margravine's Conduct had been haughty, was receiv'd with very great Civility by King Stanislaus, who, after having read it to the Queen his Wife, could not help saying, I am much oblig'd to the305 Margravine for this Letter, and he return'd her a very engaging Answer. 'Tis my Opinion that at that time, instead of bearing the Princess any Ill-will he took it very kindly of her that she had refus'd his Daughter for a Daughter-in-law. The officious Gentleman would perhaps have inform'd me of other Particulars concerning the Court of Rastadt, if the Margrave's Return from Hunting had not oblig'd him to go to the Castle. I thank'd him for the trouble he had given himself, and went and shut my self up at my Quarters.

I set out next day for Strasbourg, and in less than five Hours arrived at Kehl. 'Tis all an even Country, and admirable Roads. We travel thro' the Dominions of Spire, the Bishoprick of Strasbourg, and the County of Hanau. At Kehl I paid a Visit to the General Baron de Roth, the Governour of the Place, who entertain'd me at Dinner, and made me exceeding welcome, but so ply'd me with Liquor that I thought my self at Fulde or Wurtzbourg. After Dinner M. de Roth shewed me the Fortifications, which I found in a very bad State. The Commandant told me that he had taken a world of pains to represent it to the Dyet of the Empire at Ratisbonne, but that he might as well have talk'd to so many deaf Men. 'Tis certain that if Care be not taken, the Rhine will wash away the Fort one day or other, and carry it to Holland. The Marshal de Bourg said to me a while ago when we were talking of Kehl, that M. de Roth would do well to fasten his Fort with Chains to the Citadel of Strasbourg.

There's only a Bridge over the Rhine to pass from Kehl to Strasbourg the Capital of Alsace, and formerly an Imperial City. The French made themselves Masters of it in September 1681, when they came to the very Gates of the Place before the Town had notice of their March, and when it was306 in no Condition to make resistance; for whether they thought they had no need of being upon their guard, or whether the chief Burgomasters had been corrupted, the Town wanted but every thing. The Capitulation was signed on one side by the Marquis de Louvois, and the Baron de Monclar Commandant in Alsace; and on the other by eight Deputies of the City, which was secured in all its Privileges, Prerogatives and Customs, both ecclesiastical and civil. The Bishop was nevertheless restored to his See, and the Canons to the Cathedral, which had belonged for 152 Years to the Lutherans. Lewis XIV. made his entry into Strasbourg the 23d of October following, and immediately order'd a Citadel and other Works to be erected, which have since been so augmented that Strasbourg may now be rank'd among the most important Places of Europe. The Marshal Count de Bourg commands in it, and has one of the King's Lieutenants under him, who is always a General Officer. M. Dangervilliers[124] formerly Intendant of Dauphiny, is Intendant of the Province of Alsace and the City of Strasbourg. These Gentlemen, whom I have been to see, receiv'd me with prodigious Civility, and very punctually return'd my Visit.

The Marshal Count de Bourg preserves a stately Mien in an advanced Age, and one may easily perceive he has been a very fine Man in his time. He was Page to Philip of France Duke of Orleans, Brother to Lewis the Great, and to that Duke's Favour his Advancement to Military Employments is very much owing, tho' 'tis true that he has distinguished himself in the Service. On the307 26th of August 1709, he defeated near Rumersheim the Count de Mercy, who commanded a flying Camp of 9000 Men detach'd from the Army of the Empire, then under Command of the Elector of Hanover, afterwards George I. King of Great Britain. This Victory gain'd M. de Bourg the blue Ribbon. King Lewis XV. gave him the Staff of a Marshal of France, and confirmed him in the Government of Strasbourg. The French Officers accuse this Marshal of Pride, but for my part, I have all the Reason that can be to love him for his Civility.

M. Dangervilliers is really more engaging than the Marshal, and is therefore more beloved by the Officers. He is affable and civil, complaisant to Foreigners, and lives with a vast deal of Splendor. The Princes of the Empire that border upon Alsace like him very well, and think he is more candid, and less haughty than his Predecessors.

There's not many of the Nobility settled in this City, and of these few that are wealthy; and therefore they live very much retir'd. The Canons of the Great Chapter who ought all to be Princes or Counts, are not of very great Service, because most of 'em holding other Benefices, only come to Strasbourg to pass away three Months there of their Residence, and by consequence they are here as Strangers. The best Houses therefore are the Intendant's and the King's Lieutenant's. There are always a great many Officers here who are indeed amiable Fellows, and know how to serve, and to be good Company too upon occasion. The Commandants of the Corps are in Years, and Officers of Experience, and the rest are clever smart Youths who long sadly to be fighting, and would fain make you believe the four Corners of the World will quickly be on fire. I have not seen finer Infantry than the French Infantry at this present time. There308 are very fine Gentlemen too in the Cavalry, but then they are not near so well mounted as ours. You know the Cry with us is that the French are ruin'd, and not able to do any thing more. How the Case stands with them, I really know not, but if one may judge of it by Appearances, it cannot be so. No Troops were ever better cloathed, better paid, more spruce, nor finer. The Officers are splendid; they game, divert themselves, and eat and drink well, which does not seem to me to be the Life of People in want. Upon these terms, I would be content to be in such want all my Life long.

The Garrison maintains a Company of Comedians who are paid by the Captains, and commanding Officers, for the Subalterns are admitted gratis. The Theatre, which is one of the prettiest in the Country, is maintain'd by the City.

A Man that has a Taste for a plain home-bred Girl may here find Amusement and good Blood. 'Tis observ'd that the Lutheran Women are the most beautiful, and the Sex at this Place is said to be very indulgent, and very tractable; so that I should be apt to think, a Man need not be very open-hearted to them.

Tho' Strasbourg may be reckon'd among the finest Towns in France, one can't say there's a single House in it that is magnificent, or makes a grand Appearance. The Cathedral is a very stately Building of Gothic Architecture; its famous Spire is one of the most lofty, and of the neatest Workmanship of any in Europe. Misson, who 'tis like always carried his Plummet and Foot-Rule in his Pocket, because he never fails to give the Length and Breadth and Height of a Thing, says that 'tis 574 Foot in height; and I believe he is not mistaken. Erkivin de Stembach who was the Architect, finish'd it in the Year 1449. 'Tis said that Lewis XIV. had a mind to have a Spire erected upon the second309 Tower which seems to have been built with that View. He order'd M. de Vauban to draw a Model of it, and to compute the Cost, which he found would amount to several Millions of Livres. The King thinking that he could employ that Sum to a better purpose, contented himself with making a Present to the Cathedral of the Ornaments, and all the Priests Vestments for celebrating Mass upon the several annual Festivals; the whole of which is extraordinary sumptuous, and becoming the Magnificence of one of the greatest Kings in the World. 'Twas in the Cathedral of Strasbourg that the Duke of Orleans the first Prince of the Blood of France married as Proxy to Lewis XV. Mary Lescinski, the Daughter of King Stanislaus. This Ceremony, at which I was present, was more magnificent than what was observ'd at Fontainbleau at the Queen's Arrival; and the Concourse of German Noblemen and Princes hither upon the Occasion was prodigious. The Cardinal de Rohan, as Bishop of Strasbourg, gave the Nuptial Benediction. Nothing can be finer than the Speeches which his Eminency made upon that Solemnity: As they fell into my hands, I think I ought to communicate them to you. You will find them verbatim at the End of this Letter. Poland in this Instance, made a worthy Restitution to France, which many Years ago gave the Poles a King who was afterwards the unfortunate Henry III; and they have now in their turn given a Queen to France. But Germany may boast that the Queen derives from the Empire that Fund of Virtue which is the Source of her Happiness, and makes her admir'd by the Universe. France had for a long time left off sending to our Climates for her Queens. Mary-Anne Victoria of Bavaria was in a fair way to be one, but she died a Dauphiness[125]. Lorrain, Scotland, Italy and Spain,310 had as it were engross'd the Crown of France for their Princesses. But I hope the Virtues of the present Queen and the other German[126] Princesses who are now at the Court of France will oblige the French to confess that if our Princesses have not Crowns for their Dowries like the Infanta's of Spain, they have an Estate of more Value than all the Wealth in the World, viz. Piety, Charity, and Love for the People.

A great many young German Gentlemen come hither for the sake of learning French, and their Exercises, but I don't think they are a jot the better for it, because the Masters of their Exercises are not better Scholars here than they are in many Towns of Germany; and as to the French, they speak it very ill in this City; for the Inhabitants talk High-Dutch, and our young Sparks are so pleas'd to hear their own Language spoke that they neglect to learn any other. Besides they always herd together, and too easily catch one another's Vices as well as Virtues. As they have not many Parts to shew, they spend their time at the Billiard-Table, the Coffee-House, and often at other Places not so honest, of which there are but too many here, this being a City as noted for Libertines as any in Europe.

I am, &c.

The Speech of Cardinal de Rohan to the Queen, before the Celebration of the Marriage.


'While I see you in this sacred Temple approaching to our Altars to contract that illustrious Alliance which is to unite you to the greatest of Kings and the most amiable of Princes, I311 adore what God designs you for, and admire with Transport the Course that Providence is steering to conduct you to the Throne which you are going to ascend. You are descended, Madame, from a Family illustrious for its Antiquity, for its Alliances, and for the eminent Employments which the great Men it has given to Poland have fill'd successively with so much Glory. You are the Daughter of a Father, who, thro' the various Events of a busy Life, chequer'd by good and bad Fortune, has always shewn himself the Gentleman, the Hero, and the Christian. You have for your Mother, and your Grandmother, Princesses, who like to Judith, and to that virtuous Woman whose Character is drawn in the Scriptures, have attracted the Veneration and Respect of the whole World, by the Fidelity with which they always walk'd in the Fear of the Lord. In your Person, Madame, are center'd all the Accomplishments that can be form'd by a happy Birth, and an admirable Education, supported by Examples equally strong and affecting. In you, that Goodness, that Mildness, and those Charms are predominant, which gain Love at the same time as they inforce Respect; that Integrity of Heart which nothing can resist; that Superiority of Understanding and Knowledge which are conspicuous, as it were in spite of you, and in spite of that Modesty and noble Simplicity which are natural to you; and finally that which is the Crown of so much Merit, that Taste for Piety, and that Attachment to the true Principles of Religion, which animate your Actions, and regulate your Conduct. Adorn'd with all these Virtues, what Crown is there to which you might not reasonably aspire, exclusive of the Custom which in some measure obliges Kings to look no farther than round the Throne for Princesses that they have a mind would reign with them?312 He who disposes of Empires puts the Sceptre of Poland into the hands of a Prince to whom you owe your Being, and by giving the Father that Splendor conducts the Daughter insensibly to the sublime Station he is preparing for her. But, O God, how impenetrable are thy Designs, and how far above human Prudence are the Means thou makest use of to bring about thy wise Purposes! This Prince was scarce seated on the Throne in which the Choice of the Grandees, and the Affection of the People had plac'd him, but he was oblig'd to quit it: He is abandon'd, betray'd, persecuted; one fatal Shot bereaves him of the Hero his Friend, and the chief Stay of his Hopes: He submits to the necessity of the Times without abating in his Courage: He seeks refuge in a Country which is the common Shelter of unfortunate Kings: He comes to France, and thither, Madame, you are following him. All that see you there, touch'd with your Misfortunes, admire your Virtue, the Odour of which spreads to the Throne of a young Monarch, who, such is the Lustre of his Crown, the Extent of his Power, and above all, the Charms of his Person, might have made his choice out of all the Princesses of the World: But being guided by wise Counsels, he fixes it upon You; and here the Finger of God is plainly visible in improving that very Misfortune which separates the King your Father from his Subjects, and takes you out of Poland to give Us in your Person, a Queen who shall be the Glory of a Father and of a Mother, of whom she is now the Comfort and Delight; a Queen, who shall render that Nation happy which most richly deserves it, at least for its Respect and its Fidelity to its Sovereigns; a Queen, who being inviolably attach'd to her Duty, full of Tenderness and Respect for her Husband, and her King, and wisely313 employ'd in what is capable of procuring her solid Happiness, will revive to us the Reign of the Empress Flaccilla, of whom History says, that having always kept the Precepts of the Divine Law in her view, she conferr'd thereupon daily with the great Theodosius, and that her Words like a fruitful Rain, water'd with success those Seeds of Virtue which God had sown in the Heart of her Husband. Come then, Madame, Come to the Altar. May the Engagements you are going to enter into, sacred of themselves, (since according to the Apostle, they are the Symbol of the Union of Jesus Christ with his Church) may they be also sanctify'd by your own Disposition. May you be so sensible of what you are going to be, that you may acknowledge that in crowning your Merits, he crowns his Gifts: And may you Christians that hear me, when you see the shining Rewards that are bestowed in this World upon true Virtue, learn to respect and love it.'

The Cardinal's Speech after the Celebration of the Marriage.


'Now that august Ceremony is ended which crowns our Hopes and our Wishes; give me leave to desire your Majesty's Royal Protection for the Church of Strasbourg. This Church has not forgot and never will forget the signal Favours it has received from our former Kings. How great are its Obligations to our last Monarch! Being deliver'd up by the Misfortunes of the Times to the Furys of Schism and Heresy, it would perhaps have perish'd as many others did, if that great Prince, by resuming the Rights of his Ancestors, had not undertaken its defence, and supported it with all his Power. To him it is oblig'd for the314 Advantage of being restored to the Possession of this sacred Temple from which it had been banished. There's nothing here but what puts us in mind of his Pious and Royal Magnificence. Temples adorn'd, Pastors liberally maintain'd, Missions founded, new Converts protected and supported, are so many Monuments of the Zeal and Piety of a King whose Memory will never die. He had not the Comfort to finish the Work which he had undertaken; that is to say, the reuniting of all the Sheep of this illustrious Flock in one and the same Fold: This was reserv'd to the worthy Heir of his Zeal and Crown. It will be your part, Madame, to represent to your August Spouse how much the Remembrance of his Great Grandfather, his own Glory, and our Necessities, which are even those of Religion, require of him. You will not desire that Recourse shou'd be had to those Methods which exasperate, without persuading; such would not be to your Majesty's liking, and God forbid that we should suggest them to you. Those Children who disown us are your Subjects, Madame, and the Church of Strasbourg confiding intirely in God's Mercy, still looks on itself as their Mother. We therefore conjure you by the Bowels of Jesus Christ, to employ, for the sake of uniting them, every Thing with which an active but sympathizing Charity may inspire you. God will bless your Majesty's Endeavours, and our Desires, and will employ the Instances of your Piety and your Faith to the total Confusion of Error, and the Triumph of the Truth. May your Reign be long over us, Madame, for the Happiness of the King, and the Welfare of this great Kingdom. May God hear the Prayers which the Church has now offer'd up for your Majesty, and may you be so good as to place us in the Rank of your most zealous and most faithful Subjects.'




SIR,Heidelberg, March 12, 1730.  

Being in the Neighbourhood of Saverne where the Cardinal de Rohan lives, I had a mind to go thither. I have had the Honour to be known to that Prelate a long time, and was overjoy'd at the opportunity of paying my respects to him.

Armand Gaston Cardinal de Rohan was elected Bishop of Strasbourg the 10th of April 1704[127], and received the Cardinal's Cap from the Hands of Lewis XIV. the 18th of May, 1712. The Year following he succeeded the Cardinal de Janson as Great Almoner. The Emperor granted him the Temporal Investiture of the See of Strasbourg[128] on316 the 10th of June 1723, and in 1724, he obtain'd a Seat in the College of Princes at the Assembly of Ratisbon. This Prelate who is considerable for his Birth and Dignities, is much more so for his great Soul, his polite and obliging Behaviour, and for an Air of Grandeur which accompanies all his Actions. He is a comely Person, as are indeed all of his Family. Being noble and magnificent in every thing that he does, he lives wherever he is like a great Nobleman, but particularly at Saverne. I found at his Palace the Duke and Duchess of Tallard, the Duchess de la Meilleraie, Madamoiselle de Melun, the Prince and Princess of Birkensfield, M. Dangervilliers, the Intendant of Strasbourg, the Count and Princess of Hanau, and in short a great many Officers of Distinction. They had all convenient Lodgings and Accommodation in the Castle; and Gaming, taking the Air, Hunting, Music, and Good Cheer were their constant Diversions.

The Bishops of Strasbourg have resided for a long time at the Palace of Saverne, which was always a convenient House; but the Cardinal de Roban has made it very considerable. The outside of this Palace is not so magnificent as the inside. The Entry which leads to the chief Stair-Case is lighted to great advantage, and has several Outlets that have a convenient Communication with the lower Apartments, which are high, and very finely embellish'd. The principal Stair-Case is very grand, and leads to a stately Salon with most curious Decorations. It has a double Apartment which is render'd as commodious as possible; and the Furniture consists of Embroidery of Gold and Silver, which may be thought perhaps too rich. The Queen, who lodg'd at the Cardinal's House when she came to Saverne, was charm'd with the Splendor of it, and the extraordinary Respect with which she was attended here.


The Cardinal de Rohan designs that this rich Furniture shall remain annex'd to the See; for which his Successor will certainly have very great Obligations to him: But his Eminence was not so much oblig'd to his Predecessors; for when he was chose Bishop he found a House very much out of order, and scarce a Chair in it, whereas 'tis now fit for a King. His Eminency is about making very large fine Gardens, which are in very great forwardness, and perfectly answerable to the Grandeur and Beauty of the Palace; and at the end of them there is a stately Canal which cost infinite Labour and Expence. The whole of it is the more magnificent because Saverne stands at the foot of very high Mountains; and in digging the Canal the Workmen often met with Rocks which they were forc'd to blow up.

At the Cardinal's Table there's both Abundance and Elegance; and his Eminency entertains in such a manner as really charms his Guests. All his Domestics follow his example; and 'tis certain that they are all very diligent; and that there is not a House in France, or in Europe, where there's better Attendance. His Eminency's Houshold, and all his Temporal Affairs in general, are directed by the Abbott de Ravanne, Counsellor in the Parliament of Paris.

The Cardinal is one of the richest Noblemen in France, and without dispute the most expensive. He has built a Hotel at Paris, and furnish'd it sumptuously. He has made considerable Works at Saverne, and laid out a great deal of Money in Plate, Furniture, Pictures, antique Vessels, and Busts, Medals, and Books. Some time ago he purchas'd of the President Menard the famous Library of the illustrious Messieurs de Thou, formerly one of the most celebrated in France; and he daily in-riches 318it with all the most curious and uncommon Books and Manuscripts.

Besides all these Expences, the Cardinal intends also to build a new episcopal Palace at Strasbourg[129], where he is indeed but indifferently lodg'd at present. The Marquiss de N—— talking of the Cardinal de Rohan's Expence, said, That, to be sure, his Eminency had found out the Philosopher's Stone. I think so too, and that he has done it by procuring himself five or six hundred thousand Livres a-year in good Benefices.

From Saverne I went to Haguenau, and to Weissenbourg, formerly Imperial Cities, and now subject to France, but Places of little consequence. King Stanislaus after the Death of Charles XII. King of Sweden, being forc'd to quit Deux-Ponts to which he had retired with his Family, came and resided at Weissenbourg; and here it was that he receiv'd the first Proposals that were made to him for the Marriage of his Daughter with King Lewis XV. I came and took up my Quarters at Landau, one of the most scoundrel Places in the World, but the best fortify'd; and famous for having stood out several Sieges. The Emperor Joseph took it when he was King of the Romans. The French retook it a little before the signing of the Peace at Rastadt, by which Treaty it was left in their hands. They maintain a good Garison in it, and have added several Works to it.

From Landau I pass'd to Brhousel, with an Intention to pay my respects to the Cardinal de Schonborn Bishop of Spire who resides there, but I did not succeed better there than at Rastadt; for his Eminency excus'd himself from seeing me because he was going a hunting, and put me off till next day; but I did not think it worth while to wait, what had happen'd to me at the Court of Baden being too fresh in my Memory. I was afraid of the319 same Fate at Brhousel, where I lay at such sorry Quarters that I cou'd not avoid catching Cold, my Lodging-Room being without Glass, and be famish'd into the bargain, there being nothing to eat: Besides, my Landlord told me that the Cardinal made even those People who came to him upon Business dance attendance for three or four days. I said to my self therefore that he had much more reason to make me wait, who came to his Court out of meer Curiosity. I resolv'd therefore, as any Gentleman ought to have done in the like case, and took the opportunity of the Cardinal's Absence to go and view the outside of his Palace. 'Tis a great Structure not yet entirely finish'd, which the Cardinal has hitherto carry'd on from the very Foundation; but if I must be sincere with you, all these Works, considerable as they are, have been form'd upon pitiful Plans. It has cost a very large Sum of Money; and I fancy that in the time of the ancient Teutonics, it wou'd have been reckon'd a very fine Structure. The chief Beauty of it lies in its Situation; for a great Variety of agreeable Objects are discovered from the Apartments. The Gardens are also so new that one can scarce know the Plan of 'em; it seems to me that they are not of an extraordinary Taste, and that they wou'd be much more suitable for a private Man than for a Sovereign.

The Cardinal de Schonborn is a keen Sportsman. He has Game enough in his own Bishoprick, for the Country so abounds with all sorts that the Fields are ruin'd by the Deer. The Peasants are so hard put to it to preserve their Corn that they are oblig'd to watch it day and night. The Cardinal often makes Hunting-Matches for the Stag and wild Boar, in which they kill hundreds; at such times the Peasants are oblig'd to take a certain quantity of Meat, for which they pay so much a320 Pound, according to a Price that is regulated. The Bishoprick of Spire is one of the fruitfullest Provinces in Germany, but the Inhabitants are extremely poor; for their Provisions lie on their hands, and they have scarce wherewithal to pay the great Taillies due to their Sovereigns.

The Dignity of the Bishop of Spire is elective, as are all the Bishopricks of Germany which are not in the hereditary Dominions of the House of Austria. The Bishop is Sovereign of the Country, but the City of Spire has particular Privileges, as have all the Imperial Cities. You know it was at Spire that the Emperor Charles V. establish'd the Imperial Chamber, which is as it were the Parliament of the Empire. The French having destroy'd Spire when they ravag'd the Palatinate, the Chamber or supreme Tribunal was transferred to Wetzlar in Wetteravia, where indeed it seem'd to be more in the Center of Germany, and secur'd from all manner of Insult.

Damien-Hugo Count de Schonborn Cardinal, is at this present Bishop of Spire, and Co-adjutor of Constance. He is also grand Commander of the Teutonic-Order. He was heretofore a Member of the Emperor's Privy-Council, and his Plenipotentiary to the Circle of Lower Saxony. Clement XI. of the Albani Family honour'd him with the Purple. He is descended of a Family in which Merit has happen'd to be back'd by Fortune. The Cardinal's Father was the first Count of it. He was also one of the Emperor's Privy-Council, and Brother to Lotharius-Francis Elector of Mentz and Bishop of Bamberg. The Cardinal has actually a Brother who is Elector of Triers, another who is Bishop of Wurtzbourg and Bamberg, whom I have mention'd to you upon other occasions; and lastly, a third who is a Counsellor of State[130] to the Emperor,321 and is now the Head of the Family. Messieurs de Schonborn had formerly an Elector of Mentz in their Family, who was at the same time Bishop of Wurtzbourg, but that Prince left them no great Estate; so that they were not very rich when Lotharius-Francis, Uncle to them all, was chose Elector of Mentz. But this Prince procur'd them both Wealth and Honours, and render'd the Count de Schonborn, who is Counsellor of State to the Emperor, one of the richest Noblemen in Germany.

From Brhousel to Heidelberg there's one of the finest Countries in the World, planted with Fruit, and especially Walnut-Trees, which bring in a great Revenue.

The City of Heidelberg, upon the Necker, is very much pent up by that River, and a Chain of Hills, so that 'tis not near so broad as 'tis long. This City is the Capital of the Lower Palatinate, and was formerly the Residence of the Electors. Here is a University which was founded in 1346, by Robert Prince Palatine, who was chose King of the Romans. No Town has smarted more by the Scourge of War. Since the Disgrace of Frederic Elector Palatine, whom the Bohemians chose for their King, it has been taken, plunder'd, or burnt four times. In 1622, the Emperor's General Tilly put 500 Palatines in it to the Sword, and at the same time the Emperor carry'd off the famous Library, which he gave in part to Urban VIII. who caused it to be placed in the Vatican, where 'tis still to be seen. In 1634, Heidelberg was besieg'd twice. John de Werth took it for Lewis XIV. but not being able to carry the Castle he retir'd. Not many days after, the Marshals de Force and Brezé forc'd the Quarters of the Germans, and took both the Town and Castle. The French took this City a third time in 1688, and again in 1693, which322 was the last time, Sword in hand; at what time they committed Cruelties shocking to remember, and of which there are woful Marks still left in Heidelberg, and all the Towns in the Palatinate. This City was beginning to recover it self by the Elector's residing there, when it brought a more heavy Disgrace upon it self than all the Misfortunes it had suffer'd by the War. The Case was thus:

The great Church of Heidelberg since the Peace of Westphalia belongs half to Roman Catholics, and half to the Calvinists, of whom the former have the Choir, and the others the Body, and nothing but a thin Partition separates the two Communions. The Choir not being big enough to contain the Catholics when the Court resided at Heidelberg, the Elector propos'd to the Calvinists to yield him the Body of the Church, alledging that not only the Choir was too scanty, but that he shou'd be very glad that the Church in which the Palatine Princes lie interr'd were altogether Catholic. He promis'd at the same time that another Church should be built for them larger and finer than what they were to yield to him. The Calvinists said that the great Church had been granted to them by the Treaty of Munster; that all the Princes who were Guarantees of the Peace of Westphalia were engag'd to preserve them in the enjoyment of it; that therefore they could not give it up without violating that Treaty, which was their Security, and without rendring themselves unworthy of the Protection of the Protestant Powers. The Elector, in order to remove those Obstacles, consented that the Powers who were Guarantees of the Westphalian Treaty of Peace, in which the Church he desir'd was expressly mentioned, should be Guarantees of the Church which he promis'd should be built for them: But all these Offers how reasonable soever were not accepted by323 the Calvinists. The Elector being thereby incens'd, made use of his Sovereign Authority, and took by force what they were not willing to yield to him; whereupon the Calvinists had recourse to the Protestant Princes of the Empire, the Lutherans as well as the Calvinists, who constituting but one Body and one Communion when the Catholics are to be oppos'd, united together, and engag'd in their Quarrel the Kings of Great Britain, Denmark, Sweden, and Prussia, and the States-General. These Powers caused the Catholic Churches in their Dominions to be shut up, sequester'd the Estates of the Convents, and made such Clamors and Menaces that the Elector was oblig'd to reinstate the Calvinists in the Nave of the Church; but he was so angry with the Inhabitants of Heidelberg for their Disrespect to him that he remov'd his Residence to Manheim. The Burghers were not very sorry at first for the Departure of the Court; for being accustom'd to its Absence, they flattered themselves that the Tribunals of the Regency, which, since the Accession of the Newbourg Family to the Electorate, had constantly been kept at Heidelberg, would remain there still. But they were soon thrown into the utmost Consternation when they saw those Tribunals follow the Elector. They went and cast themselves at the Feet of their angry Sovereign, and asking his Pardon for having affronted him, they offer'd him the Church which was the cause of his Displeasure, and conjur'd him to return to their City. But all their Supplications were fruitless; the Elector was stedfast in his Resolution to punish Heidelberg, and abandon'd it for ever. Heidelberg having no Trade, and subsisting only by the Court, or by the Tribunals of the Regency, of which it was totally depriv'd, falls now into decay, and will, no doubt, e'er 'tis long dwindle to little or nothing.


The Elector's Palace is higher than the City, and situate in such a manner that there's a Prospect from the great Apartments quite through the Opening between the Mountains, by which the Necker runs into the Plain. The Palace is built of Free-Stone, and is a magnificent Structure. The greatest part of it was burnt by the French when they destroy'd the Palatinate: The Lodging-Rooms that are subsisting are very substantial, tho' not built in the modern Taste. The Apartments are large, but want Ornament, especially since they have been stript of their Furniture. The Gardens were formerly reckon'd the finest in Germany; but there's scarce any thing left of them except the Place where they flourished. If one may judge of what they were by their Situation, they must have been very pleasant, by reason of the extensive Prospect they afforded into the Country.

I do not intend to detain you with an Account of the famous Tun, Misson having given a more exact Description of that than of many Towns which he treats of. You will in his Travels find a Cut of this Vessel, which will give you a more perfect Idea of it than any Narrative whatsoever. The Elector John-William, the Predecessor of the present Elector, gave a Companion to this Tun, which is not altogether so large, but much more adorn'd. They are both full of Wine. I remember that in 1719, when I was at the Palatine Court, the Elector ask'd me at Table whether I had seen the Great Tun; and upon my saying that I had not, that Prince, than whom there was not a more gracious Sovereign in the whole World, told me he would carry me to it. He made a Proposal to the Princess his Daughter, who was marry'd to the hereditary Prince of Sullzbach, to go thither after Dinner was over; which she accepted. The Trumpets led the way, and the Court followed in325 great Ceremony. When we had mounted the Platform which is over the Tun, the Elector did me the honour to drink to me out of the Wilkom, which was a Silver gilt Cup, of a large dimension. He took it off clean at one Draught, and having caused it to be replenished, sent it to me by a Page. Good Manners, and the Respect I ow'd to the Elector's Commands, not permitting me to refuse the Chalice, I begg'd heartily that he would suffer me to drink it off at several Draughts; which was indulg'd me; and the Elector talking in the mean time with the Ladies, I took the opportunity of his Absence, and made no scruple to deceive him, for I return'd great part of the Wine to the bottom of the Tun, threw a part of it on the ground, and the rest, which was the least part of it, I drank. I thought my self well off that he did not perceive in what manner I bubbled him; for I saw he was very well pleased with me. Then several other great Glasses went round, and the very Ladies wet their Lips, which was the thing that effectually contributed to demolish us. I was one of the first that was overpower'd. I perceived those convulsive Motions that threaten'd me if I drank any more, therefore I sneak'd off and made the best of my way down from the Platform. I was endeavouring to get out of the Vault, but was stop'd at the Door by two Life-Guard Men, who with their Carabines crossing each other, cry'd, Stand, there's no coming this way. I conjur'd them to let me pass, and told them that I had very important Reasons for my departure; but I might as well have talk'd to the Wind. I found my self in a terrible Quandary: To get up again to the head of the Tun was Death: What would become of me I could not tell. In short I crept under the Tun, and there hoped to hide my self; but it was a fruitless Precaution: There's no avoiding a Man's Destiny. It was my326 Fate to be carry'd out of the Vault, and to know nothing of the matter. For the Elector perceiv'd I was a Deserter, and I heard him say, Where is he? What's become of him? Let him be look'd after, and brought up to me dead or alive. The Guards at the Door being examin'd said that I came that way in order to get out, but that they sent me back again. All these Inquiries, which I heard from my Hole, made me burrow my self the more. I crept under the Covert of a couple of Boards I met with by chance, where nothing but a Cat, Devil, or Page could possibly find me out. But a little Page, who was indeed both Devil and Page too, ferreted me, and baul'd out like one that was mad, Here he is! Here he is! and then I was taken out of my Covert. You may imagine what a silly Figure I made. I was carry'd before my Judge, who was the Elector himself. But I took the liberty to challenge both him and all the Gentlemen in his Retinue, as being Parties in the Cause. Alas! my little Gentleman, said the Prince to me, You refuse us for your Judges; I will appoint you others then, and we shall see whether you come off any better. He nominated the Princess his Daughter, and her Ladies to try me, and the Elector was my Accuser. After pleading my own Cause they put it to the Vote, and I was condemn'd unanimously to drink as long as I could swallow. The Elector said, that as he was the Sovereign he would mitigate my Sentence; that I should that day drink four Pint Glasses of Wine, and that for a Fortnight running I should tip off the like Glass to his Health immediately after Dinner. Every body admir'd the Elector's Clemency, and whether I did or not, I was fain to do as they did, and to return him Thanks. Then I underwent the heaviest part of my Sentence; I did not lose my Life indeed, but for some Hours I lost both my Speech and my327 Reason. I was carry'd to a Bed, where when I came to my self I was told that my Accusers were in the same pickle as I was; and that none of them went out of the Vault in the same manner as they enter'd it. Next day the Elector was so good as to mitigate the remaining part of my Sentence, and excus'd me from the Penance to which I was condemn'd, upon my promising him that I wou'd make one at his Table for a Month to come.

I am, &c.



SIR,Manheim, March 17, 1730.  

In going from Heidelberg to Manheim we leave the Necker on the right hand, but keep almost all the way by the side of that River. 'Tis three Leagues from one City to the other, over a fruitful Plain. Manheim lies between the Rhine and the Necker, in a marshy Country, which has always been reckon'd very unwholesome. About fourscore Years ago this City was but a Village. Frederic Elector Palatine, who was chose King of Bohemia, caus'd it to be fortify'd, and built a Castle or Citadel there, which he call'd Fredericsbourg. At the same time a Town was built, of which all the Streets run parallel, the chief that passes thro' the middle of the Town was planted with Trees after the manner of Holland. But the French having taken Manheim in 1693, raz'd it to the ground,328 and by the Treaty of Nimeguen it was stipulated that Manheim should be demolished; which was done accordingly. John-William of Newbourg, the last Elector, began again to fortify Manheim, according to the Plans laid down by the famous Cohorn; but those Works were suspended, so that no more than two Bastions and a Courtain were finish'd. When the present Elector Charles-Philip came to live at Manheim he caus'd those Works to be resumed which his Brother had discontinued, and to be carried on with such Diligence that in a few Years he put the Place in a state of Defence[131]. The Fortifications are all fac'd with Brick; and Manheim is now one of the best Places in all Germany.

This City has three fine Gates, of which that of the Necker is the most magnificent, and the best adorned; in which one sees beautiful Basso-relievos, after a Plan very happily executed. This Gate opens towards a long and spacious Street, at the end of which stands the Elector's Palace, one of the largest and most substantial Buildings in Europe. It were to be wish'd indeed that the Architecture had been more regular: Never had any Architect more Advantage, for he built it new from the Foundation, was not stinted for want of room, and as he set no Limits to his Expence, I should have thought that a masterly hand might have produc'd something curious. Nevertheless there are Faults in the Building which are shocking to such as have the least Skill in Architecture; insomuch that they who have a Taste for that Science are sorry that a Building which has been so expensive has been no better conducted. The Situation of this Palace is indeed very fine, at the end of the City, and of a very noble large Street, which like all the rest runs in a strait Line. The Palace, which has a great Square329 before it, consists of a large number of Lodging-Rooms, with a great high Pavilion in the middle, and two advanc'd Wings, with ample Pavilions at the ends; where two other very extensive Wings rise on both sides that are likewise terminated by Pavilions, behind which there are other Lodging-Rooms. The inside of the Palace is form'd by two great Courts, which are to be separated by an open Gallery or Terrass, the Model of which is very much adorned with Architecture; but I can't think it will look well when 'tis done. The Apartments are adorn'd with fine noble Floors and Cielings, and have the finest Prospect in the World to Spire, Franckendahl, Worms, and all the Country in general, as far as the Mountains of Alsace, which consists wholly of Towns and Villages. All this fine fruitful Country is water'd by the Rhine, which passes behind the Palace of Manheim, and washes its Fortifications. Upon this beautiful Canal there are to be the Gardens of the Palace, for which there are intended two Courtains and a Bastion.

'Tis almost inconceivable how the Elector was able to get all the Works about Manheim finished in so few Years; for in short I remember to have seen Partridges where there are now Houses and Palaces. The whole Town is laid out in a most regular and charming manner; and 'tis without dispute one of the prettiest Towns in Europe. 'Tis pity the Houses are not higher: The reason they alledge for it is, that Manheim is a fortify'd Town, and that by consequence the Houses ought to be low. I know not what Authority there is for this, since Strasbourg, Metz, Luxembourg, and Lisle, are Places of much more Importance than Manheim, and yet the Houses are as high there as they are in other Towns.

The Palace is commodious, and yet, for what reason I know not, the Elector does not live330 in it[132]. Some say that he has been told of so many Faults in it as have quite put him out of conceit with it, and others that 'tis because a certain Astrologer prophesy'd he would die there; but I am apt to believe that the latter Reason is no more than a Joke, and I dare to say that the Elector is too wise a Man to credit it. Mean time this Prince dwells in a House belonging to a Jew, to which several other private Houses are join'd; but for all that the Lodgings are very bad.

There can't be a better-natur'd Man than Charles-Philip of Newbourg, Elector Palatine. He is the best of Masters, and the most affable of Princes. He is reckoned extremely handsome, and one of the chief Dancers in his time; and he has a noble Aspect. His Behaviour and Conversation engage one to love him, and to pay one's court to him out of pure Inclination. He formerly was fond of Pomp and Pleasure, but since the loss of his only Daughter and his Son-in-law, who died within a few Years one of another, he seems to be no longer taken with what was heretofore his Amusement. The Elector has been twice marry'd, viz. first to Louisa-Charlotte Princess of Radzeville, and secondly to Theresa Lubomirski, both Polish Ladies. The former left him a Daughter that was marry'd to Joseph-Charles Prince Palatine of Sultzbach, but died in 1728; as did her Husband the Year following. This Princess had such Beauty and Merit, that she was the Comfort of her Father and the Admiration of her Acquaintance. She left three young Princesses, whom the Elector causes to be educated at his Court, where they are now all that he has to delight him; but then they incessantly renew to him the sorrowful Remembrance of a Daughter who was extremely dear to him.


The Death of that Princess has been a very great Affliction to the Elector, and chang'd the Face of the Palatine Court. Indeed as to Affability, and to the Goodness of his Temper, he is still the same Elector, but he has no longer that Gaiety of Humour which his Daughter's Company rais'd in him; for she had a thousand different Amusements for him, and Pleasures and Merriment every where accompany'd her. The Elector eats always in private, except on Holidays, and when there's any foreign Prince at his Court. After he has been in public at Mass, he commonly stops in one of his Apartments to chat with the Courtiers, or to play at Billiards till Dinner-time. After Dinner he goes to Bed, and lies there two Hours; then he rises, and after having caus'd himself to be dress'd, he gives Audience to his Ministers, and to such private Persons as want to talk with him. He is very attentive to those who speak to him, and answers them with Good-nature and Kindness. He seldom refuses what is in his power to grant; and when Reasons force him to a denial, 'tis visible that he is uneasy, and he refuses in so civil a manner, that People go away at least comforted, if not contented. At six o'clock in the Evening the whole Court meets in his Electoral Highness's Apartment, where there is Play till nine o'clock, and then the Elector retires, makes a very slight Supper, and goes to Bed in good time.

Tho' the Elector dines in private there's always a Table sumptuously serv'd for the hereditary Prince of Sultzbach, Brother to him who was the Elector's Son-in-law. This passes for the Elector's Table, is spread for eighteen Guests, and is serv'd by Pages.

The Prince de Sultzbach is look'd upon as the Elector's Heir, because 'tis not supposed that the Elector's Brother, the Elector of Mentz, would332 be willing to quit the first Electorate of the Empire, and the great Benefices which he possesses, to become Elector Palatine, if he should happen to survive his Brother[133]. The Bishop of Augsbourg, the Elector's second Brother, being a Priest, cannot succeed. The Prince de Sultzbach's Father is still living; but being as old as the Elector, he is not like to survive him very long[134]. The Prince John-Christian of Sultzbach was born in 1700. He is the Widower of the Princess de la Tour of Auvergne, who brought him for her Portion the Sovereignty of Bergopzoom; and left him a Son, who is educated at Brussels with his Great-Grandmother the Duchess Dowager of Aremberg. The Prince John-Christian is tall and extremely corpulent, insomuch that 'tis well if he has not the Dropsy. He spent the first Days of his Youth at the Court of Lorrain in France, and in the Netherlands, by which Travels he acquired a great deal of Politeness. He was lately betrothed to Eleonora-Philippina of Hesse-Rhinfelds, Sister to the Princess of Piedmont[135], and to the Duchess of Bourbon. This Princess is every day expected from Turin, to which Place she accompanied her Sister. Their Highnesses will then go and keep their Court at Heidelberg[136].


The Principal Noblemen of the Palatine Court are the following:

Francis-George Count of Manderscheldt-Blanckenheim[137], the Steward of the Houshold, Prime Minister, and Knight of the Order of St. Hubert. He is of illustrious Extraction; is a Man of Integrity and very great Probity, incapable of doing an ill thing, but not at all engaging in his Deportment; for he is reserved, with an Air of Haughtiness, which is a Defect that he was born with, and endeavours to conquer, but cannot. When one knows him intimately he proves a good Friend, and capable of doing one Service. He has very great Pensions from the Elector, and is the oldest of his Family, which being pretty numerous, he does not live in a very grand manner.

The Baron de Sickingen is Great Chamberlain, Minister of State, and Knight of the Order of St. Hubert. He is a Gentleman of a fine Presence, of an easy and engaging Access, with profound Learning, and Sentiments suitable to his Birth. He was Governor of the late Prince de Sultzbach, Son-in-law to the Elector; and he imprinted such Ideas of Men and Things in the Mind of that young Prince, as gave great hopes that his Government would be happy if ever he attain'd to it. M. de Sickingen was afterward the Elector's Envoy Extraordinary to the Imperial Court; and I knew him at Vienna where he was exceedingly beloved. At his return he succeeded his Brother in the Office of Great Chamberlain, which he exercises with the Approbation of the whole Court.


John-Frederic Count de Globe, is Grand Marshal, Minister of State, and Knight of the Order of St. Hubert. He is very rich, and has a fine Estate in Bohemia. He was once the Elector's Page, who finding him at the bottom a Man of Integrity and Honour, took care of his Fortune, gave him the best Employments at his Court, and raised him to the Dignity of Count. M. de Globe has been seldom at Manheim for some Years past; which is a Loss both to Court and City, because he liv'd very nobly, and more than all, was very civil to Foreigners[138].

The Baron de Wohlin is Master of the Horse[139]. He is one of those Men in whom we meet with that Candor and Probity so much boasted by our Fathers.

The Count de la Tour and Taxis is Captain of the Life-Guards, Lieutenant-General, and Knight of the Order of St. Hubert. His Carriage seems blunt and proud, yet he is familiar with those that are in his Confidence. He has considerable Credit at Court, owing to his Sister's being so long in favour with the Elector.

Julius Augustus Count de la Marck, Lieutenant-General, Captain of the hundred Swissers, and Knight of St. Hubert, is descended of an illustrious Family in the Empire. He spent part of his Youth in the Service of France, where his eldest Brother is now actually a Lieutenant-General, Colonel of a foreign Regiment, and a Commander of the Order of the Holy Ghost. He has learnt all the French Politeness; his 335Behaviour resembles the Man of Quality; his Temper is gay, and he loves good Cheer, Joy and Pleasures.

The Count Egmont de Hatzfeldt Lieutenant-General, Minister of State, and Secretary at War, comes from one of the best Families in the Empire, This Nobleman is extraordinary civil; his House is open to all Persons of Distinction; he lives very nobly, and both his Lady and himself are very fond of entertaining Foreigners. They were both intrusted to conduct to Piedmont the Princess of Sultzbach first Wife to Charles Prince of Piedmont[140], and discharged their Employments in such a manner that they had the general Approbation of the Sardinian Court.

The Barons of Hildesheim and Beveren are both Ministers of State. The former acquired a very great Reputation in the Negotiations that were carry'd on at Heidelberg in 1719, for the Church of the Calvinists which the Elector had a mind shou'd be Catholic. The second has been Envoy to the King of Great Britain. They are both to be valued for their Merit, live very honourably, and make Foreigners welcome.

I could tell you of many other Persons of Birth and Merit employ'd at this Court, but really my Letter would be too tedious. Nevertheless I cannot omit the mention of the Baron d'Obsten, whom you saw at Breslau, after he had quitted the Service of the Czar. He is settled here, but has no Character. He and all his Family are become of our Communion. He has a considerable Pension from the Elector, and is generally very well esteem'd. His Son, who is a Captain, is a young Gentleman of Merit, and his Daughters are young Ladies highly to be esteem'd for their good Behaviour and Politeness.


The Count de Nassau-Weilbourg lives here also. His Birth would engage me to give you an Account of him tho' I were not induc'd to it by the Consideration of his Merit. This Nobleman has an infinite share of it; he is generous, magnificent, genteel, and civil, knowing what Family he is descended from; but knowing it for no other reason than to discharge all the Obligations of it. He is the Ornament of this Court, tho' he is not in the Service of the Elector. His Father was Velt-Marshal, and Commander in Chief of the Palatine Troops during the Reign of the late Elector John William. The Count I am speaking of was Envoy Extraordinary from the Elector to the Court of France during the Minority of Lewis XV. He then went often to the Royal Palace to pay his court to the Regent's Mother, and there it was that I knew him; for that Lady and the whole Court of France had a very great Value for him. That Princess speaking of him one day to me, said she was very glad that he was a Count of Nassau; for indeed, said she, he deserves to bear a great Name[141].

There are amiable People here of both Sexes who are very sociable, so that 'tis a Stranger's own fault if he misses of Amusement here; for such are generally treated very civilly. As for my own part, I have received so many Courtesies from the Elector, and so many Favours from his Court that I shall for ever acknowledge them.

The Nobility maintain a Company of French Comedians who act three times a Week upon a very little Theatre, but both the Townsmen and Foreigners pay. Tho' this Company, of which the Count de337 la Marck has the Direction is not the best, yet 'tis a pleasure to go to it for the sake of seeing Company. In the time of the late Princess there were a thousand Pleasures which there are not now, so that her Death is still lamented.

The Elector's Revenues are reckon'd at two Millions of Crowns. You may rate them more or less, 'tis no matter; for my own part, I affirm nothing, being not willing to imitate the Marquis de Breton-Villiers, who in his Memoirs of the Regency values the Revenues of all the Princes of the Universe with as much assurance as if he had been Superintendant of every one's Finances. The Elector has about 7 or 8000 Soldiers, exclusive of his Guards. His best Places are Manheim, Juliers, and Dusseldorp. The three Religions tolerated in the Empire have Churches here, and the Jews a large Synagogue. They are very numerous at this Place, and two thirds of the Houses belong to them, as being either built by them, or mortgag'd to 'em. Some of them are very rich, and drive a great Trade with the Jews at Meiz, Frankfort and Amsterdam. 'Tis certain that they do a great injury to the Christian Merchants, and that they are not honester here than elsewhere.

Don't write to me, if you please, before I have sent you my Direction, because I know not whether I shall stay long enough at Frankfort, to which some Affairs call me, to receive your Letters.

Just now we hear of the Death of Pope Benedict XIII. As I never saw a Conclave, and am in the Humour of Travelling, I have an inclination to take a tour to Rome. I shall not resolve on it till I come to Frankfort. Which way soever I go you shall be inform'd, and I will not fail to desire your Commands. Mean time I am always very sincerely, &c.




SIR,Frankfort, March 21, 1730.  

At my Departure from Manheim I pass'd the Rhine over a Bridge of Boats, and in three Hours time arrived at Franckendahl, which was formerly fortified, but after having suffered by the general Conflagration in the Palatinate, was dismantled by the Peace of Nimeguen, and so it has remained ever since. It still bears the Marks of French Fury; and a great many Houses that were burn'd have not been rebuilt.

There's the finest Country in the World between Franckendahl and Worms. I came hither at ten o'clock in the Morning, and spent the rest of the Forenoon in seeing what was most remarkable. Worms is not the Place now that it was before the French burn'd it. Its most wealthy Inhabitants instead of rebuilding their Houses, retir'd to Frankfort and Holland, so that the Chapter of Worms, which is wholly compos'd of Persons of Quality, is now the chief Glory of the Town. The Bishop of it is the Elector[142] of Mentz, who was chose July 12, 1694. This Prince has built a new Episcopal Palace, the Contrivance of339 which is beautiful. It joins to the Cathedral which is ancient, and built very substantially. The Lutherans have just built a fine Church, the Roof of which is painted. In several Compartiments there's the History of Luther's pretended Reformation. That Doctor is there represented as appearing before the Dyet of the Empire which met at Worms An. 1521. You know that he was cited to it by the Emperor Charles V. His Friends, to dissuade him from appearing, put him in mind of John Huss, who notwithstanding the Safe-Conduct that had been granted him by the Emperor Sigismond, was burnt by a Decree of the Council of Constance. Luther, without being intimidated, said, that tho' he was sure to be engag'd with as many Devils as there were Tiles upon the Houses of Worms, he was resolv'd to go. He went thither accordingly, and appear'd the 17th of April before the Dyet, where he offer'd, with a Courage deserving a better Cause, to maintain his Doctrine and his Writings against all that should go about to demolish them from the Holy Scriptures.

The City of Worms stands in the middle of a fine spacious Plain, abounding with Corn, Vineyards, and Fruit-Trees. A Wine is produced here which is call'd Lieben-Frauen-Milch, i. e. Our Lady's Milk. The Rhine is about three or four hundred Paces from the Town, but 'tis said it formerly ran close by the Walls of it. Which way soever one comes to Worms, one perceives at a great Distance the four Towers of the Cathedral which are all built of red Freestone. Two drunken Fellows mistook those Towers one day for Capuchin Fryars. Being in the Country at a pretty good Distance from the Town, as the Sun was going down, one of them said to his Comrade, We have no Time to lose, the Gates are going to be shut.—No matter, said the other, pointing to the Towers; Don't you see those Capuchins340 there before us? They are of the Town, and are going thither as well as we. You are in the right, reply'd the former, let us drink the good Fryar's Health. They had a Gourd Bottle full of Wine, of which they drank every Drop, so that they did not overtake the imaginary Capuchins till next Day.

There is not a finer Country than that between Worms and Oppenheim, a little Town upon an Eminence, on the left Side of the Rhine, to which we pass over a flying Bridge. The Road from Oppenheim is unpassable for near two Leagues, because 'tis commonly overflown by that River; but afterwards the Way is perfectly good to Frankfort. 'Twas very late when I came to this City, but by good luck the People of Frankfort who formerly shut their Gates at Sun-set have lately chose to keep them open till ten o'clock, so that for paying a Trifle one may enter the Town.

I know not whether I need give any Account of the City of Frankfort. It has been so often describ'd, and is so well known to the World, that I fancy every body knows what sort of Town it is, tho' they have not seen it. Frankfort is famous for its two yearly Fairs, viz. at Easter and Michaelmas. It suffer'd much by a great Fire in 1619, but the whole has been since rebuilt, and the Houses are finer than before. There are few Places upon the whole more disagreeable, and few Towns in Germany where the Common People are more unpolish'd. The Burghers are not to be match'd for Affectedness, and their Conversation is insupportable. The Magistrates are all Lutherans; nevertheless the principal Churches belong to the Catholics. The Calvinists may live in the Town, but cannot hold any Employments, and are oblig'd to go for Worship to Bockenheim in the County of Hanau, and to cause their Children to be baptiz'd in the Lutheran Churches. The great Church in which the Ceremony341 of the Emperor's Coronation is perform'd is dark, and by no means proper for such an august Solemnity. You know that Aix la Chapelle is properly the Place set apart for the Coronation of our Emperors, and Frankfort for their Election. But since Maximilian I. no Emperor has been crown'd at Aix. Frankfort being situate in the Centre of the Empire is much more commodious for all the Princes, but particularly for the Spiritual Electors and for the Elector Palatine, who may send for their Equipages by Water and return them back by the same Convenience. When Charles VI. was crown'd at Frankfort in 1711, there was an extraordinary Concourse of Princes and Noblemen. Certain speculative Gentlemen made two Remarks on this Occasion, from which they presag'd two Things. The one was, that the Emperor made his Entrance into this City in close Mourning for the Emperor Joseph his Brother; whereupon they said that Charles wore Mourning because he foresaw that he should be the last Emperor of his Family. The second was, that as Charles return'd from the Church invested with all the Marks of Sovereignty, Charlemain's Sword had like to have dropp'd out of the Scabbard; which the Elector of Triers of the Lorrain Family observing, catch'd hold of the Sword, and put it in again before it was quite fallen out of the Scabbard. Upon this, the same Calculators of Nativities said it was an Omen that the Emperor would never have a quiet Reign, and that he would always be in a Situation that would oblige him to draw his Sword for his Defence[143].


As to Persons of great Distinction at Frankfort, they are very few. The Chief are the Princess-Dowager of Nassau-Ousingen, born Princess of Lovestein; the Count de Degenfeldt (Schomberg)[144] Major-General of the King of Prussia's Forces, and a Commander of the Order of the Black Eagle; and finally, Madame la Raugrave[145] Daughter of Charles-Lewis Elector Palatine: She is the last of the Blood of the Protestant Palatine Princes. The Senate of Frankfort, in consideration of her great Age, and in respect to her Birth, has granted her the Liberty of keeping a Calvinist Chaplain to preach in her own House. Sometimes the Prince de la Tour and Taxis[146] Hereditary Post-Master of the Empire resides at Frankfort. His House is a great Relief to Foreigners. His Princess[147] is a Lady of very great Merit, and has the Soul and Sentiments of a Queen. In the Houses of the Persons that I have mention'd there's an Assembly of both Sexes every Evening; but take them one with another they are very thin except at the Fairs, when there's a vast Resort of Nobility and Gentry. Most of the Electors and Princes of the Empire have their Agents at Frankfort, to whom they give the Title of Residents; but those Gentlemen are not a jot the more respected for it, most of them being Merchants of the City of Frankfort it self, who sollicit the Title in order to be exempt from the Authority of the Senate, and from the Payment of the Customs, and to qualify themselves343 to place over their Doors the Arms of the Princes to whom they send the News-papers.

The Count de Degenfeldt makes such a Figure here that he deserves a more particular mention. He is a Nobleman of good Extraction. He is a Native of the Palatinate, and spent his Youth in the Service of the Elector Palatine. He was at that Time a Calvinist, but turn'd Catholic. Some Years after, he was reconcil'd to his former Communion, and married in England a Cousin of his, the Daughter of the Duke de Schomberg, with whom he had a very great Estate. He has also a considerable Expectancy from Madame la Raugrave a Palatine, his Aunt[148]. The Relation of M. de Degenfeldt to this Lady, brings to my Mind the History of the Mother of Madame la Raugrave, who as I have observ'd was a Degenfeldt. I have chose to give it you from what was told me by the late Madame of France, and from very good Memoirs that have been put into my hands. I have plac'd this History as a Transaction in the Time of the ancient Germans; and as I design'd to insert it in a Work which I have undertaken, for want of something else to employ my Time, I chuse to do it by way of a Discourse from Madame the late Electress of Hanover to her Daughter-in-law. I herewith send you the entire History, and at the End of it you will find the Key. As I fancy you are quite disengag'd in the Country, I don't apprehend that the reading of it will be Loss of your Time. I rather fear you won't like it; but in either case 'twill be your own Fault; I don't force you to read; you may if you please let Gertrude alone.


History of GERTRUDE a Marcoman Lady.

The History of Gertrude, of which I propose to give you, my Princess, a Relation, is properly the History of the Extinction of my Family; for the fatal Passion of my Brother King Malcolm for that Lady, is in all appearance the Reason that there are no more left in my Family than three Princesses[149], and my self.

There was such a Harmony in Sentiments betwixt my Brother and me, that it united us in the strictest Friendship. We had been brought up together in Belgium[150], where the King my Father had been oblig'd to take refuge, that he might be nearer at hand to receive Succours from Alfred King of Albion, Father of the Queen my Mother, against the Romans, who after a long and bloody War had turn'd him out of his Dominions. That King amus'd him a long while with fair Promises; but the Misunderstanding which there was at that time between him and the States of his Kingdom, added to a certain Indolence in his natural Temper, hinder'd him from seeing the Effect of them; and the King my Father did not live long enough to be witness of the Peace which the Romans were at length oblig'd by his Allies to conclude. This was not an advantageous Peace for Malcolm my Brother, because in order to obtain it he was oblig'd to yield a part of his Dominions to the Prince of the[151]Boyens, an Ally of the Romans, and upon these Terms he was left in quiet possession of the rest.


When my Brother saw himself establish'd on the Throne, he thought of marrying. His Ministers propos'd the Princess of the Catti as the fittest Match for him, and assur'd him that besides her illustrious Extraction he could not marry a more beautiful Princess, or one of a better Temper. My Brother who only alter'd his Condition for Reasons of State, was willing enough to follow their Advice, and accordingly espous'd her. The Marriage at first prov'd very happy; the Queen his Wife had her share of Beauty, and tho' her Temper was very different from what it had been represented to my Brother, yet she so cunningly disguis'd it for some time that this Prince thought himself very happy in his Choice. But their Agreement was of a short Duration; the Queen's true Humour soon discover'd it self: It appear'd that she was ill-natur'd, and intolerably high-spirited; of an odd sullen Temper, always ready to contradict, and frequently subject to Chagrin, of which she herself knew not the Cause, and which she vented upon all that approach'd her without distinction. The King my Brother was of a Temper quite the reverse: He lov'd Diversions, was civil, affable, naturally gay, beneficent; and I don't speak it out of Partiality in favour of a Brother whose Memory is still dear to me, but I'll be bold to say, that if he had not been quite so choleric, he would have been the most accomplish'd Prince of his Time. Nevertheless he bore with his Wife's ill Humours very patiently at first, and endeavour'd to reclaim her by gentle Usage; but when he saw that all the Pains he took were to no purpose, he resolv'd at length to seek out some other Amusement.

The Beauty of Gertrude, Maid of Honour to the Queen his Wife, had for a long time smitten him, but hitherto he had only discover'd his Passion to her by his Glances, for fear of disgusting the Queen.346 Gertrude who perceiv'd that my Brother did not look upon her with Indifference, affected to shun every Opportunity that Prince might take of revealing his Love to her. But Fortune favour'd my Brother, who being one day with his Queen in her Apartment, when the Discourse fell upon Jewels, perceiv'd that the Princess had left off wearing a certain Bracelet of which he had made her a Present, and asking her what she had done with it, the Queen told him that she believ'd she had laid it up in a Casket of which she had the Key in her Pocket. She made one of her Maids fetch it, and open'd it, but the Bracelet was not there, at which she seem'd uneasy. This my Brother observ'd, and taking a Pleasure in making her more uneasy, he said to her, tho' in a manner that shew'd he did not think as he spoke, that she had undoubtedly some Gallant in a Corner, to whom she had either given that Bracelet, or who had stole it from her. These Words, tho' deliver'd in jest, made a deep Impression upon the Queen, and as it was her Nature soon to take fire, she was stung to the quick at what he had said, and forgetting the Respect she ow'd to the King her Husband, was in such a Passion with him that she let fall some Words that were very affronting. My Brother who was naturally mettlesome and fiery, and far from expecting any such Treatment, made her answer, that if she continued to forget herself after that manner, he would find ways and means to humble her. Upon this he went out of the Room abruptly, and passing through the Antichamber, met the fair Gertrude. Such was his Disgust that instead of being upon the reserve as he had been, he had a long Conversation with her, and found her so sprightly and good-natur'd that he was compleatly charm'd with her. He declar'd his Love to her, and she was so artful that 347tho' she gave him no Hopes, yet she did not rebuff him.

When my Brother was retir'd, Gertrude went into the Apartment of the Queen her Mistress, who plac'd her whole Confidence in her. That Princess no sooner saw her but she made a thousand Complaints of the King's Treatment of her. Gertrude seem'd to sympathize in her Resentment, and believing that the Queen could not fail to know that the King had talk'd with her in the Antichamber, she told her that the Prince having met her in her Passage gave her an angry Account of what had passed; and that she had done all she could to pacify him, but to no purpose: At the same time she blam'd the King's Proceeding; and encourag'd by the Liberty which the Queen gave her, told her that if she who was but a private Gentlewoman was so treated by any Husband, she would never pardon him tho' he were a King. She added several other Sayings which instead of pacifying this silly Queen, did but exasperate her the more.

In the mean time, Malcolm, who was impatient to know the Success of his Amour, wrote a Letter to Gertrude which he sent her by one of his chief Domestics, together with a rich Diamond Equipage. But the artful Gertrude whose Aim was to draw on his Passion, rather than to gratify it, was far from yielding to his first Attacks, and sent him back the Diamonds, tho' with a modest and respectful Answer, wherein she desir'd him to talk no more to her of Love. My Brother was too deeply smitten to be repuls'd; he doubled his Presents, was assiduous, and eager in his Courtship; and as 'tis very rare for a King of his amiable Personage to meet with long Resistance, Gertrude abated of her Shyness by degrees, and at length discovered that she was not insensible of Love. Their Correspondence which did not exceed the Bounds of Honour, was348 kept secret for a considerable time, but made the greater Blaze when it was known. Malcolm being one day with his Wife, happen'd, without perceiving it, to drop a Letter which the Queen took up, and found to be the Hand-writing of Gertrude. The Letter being written in Latin made the Queen the more curious to know what was in it; and she gave it to her Cousin, Prince Valamir, desiring him to unfold the Contents of it to her. This Prince was so unwise as to satisfy her Curiosity, and acquainted her that Gertrude by this Letter assur'd the King that he had gain'd her Heart. You will easily imagine how much the Queen was ruffled when she heard of this Intrigue: She could not contain herself; and without giving ear to the Arguments made use of by Valamir, she ran immediately to Gertrude's Apartment in the Palace, who by good luck was gone abroad. The Queen thinking her Casket was in Gertrude's Closet caused it to be broke open, and finding it there, open'd it, and took out all the Letters, of which several that appear'd to be from the King her Husband left her no room to doubt of that Prince's extraordinary Passion for Gertrude, and of the Intimacy there was between them. My Brother was quickly inform'd of what the Queen had been doing, but conceal'd his Uneasiness, shew'd his Wife no manner of Resentment, and only sent a Caution to Gertrude not to return to the Palace. Malcolm's Silence deceiv'd the Queen, who indeed was not a Lady of very great Penetration, so that she flatter'd herself the King might possibly be ignorant of the Outrage she had committed; and upon this Supposition she thought it her best way to dissemble her Hatred and Wrath against Gertrude. She pretended therefore to be very uneasy for fear of what had happen'd to her, caus'd a Search to be made for her several days, and seem'd very much dejected at her349 Absence. She hoped by all these Demonstrations of Friendship to decoy her back to the Palace, in order then to be compleatly reveng'd of her.

Thus Matters stood when the King of the Suevi, the Brother-in-law of the Queen my Sister-in-law, came to Court with the Queen his Wife. This Prince having observ'd the Queen's Melancholy on several occasions, ask'd her the reason of it one day as they sate at Table. 'You must not be surpriz'd, said Malcolm, to see the Queen my Wife out of temper; 'tis her common Infirmity, and very often she her self knows not the cause of it. My Ailment is but too real (reply'd the Queen in a great Pet;) and (then addressing herself to her Husband) said she, it does not at all become you whose dishonourable Amours have been the only Cause of my Disorder, to insinuate as if it were but imaginary.' This Answer made in so public a manner, so nettled my Brother that he turn'd pale for meer Vexation, and not being able to curb his Passion, forgot his Dignity so far as to strike her; upon which the unfortunate Princess rose from Table, and retir'd in Tears to her own Apartment. My Brother, whose Passion was always as soon over as it was easily kindled, was sorry in a very few moments after for what he had done, made his Excuses to the King and Queen of the Suevi, and rising from Table, went with them to his Wife's Apartment, where he ask'd her pardon for what had pass'd. This Atonement, which the Queen did not expect so soon, touch'd her to the quick: The King and she embrac'd each other, and exchang'd their Promises to forget as well as to forgive every Offence. But would you believe it? that fickle, fantastical Creature my Sister-in-law chang'd her mind all on a sudden, and when her Husband came in the Evening with an intention to spend the Night with her, she absolutely refus'd to let him bed with her unless he350 would resolve to deliver up Gertrude to her. Malcolm, who was still asham'd at what he had done in his last Fury, receiv'd so violent a Proposition with more Patience than he would have done upon another Occasion. He endeavour'd by fair Words to pacify his Wife, assuring her that nothing criminal had ever pass'd between him and Gertrude, and that tho' he had corresponded with the Girl by Letters, it was not out of any Love he had for her, so much as to know whether it was true that she wrote as good Latin as he had been told she did. Tho' this Speech of his was not very probable, yet as People are easily inclin'd to believe what they wish to be true, the Queen suffer'd herself to be at last persuaded, and was reconciled to her Husband without insisting any farther on the Sacrifice she at first demanded.

The Emperor being come to spend some Time at Pluibourg, summon'd an Assembly thither of the Princes of the Empire. My Brother went thither with the Queen his Wife; but the Consequence was that they were more embroil'd than ever; and my Sister-in-law was so unadvised as to let Cæsar and his Court be Witnesses of certain Brawls, which for her own Interest as well as her Husband's, she ought to have carefully confin'd within the Limits of her own Houshold. 'Tis true that my Brother had no very great Respect for her, and he lov'd Gertrude more than ever. Being hindred by a slight Indisposition from going to Montpayen where he kept her at one of his Houses, not a Day pass'd but he sent an Express to know how she did, and the Queen's ill Temper, who no doubt had better have try'd good-natur'd Methods to reclaim him, only incens'd him against her, and made him the fonder of Gertrude.

The Assembly of the Princes of Germany being over, and the Emperor return'd to Rome, my Brother351 set out for Montpayen the Capital of his Kingdom, and gave orders for his Queen to follow him next Day. But for a Reason which I never could dive into, the Princess instead of obeying him stay'd a Month longer at Pluibourg, without vouchsafing to let the King her Husband know the Reason of her delay; and not only so, but when she came to Montpayen, she had the Assurance to go with a bold Face to her Husband's Apartment, without knowing how he would take it: But the Prince who had just Reason to be angry, foreseeing that she was like enough to take such a step, had given orders to refuse her Entrance; wherefore she was oblig'd to retire to her Apartment, whither a Captain of the Guards came in a Moment after, to tell her from the King that she was a Prisoner.

This unhappy Princess bore her Disgrace very weakly. She repented, but too late, of having been so imprudent as to contravene the Orders of the King her Husband; and hoping to work upon his Good-nature, she wrote him a most submissive Letter, begging his pardon for her Disobedience, and intreating him to restore her to her Liberty. My Brother sent her an Answer, wherein he only gave her the Title of the Princess of Cattia. He told her, 'that having consider'd the Disagreement there was betwixt his Temper and her's, he resolved to be divorc'd from her, and that she would do well herself to give her Consent to it; which if she did with a good Grace, he would restore her to her Liberty and settle a Revenue on her suitable to her Rank.'

This Answer was a Thunder-stroke to my Sister-in-law; she rav'd and tore like a mad Woman. She was for a long while like one out of her Senses, but recovering them at length by the help of her Women, and consulting with those that had the greatest share of her Confidence, she sent the King 352word that he was Master, and might make use of his Authority, but that she would never consent to the Divorce.

My Brother who had fix'd his Resolution, and saw no other way to get possession of Gertrude than by marrying that Girl who had presum'd to set so high a Price upon her Favours, took off the Mask, notify'd his Design to the Court, and in a few days after, the Marriage was perform'd in the manner that you know is practis'd in Germany by Princes who marry beneath themselves, which excludes the Children by such Venter from succeeding to the Father's Estate. As soon as he was marry'd, he restor'd the Queen to her Liberty, and acquainted her, 'That by the Advice and Consent of the Priests of his Kingdom whom he had caused to be assembled, he had marry'd Gertrude. That the Thing being done and past remedy, he hoped she would resolve to make her self easy. That however, he would always treat her as a Princess; that she should be welcome to continue in her Apartment at the Palace; that she should have her Guards to attend her, and that he had set apart a sufficient Fund for her Maintenance; but that he expected she would be so complaisant as to acknowledge Gertrude hereafter for the lawful Queen.'

My Sister-in-law who then saw that her Disgrace was infallible, gave her self up to Complaints and Tears, wrote to the King her Husband in the most moving Language, and implor'd the assistance of the King her Brother: But all was to no purpose; she was oblig'd to submit to her Misfortune, and to be patient under an Affliction which she had partly brought upon her self by her Folly.

While all this pass'd, my Brother was at one of his Seats not far[152] from his Capital, where he caus'd353 Gertrude to be treated as a Queen, and not long after carried her to Montpayen where the sight of her Royalty was a fresh Mortification to the Queen my Sister-in-law. However, the unfortunate Princess not yet despairing of the means of reclaiming her Husband, was resolv'd to make the last Attempt to turn that Prince's Heart. She dress'd herself in the most gay and rich Apparel that she could get, and taking her Children along with her, went to meet the King her Husband in the Room next to the Hall where he was at Table with Gertrude, and thro' which he must necessarily return. When he appear'd, she threw herself with her Children at his Feet, clasp'd his Knees, conjur'd him with Tears in her Eyes to look with Pity on an unhappy Princess whom he had formerly thought fit to make his Wife, and to consider that the Affront he put upon her by divorcing her, would be a Reproach to those very Children of whom he had been so fond. My Brother seem'd to be melted at so moving a Spectacle, look'd for some Moments on his Wife and Children with Tears in his Eyes, and he was just ready to raise her from the Ground, when Gertrude who was at his Heels, fearing what might be the Consequence of the Confusion that she saw him in, talk'd earnestly to him in the Tuscan Language, saying, Remember, my Lord, what you promis'd me. These few Words wrought so much on the unsteady Mind of my Brother that he only lifted up his Hands to Heaven and went on, shewing by the Trouble he was under, how little he was Master of his Reason upon this Occasion. The Queen my Sister-in-law remain'd for a while speechless, but Fury and Despair quickly seiz'd her Soul. She rose up and ran into her Closet, where snatching up a Dagger[153] she came back again with an Intention354 to stick it into her Rival's Heart. But the Rage she was in having so confounded her that she had not a Thought of concealing that Instrument of her Revenge, it was perceiv'd by one of the chief Courtiers who pluck'd it from her just as she was going into the Closet where my Brother was with Gertrude. That Prince hearing a Noise so near him ran out, and demanded what was the matter. 'Tis I, (said the Queen very couragiously) 'who was coming to revenge my self and you too on the Monster which disunites us; but that Traytor there (said she, pointing to the Man that had wrested the Dagger out of her Hands) has depriv'd me of the only Opportunity that I could call a Pleasure.—Princess, (said the King to her very calmly) don't indulge your self any longer in such extravagant Passions, if you are unwilling that I should use you roughly.' Then he retir'd with Gertrude, and my Sister-in-law return'd to her Apartment in a Temper which you may easily imagine.

Clodius, who now governs the Empire, being at that time proclaim'd Emperor, this Princess made her Complaints to him, and desir'd him to reconcile Malcolm to her. But Cæsar having excus'd himself, my Sister-in-law who could no longer bear the Presence of her Rival, retir'd to the King her Brother, there to wait the End of her Misfortunes. My Brother liv'd afterwards very lovingly with his new Spouse, and had by her four Sons and as many Daughters. But Death having at last robb'd him of a Person so dear to him, the Prince was so afflicted for the Loss of her, that he spent two Years in continual Sorrow, and at length himself paid the same Tribute to Nature.


He left but one Son and a Daughter by his lawful Spouse who surviv'd him some Years. The King my Nephew was marry'd, but he was of such a melancholy Temper, his Humour was so different from the Queen's, and there was so little Love betwixt them, that he died without Issue. With him I have seen my Family utterly extinct, its Dominions transferr'd to the Power of a Prince who is hardly related to us, and my Country abandon'd to the most dismal Desolation. For my Niece having marry'd Meroveus, Brother to Ariovisto King of the Gauls, the latter who is an ambitious Prince and goes to War upon every the least Pretence, asserted the Rights of his Sister-in-law without Delay, and pleading that she ought to succeed to the Inheritance of the King her Brother, notwithstanding the Salic Law establish'd in Germany, he sent a formidable Army into the Dominions of my deceased Nephew, where the Gauls at first meeting with no Resistance, committed enormous Cruelties, and extended their Fury even to the Violation of the Tomb of the Kings my Ancestors, whose dead Bodies were stripp'd and exposed to the Caprice of the unruly Soldiers: Calamities, which perhaps would never have happen'd, had it not been for my Brother's fatal Passion for Gertrude; because in all Appearance if he had liv'd in a good Understanding with his lawful Spouse; he would have had more Children by her, and I would not have had the Vexation to see the Throne of my Fathers posses'd by a foreign Family.

KEY to the History of GERTRUDE.
Albion, England.
Alfrede I. James I. King of England.
Ariovisto, Lewis XIV.
Belgium, Holland.
356 Boyens, (Prince of) the Elector of Bavaria.
Catti, (Princess of) the Princess of Hesse-Cassel.
Cæsar, the Emperor.
Clodius, the Emperor Leopold.
Germania, Germany.
Gertrude, the Baroness of Degenfeldt.
Malcolm, Charles-Lewis Elector Palatine.
Meroveus, Philip of France, Duke of Orleans, Brother to Lewis XIV.
Montpayen, Heidelberg.
Pluibourg, Ratisbon.
Romans, the Imperialists.
Rome, Vienna.
Suevi, (King of) the Margrave of Baden-Dourlach.
End of the History of Gertrude.

I have not scrupled to give you this History, because all the Persons who are Subjects of it are dead. I wrote it very much in haste, for the Diversion of the Princess d'A——, so that you must not be surpriz'd if you don't meet with all that Exactness which there ought to be in this little Narrative; tho' I must tell you again that every Tittle of it is true, so that you may read it as a History, and not as a Romance.

I have fix'd my Resolution, and now am setting out for Rome; therefore please to direct to me at Venice. I go to-morrow to a great Hunting-Match that is to be at Darmstadt, where I shall stay two Days: From thence I shall go and spend two more with the Count de Hanau; and then will I begin my Pilgrimage to the Holy Places. I am most entirely, &c.





SIR,Munich, April 2, 1730.  

Since you received my last I have done and seen a great many Things. On the 23d of March I set out from Frankfort for Darmstadt, the Capital of the upper County of Catzenellenbogen, and the Residence of Ernest-Lewis Landgrave of Hesse-Darmstadt[154].

This Town is extremely small, and only enclosed with Pallisadoes. If the Prince's Palace had been finish'd according to its Model, it would have been one of the greatest and most magnificent in Europe, and there might have been Lodgings for the Emperor, and all the nine Electors of the Empire. It would have been bigger than the Town, and have358 cost immense Sums: That Part which is finish'd makes a very grand Appearance. But all those magnificent Works which the Landgrave Regent at first carried on with very great Vigour are entirely discontinu'd, and there's no Appearance that they will ever be taken in hand again. The old Palace is much more commodious than it seems to be; its Apartments being convenient, and richly furnish'd. The Landgrave does not live in the Palace, but leads a very retir'd Life in a little House upon the Square, where he is never seen but upon Sundays and Holidays. He amuses himself in turning of Ivory, making Chymical Experiments, and in Drawing. He loves Hunting above all things whatsoever. He delights in Agriculture, and in Music, and it may strictly be said that he is never unemploy'd. He has very great Knowledge natural and acquir'd. He has seen a great many Countries, and tho' sixty Years of Age he still looks well, and his grey Hairs, not to call them white, give him a venerable Air. He sits a Horse very well, walks well, and seems to enjoy perfect Health. His Wife was Dorothy of Brandenbourg-Onoltzbach, who died in 1705. They say that he lately married N—— de Spiegel the Widow of Count Seibelsdorf a Lieutenant-General in the Service of Bavaria. Be that as it will, the Marriage is not public, and the Lady still goes by the Name of her former Husband by whom she has Children. 'Tis true that the Landgrave pays her very great Distinction, and indeed she is very amiable.

This Prince commonly dines at a little Table spread only for four People; but on Sundays and Holidays he goes to the Palace, and dines with his Son at a Table cover'd for sixteen Guests, and sups with the Ladies who are never seen at Court but upon those Days. 'Tis a very hard matter to come at the Speech of the Landgrave, and much more359 to that of his only Son the hereditary Prince. The Hunting-Officers are the only Persons that have the Privilege of Access to them; for which reason this is not one of the most entertaining Courts; and a Man is under a necessity of throwing himself into the Town, where indeed there are a great many People of Merit who are civil to Foreigners.

The hereditary Prince Lewis, the only Son of the Landgrave, who was born the 5th of April 1691, is a handsome Man, has a noble Air, dances well, mounts a Horse well, has Vivacity, Spirit, and Politeness, but is often thoughtful, melancholy, and goes for Retirement to the Woods, where he is passionately fond of Hunting; but is apt to create himself Uneasiness, and does not know how to dissemble it. Tho' he has all the Qualities necessary to shine in Company, yet he sees but very little. He married Charlotta-Christina of Hanau, who dying in 1726, left him three Sons and two Daughters, the eldest of which was then seven Years of Age. By virtue of this Marriage the Prince is Heir to the Count of Hanau's Estate in Alsace, and to all his Freeholds in general, which will be a very rich Succession.

Nevertheless the Court of Darmstadt is very numerous. The Landgrave has a great many Counsellors of State, Gentlemen of the Bed-Chamber and Court, and a greater Number still of Officers of the Venery, and Huntsmen. There is not a Province in Germany more proper for Hunting, nor in Europe where there are more Deer. 'Tis a flat even Country, and a gravelly Soil interspersed with Woods thro' which there are cut noble Roads. I have seen the Deer come up close to the Pallisadoes of the Town, and at their Rutting-time I have heard them cry as I lay in my Bed. This great plenty of Deer is extremely troublesome to the Peasants who are abroad day and night to watch their Fields. The360 Landgrave and the hereditary Prince are so jealous of their Game that they reckon it as bad a Crime as Murder for any one to kill a Deer; and tho' 'tis an establish'd Custom among almost all Sovereigns to punish with Severity all those that kill a Creature which God however certainly created for the Use of all Mankind, yet there is no Prince who observes this Law more strictly than the Landgrave.

I cannot give you a more certain Account of the Revenues of this Prince than of those of all the other Sovereigns. 'Tis said that he has 5 or 600000 Florins per Ann. I am not very well inform'd of the number of his Troops, for I have only seen his Regiment of Guards which is in very compleat Order. His Horse-Guards are also very fine Troops, and commanded by the General Miltitz, who is at the same time Grand Marshal of the Court, the Honours of which he performs in a very handsome manner.

Tho' the Soil at Darmstadt is very gravelly, it produces excellent Pulse. I have seen Asparagus at the Landgrave's Table, three of which weigh'd a Pound, tho' indeed they were not altogether so nice. I remember that in a former Journey which I made hither in the Month of December, there were brought to the Landgrave in several Pots of Porcellain, a Dwarf Cherry-Tree laden with Cherries; Strawberry-Plants, an Almond-Tree, and in short, the Fruits of all the Seasons.

The intended Hunting-Match, for what reason I know not, was put off; and as I came hither only to see it, I staid but one Day and went to Hanau. The Count and the Princess of Hanau were but lately return'd from Alsace. The Town of Hanau is situate on a large Plain to the right of the Main. 'Tis divided into two Wards, the old and the new Town: The latter is much bigger than the former: It was built by the Walloon Protestants, who, during361 the Duke of Alva's Persecution under Philip II. King of Spain, quitted the Netherlands and came to settle at Hanau, which they fortify'd, and built in such a manner that all the Streets run parallel. The Count keeps several Companies in pay, from which he makes Detachments for the Quota he is oblig'd to furnish, as a Member of the Circle of the Upper Rhine.

The Walloons who are settled at Hanau have established several Manufactures there, especially Woollen Stuffs. The Calvinists, the Lutherans, and the Jews are tolerated here, and as for us Catholics, we may go to Mass where we please.

The Count's Palace is in the old Town: 'Tis an ancient Building, and makes no great Appearance, but the Apartments are commodious, and very richly furnish'd. The Count has a very pretty Pleasure-House a quarter of a League from Hanau, call'd Philipsruhe, i. e. (Philip's Repose) and built by the late Count de Hanau, Brother to the Count Regent[155]. 'Twas at this Seat that I found the Count of Hanau. There was a very numerous Attendance, and I heartily wish'd I could have staid there a few days. Few Princes in the Empire live more elegantly than the Count de Hanau. The Lady who directs the whole Houshold, and keeps all things in wonderful Order is the Princess[156] who is of the Family of Brandenbourg-Anspach, and Sister to the Queen of England. At this Court you have all the Liberty than can be desired. When you first come a Chamber is provided for your Lodging, and a Footman order'd to wait on you. Every Morning an Officer comes to know what you will please to have for Breakfast; and there's every Thing to be had that you call for. If afterwards you have a mind to go out a Hunting, you send to the Great Huntsman362 for a Guide and to the Count for Horses out of his Stables. If you come back too late for Dinner at Court, you are serv'd very elegantly in your own Apartment. In the Evening when you are retir'd from Company, a Butler takes care to provide you with Wine and Beer. The Servants of Foreigners diet with those of the Count. His own Table which is commonly for eighteen Guests is served as well as most, and a second Table is serv'd with the same Magnificence. The Count has a very great Family, and lives every way like a Prince; and indeed 'tis his own Fault that he is not one, for he has had the Imperial Diploma for it a long while, but he does not care to make use of it; saying, he had rather be the first Count than the lowest Prince. He is the last Male of his Family. After his Death the County of Hanau relapses to the Landgrave of Hesse-Cassel, according to the Treaty of Confraternity made between the several Families of Saxony, Hesse, and Hanau, which imports that the said Families shall succeed one another. The King of Poland as Elector of Saxony ought to have had his Share in the Succession to the County of Hanau, but his Majesty by a Treaty yielded his Rights to the Landgrave of Cassel. As to the Lands in Alsace, and the Freeholds, they revert, as I told you before, to the Children of the hereditary Prince of Darmstadt.

The Count of Hanau seems to be much older than he is in reality. He is a very civil Nobleman, and Hunting is a Diversion of which he is extremely fond, so that to kill a Deer upon his Lands is an unpardonable Crime; and the lesser Game, such as Rabbits, Hares, and Partridges, are equally his Care. All these Creatures spoil the Fields; but they serve for the Count's Amusement, while the poor Peasant is oblig'd to pay his Tax, and dares not speak a Word.


From Hanau to Munich I never made a stop; but after having travell'd thro' Wurtzbourg, Nurembourg, and Augsbourg arrived here last night, and propose to set out again to-morrow, and after two or three days stay at Saltzbourg shall proceed by the way of Tirol to Venice, where I beg you would not fail to let me hear from you.

I am just come from attending the Obsequies of Theresa-Cunegunda Sobieski Electoress of Bavaria, Mother to the Elector. This Princess died lately at Venice, to which City she retir'd eighteen Months ago, and her Corpse is forthwith expected to be interr'd in the Tomb of the Electoral Family. She has left, as 'tis said, near six millions of Florins, which, since she has made no Will, are to be equally shar'd between the four Princes her Sons. She has moreover left a Daughter who is a Nun in a Convent of this City. In 1719, when she took the Habit, I was present. She chose this retir'd Life against the Will of her Father the Elector, who did all he could to dissuade her from it; and she liv'd in great Reputation for her Piety. But to return to the Obsequies of the Electoress: The Elector and Electoress assisted at them, together with the Elector of Cologne, the Duke Ferdinand, the Bishop of Freisingen, the Duchess Ferdinand, and the two Princes her Sons. These Princes had Cowls upon their Heads, and great Cloaks, which is not one of the most becoming Dresses. The Family of Bavaria observes a very singular Custom, which is, never to give a black Livery, nor to line their Coaches. I think this reasonable enough, for it does not look very well in a pompous Funeral.

I am, &c.




SIR,Saltzbourg, April 2, 1730.  

At my departure from Munich I went and din'd at Eversberg, a Village belonging to the Reverend Fathers the Jesuits, who have a House there which is a large one, and that's all 'tis good for. I went and lay at Wasserbourg a Town of Bavaria built upon a Rock, so encompass'd with the River Inn that 'tis a perfect Peninsula. Mountains and Rocks hang over this Town as if they wou'd crush it, and indeed the Place is not worth much Description. It was settled as a Dowry on the Electoress Theresa-Cunigunda Sobieski who died last Month, but this Princess would never live in it, nor indeed do I know any other Prince that would.

After having pass'd the Inn[157] over a very slender wooden Bridge I climb'd a high Mountain, got down another, ascended a third, and so I travell'd all the way up Hill and down Hill till I came within two Leagues of Saltzbourg, where the Country becomes more passible.

The City of Saltzbourg as well as the whole Archbishoprick takes its Name from the River Saltz which passes thro' the City and Country. It rises in Tirol and loses itself in the Inn. The Mountains that are365 about the Town make it not near so broad as 'tis long, tho' take it all together 'tis not a large Town. 'Tis very well fortify'd, and has a Castle which standing on an Eminence forms as it were a Citadel. 'Tis furnish'd with a good Arsenal, and all manner of Ammunition, and I have been assur'd that of Gunpowder alone there are no less than 20000 Quintals. Some Years ago when I was here, Lightning fell so near this Magazine that it wanted but half a Foot of penetrating to the Powder, which if it had touch'd I fancy I shou'd never have wrote to you more. There is always a Guard of fifty Men at the Castle, and the Garison of the Town consists of 600 Men who are lodg'd in the Caserns.

The City of Saltzbourg contains finer Edifices than many great Towns. It has a magnificent Cathedral which was consecrated the 24th of September 1628, by an Archbishop who was of the Family of the Counts de Lodron. 'Tis a vast Structure of Free-stone, and has a stately Front which may be reckon'd the compleatest in Germany. The skilful Architect by whom it was directed has very much copy'd the Front of St. Agnes's Church in the Square of Navona at Rome. It has four Marble Statues bigger than the Life, which represent St. Peter, St. Paul, St. Rupert, and St. Virgilius, of whom the two latter were the first Archbishops of this See. The whole Church is adorn'd in the inside with Pilastres of the Corinthian Order. 'Tis built in the Form of a Cross with a very high Dome which separates the Nave from the Choir. The high Altar which is at the bottom of the Choir is of Marble, as are the two Chapels that form the Cross: The Pavement of the Church is of great Squares of Marble of various Colours. 'Tis pity there was not more Inlet for Light, the Dome being the only lightsome Part of it. But as the Church is magnificent the366 Ornaments of the high Altar are more so. Upon the Grand Festivals it bears a Sun of Gold adorn'd with precious Stones to the Value of 100000 Crowns, a great Cross of massy Gold, and four golden Candlesticks. The Front of the Altar, and the Tabernacle are of massy Silver of excellent Workmanship.

St. Rupert surnam'd the Apostle of Bavaria was the first Bishop of Saltzbourg in 582. Leo III. whom the Church honour'd as a Saint, erected this Bishoprick into an Archbishoprick in favour of St. Arnould, in the Year 798. He had for Suffragans the Bishops of Freisingen, Ratisbon, Passau, Briken, Gurck, Chiemsee, Seggau, and Lavant.

The Archbishop has a Right of Nomination to the four last Bishopricks; only the Nomination to the Bishoprick of Gurck is alternative between this Prelate and the Emperor, as Archduke of Austria. The four Bishops bear the Title of Princes of the Empire, and enjoy all the Prerogatives annexed to that high Dignity. Notwithstanding this, the Archbishop never gives them the Preference, and when he talks to them, only compliments them with the Title of Euer Freuntschaft, i. e. Your Friendship. Service is perform'd in this Metropolis according to the Usage observ'd in St. Peter's Church at Rome. The Chapter is compos'd of the Archbishop, a Provost, a Dean, and twenty four Canons, all Men of Quality, who are only oblig'd to four Months Residence, and the rest of the Time they may go where they please. Both the Provost and Dean have the Crosier and Mitre[158]. The Archbishop, as well as the Elector of Cologn, has the Privilege of dressing in the Habit of a Cardinal. This Prelate has the Directorship of the College of Princes at the Dyet of the Empire alternatively with the Archduke of Austria. He is moreover Legatus natus367 & perpetuus of the Holy See, and Primate of Germany. His Titles are these, 'Leopold, by the Grace of God, Archbishop of Saltzbourg, and Prince of the Empire, perpetual Legate of the Holy Apostolic See of Rome, Primate of Germany, descended of the illustrious Family of the Barons of Firmian.'

The Archbishop at his coming to the See must pay 100000 Crowns to Rome for the Pall, but the Country generally raises it for him, besides making a free Gift of the like Sum to its new Prince. The Revenues of this Prelate are about 1500000 Florins a Year. The very Salt which is carried into Bavaria and Swabia brings him in 30000 Crowns. He is absolute Master of all his Revenues, and accountable to no body for what he lays out. The present Archbishop is of Tirol, of a distinguish'd Family, but not favour'd much by Fortune. He was born the 26th of May 1679, and succeeded Francis-Anthony the Count de Harrach. His Advancement was owing to the Division of the Chapter, who all wanted to be either Bishops themselves, or else to advance some one Friend or Cousin. After a great many Debates and Messages sent forwards and backwards, their Choice fell upon the Baron de Firmian who was at that time very infirm, which was the only Thing that procur'd him the Mitre; for the Parties that divided the Chapter united in his favour, because they thought him a Man not very long-liv'd; but they believ'd however he might live long enough to give each Party time to form its Cabals for advancing that Person to the Bishoprick who they thought would best serve their Purpose. But all those Gentlemen were mightily mistaken as to the Archbishop's Life. For this Prelate, like another Pope Sixtus V. lost all his Infirmities when he found the Mitre, and is very like to out-live many of his Electors.


This Prince is tall, has an austere haughty Air; seldom makes any Compliments, and talks much less, except when he is hunting, which is all the Pleasure of his Life. He is almost always alone, and generally eats by himself. In the Summer-time he keeps altogether in the Country where he is of very difficult Access, and keeps no Retinue, nor Company. He is accus'd of being too thrifty, and I don't know but there may be something in it; but perhaps he would not appear to be quite so saving if he had succeeded any body else in the Bishoprick but the Count de Harrach, the most generous, noble, and most magnificent Prelate of his Time. The Archbishop is naturally a Valetudinarian; and under God, he is oblig'd for the Preservation of his Life to his Physician Gersner, a Native of Vienna, a Man of great Skill in his Profession, and of strict Honour and Integrity, who has got so much the length of the Prelate's Foot that he is almost the only Person that dares to speak to him with Freedom. The Count d'Arco Son to the Archbishop's Sister is this Prelate's only Darling; for to the surprize of the whole Court, and Chapter, he prefers him before a Nephew of his own Name, a Canon of Saltzbourg and of Trent, a young Clergyman of great Hopes.

The Archbishop of the Lodron Family who caus'd the Metropolis to be built, likewise founded the Archiepiscopal Palace, the Fortifications, and the Stables, which were all finish'd in the thirty two Years that he was Archbishop. The Apartments of the Palace being not laid out altogether in the modern Taste, the deceased Archbishop Anthony Count de Harrach, made a thorough Change in them, and left little more than the Outside standing. The Palace at Saltzbourg is now more magnificent than many royal Houses. It contains 173 Rooms all richly furnish'd, without reckoning the Halls and Galleries. The Archbishop's Apartment is369 stately: It has a great Marble Stair-case divided into three Flights, which leads into a spacious Guard-Chamber, from whence one enters into the Archbishop's Apartment consisting of several Rooms, where able Italian Masters have adorn'd the Cielings with very good Draughts. One is really surprized to see the Richness of the Furniture, and the infinite Variety of other things that are distributed up and down this vast Apartment; such as Marble Tables adorn'd with gilt Mouldings; old Porcellain of the most beautiful sort; Lustres of massy Silver, and Rock Crystal of uncommon Workmanship; Chandeliers also of Silver or Crystal upon large gilded Stands, and a multitude of other things very well worth observation.

How magnificent soever this Apartment is, there's another made use of upon Days of Ceremony which infinitely surpasses it. I will only mention the principal Rooms of it. We first enter into a great Salon adorn'd with the Pictures of no less than fourscore Archbishops of Saltzbourg. Next to it there's another Salon ingeniously and magnificently decorated, which discovers Grandeur in every part of it. 'Tis furnish'd with a Suit of Hangings of Crimson-Damask with Gold Lace, forming a rich Architecture in Pilasters of the Composite Order, the Frize of which is adorn'd with a pair of Brackets, which is a vast Addition to the whole Decoration. The rich Gilding shines every where with profusion. At one end of the Room there stands in the Wall a sumptuous Beaufet of Silver gilt, and at the other there's a rich Canopy under which the Archbishop sits when he dines in State. There's a stately Lustre in the middle of the Room which consists of magnificent pieces of Rock Crystal. At the end of this grand Apartment there are two Galleries that deserve the attention of the Curious in Painting, who will certainly pass their time here very agreeably,370 and find a great many choice Pictures done by the best Masters. The Chimney-piece of the first of these Galleries is a great Ornament to it, being of the finest Marble adorn'd with Brass, gilt with Water-Gold. Over it there's a Statue of Brass as big as the Life representing Antinous. The second Gallery is as magnificent as the first. The Floor, Cieling, Door-Cases, and all the Ornaments in general are of fine Marble. The Walls are painted in Fresco, and exhibit Geographical Charts of the principal Dominions in Europe in divers Pictures, which are executed with very great Art and Exactness both as to the Painting and Disposition of the Things that are the Subjects of it.

A third Apartment which is over the Archbishop's is for lodging foreign Princes, and is not inferiour to the others in Grandeur and Magnificence. It consists of several Rooms all in a row. In one Room there are all the Pictures of the Emperors from Charlemain to Charles VI. The Rooms that follow it are hung with very rich Tapestry, particularly one Set representing the War between Pompey and Cæsar, which is so wonderfully well drawn that the Marshal de Daun Governour of Milan offer'd 40000 Florins for it to the late Archbishop. I shall say nothing of the other Apartments, having treated so much of the Archiepiscopal Palace; tho' if it had belong'd to a Temporal Prince I should have said much less of it, but I thought fit to give you an Idea of the Wealth of a Prelate.

Adjoining to the Palace there is a great Building which serves for lodging the Archbishop's Domestics. The Stables are fit for a King, and if a Frenchman was to see them he would be forc'd to own that as to the Inside they are more magnificent than the so much boasted Stables of Versailles. They hold 150 Horses in two Rows, with a broad Walk in the middle; and the Roof which is pretty high371 is supported by two Ranges of Stone-Pillars. Next to these Stables is a Riding-House cover'd, the Ceiling of which being painted in Fresco, represents a Tournament; and all round it there is a Gallery. 'Tis pity that this magnificent Riding-House is not broader. There's another Riding-House uncovered which has not its Fellow in the World. 'Tis a very great square Place, three Sides of which are lin'd by very high Rocks, in which three Rows of Seats are very artfully cut out for the Spectators, when there is any Carousal, or Combat of wild Beasts. The whole Work is really magnificent, and the old Romans would not have been ashamed to own it.

Trinity-College Church is extremely well adorned. The Floor is of Marble, and the Roof painted with a great deal of Art, representing the Assumption of the Virgin, and the Crown placing on her Head by God the Father and by Jesus Christ. The High-Altar is of a very singular Form, but very magnificent. Two Angels of Brass, exceeding human Stature, in a Posture of Humility and Adoration, support a Heart of Brass which serves for a Tabernacle. Over it is a Globe, between God the Father and the Redeemer. God the Father seems to rest his right hand upon the Globe, and presents the left to our Lord, who puts his left upon the Globe, and in the right holds a Cross. They are supported by very large Rays which shine with very rich Gilding. This stately Groupe is surmounted with a Glory, in the midst of which the Holy Ghost appears in form of a Dove, extending its Rays over God the Father, and God the Son. The whole is of Brass gilt with Gold, of a very curious Fancy.

Near this magnificent Church is the Palace of Mirabel, where the late Archbishop the Count de Harrach, used to spend the Summer. This Prince who is truly magnificent in every thing, caus'd this House to be built at a great Expence from the very372 Foundation; but the Architect whom he employ'd has not answer'd his Intention, and it appears that he did not understand the proper Distribution of the Apartments. Every Part of it indeed taken distinctly, is beautiful, but there is not one in its proper Place. The grand Stair-Case is very fine, as well for its Contrivance as for its rich Ornaments, but 'tis placed in a Corner, and without a Guide 'tis no easy matter to find it. The Salon, which is the Master-piece of the Archbishop's Apartments, is worth the Observation of the Curious, with respect to the grand Manner in which 'tis painted: Marble, Brass, and Gilding, seem to have been bestowed on it with profusion. As to the Pilasters, the Corinthian Order is entirely observed; and there are Basso-Relievos imitating Brass which are well design'd, and make a very good appearance. 'Tis pity this fine Salon wants proportion, it being much too lofty for its Size; and 'tis still more to be lamented that it has not a Prospect over the Gardens, the River of Saltz, and the adjacent Country, which are the Objects that are discover'd from the Apartments next to the Salon.

The Chapel of Mirabel is also very magnificent; and though but of a middling Size, is not inferior to the finest Churches. This Palace is accompanied with Gardens finely adorned with Fountains and Statues; and there are several Orange-Trees planted in the Ground, which are cover'd up in the Winter in a wooden Box.

Thus, Sir, have I given you a very particular Account of the City of Saltzbourg: What remains for me is to speak of the Archbishop's Houshold, which will give you an Idea of his Wealth and Grandeur. This Prince has

A Steward,
A Great Chamberlain,
A Grand Marshal,
A Master of the Horse,
373A Great Huntsman,
A Captain of the Guards,
A Master-Cook,
A Pay-Master,
Twenty-four Chamberlains,
Sixteen Gentlemen-Servants called Truchsses,
Sixteen Pages,
Fifteen Ushers of the Cabinet,
Eleven Ushers of the Chamber,
Forty-two Valets de Chambre,
Twenty-eight Footmen,
Eighteen Cooks.

How many Coachmen and Grooms he has I know not, but there must be a great number of 'em, the Archbishop having 750 Horses.

Besides the Officers that I have now mentioned, there are also the Great Hereditary Officers of the Archbishoprick, who are four.

The eldest of the Lodron Family is Hereditary Grand Marshal.

The Count de Kuenbourg is Great-Cup-Bearer.

The Office of Master of the Pantry is vacant by the death of the Count de Thanhausen, the last of his Family.

The Count de Torring is Great Chamberlain.

All these Offices are executed by the eldest Sons of the Families above-mentioned.

The Archbishop confers the Order of St. Hubert, which was instituted the 25th of November, 1702, by the Archbishop John-Ernest, who has thereto annexed six Commanderies, or Prebends, of a considerable Revenue.

The Archbishops are obliged for most of their Wealth to the Princes of Bavaria[159]. Mean time the Members of the Chapter of Saltzbourg admit of374 no Princes, that they may have a Plea for refusing the Princes of Bavaria, of whose Power they are jealous; in which I think they shew more regard to the Rules of Policy than those of Gratitude.

The City of Saltzbourg is worth seeing, but does not afford Amusement. Every one lives here for his own sake, and except some Gentlemen of the Chapter, and the Master of the Horse, who is the Count de Truchsses Zeil, there's nobody to visit. The latter is a Nobleman whose Manners and Sentiments are intirely conformable to his Birth. I know nobody that is more polite; and I have abundant reason to praise his Civility to me. He is of a Family, one Branch of which is settled in Prussia, where it has for a long time held distinguished Employments, and produced Subjects of great Merit who have done the State good Service.

I forgot to mention two things to you that are worth seeing, viz. the Capuchins Convent, from whence there's a Prospect of a vast Tract of Country; and St. Sebastian's Church-yard, in which is interr'd the celebrated Paracelsus; his Tomb lies in a Place very much neglected, behind a Door, where a Latin Epitaph says, 'There rests Philip-Theophrastus Paracelsus, the famous Physician, who with wonderful Art cured the Leprosy, Gout, Dropsy, and other incurable Distempers; and who after having given all his Estate to the Poor, died September 24, 1541.'

Paracelsus cured most of his Patients by Sympathy, which made the Vulgar, who are always apt to run into extremes, believe that he was a Magician. He wrote several Books, whereof one of the most curious is his Treatise of Secret Philosophy, which really contains such Passages as would make one believe that if Paracelsus was not a Conjurer himself, he was at least one of the Sect.


St. Sebastian's Church-yard is a square Place, encompassed with a Gallery supported by Arches: 'tis 119 Paces in length, and 96 in breadth.

The Neighbourhood of Saltzbourg is not disagreeable; and though the Valley in which the City lies is pretty much inclosed with Mountains, yet it presents several Objects that are pleasing to the Sight.

The Archbishop has two Pleasure-Houses, viz. Cleisheim and Heilbron, which are both of them beautiful and magnificent. Heilbron especially is worth seeing on account of its fine Waters and Cascades.

I hope to write to you speedily from Venice, and perhaps you will hear from me when I come to Inspruc; but this will depend on the Stay I shall make there, and on the departure of the Post.

Since the year 1730, that this Letter was wrote, great Revolutions have happened in the Archbishoprick of Saltzbourg, with regard to Religion; for about 22,000 Persons have abandoned this Country, together with their Estates and their Fortunes, and declared themselves of the Lutheran Communion; which is very strange, and almost inconceivable! For in short, those People never knew any Clergy but their own Priests, they lived in a Country where there was no Controversy about Religion, because all the Inhabitants were reckon'd staunch Catholics, by consequence those People could not be instructed; and even the greatest part of them could not read, but were bred up in such gross Ignorance that they scarce knew the Principles of Christianity. Therefore how could these poor People know that they were in an Error?
I am not ignorant that at the beginning of the pretended Reformation, there were Saltzburghers that followed the Doctrines of Luther, such as Staupitz, Abbot of St. Peter's at Saltzbourg; Paul Speratus, a Preacher in the Cathedral of this City; and several others. But Lutheranism was thought to be quite suppressed in this Province, when it seem'd all on a sudden to take deeper Root than ever; tho', as I said before, I can't conceive how it should happen. Is it possible that the Archbishop, the Curates376 and Priests should take so little care of what ought to have been most dear to them, I mean the Salvation of Souls, as that so many Thousands of People should pass with them for good Romans, at the same time that they abhorred Rome and its Precepts? For in short, I suppose, and believe too, that there have ever been Protestants in this Country, since the pretended Reformation; it being not in the power of Man to destroy a Religion when once it has had Followers in a Country; but the Difficulty is, how those Sectaries should subsist there, without the Knowledge of an ecclesiastical Sovereign; and how it was possible for them, not only to subsist, but even to multiply, and the Priests and Archbishop not perceive it. Ought not the Curates to know the Sentiments of their Parishioners by Confession? Ought they not to acquaint the Archbishop their Head of it? and ought not this Prelate and his Priests to endeavour to reclaim those that go astray, by the Example of a lively Faith, and by charitable Exhortations, and from a Compassion for their Error, diligently to oppose the Propagation of it? But all this has been neglected: The Priests, and their Archbishop, knew not there was a Fire, 'till 'twas too late to put it out; and instead of the Good-nature, Compassion, and Charity, which like Water were necessary to extinguish it, they pour'd in the Oil of Hatred and Violence, and abandoned themselves to their furious Zeal. The haughty, rigid, and severe Archbishop, forgetting that he was both a Father and an Archbishop, and giving way to the Violence of his Temper, has for ever lost those Souls which he might have hoped to reclaim, by Instructions truly pastoral, and treating them as Children led astray; whereas this Prelate, by using the contrary Method, has caused a great many Persons to declare themselves Protestants, who would have died in the Bosom of the Church, if the proper Remedies had been employed, to bring them back to it.
But I am persuaded that among the Emigrants of Saltzbourg, there is a vast number who made Religion only a Cloak to leave their Country, in hopes of bettering their Fortunes elsewhere, and who were seduced by the ensnaring Temptation of throwing off the Yoak of Submission. Be this as it will, those unfortunate Subjects, like the Jews, are spread into divers Countries, as Germany, Holland, and Prussia, where the King, I must confess, (as much a Catholic as I am) has received them with a Charity and Generosity perfectly christian and royal; his Majesty having grudg'd neither Care nor Expence to convince the World that as France is the Asylum of unfortunate Kings, so the Dominions of Prussia are the Refuge of oppressed Subjects.




SIR,Inspruc, April 9, 1730.  

I travelled hither all the way from Saltzbourg, with the same Horses, which is what I will never do again; for travelling by Post is always best; and though 'tis more expensive, yet on the other hand 'tis less fatiguing.

Three Leagues from Saltzbourg stands the little Town of Halle, which belongs to the Elector of Bavaria, and is a Place considerable for its Salt-Pits. It lies in a small Valley crossed by three Rivers, form'd by Torrents from the Mountains, which bring down a vast quantity of floating Wood, that is stopp'd at Halle by the Piles which either cross or shut up the Rivers. They lay the Wood up in store for the Salt-Works, which consume a great quantity of it.

After I had been all over the Salt-Works, I went and din'd at Schneitzenrieth, a sorry Village, where, however, I far'd better than I have done at many good Towns.

When I had dined I pursued my Journey, and having travelled four Leagues, entred the Country of Tirol, the Passage to which is very much straitened, so that there's scarce room for a Waggon, by two very high Rocks or Mountains, and two Forts between them, one belonging to the Archbishoprick of Saltzbourg, and the other to the County of Tirol. Each Sovereign keeps a Garrison in his Fort, and Officers to receive the Duties.


I lay that Evening at Wahtringen, the first Village in the Dominions of Tirol, as one comes out of Germany. I here found a Parcel of Boys running about with lighted Touchwood in their hands, to the Houses, Woods, and Fields. Having ask'd an old Man the meaning of it, he told me that the Wood so lighted was consecrated by the Parson of the Parish, and had the virtue of securing all Places to which it was carried, against Lightning. This Consecration of the Wood is always perform'd the Saturday before Easter, when a great Pile is erected before the Church, into which the Parson throws Holy water, and then sets fire to It. When the whole is well kindled, every one strives to snatch a Firebrand, with which they run to their Houses and Lands, but with so little care that I wonder they don't set every place they come to in a Flame.

From Halle to Wahtringen the Country is every bit uncultivated. The Inhabitants live upon Milk, Pickled Cabbage, and Water-gruel. They have no Corn but what comes from Bavaria. All their Substance and Trade is in Cattle, and their Mountains afford excellent Pasture.

Upon Easter-day I heard Mass at St. John's, a great Village where there's a very pretty Church. I was very much pleased with the Sermon that was preached by the Parson, and with the Regularity with which the whole Divine Service was performed.

After Mass I went and din'd at Elvan, to which place I came through a Valley, which in the Summer time must be very agreeable, but at the present Season is all covered with Snow. I was not more edified at Wahtringen, than I was scandalized at Elvan, to catch my Landlord, a clever, merry Blade, engaged with one of his Maids in something else instead of telling their Beads. My Presence was379 so far from spoiling Sport that my Landlord invited me very civilly to do as he did, assuring me that his House was well furnish'd with Nymphs. In a very little time I was convinced that what he said was true, for being obliged by the Cold to stay in the common Room while one was aired for me, I saw half a score Lasses come in, who were all of them my Landlord's very humble Servants, and not in the least disposed to imitate the eleven thousand Virgins.

After Dinner, pursuing my way through Snows and Rocks, I went and lay at Kundahl. Next day I got beyond the Snow, and crossed a very pleasant Valley which brought me to Ratenberg, a Town on the Banks of the Inn, defended by a Castle built on a Rock, and stronger by its Situation than by its Works. The Elector Maximilian-Emanuel of Bavaria coming before this Castle on the 13th of June, 1703, obliged the Garrison, which was composed of the Militia, to surrender at Discretion. From this Fort to Inspruc I always kept along the River Inn, which runs through a fine Valley between high Mountains that are much steeper on the right side of the River than the left; nevertheless there are Houses on them that are inhabited by the Miners. I can't imagine how it was possible for the good People to build in Places so inconvenient; for their Houses look as if they were stuck on to the Rocks, and as if nothing but a Goat or a Swallow could come at them. The whole Valley is very populous, and abounds with pretty Villages, Castles, and fine Country-Houses.

At the end of it stands the Town of Schwatz, which is very well built. The Parish Church is an ancient, fair, large Edifice; and wholly covered with Copper, as most of the Churches in Tirol are with Tin painted green, which has a very pretty look. The Houses at Schwatz are generally of Brick, so that 'tis very rare to see one of Timber. I observ'd380 at the Inn where I din'd, and throughout the whole Country of Tirol, that when People came into any House, they said to the Master of it, Hail, Jesus Christ! to which he answered, May Christ be praised, and the holy Virgin his Mother. Then the Master of the House stepp'd forward, and took the Visitor by his hand. This method of saluting is practised among all the People throughout Tirol; and the Salutation is fix'd up in Print at all the Doors, with an Advertisement tack'd to it, importing, that Pope Clement XI. had granted an hundred Days of Indulgence, and plenary Absolution, in favour of those who should pronounce the Salutation and the Answer.

After having din'd at Schwatz, I continued to ride along the Inn; and three Leagues beyond that I pass'd the River, over a Bridge near Fultishau, a fine Convent of the Servite-Fryars, and went to Halle, the second City of Tirol. The reverend Fathers the Jesuits have a fine House here, and a noble Church, with a great Garden to it. The Mint is also worth seeing, where they coin a great quantity of Species from the Silver and Copper taken out of the Mines of Tirol. The Water is brought to it by wooden Pipes. They drive a great Trade at Halle in Copper, Tin, and Salt, which is produced there in abundance, the Vent of it being promoted by means of the River Inn, which becomes navigable at Halle.

From this Town to Inspruc 'tis two Leagues, and a strait even Road which deserves to be planted on each side with Trees. Inspruc, the Capital City of Tirol, stands in the middle of a Valley, on the Banks of the Inn, over which there's a wooden Bridge that leads to the Suburbs. Inspruc was heretofore the Residence of the Archdukes, the Sovereigns of Tirol; but since the august House of Austria has been reduced in Germany to the Imperial381 Branch singly, this City has been only subject to Governors, who however were always great Noblemen. Charles Duke of Lorrain, who married the Queen Dowager of Poland, Sister to the Emperor Leopold, and who made himself famous by the Victories which he gain'd over the Turks, held this important Office. That Prince dying at Inspruc, was succeeded by Charles Prince Palatine of Newbourg, Brother to the Empress Eleonora, Leopold's third Wife, but he renounced the Government of Tirol, on his Accession to the Electorate. He liv'd at Inspruc, with great Pomp, and his Absence is still very much lamented there. Since he went away, the Government of Tirol has remain'd vacant. They say 'tis designed for the Archduchess Mary-Magdalen, the Emperor's youngest Sister. This I know is what the Burghers of Inspruc wish for; but I don't think the Nobility do; because the Presence of the Archduchess would oblige the People of Quality to be at very great Expence; for they would be under a necessity of going to Court, as well as of carrying it more civilly to their Vassals.

The Count de Konickel is the Chief of the Regency: He has the Title of Landshauptman, which is much the same with Lieutenant-General of the Province, wherein he has the absolute Command, and all the Sovereign Courts depend on him. This Nobleman is a Tirolese, and lodges in a fine House which has been built by order of the States of Tirol, for the Residence of their Landshauptman. He conducts himself with Dignity, and is civil to Foreigners.

'Twas at Inspruc that the Emperor Charles V. received one of the greatest Shocks he had met with in all his Life. For he was surprized there with his Brother Ferdinand, King of the Romans, by Maurice Elector of Saxony, who, though his Creature, made War upon him nevertheless, on account of382 Religion. The Emperor and his Brother were so near being taken that they had but just time to make their Escape to Villaco, a little Town upon the Drave in Carinthia. This was a terrible Reverse of Fortune for a Prince, who, but a few years before, had a Pope and a King of France too, his Prisoners.

Maximilian-Emanuel Elector of Bavaria was not more fortunate at Inspruc than Charles V. for though he made himself Master of it in June 1703, he was obliged to abandon it in July following, and to retire to Bavaria, after having tried in vain to force Passes which were in a manner inaccessible by Nature, and guarded not only by the Peasants but by regular Troops. His Design was to have joined M. de Vendosme in the County of Trent, and by that means to have opened a Communication with the Milanese. The Elector, whilst he was retreating, ran the hazard several times of losing his Life; and his Troops were for the most part knock'd o' th' head by Stones which the Peasants hurl'd at them in the Defiles which they were obliged to pass.

The City of Inspruc is absolutely defenceless, and were it not for its Suburbs, would be one of the least Cities in all Germany; but those Suburbs are very large, and the Residence of Persons of the greatest Distinction. The Houses are very commodious, well built of Brick, and for the most part with Piazzas, which is a great Conveniency to the Foot-passengers. There was heretofore great Store of Salt here, but for some years past the Pits are dry, which is a Loss to Inspruc of no less than 200,000 Florins a-year.

Though the City is small yet there are several very fine things to be seen in it. Such is the ancient Palace of the Archdukes, a vast large Structure, but without Architecture, or any manner of383 Regularity. There are Pictures in it done by skilful Hands, particularly in that call'd the Giant's-Hall, where the Story of Dejanira is represented with very great Art and Perfection.

The Palace has very great Gardens belonging to it, but they are not well kept; yet there are the Remains of noble Fountains and brazen Statues. Among the latter is an Equestrian Statue of an Archduke of Austria, who is represented as large as the Life, in Armour, with Breeches after the Fashion of the Ancients, a Ruff, and little Boots. The Horse seems to rest upon his Haunches, in an Attitude as if he was just ready to leap off the Pedestal.

The Prince Charles of Newbourg, the present Elector Palatine, finding the old Castle not commodious enough, caused one to be built of Wood; which was some years ago burnt down to the ground by an accidental Fire.

The Parish Church is of modern Building, with a great Dome raised in the middle of the Cross. The whole Architecture of this Edifice is of the Corinthian Order. The Front is expos'd to an advantagious Point of View on a Square, and is adorned with three Orders, one above another, which makes the Fabric to rise in the whole to about 120 Foot height, exclusive of a great flight of Steps to it, after the manner of Italy. All the Parts of this Structure are charged with Ornaments of a clumsey Invention, and very ill executed; so that the Confusion resulting from it is infinitely shocking to those that have a nice Taste of Architecture. The Inside is more tolerable than the Outside, and is even magnificent. The whole Length from the Entrance to the Foot of the High-Altar, is 432 Feet. The Foundation of it was laid while Charles de Newbourg was Governor of Tirol, who plac'd the first Stone of it. The whole Decoration384 of this Church consists in Pilasters of red Marble, with a Vein of white, and the Chapiters are of Plaister. The Roof is painted in Fresco by Gosman-Daniel Ossem, a Native of Munich, who has succeeded so well as to give entire satisfaction to such as have a Taste for, and Skill in things that are curious. The High-Altar stands under the Arch at the end opposite to the Nave of the Church. 'Tis perfectly magnificent, adorned with four great Pillars of the Composite Order, of green Marble with white Veins, whose Chapiters and Basons are of Marble of various Colours; and they support a Canopy, which is form'd by four Curves fill'd with a Glory.

The Tabernacle and the Front of the Altar are of massy Silver, charged with several Mouldings, and Foliages of Silver gilt; and there are few Altars more splendidly decorated. There is a miraculous Image of the holy Virgin, which the Archduke Leopold, the Sovereign of Tirol, brought hither from Dresden. That Prince made a Visit to the Elector of Saxony, who shewing him his Treasure, desir'd him to chuse any Piece that he lik'd best; Leopold singled out this Figure, because he was told that in the early days of Lutheranism, it had been cast three times in the Fire, and always taken out again without any damage. The Archduke on his return to his Dominions, made a Present of this Image to the Parish, and it has ever since been held in great veneration, and never fail'd of working great Miracles. Three great Lamps of massy Silver are continually burning before it; and the other Chapels have each a Lamp of solid Silver whose Light is always shining. All this Plate was given to the Church by the Elector Palatine.

The famous golden Roof is near the Parish Church, and serves to cover a Balcony of the Chancery which fronts the Square. They say that Frederic of Austria, the Sovereign of Tirol, caused this385 Roof to be made, to let his Subjects see that he was not so bare of Money as they thought him, and that he did not deserve the Nickname they had given him of the Pennyless Prince. There are many however who affirm that this Roof is not of Gold, while others say the contrary. As far as I can judge of it, I believe 'tis of Copper only covered with very thin Plates of Gold, and by consequence of no great Value. And supposing the whole Roof was of solid Gold, I don't believe the Expence was very extraordinary, though to be sure it was by much too great for so mean a purpose.

The House or College of the reverend Fathers the Jesuits, is a very great Building in which no Cost has been spared. Its principal Front is 166 Paces in length. These Fathers are the Directors of the University. Near to their College is the Church of the Franciscans, whose Convent was founded by the pious Legacies of the Emperor Maximilian, who on his Death-bed ordered his Successor to cause this House and Church to be built at Inspruc. His Grandson Ferdinand I. Son to Philip the Fair, perform'd his Will, and in honour of his Grandfather's Memory, raised him a Marble Tomb which may be rank'd among the most stately Mausoleums in Europe. The Emperor Maximilian is there represented on his Knees upon a Cushion, with his Hands lifted up to Heaven, and as it were prostrate in Prayer: He is adorned with the Crown, and the Imperial Dalmatic. This Figure is of a gigantic Size, and admirably well done in Brass. 'Tis plac'd on a great high Base of black Marble, forming an oblong Square, on an Ascent of three Steps of red Marble. The whole Base is divided into twenty-four Compartiments, or square Tables of white Marble, representing the memorable Actions of Maximilian in excellent Bas-Reliefs. The386 four cardinal Virtues in a mournful Attitude, are represented in Brass, as sitting on the Corners of the Mausoleum, and looking on Maximilian's Statue. The entire Mausoleum stands by itself in the middle of the Church; and the following Inscription is engraved in Letters of Gold all round the Base of this Monument;


All this fine Mausoleum was executed with very great Care and Skill, by Alexander Colin, a Native of Mechlin; the Picture of which ingenious Painter, and that of his Wife, are kept in the Church, as an Acknowledgment due to that excellent Artist. This Mausoleum was mightily enriched by the Magnificence of Frederic Archduke of Austria, surnamed the Pennyless Prince, who caused to be placed in387 the Nave of the Church twenty-eight Statues of Brass seven Foot in height, representing so many Princes and Princesses that were related to the House of Austria. They are set up in two Rows from the great Gate to the Altar, and therefore separate the Nave from the two Wings on the Sides. 'Tis pity that those Statues are in the hands of Monks who neglect them very much, and suffer the Dust to eat into them. They would do much better in a Royal Palace: Some of them are in great perfection. I fancy you will be glad to know the Names of the Persons they represent.

I. The first, beginning on the right Side of the Altar, is the Figure of Joan of Castile, Mother to Charles V. and Ferdinand I. the Heads of the two Branches of the House of Austria; the first of which became extinct by the Death of Charles II. King of Spain, but the second still flourishes among us with Glory in the Person of the August Charles VI.

II. Ferdinand the Catholic, Father to Joan.

III. Cunigonda Archduchess, Daughter to the Emperor Frederic IV. and Wife to Albert of Bavaria, who died a Nun.

IV. Margaret, Daughter to Henry Duke of Carinthia and Count of Tirol, surnamed the Pious, because she founded and built several Convents. This Princess was nicknamed Margaret Wide-Mouth: She was marry'd first to John Margrave of Moravia, Son to the Emperor Charles IV. whom she surviv'd, and marry'd to her second Husband Lewis, Margrave of Brandenburg, Son to the Emperor Lewis of Bavaria, whom she also surviv'd, and finding herself a Widow a second time, and without Issue to enjoy what she had, she made a Present of the County of Tirol whereof she was Sovereign, to her Cousins Rodolph, Albert, and Leopold of388 Austria, which Grant was confirm'd by the Emperor Charles IV. in 1364.

V. Mary of Burgundy, Wife to the Emperor Maximilian I. the richest Heiress of her Time.

VI. Elizabeth, the Daughter of the Emperor Sigismond, and Wife to the Emperor Albert II. who carry'd the Duchy of Luxembourg to the House of Austria. She was Mother to the unfortunate King Ladislaus.

VII. Godfrey of Bouillon, Duke of Lorrain, King of Jerusalem, plac'd here among the Princes of the House of Austria, as being descended from the same Family as they.

VIII. Albert I. Emperor.

IX. Frederic, Archduke of Austria, he who was nicknamed Prince Pennyless.

X. Leopold of Austria, surnamed the Virtuous, Son of Albert the Wise.

XI, and XII. Opinions are very much divided about the Persons who are represented by these two Statues; but 'tis generally thought they are the Emperors Charles V. and Ferdinand I.

XIII. The Emperor Frederic IV. Father to Maximilian I.

XIV. Albert II. Emperor, King of Hungary and Bohemia, and Father to the unfortunate King Ladislaus.

XV. Clovis, the first Christian King of France, who is plac'd among the Princes of the House of Austria, because their Genealogists derive them from the ancient Franks who subdued France.

XVI. Philip I. call'd the Fair, King of Spain.

XVII. The Emperor Rodolph I.

XVIII. The Archduke Albert, call'd the Wise.

XIX. Theodoric King of the Goths. I am not a Genealogist good enough to tell you in what Relation he stands to the House of Austria.


XX. Ernest, Archduke, Grandfather to Maximilian I.

XXI. Theodebert Count of Provence, from whom descended the Dukes of Burgundy and the Counts of Hapsburg.

XXII. Arthur, Prince of Wales, who marry'd Catherine of Arragon.

XXIII. Sigismond, Archduke and Count of Tirol, who adopted the Emperor Maximilian I.

XXIV. Blanche Mary, the second Wife of Maximilian I. which Princess was the Daughter of John Galeas Duke of Milan.

XXV. Margaret, Daughter of Maximilian I. who was marry'd first to John a Prince of Spain, and secondly to Philibert Duke of Savoy.

XXVI. Cimburge, Wife of Ernest the Archduke, and Mother to the Emperor Frederic IV.

XXVII. Charles the Bold, Duke of Burgundy, Father to Mary of Burgundy who was Wife to Maximilian I.

XXVIII. Philip, Duke of Burgundy, Father to Charles the Bold.

Besides these twenty-eight Statues there are twenty three others plac'd upon the Cornish of the Portico which separates the Nave from the Choir: They are of Brass two Foot high, and represent those Kings and Princes whom the Church honours as Saints.

I am farther to acquaint you of the Chapel of this Church, call'd the Silver Chapel, because of the Image of the Virgin there of solid Silver as big as the Life in the middle of the Altar, with a great many Images of Saints all of the same Metal. The Ascent to this Chapel is by a winding Stair-Case. Here is to be seen the stately Tomb of Ferdinand Archduke of Austria, Count of Tirol, Son to the Emperor Ferdinand I. This Mausoleum is under an Arch which is pretty high. Ferdinand,390 whose Figure is of white Marble, seems to be asleep upon a Bed of black Marble rais'd one Foot from the Ground. The whole Arch is lin'd with Marble of various Colours, forming divers Compartments of very curious Workmanship, where you see the Arms of the Provinces reduc'd to the Obedience of the House of Austria: The different Colours are shewn by precious Stones enchas'd in Marble, and so curiously done that the Work seems to be enamel'd. Round the same Arch are plac'd five Bas-Reliefs, representing in as many Pictures the memorable Actions of Ferdinand. Five other Bas-Reliefs contain the Images of that Prince's Patrons, viz. Jesus Christ, St. Anthony of Padua, St. George, St. Thomas, and St. Leopold.

Near the said Tomb stands that of Philippina of Welserin, who was born at Augsburg, and the Wife of the Archduke Ferdinand, by whom she had two Sons, Charles the Margrave of Burgau, and Andrew Cardinal of Austria. This Mausoleum is of Free-stone and has nothing remarkable more than the following Epitaph:

Ferdinandus D. G. Archidux, Dux BurgundiÆ, Comes Tirol, Philippinæ Conjugi Charissimæ fieri curavit. Obiit 24 Aprilis, 1580.

The Franciscan who shew'd me this Chapel assur'd me that it was one of the First-rate Chapels in the World, on account of the Indulgences which had been annex'd to it by the Beneficence of the Popes; that it was upon a par with the Chapel of the Holy Sepulchre at Jerusalem, with the Churches of St. John de Lateran, St. Mary major, and St. Gregory at Rome; and that, in fine, a Mass said in this Chapel for the Repose of a Soul departed, was enough to deliver it out of Purgatory.


These, Sir, are the Remarks that I made in this City, from whence I am making ready to set out to-morrow. I expect to be well jolted all the way to Venice, where to make my self amends I will take my Pleasure in a Gondola. I wish with all my heart I had your Company there; we should then have the Satisfaction of seeing a great many fine Sights together. But for want of this Satisfaction I shall never cease to think of you; and pray don't forget me, but believe me to be for ever, &c.



SIR,Venice, April 27, 1730.  

I wrote to you from Inspruc the very Day before I set out from thence for this Place, to which I arriv'd without any Misfortune. About three quarters of a League from Inspruc we came among very tiresome and disagreeable Mountains, the highest of which is call'd the Brenner, a Name that the Country People gave it when they clear'd it of the Wood, and burnt it. This Mountain is much more rugged on the side of Trent than 'tis towards Inspruc; 'tis for nine Months together cover'd with Snow, and I found a great deal remaining on it still; yet 'tis inhabited to the very Top. There is a Post-House, a Tavern, and a Chapel in which Mass is only said when the Snows392 are melted: It produces Corn and Hay in abundance. Near the Post-House there is a considerable Spring which at first forms a large Basin, and then divides into two Torrents which quickly change into Rivers, one whereof falls into the Inn above Inspruc, and the other, after becoming navigable two Leagues from Bolsano, loses itself in the Adige above Trent. The Passage of the Brenner is very painful, and sometimes impracticable when it snows or rains; so that Travellers are often oblig'd to stay several Days till the Return of fair Weather, which is the more inconvenient because the Inns on both Sides are of the worst sort.

Stertzingen a little Town four Post-Stages from Inspruc, has nothing remarkable; however I was well accommodated there. Next Day I went and din'd at Brixen an Episcopal City in an agreeable Valley, where I found the Season very forward. The Country between Brixen and Bolsano is extremely populous, and so manur'd that the steepest Mountains are cultivated.

Bolsano is a pretty Town well inhabited, and drives a considerable Trade, having no less than four Fairs a Year. Its Situation is very agreeable, in the middle of a fine large Valley full of Villages and Vineyards. The Air here is much softer than in the rest of Tirol, and I found Trees here in full Verdure while in the Country they were but just budded. The Vines are very carefully watched by Men who keep Guard in Huts rais'd upon three Poles plac'd cross-wise, and high enough to command the Vineyards. Misson in his Voyage to Italy says, that these Huts or Guerites were for lodging the Guards that are posted to hinder the Bears from eating the Grapes. I know not who could tell him that there were any Bears in this Country, and if there are 'tis hardly probable they would venture into a Valley so populous as that of Bolsano. The393 Wines of this Valley are the best in all Tirol; but they must be drank, as must all the Wines of this Country, the very Year of their Growth, or else they grow luscious, and then turn crabbed.

The Valley of Bolsano which extends to Trent is throughout equally agreeable; and is not incumber'd by those horrid Mountains that we were pester'd with in the Road from Inspruc.

Trent is celebrated for the Council formerly held there. I went to see the Church of St. Mary major, where the Fathers of that Council held their Assembly. It has nothing remarkable besides its Organs which are of too enormous a Size for a Church, but are a very curious piece of Work; for they not only exhibit various Sounds, but imitate Vocal Music, the Notes of divers Birds, and the Noise of Kettle-Drums and Trumpets. The Bishop of Trent is a Prince of the Empire. The See is now vacant by the Death of the Count de Wolckenstein the last Bishop. The Chapter has fix'd the Election for next May. A great many Travellers highly extol the Bishop's Palace, but for my own part, I was not so fortunate as to observe any thing in it that was worthy of Attention.

Throughout all Tirol the Common People are very ill-favour'd: Most of the Women are disguis'd by Wens in their Throat[160], and as if that was not enough they disfigure themselves by their Dress. The Country Women wear Stockings which have no Feet, and are gather'd into many little Folds from the Ancle to the Calf of the Leg: Their Shoes are exactly like those the Men wear. Their Petticoats are exceeding short, and ty'd up almost as high as their Breasts which are very large. With all this they have a Pair of Stays which reaches down to394 their Waist, and renders them compleatly deform'd. Instead of other Head-dress they wear a green high-crown'd Hat, the Brims of which are let down, and is as unbecoming a part of their Dress as any of the rest. At Brixen the Blood mends, the Women are handsomer, the Men more genteel, and the People in general more civiliz'd; tho' take 'em all together the Tirolese are very honest People. They are staunch zealous Catholics, tho' they say that some of the Peasants, are Lutherans. The Holy Virgin and St. Christopher are the principal Objects of the People's Devotion: The latter is painted on all their Houses, and the Roads are full of little Chapels of the Virgin who is represented in all manner of ways. I have seen her painted in a Chapel standing with a great Veil over her Head which she extended with her Arms to cover the Pope, the Emperor, seven Kings, and as many Electors, who seem to be prostrate at her Knees.

As I left Trent I began to ascend a Mountain which does not become smooth till we reach to Berschen which is a Post-Stage and a half from Trent. This Mountain is exceeding steep, troublesome, and tiresome, and after 'tis pass'd, one is in a manner buried among Rocks and horrid Mountains which seem as if they would fall on the Heads of the Travellers; and I have been assur'd that this sometimes happens in rainy Weather, when so many Pieces crumble off of the Rock that it requires 4 or 500 Carts to clear the Roads. In short, all the Way till one comes within a League of Bossagno a City in the State of Venice is full of Rocks and Precipices; but from that Town to Mestre which is four Post-Stages from it, the Country is the finest in the World; and in short, every thing is good and pleasant except their Wine and their publick Houses. The Wine has naturally a musty Taste, and no Body, and the Colour is like that of the thick Wine of Bourdeaux.395 This Country so abounds in Quails that the Post-Master of Bossagno assur'd me he had taken 720 in a Morning, that he drove a great Trade with 'em, and sent some of 'em to the State of Venice, and to Lombardy. Whether he said true, I know not, but he shew'd me 1100 live Quails which he kept in Wicker-Cages in a great Barn where he had hung all the Cages to Pack-Thread to keep them from Rats and Cats.

At Mestre one embarks for Venice which is about seven Leagues from it; I made the Voyage in a Gondola in less than an Hour and half. As I travell'd post to Mestre, my Gondoliers, when I came to Venice, carry'd me to the Post-Office, where I was oblig'd to tell my Name, and the Business for which I came to Venice; but this is a Ceremony to which they who don't travel post are not subject. I went and took up my Lodging at the White Lion, highly rejoic'd that I could rest my self there after my Fatigue, and that I had lost sight of the Alps, those horrid Mountains which no body would chuse to live amongst but a Swiss or a Tirolese, who, as Cardinal Bentivoglio justly observes in his Voyage to Swisserland, are a People made for the Alps, and the Alps for them.

As I have been twice before at Venice, I serve as a Cicerone[161] to two Bohemian Counts whom I was acquainted with at Prague, and whom I happen'd to meet with at my Quarters. As 'tis customary to do to all Foreigners, I began with shewing them the Square of St. Mark, the chief Square of Venice, if not of the whole World. 'Tis adorn'd by the Palace of the Doge, the Church of St. Mark, and the Procuraties, or Houses of the Procurators, and has been pav'd within these few Years with396 great Squares of Free-stone. We ascended the famous Tower of St. Mark which is a four-square Building, by a Stair without Steps. It was built by the Doge Domingo Morosini, to serve as a Watch-Tower to Ships at Sea; and that it might be seen a great way off he caus'd the Angel on the top of it to be gilt; but Time the Destroyer of all Things has stripp'd off the Gold. From this Tower one sees the whole City of Venice, the neighbouring Islands, and the Terra Firma, which all together makes a noble Prospect.

We afterwards enter'd St. Mark's Church, which is an Edifice of Grecian Architecture, pretty dark and not very high, but after all, full of Curiosities worthy the Attention of a Traveller. As this Church has been describ'd with more Exactness than I can pretend to, I shall treat very succinctly of the chief Things which it contains. The grand Portico is so low that one must even go down some Steps to enter into the Church. There is a Platform over it on which are plac'd four brazen Horses brought from Constantinople, to which they were first carry'd from Rome by Constantine when that Prince transferr'd the Seat of the Empire from the one City to the other. Nothing is so magnificent and beautiful as those Horses. They were heretofore all over gilt, but People out of mere Avarice scrap'd off great part of the precious Metal, and all the rest is almost worn off by Time.

At the Entrance of the Church on the right-hand Side there is a square Stone which seem'd to me to be of white Marble, and is said to be a piece of the Rock which Moses struck in the Wilderness, whereupon there issued out Water. If this be really that Stone, what that Legislator did is so much the more to be admir'd, and may be reckon'd doubly miraculous; first in fetching Water to a Place where there was none before, and then the 397bringing a quantity of it through four Holes no bigger than Pease sufficient to quench the Thirst of so numerous a Multitude. The Pavement of this Church is very grand, being of Mosaic Work exceedingly diversify'd with Stones of various Colours, Marble and Porphyry: But the stateliest Thing in all the Church are the Ornaments of the Altar for the great Holidays, of which that of St. Mark the Patron of the Republic is the most strictly kept. St. Mark's Treasure is then all laid open, which consists in the rich Spoils taken from the Emperors of Constantinople. Every part shines with solid Gold, Pearls, and Diamonds; so that the Temple of Jerusalem excepted, I believe there's not a House devoted to God that could ever boast of so much Riches. All this Treasure is kept in St. Mark's Tower, and none of it can be taken out but in presence of one of the Procurators, who must also be at the Altar when the Treasure is plac'd on it, and dare not stir from it till 'tis put up safe again.

St. Mark's Church serves as a public Chapel to the Doge, who always is or at least ought to be attended thither by the Pope's Nuncio and the Ambassadors; but M. de Gersi the French Ambassador, from I know not what Punctilio of Honour, avoids being present at the same Functions with the Count de Bolagnos the Emperor's Ambassador[162], whom he can't endure to see go before him. When the Doge goes to St. Mark's Church 'tis always with great Ceremony: He walks between the Pope's Nuncio and the Emperor's Ambassador, and the other Ambassadors walk in the same Row according to the Rank of their Masters. They are preceded by six Trumpets, and six Banners are born before the Doge together with a Chair or Stool of State,398 there being no Back to it, and a Cushion of Gold Brocade. The Prince is dress'd in a long Robe of Gold Brocade also lin'd and fac'd with Ermin. The Senators follow him in Robes of red Damask, walking two and two. He is receiv'd at the Entrance of the Church by the Clergy of St. Mark who bring him Holy Water and Incense, which the Ambassadors receive after him. His Serenity and the Ambassadors fall on their Knees in the middle of the Nave, and then repeat the Prayers of Domine salvum fac Principem nostrum. Afterwards the Doge goes and places himself at the End of the Choir on the right Hand as we go in, and sits in the first upper Row of the Canons with the Pope's Nuncio on his Right and the Emperor's Ambassador on the Right of the Nuncio, and so on with the rest. The Doge does not sit down 'till the Senators are all enter'd, who, as they pass by his Serenity, make him a profound Obeisance, to which the Doge makes no manner of return. When every body is seated, the Doge accompany'd by the Ambassadors advances towards the Altar, the Nuncio strikes up High Mass and says the Overture, to which the Doge answers. After this, the Doge and the Ambassadors return to their Places, and the Prelate of St. Mark who is in waiting, continues the Office.

After the Mass is over, the Doge returns to his Palace attended by the same Train that accompanied him to Church. When he has ascended the grand Stair-case of his Palace he seats himself in an Arm-Chair which is plac'd over-against the Stair-case. After he has sate a few Moments, he dismisses the Ambassadors and the other Persons of his Retinue, and retires to his Apartment.

Next to St. Mark's Church is the Doge's Palace, a vast Building, of which you will find a large Account in Misson's Travels.


The present Doge is Aloisio Mocenigo[163], a Prince as much to be respected for his Merit as for his Dignity. He is a Gentleman of great Sagacity, talks well, is very polite, and has infinitely more Generosity than is ascribed to those of his Country. He is a handsome Man, and has a noble Aspect that is improv'd by his white Locks of Hair which render him venerable. Before he was advanc'd to be a Doge, which was in 1722, he serv'd the Republic with distinction in quality of Generalissimo. The vain Honours which this new Dignity has procur'd him have not puff'd him up, and he seems to think them rather a Burden than a Pleasure. Before he came to be Doge he was the most sociable Nobleman at Venice, and he now sees more Company than ever his Predecessors did. He masks himself at publick Rejoicings, goes out every Night in a common Gondola without Guard or Retinue, and diverts himself at his Brother's. He has sometimes too been upon Terra Firma, not valuing it tho' he lost for a while all the Honours annexed to his Dignity as Doge; for you know that this Character does not go beyond the Lakes. He is oblig'd to be present at all the public Ceremonies, tho' very much against his Inclination and Temper, which is far more uniform than that of the other Italians.

The Ceremony in which he shines with the greatest Lustre, is that of marrying the Sea, which without dispute is one of the finest Shews in all the World. 'Tis perform'd on Ascension-Day, when the Doge, the Ambassadors, and the Senate ride out into the Adriatic on board a Vessel call'd the Bucentaur, attended by the State-Gondolas of the Ambassadors gilded, with a vast number of other Gondolas and Galleasses which surround the Bucentaur, the most stately Vessel that was ever built, and more magnificent than all that History (or400 even Romance) tells us of the sumptuous Vessel of Cleopatra. When the Doge goes on board the Bucentaur he is saluted by the great Guns from the Galleys, the Men of War, and the Merchant-Ships in the Harbour; and while he performs the Ceremony of marrying the Sea by throwing in a Ring to denote the Sovereignty of the Republic over the Gulph, there's nothing heard but Kettle-Drums, Trumpets, and Concerts of Music, with the loud Acclamations of the People.

His Serene Highness marries two other Wives whom he maintains with as little Trouble as the Sea. They are the Abbesses of the Convents of the Virgin and St. Daniel. This Ceremony is perform'd upon St. Philip's Day, when the Doge in a Galeass accompany'd by the Ambassadors and the Senate, repairs with a great Train to those Convents which are situate on the Shore behind the Arsenal. The Prelate who officiates for the Day receives him at the Entrance of the Church, brings him the Holy Water, and conducts him to a Place prepared for him in the Choir where he assists at High Mass. Then he repairs to the Grate, in which there's a large Opening where the Lady Abbess appears with her Nuns. The Abbess addressing herself to the Doge intreats him to continue the Favour of his Protection to herself and the Nuns; to which the Doge returns answer, that she and all the Convent may depend upon his Good-Will. Then he turns about and walks on foot to the Convent of St. Daniel, where his Reception and Transaction are the same as at the Convent of the Virgin. These two Convents have very singular Privileges. The Abbesses have the Crosier-Staff, and both they and their Nuns depend solely upon the Doge, and not at all upon the Pope or the Court of Rome either in Spirituals or Temporals. They have good Revenues and live as much as can be at their Ease. The401 Dress of these Nuns is rather gay than modest. Like the Nuns at Strasbourg they wear their Hair in Tresses: Their Petticoats are so short that you may see their Ancles; and instead of Stays they wear Jackets with short Skirts, which are very becoming to those that are of a good Shape. Their Necks are quite bare, only when they go into the Choir they cover them with Veils of fine white Wool, which trail on the ground. These Nuns are the Daughters of the Nobles, and enjoy great Liberty, more than I believe they have under their Father's Roof.

The Festival of St. Mark is always celebrated with very great Solemnity. On the Day preceding, the Doge accompany'd by the Ambassadors repairs with a great Train to St. Mark's Church, where he assists at the Vespers. Next Day the Confraternities, who are nine in number, meet at the Ducal Palace, accompany the Doge to Church in Procession, and are present at High Mass. After this the Doge returns to his Palace, and the Brotherhoods go round the Square. Each Society has magnificent Images, and two Canopies richly embroider'd with Gold and Silver; whose Poles or Supporters are of solid Silver. The Procession is clos'd by a Man dress'd in a Gown of red Damask, carrying a Pole with a moving Wheel at the end of it; which serves to support a gilt Lion surrounded with Laurel Branches, and little Standards of divers Colours. The Lion turns round incessantly, and the Man who carries it makes him leap, and play a hundred Gambols: He is surrounded with a Multitude of People, who cry out, God bless St. Mark. This Sight, how ridiculous soever, is nevertheless amusing, draws abundance of the Nobility to the Square, and on that Day every body is mask'd. After the Procession is over, the Maskers go to see the Doge's Table, who entertains402 the Ambassadors and the Senate at Dinner, on a Table in form of a Horse-shoe; which is extravagantly adorn'd with Kickshaws, and Machines made of Starch, which are here call'd Triumphs. Nothing of the kind can be better executed, or more magnificent. As there is a great Apprehension of a Croud, all the Maskers are turn'd away at Dinner-time. They keep on their Masks all day long; and after Dinner all the Nobility, or to speak more properly, the whole City of Venice appears mask'd upon the Square of St. Mark; and indeed, for one who never saw it before, 'tis a remarkable fine Shew. What surpriz'd me, and if I may say it, made me laugh, was to see all the Maskers fall on their Knees at the Sound of the Angelus; you wou'd swear every body was in Rapture, yet every thing that goes before and that follows the Stroke of the Bell is not the most devout.

The Day after St. Mark's we had another publick Shew, and by consequence a fresh occasion for the Venetians to masquerade it. That was the Election which the Fishermen, who are here call'd the Nicolotti, made of a Chief, who bears the Title of the Doge of the Nicolotti. Their Choice fell this Bout upon a Gondolier belonging to the noble Giustiniani. After the Election he was conducted to an Audience of the Doge of Venice, dress'd in a Robe of red Sattin, and otherwise accoutred like a Jackpudding. He was preceded by a great Mob of Pipers, Hautboys, and Fishermen. Just before him was carry'd a red Flag, with the Effigies of St. Mark. The Doge receiv'd him sitting on his Throne, and attended by the Council. The Complement of the Doge of the Fishermen was made with great Gravity, and answer'd by the Doge of the Republick in few Words; which done, he return'd in the same Order that he403 came. This sham Doge has authority over all the Fishermen, is their Judge, gives them Licence to fish, and takes care that the City be well supplied with that sort of Provision. 'Tis said that this Office, which is for Life, is worth above 1000 Crowns per Annum. He had formerly the Privilege of commanding in a certain Quarter of the City, and assisted at all the Ceremonies where the Doge was present: He even accompany'd that Prince on board the Bucentaur, and had Precedency of all the Ambassadors; but they have lost that Right since, upon what occasion I know not, they gave up the Precedency to an Ambassador from the Emperor.

The Patriarch of Venice is the second Person in the State. The present Patriarch is of the Family of Gradenigo. The Authority of this Prelate is so stinted, that he only nominates to two or three Benefices. The Inhabitants of every Parish chuse their Parsons, which is always attended with Intriguing; for their Livings being very lucrative, have great Interest made for them. The Patriot has a Privilege of having a Gondola painted Purple and Gold, with a Roof or Covering of Red Velvet; but this Gondola must not exceed a certain Degree of Magnificence. You know that the Gondolas of private Men must be black, and that none but Ambassadors have the Privilege of having theirs gilded.

Tho' the Churches of Venice have been sufficiently describ'd, I cannot help saying something of those that I thought the most remarkable. Without doubt the Front of the Church of the bare-footed Carmelites, situate upon the Great Canal, is the most magnificent, not only of Venice, but perhaps of Europe; as well with regard to the Proportions of Architecture that have been carefully observ'd, as with regard to the Fineness of the Marble, white as404 Alabaster, with which this beautiful Front is wholly embellish'd. The Inside of this Church is extremely magnificent. The Roof is richly gilded, and curiously painted. The Walls are fac'd with Marble Pilasters; the Floor is of Stones inlaid with various Colours, and the Altars are exceeding stately: But of all these different things there seems to be too great a number, so that I could wish many of the Ornaments had been spar'd; for a noble Simplicity wou'd have look'd much better.

This sort of Simplicity is conspicuous in the Church of St. George, one of the biggest in Venice, the Architecture of which is surprizing. A Convent belongs to it, which for Magnificence and Regularity surpasses many Sovereign Palaces. The great Stair-Case is a fine piece of Architecture, and wou'd become a King's Palace much better than a Convent. This House has two noble Cloysters planted with Orange-Trees, a couple of spacious Courts, and two large Gardens well cultivated, which have Terrasses from whence there is a Prospect of the Sea, and the neighbouring Islands.

The Capuchins, whose Churches are very plain every where else, have a very noble one here, which is called Al Redemptore. It was built by order of the Republic to discharge a Vow they had made in the time of a Plague. The honest Capuchin who shew'd me the Church, made me take special notice of a Crucifix of Brass over the high Altar, whereon our Saviour is represented expiring, with his Head leaning on his right Shoulder. My Guide assur'd me that when the Crucifix was plac'd in the Church the Head of our Lord's Image was erect, but that it fell afterwards into its present Posture.

There are other Churches worth seeing, were it only for the stately Tombs of the most distinguish'd Families of the Republic. Such is the Tomb of the noble Family of Cornaro, in the Church of the405 Cajetans, where are the Marble Effigies of eight Cardinals, and four Doges descended from that Family. In the Churches of St. Paul and St. John are Pictures very much esteem'd by the Connoisseurs, and there's the sumptuous Tomb of the Valerios, where the Father, the Mother, with the Son, are carv'd in their natural Proportion in Marble, apparell'd in the Habit of the Doge and Dogess.

Before I have done with the Churches, I think I ought to give you some account of that of the Jesuits; the Front whereof is of noble Architecture, well disposed, and the Ornaments not too much crouded; but the Decoration of the Inside is really grand. Nothing can be richer than the Choir, and the high Altar. The Choir consists of a spacious Dome supported by four large Pillars of white Marble, lin'd with great Flower-pieces of old green Marble. The Roof is painted and gilt. The high Altar, which is all of Marble, is a Pavilion or Dome supported by ten Columns wreath'd of the ancient Greek Marble. The Tabernacle is of Alabaster, incrustated with Lapis-Lazuli. To all this rich Work are added two Angels in their natural Proportion, over which are the Effigies of God the Father, and God the Son. The five Steps leading to the Altar are of green Marble, incrustated with old yellow Marble so artfully that this Work would easily be taken for a Piece of Persian Tapestry. The Pulpit and the Balustrade, which separates the Nave from the Choir, are of Marble, and perfectly answerable to the Magnificence of the whole Church.

I now proceed to the Arsenal, so much celebrated in Europe, perhaps more for what it has been than what it is at present. Three Nobles have the Management or Custody of it, who relieve one another every Week. He that is in waiting must visit the Posts in the Night-time; and the Centinels 406are oblig'd each to ring a Bell every Hour, that the Officer upon Guard may know they are at their Posts. No body can see the Arsenal without Leave of the Nobleman in waiting, who never refuses it to Persons of Rank. The first thing I was shew'd were four Rooms full of Arms necessary for the Marines, where are also kept the Cuirasses of those Generals who have most distinguish'd themselves in the Service of the Republic; but they are all full of Dust. Then I was shewed the Magazine of Anchors, and the Cellar to which the Workmen of the Arsenal go when they please to a Fountain of Wine and Water mix'd. As much diluted as this Wine is, 'tis said that there's no less spent here every Year than amounts to 74000 Crowns. This is an Endowment which was settled by one Cornaro Queen of Cyprus, for the Relief of the Workmen. Near this Cellar are the Forges, of which there are twelve; but there are only two actually at work. The Rope-Yard just by it, is 410 Paces in length, and serves at the same time for a Warehouse of Hemp, of which I did not see any great Quantity. In another Court there were a great many Cannon, both Iron and Brass, a Room full of Bullets, a Magazine of Cordage, a Timber-Yard, and three great Rooms full of Arms for the Foot Soldiers. There was another that serv'd as an Arsenal for the Horse, but 'twas lately burnt down by the Carelessness of a Centinel. The Dock for building and refitting of Ships forms a separate Court, in the midst of which there's a great Bason that communicates with the Sea, and is encompass'd with twenty six Sheds cover'd over, which contain as many Ships, Galleys, and Galleasses. The latter are Machines of a terrible Size, which have a sort of Battery at both ends. My Guide assur'd me that a Venetian Galleass was not afraid of twenty five Turkish Galleys: This may be; but I407 wou'd venture a Wager on the side of the Infidels. In this same Dock are the Prowes of twelve Turkish Galleys taken at the famous Battle of Lepanto. But the most noble thing in all this Dock, is the Bucentaur, which went out of Port for the first time in the Year 1728. This superb Vessel was built by Antonio Corradini; and is so well design'd, and the Ornaments of Sculpture, of which there's a great number, so well plac'd, that every thing is easily distinguish'd, and strikes with Amazement. 'Tis gilded down to the Water-edge, and 'tis said that the Expence of it amounted to 70000 Sequins. The Deck is cover'd from Head to Stern with Crimson-Velvet, bedaub'd with a broad Lace, and Gold Fringes. And the inside if possible is more magnificent than the Outside. There's a great Room the length of the Ship, where the Doge sits on a Throne, and the Ambassadors and Senators on Seats like those of the Canons in the Choir. The Cieling consists of Bas-reliefs in divers Compartments intirely gilt. The Floor is of Walnut-tree, incrusted with Ebony-Wood and Mother of Pearl. The Rowers who sit in the Hold of the Ship are all of one Livery, and their Oars gilt, which makes a very fine Sight when all hands strike together.

You know that the Bucentaur never goes out but once a-year, upon Ascension-day, when the Captain who then commands must take an Oath before he stirs out of the Harbour, that he will bring her back again into the Arsenal. He carries nothing aboard of his own, for unless the Weather be very fair indeed, the Ceremony is put off to another day. They build a new Bucentaur every hundred Years, and the old ones are laid up till they rot.

I just now hear that the Post is going off, so that I am oblig'd to defer what I have farther to say of Venice till the next. I shall be infinitely pleas'd408 if I can satisfy your Curiosity, and much more if I can prove to you that no body has a more profound Veneration for you than I, Who am, &c.



SIR,Venice, May 15, 1730.  

The Common-wealth keeps twelve Galleys in pay, and twenty Men of War. The Capitana Galley, call'd the Fusta, never goes out of the Great Canal, but is continually at Anchor before the Square of St. Mark. There's commonly four Galleys and as many Men of War in the Levant. Others lie at Anchor in the Canal of Zueca, which were lately drawn out of the Arsenal, because for want of Water the Ships receive Damage. The Power of the Republic consists chiefly in its Maritime Force. It maintains very few Land Forces, and those they have are all kept at Corfou, which is the Rampart of Venice, and the Defence of the Gulph; the Preservation of which is owing to the Count de Schulemburg, General in chief of the Republic; for in the last War when the Turks attempted to take it, 'twas he that oblig'd them to raise the Siege: And the Republic in acknowledgment of this important Service caus'd his Statue on Horseback to be erected in the Square of the Old Castle of Corfou; and settled a Pension upon him of 5000 Crowns a-year for his Life, besides his ordinary Salary.

'Tis certain that Venice has suffer'd a Decay both of Power and Commerce. The Turks have taken409 the Morea from her; she has little or nothing left in the Levant; and as to her Places in the Terra Firma they are poor, depopulated, and meanly fortified. One of the main Securities of Venice is her Lakes; but for some Years past they begin to thicken so by the Mud and Dirt brought by the Rivers which fall into the Gulph, as in time must prove to the very great Detriment of Venice, because Ships which us'd formerly to go in or out with ease, can only go out now by the help of a Canal which has been cut for the purpose. This Inconvenience might have formerly been prevented for a trifle of Expence, whereas now 'tis past all remedy.

The Powers of which the Venetians ought to be most jealous, are the Turks and the Emperor, in whose Dominions they are in a manner inclos'd. The Great Duke of Tuscany and the Duke of Parma were formerly Powers which were of little or no Terror to the Republic; but if those Dominions shou'd ever come under the Sovereignty of Don Carlos, the political System of Italy will be very much alter'd, and the Venetians will in all probability be oblig'd to keep fair with him. The Republic has for a long time observ'd an exact Neutrality in the Quarrels among the Princes of Christendom, perhaps because it knows not for which side to determine itself; for tho' the Senate hates the Spaniards, and cannot forget the famous Conspiracy of the Marquiss de Bedmar the Catholic King's Ambassador; they don't much like either the Germans or French, whose Power gives them Umbrage. And I believe, were it possible for the Venetians to hurt those three Powers at the same time, we shou'd quickly see their Republic rouze itself from that Lethargy in which it's profound State-Policy has doz'd it.

Since the English and Dutch became Masters of the Commerce of Europe, the Trade of Venice is as much410 decay'd as its Power; and their Manufactures are sunk extremely. The Venetians heretofore furnished almost all Europe with Cloth; their Looking-Glasses, and those for Drinking, were also in great vogue, but those Manufactures are since transplanted into other Countries, so that Venice scarce furnishes any more than Italy. 'Tis worth while however to go and see the Glass-House where they work Night and Day, except in August and September, when the Heats are too violent. 'Tis certain the Drinking-Glasses made here are much stronger than any other, but as they are blown they are not near so substantial as the Glass that is run; however they require less Labour, and have the Advantage when they are broke of being melted again; the Matter of which they are composed being much more flexible than that of the run Glass.

The Nobles of Venice are Slaves to Policy, Diffidence, and Suspicion; and Ambassadors are much more so, whom every one shuns as suspected Persons, and whom a Foreigner can scarce talk to without renouncing his Correspondence with the Nobles. An Ambassador is oblig'd to confine himself to his own Family, or else to amuse himself in the Company of Foreigners, of whom there is always a good number in this City; for no Nobleman dare visit him without the express leave of the Senate, who now indeed grant it much more freely than they did formerly.

Customs are alter'd here in very many things. 'Twas formerly a Crime to see a Woman in private, and a Foreigner did not dare to run the Venture; but now the case is quite different, for there are several Houses of Quality where I am indulg'd, and am often tête a tête with the Mistress of the House, without any more notice taken of me than if I were in France, where Ease and Freedom are411 so much boasted. The Ladies are great Visiters, and have Assemblies every Night, to which they repair alone in their Gondola's without any other Attendance but a Valet de Chambre, who serves as their Gentleman-Usher. They are mask'd at all public Performances, and go where they have a mind to it. This easy access to the Ladies contributes not a little to make my Stay in this City agreeable. I own to you that I am infinitely charm'd with it; there are a thousand Things here that please me, and were I to chuse any City in Italy to live in, 'twould certainly be this, where People enjoy entire Liberty, provided they don't meddle with the State and its Government, which after all too, I don't think a Foreigner has much to do with. Here one is in the Centre of civil Pleasures and Debauchery. God is as exemplarily serv'd here as in any Place whatsoever. Few Nations observe the Externals of Religion better than the Italians in general and the Venetians in particular, of whom it may be said that they spend one half of their time in committing Sin, and the other half in begging God's pardon.

Masquerades are more in fashion here than elsewhere. People go in Masks to take the Air, as well as to Plays and Balls; and 'tis the favourite Pleasure both of the Grandees and the Commonalty. This gives rise to many Adventures, and sometimes one makes Acquaintance under a Mask which would be impracticable perhaps, were not such Disguises in Fashion. I remember that the first time I was here I struck up an Acquaintance in the Square of St. Mark with two of the first-rate Ladies of this Country. They were mask'd, and I was in a Scarlet Domino embroider'd with Silver, which being a Habit that had been seldom seen here, drew the Eyes of all the Company in the Square upon me, and in particular of two Ladies, one of whom twitching412 me by the Sleeve, said to me, 'Sir, I and the Lady here, my Friend, fancy by your Air which outstrips our Gentlemen, that you are a Foreigner, and we are inclin'd to think that you are no mean Person. We should be glad of your Conversation, and you will do us a Pleasure to take a turn with us round the Square.—You do me too much Honour, fair Lady (said I, walking on) and what you tell me of my Appearance pleases me the more because you are both the compleatest Ladies in the Place. As you guess by my Habit that I am not a common Person, your Air persuades me that I have the Honour to speak to Ladies of Quality.—You are not mistaken (said the same Lady to me) this Lady my Companion is Madame M—— and I am the Wife of Mr. C——. You find (continu'd she) that our Names are pretty well known in Venice. Now, after having told you who we are, may we presume to ask who you are?' I gratify'd their Curiosity by pulling off my Mask, which I thought a Compliment due to their Quality. I had scarce told my Name, when the Lady who had not yet spoke one Word, said to me, 'You are not so much a Stranger among us as you imagine; your Name is very well known to me, and the late Madame Duhamel, your Aunt, whose[164] Husband was Commander in chief of our Forces, was one of my most intimate Friends, and she often told me how much she wish'd to see you here; but 'twas a Comfort she did not live to enjoy. She went with her Husband to Corfou, where he died not without Suspicion of Poison; for he was accus'd of being too great a Frenchman; and your Aunt who was return'd from Corfou with a Design413 to go and spend the Remainder of her Days at Berlin, died as she was performing Quarentine in our Port. You caus'd her Body to be remov'd to Berlin, and you was one of her Heirs; and, tho' I don't mention it to make a Merit of it, I must tell you that you are oblig'd to me for it, since I pleaded for you against a very great number of M. Duhamel's Relations. My Love to your Aunt put me upon engaging Mr. M—— to espouse your Interest, which he promoted with Success, and prevail'd on the Senate to prefer the Recommendations of the King of Prussia and the Elector of Hanover who both protected you, before the Instances made by the French Ambassador in the Name of the King his Master, in favour of Messieurs Duhamel. I was infinitely pleas'd (continu'd Madame M——) that I had an Opportunity of serving you, and you may depend upon it that Mr. M—— and I shall ever interest our selves heartily for all that belong to our deceased Friend.' I made answer to Madame M—— in Terms suitable to her obliging Expressions, and crav'd her Permission to pay my respects to her at her House. She answer'd me very civilly that she would send her Husband to me, and that then she should be glad to see me at her House. Next Morning as I was ready to go out, and wait upon Mr. M—— to whom I thought I ow'd a Visit after the Civilities I had receiv'd from his Wife, I was told that he was at my Door and desir'd to speak with me. I went and receiv'd him, and found him every whit as polite as his Lady. He offer'd to shew me the Curiosities of Venice till his Wife was stirring. We went and saw several Churches, after which he conducted me to his House where I found Madame M—— who receiv'd me with all the Civility possible. She was a Woman who tho' forty Years of Age shew'd that she had414 been a very beautiful Lady in her time. Madame C—— happen'd to be in her Company, with whom she had been the Day before in the Square of St. Mark. I never saw a more beautiful Lady, or that had a nobler Carriage. She was not yet twenty Years of Age, but had been marry'd five Years to a Man, who tho' the most ill-favour'd of his Sex had a most amiable Behaviour. I fell in love with Madame C—— as soon as ever I saw her, and when I beheld her Husband, I had Presumption enough to believe that my Application to the Lady would not be disagreeable. But I soon perceiv'd that she was not a Woman for my turn; she quickly depriv'd me of all Hopes of Success; and I no sooner saw those Hopes vanish'd, which are the only Support of Lovers, but I dropp'd my Amour. I had another in view which was attended with better Success: M. M—— carry'd me to a Country-House of his towards Padua, and I don't know where I was ever more agreeably entertain'd in my whole Life. 'Tis at these Country Seats one sees the Venetians in Perfection, who are quite another sort of People here than in the City; for here they put off that grave serious Air which they affect in Town, and are quite sociable, civil, courteous, and live with more splendor. As these Country-Houses are near one another, the Gentlemen to whom they belong visit each other very much, and are almost always together; but at Venice they live with more Restraint.

I am in some doubt whether I should reckon the Music of the Venetian Churches in the number of its Pleasures; but upon the whole, I think I ought, because certainly their Churches are frequented more to please the Ear, than for real Devotion. The Church of la Pieta which belongs to the Nuns who know no other Father but Love, is most frequented. These Nuns are enter'd very young, and are taught415 Music, and to play on all sorts of Instruments, in which some of 'em are excellent Performers. Apollonia actually passes for the finest Singer, and Anna-Maria's for the first Violin in Italy. The Concourse of People to this Church on Sundays and Holidays is extraordinary. 'Tis the Rendezvous of all the Coquettes in Venice, and such as are fond of Intrigues have here both their Hands and Hearts full. Not many Days after my Arrival in this City I was at this very Church, where was a vast Audience, and the finest of Music. As I was going out, a Woman who hid her Face accosted me, saying, there was a Lady in a Gondola who desir'd to speak with me. Tho' this smelt strong of an Adventure, which I was never very fond of, I however went along with the Woman; and really, not above ten Paces from the Spot I found a Gondola, in which was a Lady whom I knew to be the Daughter of the unfortunate Baron de H—— of whose tragical Catastrophe you have heard. I own it mov'd my Compassion, as well as Sorrow, to see before my Eyes a young Lady of Rank in a strange Country and in such a Situation as made me surmise that she was in a bad Way. But it even touch'd me to the quick, when after having made her Apology to me for having sent for me, she said to me with a Voice interrupted with Sighs, 'For God's sake tell me what's become of my poor Father; is he still living? He has been the Cause of his own Unhappiness and mine too; he has plung'd me into an Abyss of Woe, but he is still my Father: Nothing can make me forget the Duty I owe him; I should be glad even to lay down my Life to relieve his Misfortunes.' I told her that I had not been at Berlin for a long time; that I had not kept up a Correspondence there with any body, and that consequently I could not tell her any News of her Father. I knew at the same time that he died in 416Prison at Spandaw; but I was loth to be the Messenger of such bad News to a Person who seem'd to be already too much afflicted. 'I did not know you were at Venice (reply'd Madamoiselle de H——) or I should have sought an Opportunity to speak with you. I saw you at the Church of la Pieta, and the sight of you call'd my Misfortunes fresh to my Memory, as well as the sad Catastrophe of your old Friend my Father. I could not refrain shedding Tears, and the Remembrance of my Disgrace has eclips'd the Pleasure I take in seeing you.' I endeavour'd to assuage her Grief, and to calm her ruffled Soul; and therefore I went with her to her House, and when I saw her a little compos'd I ask'd her questions about her state of Life, and desir'd her to tell me how she had pass'd her time since she left Berlin. She answer'd me in every Point with a great deal of Honesty and Simplicity. 'After the Execution of that Sentence (said she) which degraded my Father from Nobility and Honour, and set him on a level with the basest Scoundrels, I had not the Courage to stay at Berlin. I went to H—— to find out Madame de B—— my Aunt from whom I hoped to meet with Protection; but I soon experienc'd that the Unfortunate have no Relations. My Aunt would not give me House-room, and sent a Confident of her's to tell me that she advis'd me to be gone from H—— or else to change my Name and not to call me her Cousin, unless I had a Desire to be confin'd. But alas! I would then have taken it as a Favour if my Aunt had shut me up; for I was in extreme Want, and knew not what would become of me. I lodg'd at an Inn where I got my Living by making of Linnen and Washing, when a good likely young Man came and took up his Quarters in the very same House, who immediately struck up an Acquaintance with me. I know not what he saw417 in me to charm him, for I did nothing but cry all the day long. Mean time he talk'd to me of Love, and gave me so many Demonstrations of his flaming Passion that I found he was really smitten with me. To tell you the whole Truth, I was not long insensible of the same Passion. He even offer'd to marry me, which, since he would not be deny'd, I consented to. He told me that he was an Officer in the Emperor's Service, and a Native of Lubeck, and that he was come hither to take possession of an Estate fallen to him by Inheritance. I took what he said to be true because he was handsomely equipp'd, and had his Pockets well lin'd. In short, I was smitten with him, and thought I should be very happy in taking him for my Husband. Not many Days after our Marriage, he told me that he must needs set out for Hungary where the Regiment was quarter'd, whereof he said he was a Lieutenant, and that consequently I must make ready to go with him.—We set out from H—— and arriv'd happily at Vienna. It was in that very City that my Husband, who till then behav'd well towards me, and whose Conduct had been very regular, chang'd all on a sudden to the reverse. He spent the whole Day in Gaming-Houses, and the Night in Debauchery. Sometimes he never once came home for four or five Days together, and when he did, 'twas only to insult me, and to upbraid me with the misfortune of my Father, which I discover'd to him before Marriage, for fear he should reproach me one time or other with having deceiv'd him. He told me that I was a Disgrace to him, that his Colonel had broke him for marrying me, and that I was the Author of his Ruin. I try'd to pacify him, and spar'd no Pains nor Complaisance for it, but all to no purpose. I heard that my Husband was desperately in love with a common418 Prostitute, that he had ruin'd himself for her sake; and in a little time he was oblig'd to sell the very Clothes off his back. He had contracted Debts, and expecting every day to be arrested by his Creditors, he left Vienna privately, abandoning me to the most dreadful Despair. 'Twas eight Months before I heard a Word of him. At last I came to know that he was here at Venice, and I resolv'd to find him out. Madame the Countess of W—— who had generously assisted me, fitted me out for the Journey, but when I came hither I did not find my Husband, who I heard was at Padua. I was making my self ready to follow him thither, when I heard the News that he was kill'd by a Student with whom he had a Quarrel at Gaming. His Death fill'd up the Measure of my Sorrow. I found my self quite a Stranger here without Friends or Subsistence. I endeavour'd, but in vain, to get my Living by my Labour, as I had done at H—— but I found so little to do that 'twas impossible for me to hold out long; and I must undoubtedly have sunk under my Misery if it had not been for the noble D—— who out of Pity to my Condition reliev'd me six Years ago by granting me a Pension: But how happy should I be if I could live without it, and retire for ever to some religious Foundation!' Here the unfortunate H—— concluded her Narrative. I sifted her Sentiments about Religion: I knew she had been educated in the Lutheran, but she express'd her Inclination to embrace the Catholic Religion, and also to turn Nun. I promis'd to serve her all that lay in my power, and that same Evening I spoke to Madame M—— who promis'd me to enter her into Orders as soon as she was turn'd Catholic. A Jesuit who has had the tutoring of her for near a Month gives us Hopes that she will instantly be qualify'd to take the Veil. She seems to419 me to be very eager for it. A few days ago I acquainted her with her Father's Death, with which she seem'd very much affected, but at the same time she express'd her Submission to the Decrees of Providence, and told me her Misfortunes with so much Resignation, that I have Reason to think she will be very happy in the Retirement which she is about to embrace. If this be the Case, I shall think my self very fortunate in having contributed by my Advice to her Tranquillity. Heaven grant her Prayers may prevail that I my self may put those Lessons in practice which I have taught her, as to the Necessity of Conversion.

Pardon me, Sir, this long Digression. As you knew the unfortunate H—— in his Prosperity, and as you are also inform'd of his Disgrace, I thought you would not be sorry to hear of the Fate of his Daughter. I now resume my Remarks on Venice.

Two Days ago I went to see the Scuola St. Rocco, which are Rooms where the Fraternities of that Saint meet, in which are Pictures done by the greatest Masters, particularly one in the great Room below, which is the Picture of the Annunciation done by Tintoret, a Piece highly esteem'd. This Picture is, without Contradiction, one of the finest and most affecting Paintings at Venice, because of the lively Expressions of Surprise, Admiration, and Joy which appear in the Virgin's Face. She is sitting in her Chamber, which the skilful Painter has represented as a plain mean Room in some Disorder with old and worn out Furniture. Upon the grand Stair-case there's another Picture representing the Annunciation in like manner, which is done by Titian, and is not one of the worst of his Performances. The upper Rooms are adorn'd with several Pictures done by Tintoret, in which he has described our Lord's Passion. Our Saviour appearing before Pilate is an admirable Piece; 'tis really moving to see the Modesty and Serenity420 of his Countenance. A second Picture represents our Lord carrying his Cross. In a third, we see him fasten'd on it, and expiring for the Salvation of Mankind. These are invaluable Pieces, and are reckon'd the compleatest that ever Tintoret painted.

I have also been to see the chief Palaces, which lie for the most part on the great Canal, and that call'd Reggio. They are very magnificent, but they are generally so like one another that he who has seen one may say he has seen them all. They have little Court-Yards, less Gardens, and no Stables. Nothing goes to form a Palace at Venice but the main Body of the Building, a great Salon in the middle, and Apartments on the Right and Left; and setting aside the Marble, there are Palaces as magnificent elsewhere which have only the name of a House.

The Square of St. Mark is the ordinary Rendezvous of all the Gentry at Venice. There are Nobles who keep their constant Circuits here as it were, and who never stir from the Place but to Bed, for they pass their whole Time in Gaming at the Coffee-Houses, or in the Peruke-Makers Shops. The number of their Nobles is not limited; and any body for paying down 100000 Ducats may purchase Nobility. These Gentlemen compliment each other with the Title of Excellency, and 'tis what they all challenge from Foreigners. Mean time, some of those Excellencies go to the Shambles, and to the Fish-Market, and carry home their Meat or their Fish under their Robes, and some are so very poor that they go a begging. This Title is so very common here that I had much ado to hinder a Lackey whom I hired from giving it to me. Tho' I told him that I was by no means Excellent, he made me answer that he knew full well what Obligations were due to my Excellency, and that he would not be thought to be wanting in Respect to my Excellency. A421 Frenchman lately come from Constantinople to whom I made my Complaints, how much this Title was prophan'd, assur'd me that the Venetians were still more lavish of it out of Venice, so that he heard the very Grooms belonging to the Baillo of the Republic at Constantinople, compliment one another with the Title of Excellency.

Among the Venetian Excellencies there are also Petits-Maitres who are known by their Doublets lin'd with Scarlet, their fine white Perukes, by their fantastical Step, and that Air of lolling which they give themselves in their Gondola's, which are much smaller and nimbler than the common sort. These Petits-Maitres are great Beaus, and have commonly more than one Mistress at a time, and indeed there are few Nobles but have one at least. These Creatures, excepting the little Liberty they enjoy, are as happy as Sultana's. Their Lovers treat them like Princesses, and the Venetians in general pay great respect to the whole Sex. I have seen Faustina the famous Singer, and Stringuetta the noted Courtezan come mask'd upon the Square of St. Mark, leaning on the Shoulders of Noblemen, and every Man paying them as much Obeisance as if they had been Ladies of great Importance. The same day that they appear'd on the Square there happen'd to be a Skirmish between two Women mask'd that were Rivals, who, as soon as they knew one another, fell out, went to Cuffs, tore off each other's Masks, and at last Knives were drawn, with which they cut one another so deeply that one of 'em was left dead on the Spot.

I now think it high time to finish my Letter which is already very long, and perhaps too full of Trifles. I have told you every Thing that came uppermost in my Mind, so that you have a perfect422 Farrago, which however is a Proof of the Pleasure I take in corresponding with you.



SIR,Ronciglione, May 30, 1730.  

As it appears by all the Letters from Rome that they are on the point of chusing a new Pope, I set out sooner from Venice than I should otherways have done, and came post to this City without stopping much by the Way. I pass'd thro' Padua, where I had the Honour to pay my Respects to the Prince Emanuel of Portugal, who is come to reside there for some time, and I was afterwards at the Comedy, which was indeed, a most wretched Performance, but the Assembly was gay and numerous: Among the rest there were a great number of Students and young Fellows, particularly one that made a very finical Appearance, who had ten or twelve Patches on his Face, a red Coat embroider'd with black Gawse, a Hat, a Shoulder-Knot, Stockings, &c. the whole trimm'd with Gawse. I took him at first for a Mountebank, but I plainly saw that the Whimsicalness of his Dress was the Humour of the Country. What gave me some Amusement was, to see a Hare which Harlequin had taught to play Tricks, to tumble Top over Tail, to leap over a Stick, and to beat a Drum with his two Fore-feet.


From Padua I went to Ferrara a City in the Ecclesiastical State, where the Pope keeps a Legat who is always a Cardinal. It appear'd to me to be a large City with spacious Streets, and some fine Palaces, but it did not seem to be very populous, which is ascrib'd to the bad Air in this Country, otherwise one of the finest in all Italy.

The Road from Ferrara to Bologna is extremely level, and as good and agreeable in Summer as 'tis unpassable in Winter. Bologna is the second City in the Ecclesiastical State, and is a large fine Town. 'Tis in a most charming Situation, all the Country round it being properly a Garden, and one of the most fruitful and fairest Plats in Nature. 'Tis said this City contains near 80000 Inhabitants. The common People are civil and well bred, and none more polite to Foreigners than the Noblemen. There are stately Palaces here, of which I will only mention that of the Marquis Rinucci, because to me it seem'd to be one of the most considerable in the City. 'Tis very magnificent, and of a vast extent. The Ground-Floor contains three large Apartments, the first Story five, and the second as many. The Stair-case of this Palace is very much esteem'd for its Contrivance. In one of the Halls are two large Pictures: The first is the Consecration of the Emperor Charles V. perform'd by the Pope at Bologna: The second represents Frederic IV. King of Denmark giving Audience to the Senate of Bologna: and their complimenting him on his Arrival. In another of those Halls are two other curious large Pictures; the one of Cardinal Rinucci, having Audience of the King of Poland when he was sent to him as Nuncio; and the second shews the same Cardinal receiving the Cap from Lewis XIV. King of France, at whose Court he was Nuncio when he was promoted to the Purple. The Apartments adjoining to these Halls are also424 adorn'd with excellent Paintings and very richly furnish'd.

The Churches of Bologna are not less magnificent than the finest Churches in Italy. I thought that of St. Paul the most worthy of Remark, which is serv'd by Bernardine Fryars. The Roof is adorn'd with Paintings representing the History of St. Paul. These Pictures which are highly esteem'd are the Performances of Antonio Caccioli and Rolli two Natives of Bologna, and they have both out-done themselves. The Painting of the Dome where St. Paul is represented on his Knees ready to have his Head struck off is admirably fine. The high Altar is of Marble of various Colours, finish'd with a great deal of Art. The Seats of the Monks are of Wallnut-Tree, and over them are several Pictures of the Life of St. Paul drawn by an able Hand, who was Carache's Pupil. The Churches of St. Catherine of Bologna, and St. Michael in Bosco are well worth the Traveller's Observation, on account of the choice Pictures with which they are adorn'd. St. Michael's in Bosco stands upon an Eminence three Miles from Bologna, to which there's an Entrance thro' a cover'd Gallery made like a Piazza. 'Twas a Work erected by the Citizens of Bologna, out of their Devotion to a miraculous Image of the Holy Virgin which is reverenc'd in this Church.

The Legate's Palace is very ancient, but grand and magnificent. 'Tis as strictly guarded during the Vacancy of the Holy See as if the Enemy were at the Gates of the City. All the Avenues to it are hung with Chains: The Swiss Guards are arm'd with Cuirasses: The Guard which consists of fifty Soldiers is barricaded with Pallisades and Chevaux de Frise, and the Palace-Gate is defended by eight Pieces of Cannon.


What remains for me to tell you of Bologna is, that 'tis one of the Cities in Italy where a Foreigner finds most Amusement. The Nobility not only strive to give him Pleasure, but he has fine Paintings to feast his Eye, and here are often excellent Concerts of Music, Operas, and Comedies, charming Walks, and genteel Country-Houses; which I take to be all that can be desir'd in Life.

From Bologna I travell'd in two days to Florence, after having been dragg'd in my Chaise thro' the Apennines, a prodigious Range of Mountains; which is a thing I shall never do again while I live; for I really suffer'd very much in this Road, and if ever you should have a fancy to come this way, I would advise you to carry Provisions or a Cook with you, for there is not one considerable Place in all the Road. Fiorenzola, which is almost half way, is a sorry little Town. From thence to Scarperia the Road is extremely rugged. One descends a high Mountain pav'd like a Stair-case, which to attempt in a Chaise, you are sure of being, if I may so call it, broke upon the Wheel, and therefore I chose to walk down. At Scarperia the Road becomes more passable, and it mends as you come near Florence. In our Way we pass'd thro' a Town call'd Ponte that stands at the Foot of a Hill, where the Great Duke has a Castle which appear'd to me to be very well fortify'd.

One perceives Florence a great way off, and indeed it makes a fine point of View to see so great a City in a beautiful Valley between Hills which rise insensibly, and end at length in high Mountains, inhabited in such a manner that they may be reckon'd the Suburbs of Florence. The River Arno passes thro' both the City and the Valley. Among all the Cities of Italy, Florence may justly be surnamed the Fair, since it has all that can be desir'd in a great and wealthy Town, such as sacred and profane Edifices,426 Bridges, Monuments, and Fountains; yet 'tis not so large nor populous as Bologna. As I enter'd Florence I perceived over the Gate a Table of white Marble with a Latin Inscription on it, as follows:

Florentia, Adventu Friderici IV. Daniæ et Norvegiæ, Augusti, Felicis, quod eam sua Præsentia magnus Hospes impleverit, Augusta felix, An. S. 1708. Mense Martio.

'Twas the late Great Duke Cosmo who caus'd this to be engrav'd to the Honour of the King of Denmark.

The City of Florence has been so well describ'd that I shall pass very briefly over all that relates to the Buildings. The Square call'd Piazza del Gran Duca or the old Palace, contains Ornaments enough to embellish a great Town. Here you see a spacious Fountain which Cosmo I. caus'd to be built after the Designs of Amminati and Philip Baldinucci, two of the most famous Sculptors at that Time. Not far from this Fountain is the Equestrian Statue of Cosmo I. which is rais'd upon a great Pedestal of white Marble, with this Inscription engrav'd on the chief Front of it:

Cosmo Medici, Magno Etruriæ Duci Primo, Pio, Felici, Invicto, Justo, Clementi, Sacræ Militiæ Pacisque in Etruria Authori, Patri et Principi Optimo, Ferdinandus F. Mag. Dux III. erexit, An.ciɔ iɔ lxxxxiiii.

On the other three Sides of the Pedestal are very fine Bas-Reliefs of Brass. The first represents Cosmo I. recogniz'd for Sovereign by the Senate of427 Florence; the second the Ceremony of Cosmo's Coronation, and the third the same Cosmo in an antique triumphant Car making his pompous Entry into Sienna, which was submitted to his Government. Ferdinand I. de Medicis when he erected this Statue to the Honour of his Father, employ'd in the Direction of it the famous John Bologna, who has very well answer'd the Opinion that had been conceiv'd of him.

In the Great Duke's Gallery near the Square, I saw the greatest Curiosities, both among the Antients and Moderns. A Busto of Alexander the Great, the famous Statue of Venus, cut by Apollodorus, with those of the Emperors and Empresses of Rome, and the greatest Personages of former Centuries; the best Originals of the greatest Painters; and a thousand uncommon things, such as Diamonds, Rubies, Pearls, Emeralds, Saphirs, Topazes, Amber, Porcellain, Crystal, Porphyry, Coral, Marble, and Granite, the Particulars of which wou'd form a Volume. They are actually engraving on Plates, and several Persons of Quality are contributing to the Expence of this fine Work, which is considerable, and for which excellent Designers are employ'd. This wou'd have been worthy of the Great Duke, and it seems to me that this Prince when he sees his Family extinct, and his Estate pass into the hands of Foreigners, ought at least to eternize the Glory of his Ancestors by publishing an Inventory of the immense Wealth which they have acquired, and transmitted to their Posterity.

Of all the Churches in Italy there are none more magnificent as to the outside than the Dome of Milan, and the Cathedral of Florence, both which are entirely lin'd with Marble of various Colours. A Citizen of Florence, who pretended to know the History of this City perfectly well, assur'd me that its Cathedral was built out of the Impost of428 five Sous which had been laid upon every Piece of Cloth that was then sold at Florence; but I believe you may without Breach of Charity take this for a Story.

Over against the Cathedral is the magnificent Baptistery, to which there's an Entrance thro' three Gates of Brass, so artfully wrought that Michael Angelo said they were good enough to be the Gates of Paradise.

St. Laurence's Chapel, which is not yet finish'd, is the Admiration of all Connoisseurs, and is design'd to be the Place for the Burial of the Great Dukes, whose Remains are to be deposited in a Mausoleum of wonderful Workmanship, adorn'd with precious Stones. 'Tis 150 years ago that this Chapel has been building, and yet it wants two Thirds of being finish'd. If it were lawful to criticise the Conduct of Princes, I must say it again, that the Great Duke, who sees that his Greatness and his Family must end with him, ought to put the last hand to this Monument of the Magnificence of the Medicis: For can he hope, that if he himself neglects to transmit the Lustre of his Family to Posterity, his Successors will think to do it, who are nothing to him, or at least but very little? But such is the Humour of John Gaston Great Duke of Tuscany; he is so indifferent and unconcern'd about every thing, that he sees Foreigners dispose of his Dominions, and nominate his Successor, and the Courtiers ready to abandon him and to worship the said Successor; and yet the Prospect, how disagreeable soever it may be, does not seem to give him any Uneasiness: And he said some days ago, after he had sign'd his Last Will and Testament, declaring Don Carlos Infante of Spain his Successor, that he had just got a Son and Heir by a Dash of his Pen, which he had not been able to get in thirty four years Marriage.


Thus, Sir, I have given all you will have of me this time touching Florence, where I cou'd stay but a few days, and then made no Acquaintance, having only been taken up in seeing the Curiosities of this City. At my Return from Rome I propose to come hither again, and make some stay in order to get a little Knowledge of the Court; and then you shall be inform'd of every Remark that I make.

From Florence I went and din'd at Castilloncello, and lay at Sienna a City in the Duchy of Tuscany, to which Cosmo I. de Medicis made it subject, not without great Resistance from the Siennois. The City which is both an Archbishoprick and an University, is very pleasantly situate, and enjoys a very good Air. 'Tis said that Italian is spoke here with more Purity than in any other Town in Italy. It seem'd to me to want Inhabitants, for I went thro' several Streets and did not meet a Soul. 'Tis said that a great many of the Nobility are settled in Sienna, and that Strangers are sure to meet with a civil Reception here, but as I staid no more than one day, I had only a cursory View of the Town. The Cathedral appear'd to me to be a great and noble Building lin'd with Marble. The Great Duke's Palace is ancient, but commodious. It has a Tower which is look'd upon as a singular piece of Architecture. The Great Princess[165] Violante of Bavaria is Governess of Sienna. She liv'd formerly in this City, and was mightily belov'd in it; but she has resided for some time at Florence. The Square which is before the Palace is oval, and hollow in the Middle, so that it may be laid under-water like the Square Navona at Rome.

From Sienna to Viterbo the Road is extremely bad, I passed the Mountain of Radifocani, situate in one of the vilest Countries in all Italy. At the top of the Mountain there's a Castle, where a Garison430 of fifteen Men is kept, with a Commanding Officer, whom I found at the House of Entertainment where I alighted. He had been a Lieutenant in France in the Royal Italian Regiment, and spoke very good French. He told me that the Inhabitants under his Government were as bad as the Country, of which some Moments after, I saw a Proof. A Mule-driver having a Quarrel with the Drawer, the latter stabb'd him with a Knife in the Rim of the Belly, with as much Sedateness as if he had been doing a good Action; and the Commandant never caus'd the Assassin to be apprehended: for which when I express'd my Surprize to him, he said he had nothing to do out of his Place; and that besides he did not dare to cause the Assassin to be apprehended, because he had three Brothers as wicked as himself, who wou'd not fail to take a Revenge if he was punish'd. And then, said he, I shou'd have enough to do if I were to cause all to be apprehended who give Wounds with Knives.

Aquapendente is a sorry little Town, and yet a Metropolis. Bolsena is no better, and Montefiascone tho' a Bishoprick, wou'd not be worth mentioning, were it not for its Vineyards which produce excellent Muscadine Wine.

Viterbo, three Leagues from Montefiascone, seem'd to me to be a pretty Town. 'Tis adorn'd with three fine Fountains, and pav'd with great Flint Stones which are four foot long and two foot broad. This City has some fine Houses in it. 'Tis the See of a Bishop, and its Cathedral is a Structure which does not want for Grandeur. In this Church the Archbishop and Elector of Cologn was consecrated by Pope Benedict XIII. who came hither on purpose to save the Elector all manner of dispute about Precedency with the Cardinals; who were in their turn so disgruntled with the Pope, that none of them accompany'd him in this Journey.


Monteroso is a pretty Town, but Ronciglione outdoes it; and indeed in all the Ecclesiastical State there is not a pleasanter. It drives a great Trade in Snuff. I came hither yesterday at Noon, and don't think of going away 'till this Evening, my Chaise being broke. I hope however to lie this Night at Rome, from whence I purpose to send you many good Stories forthwith. You will do me a Pleasure to let me hear from you; and to believe me in Italy, as well as elsewhere, yours, &c.

End of Volume I.


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An Alphabetical INDEX



Abbesses of two Convents, the Ceremony of marrying them by every Doge of Venice, 400.
Their Dress, 401.
Agrippina, Empress of Rome, 250.
Ahlen-Castle, in the Dutchy of Zell; the Retreat of the Duke's unfortunate Daughter, 62.
Aix-la-chapelle, t. 199, 341.
Albert, Margrave of Brandenbourg, 82.
Albert I. Emperor, 388.
Albert II. Emperor, 388.
Aller, R. 61.
Alpes, for whom those Mountains were made, 395.
Altena, t. 53, 57.
Distress of the Inhabitants, 58.
Privileg'd Place for Bankrupts, 59.
Altenbourg, t. 167.
Altheim, Count and Countess, 255, 256.
Amelia, Empress of Germany, 228 to 230, &c. 344.
Amminati, Sculptor, 426.
Andrew, Cardinal of Austria, 390.
St. Andrew's Order of Muscovy, 76.
Angelo, Michael, his saying that certain Gates were good enough for Paradise, 428.
Anhalt-Cothen, Princess, 173.
Anhalt-Dessau Leopold, Pr. 37.
His Amour and Marriage, and his Menace to shoot his Tutor, 38, 39.
His Character by the late D. of Savoy, 39.
His Valour, 39, 40.
His Government, 82.
Augustus Lewis, Pr. his Wives and Issue, 83.
Anhalt-Zerbst, Magdalen-Augusta, Duchess of Saxe-Gotha, 181.
Anna-Maria's Violin, 415.
Anne, Princess Royal of Denmark, and Electress-Dowager of Saxony, 100.
Anne-Frederica, of Promnitz, 83.
Anne-Sophia-Charlotte, of Prussia, Duchess of Saxe-Eysenach, 183.
Annunciation-Pictures, done by Tintoret and Titian, 419.
Anspach, 193, 204.
See Brandenbourg.
Anthony-Ulric, D. of Brunswic-Lunenburg-Wolfembuttle, 69, 71, 73, 75, 79.
Antinous's Statue, 370.
Antonietta-Amelia of Brunswic-Blanckenbourg, 72.
Apollodorus Statuary, 427.
Apollonia, the Singer, 415.
Appel, a Merchant at Leipsic, his House the Residence of the K. of Poland, 85.
Appennine Mountains, 425.
Aquapendente, t. 430.
Arch-duchess, 232, 233, 381.
Architecture, the best Article that Princes can lay out their Money in, 10.
Aremberg, Duke and Duchess Dowager, 332, 333.
Argenson, M. de, 303.
Arlington, Countess of, 67.
Arnheim, Marshal de, 40.
Arnim, Sigismond de, 146.
Arnould, St. 366.
Arthur, Prince of Wales, 389.
Augsbourg, t. 273.
Its Comparison with Antwerp, 275.
Its chief Trade, 275, 276.
Augusta, of Saxe-Gotha, Princess of Wales, 182.
Augustus III. K. of Poland, 97, 99.
His Travels and Conversion to Popery, 101.
His Marriage, 102, 165.
His Love and Duty to his Father, 104.
His Election and Coronation, 106.
His Tutor, 126, 127.
His Queen, 98.
Their Children, 99.
Augustus-William D. of Brunswic-Lunenburg Wolfembuttle, 69, 71, 73.
Augustus-Albert, Prince of Prussia, 113.
Augustus, Emperor, 273.
Aulic Council, at Berlin, 14.
At Vienna, 244.
St. Austin's Tract of the City of God, 179.
Austria, House, of whom it now consists, 233.
A Wish that it never may be extinct, 233.
Its great Alliances, 250.
Austrian Princes, remarkable for an Air of Gravity, 112.
Their People's Avertion to the Bohemians, 222.
The scurvy Pun of a French Jester upon them, 228.
Their Epicurism, 253.
Pride, 254.
Their Fondness for the Title of Count, 255.
Austrian and Lorrain Families united, 233, 341.
Auvergne, Princesses, 332, 333.
Backover, M. Chancellor of Saxe-Gotha, 182.
Baden-Baden, Margrave and Margravine, 213, 299, 300.
Baden-Dourlach, Christian, Margrave of, 183, 279.
Charles, 293, 296. 298.
Margravine, 298, 300, 301, 304.
Badiani, Count, 244.
Bahlberg, Adolphus, Baron of, 184.
Baldinucci, Philip, the Sculptor, 426.
Balls of Bohemia, compar'd with those in the Hay-Market, 223.
Bamberg, t. 201, &c. the mighty Prerogative of its Bishop, 201.
Barbi, t. 82.
Bareith, Margraves. See Brandenbourg.
Bareith, t. 204.
Princess, 303.
Baron, the Title purchased in
Germany by a Messenger, 256.
Basset, how a Lady made her Gallant's Fortune at it, 252.
Bass-Viols, a German Duke's Fondness for 'em, 168, to 171.
Bavaria, Electors of, 259, 262, 263.
Its Division, 267.
Riches and Revenue, 167, 268.
Electoress, 363, 364.
Its Apostle, 366.
Baudissin, M. Wolf, Henry de, 104, 127, 128.
Baumgarten, General, 84.
Beaufort, Marquis de, 135.
Beausobre, M. 15.
Bedmar, Marquis de, his Conspiracy, 409.
Beichling, M. Chancellor, 91.
Beichling, Countess Dowager, 141.
Belgrade, 248.
Belvedere-Palace, 4.
Benedict XIII. Pope, 337, 430.
Benedictines, a sort of Republic form'd in that Order, 190.
Benson, William, Esq; Director of the fine Water-works at Herenhausen, 67.
Bentivoglio, Cardinal, his Remark upon the Alps and the neighbouring People, 395.
Bergenopzoom, 332.
Berlin, t. 3. Its Obligation to the French Refugees, 3.
Its Academy, 147.
Bernsdorff, John Hartwig Ernest, Baron of, 155.
Berschen, t. 394.
Beveren, Baron de, 334, 335.
Bevern, Brunswic Branch, 71.
Charles, Prince of, 26, 72.
Ferdinand-Albert, Prince of 70, 71, 72.
Elizabeth-Christina, Princess, 72.
Bilinski, Count and Countess, 118.
Bishoprick, which the first in Germany, 201.
Black Liveries, never given by a certain German Family, 363.
Blanc, M. de, 306.
Blanche, Mary, Wife to the Emperor Maximilian, 389.
Blanckenbourg, County, 79.
Blanckenbourg, t. 76, 78.
Stupidity of the People, 78.
Blanckenbourg's Duke and Duchess, 71, 76, 78.
The Duke's Treaty with the Elector of Hanover for a Vote and Seat in the Dyet, 79.
His Accession to the Title of the D. of Wolfembuttle, 80.
Blanckenheim-Mandersheldt, Francis George, Count de, 333.
Bockenheim, t. 340.
Bohemia, 210, 211, &c. 244.
Where and by whom its Kings and Queens are consecrated, 212.
Its Saints, ib..
The Wealth and Grandeur of its Nobility, and the Poverty and Slavery of the Peasants, 218, 219, 221.
Its States, of whom compos'd, 222.
Their Aversion to the Austrians, 222.
Bolagnos, Count de, 397.
Bologna, John, 427.
Bologna, t. 423, 424.
Bolsano. t. 392.
Bolsena, t. 430.
Bork, the Prussian Minister and General, 31, 42.
Bose, Countess of, 145.
Bossagno, t. 394.
Bot, the Architect, 10, 18.
Compar'd to Bernini, 94.
Bothmar, Count de, 65.
Bouillon, Princes, why they had the Title of Domestic Highnesses, 210.
Bourbon and Austria, Houses, our Author's Wish that they might never be extinct, 233.
Bourbon, Duchess of, 310, 332.
Bourg, Marshal de, 306, 307.
Brandenbourg, Electors of, Joachim II. 196.
John George, 204.
Brandenbourg, Lewis, Margrave of, 387.
Brandenbourg-Anspach, Margraves, capital, 193, &c., 195, 361.
Margravine, 194.
Her Present to our Author, 197.
Death in this Family pretended to be always foretold by the Appearance of a Spirit, 196.
Brandenbourg-Bareith, Margraves, 200, &c. 205, &c. 303, 342.
Brandenbourg, t. 2.
Brandenbourg-Schwedt, Marquis of, 26.
Margravine Dowager, 125.
Brandstein, Frederic-Augustus de, 145.
Brebentau, Mademoiselle de, 116, 157.
Brebentau, the Palatine of Marienbourg, 163.
Breitenbauch, Henry-Augustus de, 146.
Bremer, M. de, 195.
Brenner, Mountain, 391, 392.
Breslau, the Road from it to Berlin, 1.
Breton-Villiers, Marquis, Reflection on his Memoirs, 337.
Brezé, Marshal de, 321.
Brhousel, t. 318.
Brimstone, prescrib'd to the Austrians by a French Jester, 228.
Brixen, t. 392, 394.
Brocks, a Hamburgher and Poet, 53.
Brou, M. de, 306.
Bruhl, John and Henry de, 104, 129, 130, 131, 132, 140.
Adolphus de, 140.
Baron de, 174, 177.
Brunswic Hanover, John-Frederic, Duke of, 229.
Brunswic Family, 61, 69, 71.
The Princes descended from it, 231.
Brunswic, t. 69, 75.
Brunswic-Blanckenbourg, Lewis Rodolf, Duke of, 70, 231.
Brunswic-Lunenbourg-Wolfembuttle, Duke of, 231.
Bucentaur, a fine Venetian Galley, 399, 407.
Bulau, Baron de, 65, 66.
Baroness, 66.
Burgau, Charles, Margrave of, 390.
Burgundy, Charles the Bold, Duke of, 389.
Philip Duke, 389.
Buthler, Constantine, Baron of, 184.
Cabinet Ministers, their Precedence at the Court of Prussia, 134.
Caccioli Antonio, Painter, 424.
Cadets Academies, 48.
Cæsar's War with Pompey, painted, 370.
Callenberg, Augustus-Henry Gottlob, Count de, 145.
Camke, Madame de, 25.
Camke, Messieurs de, 44.
Candi, a famous Painter, 261.
Carinthia, Henry Duke of, 387.
Carlowitz, John-George de, 145.
Treaty, 238.
Carlsbad, t. 208, &c.
Virtue of its Baths, ib.
Carlsrouhe, t. 293.
Caroline, Princess of Saxe-Eysenach, 115.
Cassel, See Hesse.
Castel, Count de, 195.
Castilloncello, t. 429.
Catsch, M. a Minister of Prussia, 5, 17, 43.
Catzenellenbogen, upper County, 357.
Chains, that bound St. Peter, St. Paul, and St. John, three Links of them, 198.
Chalisac, M. 37.
Charlemain's Crown and Sword, 199.
Charles, Margrave of Burgau, 390.
Charles II. K. of Spain, 387.
Charles IV. Emperor, 387.
Charles V. Emperor, 381, 387, 423.
Charles VI. Emperor, 70, 230, 341.
His Diversions, 233.
His Friendship and Gratitude, 256.
His Love for the Empress, 257.
Remarks on his Coronation, 341.
Charles-Christian, Prince of Prussia, 113.
Charles, K. of Sardinia, 335.
Charles XII. K. of Sweden, 55, 56, 123, 124.
Charles, Prince Palatine of Sultzbach, 332.
Charles, the Bold, Duke of Burgundy, 389.
Charles-Albert, Elector of Bavaria, 259, 262, 263.
His Electoress, 263.
Charles-Lewis, Elector Palatine, 274, 342, 381, 383.
Philip ditto, 328, 330, 331.
His Revenues, 337.
Charlottemburg House, 35.
Child-bearing, ascrib'd to the Miracles of the two Bohemian Saints, 213, 214.
Christian, Margrave of Brandenburg-Bareith, 200.
Christian-Lewis, Margrave of Brandenburg, 28.
Ulric, Duke of Wirtemberg-Oels, and Bernstad, 83.
William, of Saxe-Gotha, Prince, 182.
Christina-Louisa, of Oetingen, Duchess of Blanckenbourg, 70.
Christina, Princess of Saxe-Weissenfels, 114, 115.
Christopher, St. where most worshipped, 394.
Cicerone, the Meaning of that Word in Italy, 395.
Cinfuentes, Count de, 244.
Cleisheim, 375.
Clischoff, Battle, 163.
Clovis, K. of France, 388.
Coburg, t. 200.
Cohorn, Engineer, 328.
Cohten, t. 83.
Colin, Alexander, Statuary, 386.
Collobradt, Count, 220.
Collonitz, the Count and the Cardinal, 248, 249.
Collowrat, Count and Countess, 133, 148.
Complimenters, nauseous, 199.
Condé, Princess of, 344.
Conferences, Counsellors of, 240, 244.
Constance, Council of, 15, 339.
Coquets, in Venice, the Place of their Rendezvous, 415.
Corfou, Island, 408.
Cornaro Family's Tomb, 404.
Cosel Countess of, Mistress of the late K. of Poland, 90, 91, 117, 118, 120, 124.
Her Menaces against him, 118.
Count, 117, 136.
Her Daughter, 142.
Cosmo I. Duke of Florence, 426, 427.
Costa, Count de, 101, 123.
Counts of the Empire, their Preheminence, 287.
Courland, Duchess Dowager, 200.
Craut, his surprising Rise from behind the Compter to the Ministry, 4.
Creutz, M. de, Prussian Minister, 5, 45.
Creutzer, Coin, 278.
Crossen, t. 1.
Culmbach-Brandenburg, Margraviate, 204.
George-Frederic-Charles, the Margrave, 205.
His Family and Revenues, 204, &c. 208.
Cunegonda, Empress, her Tomb, 202, 387.
Cup, which Joseph put in Benjamin's Sack; the Reason our
Author had to remember that Passage, 204.
Customs, a remarkable Attachment to old ones, 78, 79.
Cyprianus, Dr. 179.
Cyprus, Cornaro, Q. of, 406.
Czarowitz, 70.
Damnitz, M. de, Grand Marshal of Saxe-Gotha, 182.
Danckelman, Baron de, 15.
He prophesies his own Fate, 16.
Dangervilliers, M. 306, 307.
Danneberg, Henry de, 71.
Danebrock Order, 74.
Dantzick, t. invested, 107.
Reduc'd, 108, 109.
Danube, R. 278.
Darmstadt, t. 357.
Landgraves, 357, 362.
Daun, Count and Marshal de, 246, 370.
Degenfeldt (Schomberg) Count de, 342, 343.
Dehn, Count de, 72, 73.
A very fine Dancer, as well as Minister of State, 74.
Dejanira's Story painted, 383.
Delitz, Countess of, 66.
Denhoff, General, 7.
Denmark, Q. of, 208.
The Prince Royal, 208.
Devos, Tapestry-maker at Brussels, 236.
Diedrichstein, Count, 147.
Doberginsky, M. 35.
Doges of Venice, their Marriage of the Sea, and of the Abbesses of two Convents, 399, 400.
Dohna, Count de, 6.
Dorffling, a Taylor, his Rise to be a General in the Army, 12.
Dorothea-Sophia, Princess of Prussia, 19.
Dorothy, Electress of Brandenburg, 19.
Dresden, t. 87, 157, &c.
Drinking hard, in Germany, our Author's humourous Account how it affected him, 184, 187, to 190, 204, 325, to 327.
Where he reckons it an inseparable Function of the Ecclesiastical Courts, 204.
Duhamel, Francis, General, 7, 412.
His Lady, 412.
Duvaine, General, 5.
Duval, a famous Soop-maker, 56.
East-Friesland, George-Albert, Prince of, 208.
Eib, General, 191.
Einsiedel, John George de, 143.
Einsiedel, Curt de, 144.
His Lady, 144.
Einsiedel Detler, Henry de, 146.
Eleonora, Empress, 240, 381.
Eleonora, Princess of Neubourg, 230.
Eleonora-Philippina, Princess of Hesse-Rhinfels, 332.
Elizabeth, Empress of Germany, 232, &c.
Her Abjuration of the Lutheran Religion, 232.
Elizabeth-Sophia of Brandenbourg, Duchess Dowager of Courland, 200.
Elizabeth-Christina of Oetingen, Duchess of Blanckenbourg, 76.
Elvan, t. 378.
Emanuel, Prince of Savoy, 238.
Emigrants, of Saltzbourg, 375, 376.
Emperors of Germany, the Ceremony of their Audiences, 225.
Their Dining, 225.
Suppers, 227.
Pictures, 370.
Empresses, the Respect paid to them, 228 to 230, &c.
Empress Dowager, 229.
Eosander, the Architect, 10.
Erdmansdorff, Ernest-Ferdinand de, 144.
Erfurt, t. 178.
Erlangen, Christian, t. 200.
Ernest-Augustus, the first Elector of Hanover, 63, 67.
How he obtain'd that Dignity, 68.
Ernest, Arch-Duke, and his Wife, 389.
Ernest-Augustus, Duke of Saxe-Weimar, 173.
Ernest the Pious, Duke of Gotha, 178.
Etiquette, in foreign Courts, what, 224.
Etlingen, t. 303.
Eversberg, t. 364.
Eugene of Savoy, Prince, his Palace, 236.
His Character, 237, 141.
His Regiment of Dragoons, 237.
His Sickness, Death, and Interment, 238.
His Employments and Estate, 238, 240.
His last Will, 239.
His Library, 239.
His Nephew, 239.
Excellency, the Venetians Fondness for the Title, 420, 421.
Eysenach, t. 183. See Saxe.
Fatima, a Turkish Lady, 115, 116.
Favourita, the Emperor's Palace, 234.
Faustina, the Singer, 421.
Ferbellin, t. 50.
Ferdinand, I. de Medicis, 427.
Ferdinand, K. of Castille, 387.
Ferdinand, K. of the Romans, 381.
Ferdinand I. Emperor, 385, 387.
His Son's Tomb, 389,
and Wife, 390.
Ferdinand-Albert, D. of Brunswic-Lunenbourg and Bevern, 70, 71, 72.
His Merit and Preferment, 72.
Ferdinand-Mary, Elector of Bavaria, 259.
His Wife, 260.
Ferdinand, Duke of Bavaria, 263, 264.
His Duchess, 263.
Ferrara, t. 423.
Finck, of Finckenstein, Count, 25.
Fiorenzola, t. 425.
Fermian, Barons of, 367.
Fishermen, at Venice, their Election of their Doge or Chief, 402.
Fitztuhm, Count de, 91, 142.
His Daughter, 150.
Fleming, James-Henry, Count de, Prime Minister of Poland, 73, 74, 89, 90, 92, 102, 125, 144, 152, 155, 162.
His Reason for employing Foreigners before Saxons, 155.
The Origin of his Family and his Education, 162.
His Preferments from first to last, 162, &c.
His Marriage and his Duels, 163, 165.
His Conduct with regard to Patkul, 164.
His Estate, 165, 166.
His general Character, 166.
Fleming, Mademoiselle de, 116.
Fleury, Marquis de, 135.
Cardinal de, 241.
Florence, t. 425.
Fohsen, Mademoiselle de, 38.
Forbenius he saved the Life of the Elector of Brandenbourg, 51.
Force, Marshall de, 321.
Forchs, the Starost assassinated, 155.
Francfort, on the Rhine, 340.
Privilege of those here called Residents, 342.
Francfort, on the Oder, t. 2.
Francis I. K. of France, his solemn Affirmation, 215.
Franconia, Duke, 185, 191.
Frankenberg, Baron de, 236.
Frankendahl, t. 338.
Frauenstad, Battle, 163.
Frederic, of Austria, nicknam'd the Pennyless Prince, 385, 386, 388.
Frederic, Elector Palatine, who was chose K. of Bohemia, 210.
Frederic IV. Emperor, 387, 388.
His Mother, 389.
Frederic, Electoral Prince of Saxony, 99, 112.
Frederic II. Duke of Gotha, 180, 181.
III. the present Duke, 181, 182.
His Brother William, 181.
His other Brothers and Sisters, and his Revenues and Guards, &c. 182.
Frederic-Augustus II. K. of Poland, 94, 102.
His Nativity calculated at Venice, 95, 96.
His Death, 96.
His Queen, and her Death, 97.
His Change of Religion, 100.
The Method he took to convert his Son, 101.
His Natural Issue, 115, &c.
His Generosity, 164.
Frederic IV. K. of Denmark's Compassion to the Altenois, 58, 59.
His Queen's Retirement, 59.
His giving Audience to the Senate at Bologna, 423, 426.
Frederic, the Fair, 230.
Frederic-William, Elector of Brandenbourg, his Statue, 9.
His remarkable Speech to his Soldiers, 50.
His daughter, 200.
Frederic I. K. of Prussia, his Statue, 8, 297.
Frederic, Prince Royal of Prussia, 25.
Frederica-Sophia, Princess of Prussia, 25, 26.
Frederica-Louisa, Princess of Prussia, 26.
Of Saxe-Gotha, Princess, 182.
Fredericsfeld, House, 27.
Friesberg, Baron de, 61.
Friesland, Henry-Frederic, Count of, 123, 139, 142.
Frisoni, an Architect, 288, 290.
Fuchs, Baron de, the Prussian Minister, 4, 29, 41.
Fuchs, Countess de, 254.
Fugger, Maximilian, Count, 266.
His generous Entertainment of the Emperor Charles V. 276.
Fuhl, de, Great Marshal, 90.
Fulde, t. 184. Magnificence of its Abbot, 184.
Fultishau, Convent, 380.
Furstemberg, Prince, 165.
Cardinal, 315.
Furstenfeldt, Abbey, 272, 273.
Gala, Days of, what, 226, 227, 228.
Galeas, John Duke of Milan, 389.
Gallasch, Count de, 211.
Gardeners, the best in all Germany, 85.
Garment, Christ's, a Relique of it, 198.
Gaston, John, Great Duke of Tuscany, 428.
Gates, thought by Michael Angelo to be good enough for Paradise, 428.
Gemblours, Abbot of, his sole Privilege of celebrating Mass booted and spurr'd, 191.
Gemming, Baron de, 208.
Gentleman, two French Kings fond of the Title, 215.
George I. K. of Great Britain, his Wife, 61, 62.
His Administration, 61, 64, 68.
George II. King, 64, 69.
George-William, Margrave of Brandenbourg-Bareith, 205.
George (St.) Abbess of, 212.
Order Bavarian, 260.
George I. Landgrave of Darmstad, 357.
German Language, its Excellency. 53, 195.
Vanity of the Germans, 198.
Gersi, the French Ambassador, 397.
Gersner, Physician, 368.
Gerstorf, Gotlob-Frederic, Baron de, 47.
Gertrude, a Marcoman Lady, History of her, an entertaining Novel, 343, &c.
Its Key, 355.
Gilles (St.) Count de, 92.
Glass Manufacture of Venice, 410.
Globe, John-Frederic Count de, 334.
Goblet of Gold, the Pleasure with which our Author drank out of it; and how he wish'd to carry it off, 204.
Godfrey of Bouillon, K. of Jerusalem, 388.
Gohren, Baron de, 45.
Gortz, (Henry) Baron de, 54.
His famous Copper Coin, 56.
His Execution, 57.
Gortz, the Hanovarian, 64.
Gotha, see Saxe, and Frederic, and Ernest.
Gotha, t. 178.
Its Dukes, 178, 179, &c.
Duchesses, 181.
The noble Library here, 179.
Their Revenues, 182.
Gravenitz, Count de, 284, 285, 286.
Gravenitz, Countess de, Mistress of the D. of Wirtemberg, 279, 282, to 284.
Gravity, an Air peculiar to the Austrian Princes, 112.
Grosh, the Value of that Coin, 85.
Grumkau, the Prussian Minister, 5, 31, 43.
Grunberg, the Architect, 6.
Guide, a remarkable one that was blind, 277.
Guides, the Name given to them in Italy, 305.
Guldenstein-Huguetan, Count de, 35.
Gundacker de Staremberg, Count, 241.
Gustavus Adolphus, 259, 274.
Hacke, M. de, 46.
Hagen, Baron de, 75, 101.
Haguenau, 381, t.
Hall, the largest next to Westminster, 215.
Halle, t. 82, 377, 380.
University, 85.
Hamburgh, t. 51, 199.
Its Dispute with Denmark, 52.
Its Opera, 52.
Its Mob, 54.
Vindication of its Citizens from the Charge of Cruelty to the Altenois, 58.
Their Respect to the Jews, 53, 59.
Hamelen, t. 68.
Hanau, Count of, 359, 361, 362.
Hanau, Charlotta-Christina of, 359.
Hanau, t. 360, 362.
Hanover, 63, 68.
Roman Catholics there, 63.
Revenues of the Electorate, 68.
—— Electoress of, 343, 344.
Harbourg, t. 60, 68.
Hardenberg, M. Grand Marshal of Hanover, 64, 65.
Harlay, M. de. 306.
Harrach, Count de, 242, 367, 368, 371.
Hattorfs, Ministers compar'd to Louvois and Barbesieux, 65, 66.
Hatzfield, Egmont Count, 335.
Haugwitz, John-Adolphus de, 142.
Heidelberg, t. 321, 322.
Its Decay to what owing, 323.
Its famous Tun, 324.
Heilbron, 375.
Henrietta-Benedictine, the Princess Palatine, 229.
Henry II. Emperor, his Tomb, 202.
Henry IV. Emperor, the pompous Interment he wish'd his Enemies, 168.
Henry III. K. of France, 309.
Henry IV. K. of France, his Ambition to be called the first Gentleman in his Kingdom, 215.
Herenhausen Palace, 67.
Herford Abbey, 27.
Hering, M. de, Vice-Chancellor of Saxe-Gotha, 177, 182.
Hermitage, a Seat near Bareith, 207.
Herzan, Maximilian Count de, 146.
Hesler, M. de, 108.
Hesse Princes, 357.
Hesse-Cassel, Philip the Landgrave of, 357, 362.
Hesse-Darmstadt, Ernest-Lewis Landgrave of, 357.
His Wife, 358.
His Son and his Wife, 359.
His Revenues and Troops, 360.
Hesse-Rhinfels, Princess of, 332.
Hildesheim, Baron, 335.
Hochstet Battle, 262.
Hoffman, Professor of Physic at Halle, 208.
Hohenlo, Count de, 353.
Holstein-Beck, Lewis-Frederic Pr. of, 150.
—— Charles-Lewis Pr. of, 120, 150.
Dorothy, Princess of, 205.
Houtten, Christopher-Francis de, Pr. and Bp. of Wurtzbourgh, 185.
Hoym, Count de, 91, 92, 117, 118.
His Catastrophe, 136, 137.
Hubert (St.) his Legacy, 190.
Noted for killing Rats, 196.
Hubertsbourgh, t. 86, 103, 157.
Huss, John, 339.
Hussites, the Remains of 'em, 216.
Jacobi, the Statuary, 9.
Jacquelot, M. 15.
Janson, Cardinal, 315.
Jews, the Respect shewed them at Hamburg, 53, 59.
Not tolerated at Anspach, and why, 198.
Their Punishment for crucifying an Infant of Christian Parents on Christmass-day, 216.
Vast number of 'em in Bohemia, 216.
and the Palatinate, 337.
Ilgen, Baron, Prussian Minister, 31, 41.
Ilten, Messieurs de, of Hanover, 66, 67.
Inn River, 364, 379, 380.
Inspruc, t. 380.
Joan of Castille, 387.
John's (St.) Village in Tirol, 378.
John (St.) of Jerusalem, Kts. of, 28.
John (St.) Nepomucene, 212, 213.
John-Ernest ABp. of Saltzbourg, 373.
John-Adolphus of Saxe-Weissenfels, 99, 114.
John-George I. Elector of Saxony, 114.
John-George III. Elector of Saxony, 94.
John-George IV. Elector, 94.
John-Augustus of Saxe-Gotha, Pr. 182.
—— Adolphus, ditto, 182.
John William, D. of Saxe-Eisenach, 183.
Elector Palatine, 324, 328.
Jonas, the tall Grenadier, 35.
Joseph, Emperor, 274.
Iser R. 258.
Isselbach, General, 336.
Judas's Lanthorn to be seen in two Places, 81.
Ixter, Baron de, 298.
Kalestein, Baron de, 25.
Kara Mustapha, Grand Vizier, 247, 248.
Kehl, t. 305.
Kendal, Duchess, 66.
Kevenbuller, Count de, 246.
Keyserling-Hermann-Charles, 154.
Kilmanseck, Madame de, 67.
Kinsberg, Baron de, 195.
Kinski, Counts, 154, 220, 221, 244.
Kinski, Countess of, 154.
Klenzek, Mademoiselle de, 55.
Kniphausen, Baron, the Prussian Minister, 31, 44.
Kokersowitz, Countess, 148.
Konickel, Count de, 381.
Konigsegg, Count de, 147, 239, 242, 243.
His Marriage, 243.
His Nephew, 243, 244.
Konigstern Castle, 87.
Koningsmark, Aurora Countess of, 115.
Kuenbourgh, Count de, 373.
Kundahl, t. 379.
Kurtzrok, Baron, 54.
Lactantius's Works, 179.
Ladies, Venetian, in Masks, pick'd up by our Author, 411.
and himself pick'd up by a Lady in Distress who knew him, 416.
Ladislaus, King, 388.
Lagnasco, Count, and Josepha Countess of, 151, 152, 157, 158.
Landau, t. 318.
Lands, how entail'd, and how secur'd in Bohemia, 218, 219.
Larks, where they most abound, 85.
Laxembourg, the Emperor's Palace, 234.
Leibnitz, the Philosopher, 156.
Leine, r. 63.
Leipsick, t. 83.
Why 'tis called the Jewel of Saxony, 84.
Its Fairs frequented by a great number of Princes and Princesses, 85.
Lenfant, M. Author of the Council of Constance, 15.
Leopold of Austria, surnam'd the Virtuous, 388.
Leopold, Archduke, 210.
—— Emperor, 230.
—— Bp. of Saltzbourgh, his Houshold and his Revenues, 367, 373.
Why compared to Pope Sixtus V. 367.
Levant Women, their great Confinement within doors, 52.
Leubnitz, Charles, 140.
Lewis VI. Landgrave of Darmstad, 357.
Lewis, the Hereditary Prince, 359.
Lewis of Bavaria, Emperor, 260, 387.
—— of Baden, Pr. 299, 303.
—— Ernest of Saxe-Gotha, P. 182.
—— the Severe, Duke of Bavaria, his Murder of his Minister and his Wife, 272.
His Repentance, 273.
—— Rodolph, D. of Brunswic-Lunenburg, and Blanckenbourg, 70, 231.
—— Margrave of Brandenburg, 387.
Lewis XV. K. of France, his Marriage, 304, 309.
Cardinal Rohan's Speeches upon it, 310, 313.
Lichtenstein Palace, 236.
Lieutenant of the Police at Paris, 246.
Linange, Mary-Christina-Felicite, Countess of, her Husbands, 183.
Linar, Maurice-Charles, Count de, 143.
Lintz t. 258.
Lipski, John-Alexander, Bp. of Cracow, 149.
Lobkowitz, Pr. and Princess, 342.
Lodron, Counts of, 365, 373.
Lopel, General de, 30.
Lorrain, Francis Duke of, his Marriage to the Archduchess, 233, 341.
—— Charles, Pr. 239, 381.
Losenstein, Eleonora Countess of, 151.
Lovel, Baron de, kill'd in a Duel with Count Flemming, 163.
Louestein, Princess, 342.
Louisa-Dorothea Duchess of Saxe-Gotha, 181.
Louvois, Marquiss, 306.
Lowendahl, Waldemar Baron of, 121.
His Service to six Kings, 121.
His Wives and Issue, 122.
His Son Waldemar, 122, 139.
Lowinitz, Henry-Rodolph de Schonfeld Lord of, 145.
Lubomirski-Theresa, Electoress Palatine, 330.
Lubomirski, Madame de, Rival to Fatima a Turkish Lady, Mistress to the late K. of Poland, 116, 117.
Lubomirski, George-Ignatius Pr. of, 150, 151.
Lude, Count de, his wise Reason for marrying a Tradesman's Daughter, 45.
Ludwigsbourg t. 279, 287.
Lunenburg t. 68.
Lunenburg-Zell and Lunenburg-Hanover Families united, 61.
Luther, Martin, his resolute Expression when dissuaded to go the Dyet, 339.
Lutzelbourg, Anthony Count de, 123.
Magdebourg Duchy yielded to the House of Brandenbourg, 80.
Character of it, 82.
Magdebourg t. 48, 80.
Maintenon, Madame de, Mistress of Lewis XIV. her Fortune told by a Mason, 96.
Malchau House near Berlin, 29.
Manger, a Relique of our Saviour's, 198.
Manheim t. 327.
Manteuffel, Ernest Count de, 134.
Marck, Julius-Augustus, Count de la 334, 337.
Marcoman Lady, the History of one, 344. &c.
Margaret of Tyrol surnam'd the Pious, and nicknam'd Wide-Mouth, 387.
Maria-Anne-Caroline of Newbourgh, 263.
Maria-Magdalena, Archduchess, 233, 381.
Maria Elizabetha, Archduchess and Governess of the Netherlands, 233.
Maria-Amelia Princess of Poland, 113.
Maria-Anne-Sophia Princess of Poland, 113.
Maria-Josepha Princess of Poland, 114.
Maria-Theresa Archduchess, 232, &c.
Her Marriage to the D. of Lorrain, 233.
Maria-Josepha Q. of Poland, 98, 102, 110, 111, 112.
Maria-Anne-Victoria of Bavaria, 309.
Maria Empress of Germany, her illustrious Relations, 250, 388.
Marie-Adelaide of Savoy, 260, 268.
Maria-Lescinski Q. of France, 304, 309.
Mark's, St. Festival, how celebrated at Venice, 401.
Marriage of the Sea, 399, 400.
Marriage of Princes how limited by the Laws of Germany, 60, 352.
A Princess charg'd with abusing that Sacrament of the Church of Rome, 202.
Martinitz, Count of, 213, 214.
Masquerades at Venice, 412.
Mass, by whom alone celebrated with Boots and Spurs on, 192.
Matthias Emperor of Germany, 210.
Maubrisson, Abbess of, 344.
Maurice, William, Pr. of Saxe-Zeits, 99.
—— Elector of Saxony, 381.
—— Count of Saxony, 115.
—— of Saxe-Gotha Pr., 182.
Maximilian, Emperor, 385, 388.
His Statue, 386.
Wife, 388, 389.
His Daughter, 389.
Father-in-law, 389.
Maximilian-Emanuel, Elector of Bavaria, 262, 263, 268, 274, 278, 379, 382.
Joseph the Electoral Pr. 263.
Meinders, M. de, the Prussian Minister, 41.
Meissen t. 86.
Melvil, M., 65.
Menard, President, 317.
Mentz, Lotharius-Francis de Schonborn Elector, 201, 203, 310, 321, 338.
His Severity to Robbers, 202.
Mercy, Count de, 244.
His Defeat, 307.
Mersebourg t. 167, 168.
Its Duke's Fondness for Bass-Viols, 168, 170, 171.
His Duchess, 169.
Mestre. t. 394, 395.
Metsch, Count de, 54, 242, 245.
Mile-posts in Saxony, 84.
Milk of our Lady, a Wine so called, 339.
Miltitz, General, Alexander de, 78, 100, 105, 107, 360.
Minckwitz, Charles-Christian de, 146.
Miracles ascrib'd to the two Saints of Bohemia, 213, 214.
Misson, Maximilian, criticized, 308, 392.
Mobs of Amsterdam and Hamburg compar'd, 54.
Mocenigo-Aloisio, Doge of Venice, 399.
Modena, Renaud d'Este, Duke of, 230.
Molard, Count de, 255.
Molsheim t. 315.
Monclar, Baron de, 306.
Montbijou Palace, 3.
Montefiascone t. 430.
Monteroso t. 430.
Monte-Sancto, Count of, 244.
Montmorency, Francis Count de, 152.
His Countess, 152.
Moravia, John Margrave of, 387.
Moschinski, Anthony, Count and
Countess, 117, 120, 142.
Moses, a Piece of his Rock, 396.
Motterie, Mademoiselle, 243.
Mount-Pleasant, a fine Seat near Hanover, 67.
Muchlberg, the strong Lines cast up there by the Prince of Beveren, 72.
Munchausen, M. 65, 77.
Munchenbourg t. 2.
Munich t. 258, 268, 363.
Muscovy, Anne Czarina of, her Marriage, 200.
Nassau-Friesland, Prince, his untimely end, 297.
His Daughter, who is Sister to the Pr. of Orange, 297.
Nassau, Idstein, Pr. 169.
—— Weilbourg, Count, 336.
—— Ousingen Princess, 342.
Nativities, Calculators of 'em
refuted, 341.
Natzmer, Marshal de, 33, 40.
Naumbourg, t. 171, 172.
Neitsch, Mademoiselle de, 145.
Nepomucene (St.) John, 212, to 215.
Nesselrod, Count de, 334.
Neukirch, Benjamin, a Poet, 195.
Neustadt, t. 200.
Nicolotti, Fishermen at Venice so call'd, their Election of a Doge of their own, 402.
Nightingales, a Multitude of 'em, 86.
Nobility at Venice, the Purchase of it, 420.
Noyelles, Count de, 152.
Nuremberg, t. 196, 197.
Its Government compar'd to the Venetian, 197.
Nymphenbourg Palace, 268, 270, 271.
Occo the Antiquary, 179.
Oder, River, 2.
Oetingen, t. 80.
Princesses, 70, 76, 231.
Ohsten, Baron de, 335.
Olbreuse, Madamoiselle de, 60, 62.
Her Daughter, 62.
Oppenheim, t. 340.
Oranjebourg, t. 49.
Orders of Knighthood, the Prussian, 29.
The Bavarian, 260.
Of St. Hubert, 373.
Orleans, Duke of, 243, 306.
Duchess, 274, 303, 304, 310.
Orselska, Anne Countess of, 119, 150.
Ossem, Gosman-Daniel, the Painter, 384.
Padua, t. 422.
Palatinate, Upper, 344.
Palatine, Electors, 274, 322, 323, &c. 328, 381.
Revenues, 337.
Who the last of the Protestant Princes of this Title, 342.
Paracelsus, where bury'd, 374.
How he wrought most of his Cures, 374.
Passau, t. 366.
Patkul, Count, 164.
Patriarch of Venice, 403.
Patricians in Germany, who they are, 197, 198, 200.
Pechtelsheim, Baron de, 188, 189.
Peine, Painter, 11, 83.
Pennyless Prince, the Nickname of an Austrian, 385, 386, 388.
Petits-Maitres, at Venice, 421.
Philibert D. of Savoy, 389.
Philip IV. of Spain, his Reverence to the Viaticum, 249.
—— D. of Burgundy, 389.
—— Margrave of Brandenburg, 19, 20, 281.
His Dowager, 20, 26.
His Sons, 27.
His Uncle Albert, 27.
Albert's Sons, 27.
Philippina-Charlotte, Princess
of Prussia, 26, 72.
Philippina of Welserin, Archduchess, 390.
Philipsruhe, a Pleasure-House, 361.
Phul, Baron de, 285.
Pilate's Basin, 81.
Piosas, Count, 261.
Plassenberg Castle, 208.
Platen, Count de, 66.
Countess, 67.
Pleasure-Houses, who has the finest in Europe, 268.
Plesk, Helmuth de, 145.
Pludowska, Baroness, 135.
Poddewitz, the Prussian Minister, 31.
Poland, the Equivalent it has given to France of a Queen for a King, 309.
Polentz, M. de, 78.
Pollnitz, M. de, Cabinet-Counsellor to the D. of Wirtemberg, 285.
—— Baron, (our Author) his Conference with a Lutheran Doctor after he had turn'd Papist from a Calvinist, 160.
—— Henrietta, 7.
Pomerania, Hither, yielded to Sweden, 80.
Pommersfelden, t. Seat of the Elector of Mentz, 203, 204.
Pompey's War with Cæsar painted, 370.
Ponte, t. 425.
Porcellane, finer in Germany than in Japan, 87, 88.
Portugal, Mary-Anne Queen of, 233.
—— Emanuel Pr. of, 422.
Pose, a Merchant at Leipsic, his fine Garden, 85.
Potschin, Madame de, 152.
Potzdam Castle, 34.
Prague, t. 210.
Preysing, Maximilian Count de, 266, 267.
Princes, petty, more inaccessible than great ones, 83.
Privy-Counsellor's Preferment owing to a Present of a Bass-Viol, 171.
Profusion of Princes in what Article 'tis most justifiable, 10, 103.
Promnitz, Erdmann Count de, 135.
Proselytes, by what means they are soonest made among the Gentry, 161.
Provence, Theodebert Count of, 389.
Prussia, K. 21, 31, &c. 376.
His Queen, 24.
His Soldiery, 21, to 24, 34.
His Children, 25, &c. 30, 72.
Princess Royal's Marriage, 205.
Pruth Battle, 123.
Pultowa Battle, 123, 164.
Quails, abundance of 'em, where, 395.
Quilian, St. 191.
Rabutin, Marshal de, 240.
Radifocani, M. 429.
Radjowski, Cardinal, 116, 150.
Radzevil, Louisa-Charlotte Pss. of, 330.
Radzevil, 2d Wife of Marshal Flemming, 92, 165.
Rastadt, t. 299.
Prince of Baden's Palace here compar'd to St. Cloud near Paris, 299.
Treaty sign'd there, 300.
Ratenau, t. 50.
Ratenberg, t. 379.
Rats, a Saint that was famous for killing them, 196.
Ravanne, Abbot de, 317.
Raugrave, Madame la, 342, 343.
Rechberg, Gaudentz Count de, 266.
Reinbabe, Baron de, 176.
Religion, the Externals of it, where best observ'd, 412.
Residents for the German Princes at Franckfort, their Privileges, 342.
Rheden, M. de, 64, 66.
Rhenen, t. 344.
Riga Siege, 163.
Rinucci, the Cardinal and the Marquiss, 423.
Robert, Prince Palatine, K. of the Romans, 321.
Rock, Moses's, a piece of it, 396.
Rocoule, Madam de, 25.
Roder, M. de, 261.
Rodolph, Emperor, the Speech he made after he had one of his Hands cut off in Battle, 168.
Rohan, Cardinal Armand Gaston, 309.
His Speeches on the Marriage of the Queen of France, 310, 313.
His Election and Death, 315.
Character, 316.
Rohr, Baroness Dowager of, 148.
Rollé, the Brandenburg Minister, 4.
Rolli, the Painter, 424.
Rome, t. the German Emperor's Right to live there, 201.
Ronaw, Count de, Envoy of Saxe Gotha, 181, 182.
Ronciglione, t. 430.
Rossing, M. de, 78.
Roth, Baron de, 305.
Rotofski, Count, 115, 119.
Rupert, St. 365, 366.
Rutowski, Count, 115, 116, 118.
Ruzzini Carlo, Doge of Venice, 399.
Saltz, R. 364.
Saltzbourg, t. 364.
Its Revenues, and Houshold of its Archbishop, 367, 373.
A great Revolution in this Country, 375.
Saltzdahl Seat near Brunswic, 75.
Sapieha, Benedict, 163.
Sardinia, King and Queen, 332, 335.
Saverne, t. 315.
Savoy, see Eugene and Emanuel.
Saxe-Lawenburg, Princess, 300.
—— Weissensels, John-Adolphus Prince of, 99, 115.
Sophia Princess of, 200.
Christina Princess of, 114, 115.
—— Weymar Dukes, 172, 173, 174, 175.
Saxe-Zeits, Maurice-William Pr. of, 99, 171.
—— Cardinal, 171.
—— Gotha Duchy, 167.
Wealth of its peasants, 167.
—— Gotha Dukes, 173, &c.
Duchesses, 181.
—— Barbi Duke, 82, 83.
—— Meynungen Princess, 181, 200.
—— Chevalier de, 116.
—— Eysenach Dukes, 173, 183.
Saxony ill provided with Ordinaries, 86.
Present State of its Court, 99, to 155.
Character of the Men, 155.
of the Women, 156.
of the Clergy, 159.
Scarperia, t. 425.
Schindler's Lace Manufactory, 7.
Schleisheim Palace, 270
Schluter the Architect, 10.
Schmiedel, Baron de, 176.
Schneitzenrieth, t. 377.
Schomberg, Marshal, 17.
Schonborn, Francis George, Count, 328.
—— John-Phillip-Francis, Count, 54, 185, 186.
Damian-Hugo the Cardinal, 318, 319, 320.
—— Frederic-Charles, Bp. of Bamberg, 185, 190, 191, 201, 242.
Lotharius-Francis, another of its Bishops, 201.
Schoning, General, 116.
Schorror, the Pope's Vicar at Hanover, 64.
Schulemburg, Count de, 408.
Schulenbourg, General, 61.
His Duel with Count Fleming, 163.
Schwabach, t. 196.
Schwartzenborg, Pr. 213, 223, 301, 302, 304.
Schwetzingen, t. 352.
Schwizinski, Nicholas, 147.
Schwatz, t. 379.
Schunck and Schutz, Barons de, 285.
Sea, the Ceremony of marrying it, 399, 400.
Seckendorf, Baron and Count, 54, 195.
Seefelde-Terring, Maximilian, Count de, 265.
Sehgutt, Counts of, 147.
Seibelsdorf, General, 358.
Seiffertitz, Adolphus Baron de, 141.
Sickengen, Baron de, 333.
Sienna t. 429.
Sigismond, Emperor, 339, 388.
Sigismond, Archduke and Count of Tirol, 389.
Silenus's Legacy, 190.
Sobieski, John K. of Poland, 247.
His Daughter, 262.
Soissons, Countess of, 238, 239.
Soliman, the Sultan, 248.
Solkcofski, Alexander-Joseph, Count de, 98, 103, 104, 128, 133, 139, 143.
Sophia-Wilhelmina, Princess of East-Friesland, 83.
—— Christiana-Louisa, Princess of Bareith, 205.
Spain, Council of, at Vienna, 244.
Span, Baron de, 162, 163.
Speratus, Paul, 375.
Spiegel, Madame de, 116, 358.
Spiga, the Pope's Vicar at Hanover, 63.
Spire t. 320.
Sporcke, M. de, 77.
Spree, River, 3.
Staden, Siege, 57.
Stadtholder at Vienna, 246.
Stanislaus, K. 318.
His Daughter's March on foot with the Prince of Baden, 304.
Marriage to Lewis XV. 309.
Stanislawski, N. N. de Sehgutt, 147.
Staremberg, Maximilian, 246.
Staremberg, Ernest-Rudiger, Count de, 239, 247.
Staremberg, Guido, Marshal, 239.
Staremberg, Gundacker, Count, 241.
Stargard, t. 162.
Staupitz, Abbot, 375.
Stein, Baron, 72.
Baroness, 130, 148.
Steinbock, General, prov'd cruel, Incendiary, 57.
Stein Wein, a sort of Wine so called, 190.
Steinbach, the Architect, 308.
Sternberg, Count, 211.
Stertzingen, t. 392.
Stetin, t. its Sequestration, by whom obtain'd, 164.
Stetterheim, M. de, Cup-bearer to the D. of Saxe-Gotha, 183.
Strada, James de, 179.
Strahlsund, Siege, 124.
Strasbourg, t. 305, 315.
Noted for Libertines, 310.
Streithorst, Colonel, 292.
Stringuetta, the Venetian Courtezan, 421.
Studenitz, Baron de, 176.
Stutgard, t. 279, 289.
Sulkowski. See Solkcofski.
Sultman, M. and Madame de, 292.
Sultzbach, Joseph-Charles, Pr. and Princess of, 324, 330, 331.
—— Theodore, Prince, 332.
—— John-Christian, Prince, 332, 333.
—— Charles, Prince, 332.
Sympathy, its Power, 374.
Tartary Women, what they say to their Husbands when they come home without Booty, 247.
Telemachus, translated into German Verse, 195.
Teschen, George, Prince of, 116, 117.
Princess of, 117, 150.
Thanhausen, Count de, 373.
Thaun, Count and Countess, 151.
Theodebert, Count of Provence, 389.
Thirheim, Sigismond, Count de, 258, 265, 266.
Thomasius, the Civilian, 156.
Thorn of our Saviour's Crown, 81.
Thou, Messieurs, their Library, by whom purchased, 317.
Thungen, General, 278.
Tilly, Count, his Massacre of the Swedes at Brandenburgh, 2.
Of the Palatines at Heidelberg, 321.
Tintoret, the Painter, 419, 420.
Tirol, Country, 377.
Manner of Salutation here, 380.
Dress of the People, 393.
Their Saints, 394.
Titian, the Painter, 419.
Torring, Ignatius-Joseph, Count de, 265, 267, 373.
Tour of Auvergne, Princess, 332.
Tour and Taxis, Alexander, Pr. of, 205, 303, 342.
—— —— —— Mary-Augusta, Princess of, 285, 290.
Tournay, Siege, 124.
Towers, mistaken for Capuchin Friars, 339.
Trent, t. 393.
Truchsses, Zeil, Count de, 374.
Tschernin, Count, 211, 222.
Tuhlmeier, Secretary, Prussian, 43.
Tun, at Heidelberg, 324.
Turks, where they have reason to laugh at the Christians, 54.
Tuscany, John Gaston, the Great Duke, 428.
His Saying when he declared Don Carlos his Successor, 428.
Tutors, or Governors, a mercenary sort, 217, 218.
Valerio's Tomb at Venice, 405.
Vatican Library, 321.
Vauban, M. Engineer, 309.
Venice, t. 395, 396, &c.
Its Doges, 389, 390.
Patriarch, 403.
Churches, 403, &c.
Arsenal, 405, &c.
Bucentaur, 399, 407.
Forces, 408.
Lakes, 409.
Its political Interest, 409.
Trade, 410.
Nobles and Ambassadors, 410.
Ladies, 411.
Music, 414, 415.
Palaces and Gentry, 420.
Vernesobre, Baron de, his Gains by Missisippi, 8.
Viaticum, the Homage paid to it in Popish Countries, 249.
Vicardel, Francis, Marquis of Fleuri and Beaufort, 135.
Vieban, M. de, Prussian Minister, 43.
Vienna, t. 224.
Sieges, 237, 239, 247, 248.
Its Police, 246.
Its Governour how stil'd, 246.
Its Garrison, 247.
Fortifications, 249.
Women, 251, &c.
Vierec, M. de, 46.
Villaco, t. 382.
Violante, of Bavaria, Princess, 429.
Violin, the first in Italy, 415.
Virgilius, St. 365.
Virgin Mary's miraculous Image at Inspruc, 384.
The Adoration paid to her in the Countries of Trent and Tirol, 394.
Viterbo, t. 430.
Ulm, t. 276.
Unertel, M. de, 267.
Voltaire's Life of Charles XII. King of Sweden, Reflection on it, 32.
Wackerbarth, Augustus Christopher, Marshal de, 91, 99, 102, 124.
Wakerbarth, Salmour-Gabaleon-Joseph, Count de, 104, 112, 124, 126, 165.
His Countess, 125.
Wagenheim, M. de, of Hanover, 66.
Wahtringen, t. 377.
Walbourg de Truchsses, Count de, 27.
Waldstein, Count and Countess de, 147. 148.
Wales, Frederic, Prince of, 26, 64.
Augusta, Princess of, 182.
Wallenstein, Count and Countess of, 151, 153.
Walrave, M. Engineer, 82.
Walstein, the great Soldier, 210.
Wartemberg, Count and Countess, 3, 5, 6, 7.
The King of Prussia's Tears at his Funeral, 7.
His Administration, 36, 42, 44, 134.
Wartensteben, Count, 17, 36.
Wasserbourg, t. 364.
Water-works, at Herenhausen, 67.
Wederkopf, M. de, 80.
Weiller, a Prussian Colonel, 20.
Weimar, t. 172.
Its Dukes, 172 to 176.
Weissenberg Battle, 210.
Weissenbourg, t. 318.
Wenceslaus (St.) K. of Bohemia, 212, 213.
Wens in Throats, 393.
Wensen, M. Marshal of the Prussian Court, 7, 8.
Wermstorf, t. 86, 103, 157.
Werth, John de, 321.
Wetzlar Tribunal, 245, 320.
Whim, a fine Seat so called near Hanover, 67.
William of Saxe-Gotha, Prince, 182.
William-Henry, Duke of Saxe-Eysenach, 183.
Willigise, ABp. of Mentz, 179.
Wirtemberg, Lewis Prince of, 151, 285.
Charles-Alexander Duke, 279, 285, 290.
His Duchess, 285.
His Brother Frederic, 285.
Wirtemberg, Eberhard-Lewis D. 279, 280, 289.
His Duchess, ib. 280.
His Son, 281.
Daughter, ib.
Wirtemberg-Oels, Augusta-Louisa, Princess of, 83.
Christian-Ulric, Duke of, 83.
Witgenstein, Count, 285.
Woad, three sorts of it, 179.
Wohlin, Baron de, 334.
Wolckenstein, Count de, 393.
Wolfembuttle Family and Court, 69 to 72.
Its Inhabitants compared to the Hogs of Westphalia, 75.
The Duchess Dowager, 80.
Wolfembuttle, t. 75.
Wolffenstein, Sophia-Christina, Countess of, 208.
Women, of the Levant and Hamburg, their great Confinement, 52.
Worms, t. 338.
Wratislaw, Francis-Charles, Co. de, 147, 148, 153.
His Countess, 154.
Wreech, de, Colonel, 30.
Wurben, Countess de, Mistress to the D. of Wirtemberg, 279, 282, 283, 284.
Her Disgrace, 290, &c.
Wurm, M. de, Master of the Horse to the D. of Saxe-Gotha, 183.
Wurmbrandt, Count de, 245.
Wurtenberg, Christina-Charlotta de, Margravine of Brandenburg-Anspach, 194.
Wurtzbourg, t. 185.
Power and Splendor of its Bishop, 190.
Zech, Bernard, Baron de, 138.
Zell, Duke and Duchess, 60, 61, 62.
Zell, t. 61, 68.
Zensa, Prince Eugene's Victory there, 237.
Zinzendorf, Lewis, Count de, 240.
The Dignity hereditary in his Family, ib.
Zebel, Baron de, 188, 189, 336.
Zechau, Baron de, 193, 195.


In the first Col. of Letter M, in the Index, Line 6 from the Bottom, for p. 113, read 114. Line 7, 9, and 11, for Prussia r. Poland. In the 3d. Column of the same Letter, read lines 34, 35, 36, thus:

Moschinski, Anthony, Count and Countess, 117, 120, 142.

Moses, a Piece of his Rock, 396.



[1] The Reader will please to observe, that this Preface was written during the late Distractions in Poland, before the Malecontent Lords had reconcil'd themselves to their Allegiance to their lawful Sovereign.

[2] This Church being destroy'd by Lightning in 1730, is magnificently rebuilt. The 21st of August 1734, the new Spire of it, which had been 4 Years erecting, and was carry'd up to the Height of about 190 Feet, fell at 9 o'clock at Night upon the Roof of the Church, whereby that and the neighbouring Houses suffer'd very great Damage. How it happen'd, no body yet knows; some say it was caus'd by Thunder, others by an Earthquake, and some will have it that it fell down of its own accord.

[3] This House is no longer the Governour's; for the King, who has caused great Additions to be made to it, has given it to the Prince Royal, and it goes by the Name of the Prince Royal's Palace. The Governour lives at present in the Street Royale, the King having purchas'd the fine House of Catsch there purposely for the Governour's Residence.

[4] This Prince died at Schwedt, Dec. 19, 1711. He left two Sons, one of whom was marry'd in 1734, to the Princess Dorothea-Sophia, the King of Prussia's fourth Daughter, then about fifteen Years of age. So that his Majesty, who had six Daughters, married four of them within the space of four Years, and has now but two more to dispose of.

[5] Her Name is Jean Charlotte, and she is the youngest Sister of Prince Leopold of Anhalt Dessau, being the Daughter of the Prince John-George II. by Henrietta Catherine, Daughter of Frederic-Henry Prince of Orange.

[6] Since the Original was publish'd, this Ward has been lengthen'd two thirds. There is one Street so long, that in this respect there are few that equal it: 'tis as strait as a Line; and terminates in an Oval, surrounded with very fine Houses. A new Ward is also erected at the End of that call'd the New Town; from whence it ranges behind Frederic-Stadt. Here most of the chief Nobility are building Hotels or Palaces, rather than Houses. In a word, if the Number of the Inhabitants of Berlin was proportionable to that of the Houses, it would be the finest, and the most flourishing Town in all Germany.

[7] He married (in June 1733,) the Princess Elizabeth-Christina of Brunswic-Lunenburgh, and Bevern, Daughter of Ferdinand-Albert Duke of Brunswic-Lunenburgh, and Bevern, Field-Marshal General of the Armies of the Emperor and Empire: and Presumptive Heir to the Duke Regent of Brunswic-Lunenburg Wolfembuttle.

[8] This was his Royal Highness, now Prince of Wales. All Europe, in short, thought, as did the Poets of that Time; and every one in general mark'd out the Princess for this Prince. It was then too the Desire of both the Queens; and the Princess herself seem'd to have been brought up in that Notion. But when 'twas least of all expected, certain Reasons of State cancell'd all these Views; and the King of Prussia thought fit to marry his eldest Daughter in 1731, to the Hereditary Prince of Brandenburg-Bareith: as King George II. of Great Britain, in 1756, thought fit to marry his eldest Son to her Highness, Augusta, youngest Sister of the present Duke of Saxe-Gotha.

[9] The Marriage was actually celebrated between them, in July 1733.

[10] The fourth married in 1734, to the King's Cousin, the Margrave of Brandenburgh-Schwedt.

[11] This Prince died in 1731. His eldest Son, the Margrave Charles, succeeded him in the Grand Mastership of the Order of St. John; and had his Regiment of Foot in the Service of Prussia. Prince Frederic, his Royal Highness's second Son, had his Regiment in the Service of the States-General of the United Provinces; and the Count de Truchsses-Walbourgh, a Major-General, had his Regiment of Horse. He was sent to compliment Lewis XV. upon his Coronation; and afterwards on the same Commission to the Emperor at Prague. His Wit and Politeness were applauded at both those Courts.

[12] He died suddenly in August 1734, at Malchau, aged 57, being born the 4th of May 1677, O. S. He was not married.

[13] The King thought fit some time ago, to confer this Regiment of Horse upon his second Son, Prince Augustus-William, and to give the Prince Royal a Regiment of Foot.

[14] M. de Lopel died the beginning of 1735, in his Government of Custrin.

[15] The first and the last have been dead some Years, and their Places supply'd by Messieurs Bork and Poddewitz, who have a just Title to the intire Possession of the King's Confidence.

[16] Since the writing of this, he is dead, and succeeded in the Management of Foreign Affairs by M. de Borck, Lieutenant-General of the King's Forces, Knight of the Black Eagle and St. John, Governor of Stetin, and Colonel of a Regiment of Foot. This Gentleman is descended from a very good Family in Pomerania, and served with Distinction in the Army in Flanders. Since the Peace of Utrecht, he has been twice charged with the King's Affairs at the Emperor's Court, where he was highly esteemed, especially by Prince Eugene of Savoy. Those Foreign Ministers who have to do with him, and who knew M. d'Ilgen, observe a great Contrariety in the Characters of the two Ministers. The one was a Man of Intrigue, Craft, and Mystery, the other, of Candour, Sincerity, and a noble Frankness. M. de Tuhlmeier, Nephew to the late M. d'Ilgen, who is Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs, was, as it were, born to the Business; having been trusted from his Youth by his late Uncle. The Foreign Ministers speak well of him: he is very assiduous in his Office, and indeed suffers no Business to sleep in his hands.

The Person who has the Affairs Criminal in his Cognizance, is M. de Vieban, Minister of State, and Auditor-General of the Army. He succeeded M. de Catsch; is a Native of Cologn; and as he was at Berlin without Relations or Friends, his Advancement is only to be ascribed to his own Merit and Abilities.

[17] He fell into Disgrace, after this Account of him was written, and died at his Commandery.

[18] M. de Creutz died the beginning of An. 1733, leaving only one Daughter, who is married to M. de Hacke, a Gentleman of a good Family, and his Majesty's Aid-de-Camp and Favourite. This Marriage was solemnized with a great deal of Pomp, and honoured with the Presence of their Majesties, the whole Royal Family, and the Duke of Lorrain.

[19] This Resolution was taken by his Majesty in 1725, on account of a Recoinage, which the Hamburghers thought necessary, partly in order to hinder their Silver from being carried out of their City to Denmark. This Dispute had considerable Consequences; so that the King of Denmark not being able to bring the Hamburghers to his Terms, push'd Matters so far as to fit out a couple of Frigats to cruise at the Mouth of the Elbe, which seized all Merchant Ships bound for that City. But in March 1736, the Affair was happily accommodated.

[20] It was set up, carried on, and directed by some of the Foreign Ministers residing at Hamburgh, who had each his particular Province; so that M. d'A—— presided at the Rehearsals, M. de W—— regulated the Dances, and M. S—— had the ordering of the Clothes, the Head-dresses, the Paint and the Patches of the Actresses.

[21] This is what scarce any body has doubted of, but Pere Boubours.

[22] The Hamburghers have nothing to fear from the Jews, with regard to their Republic, but they cannot so well trust the turbulent and enterprizing Temper of the Roman Catholic Clergy, who aim at their Churches. The popular Commotions which are but too frequent at Hamburgh, would soon furnish those Gentlemen with an Opportunity to re-assert Claims which are incompatible with the present Liberty of the City. But this Pretext, how plausible soever in favour of the Papists, is not at all conclusive against the Calvinists at Hamburgh, who surely might be as safely tolerated as the Jews.

[23] His Post of Plenipotentiary of the Circle of Lower Saxony, was conferr'd in 1733 upon the Count de Seckendorf, one of the Emperor's Lieutenant-Generals; but the Functions of the Embassy are perform'd by the Baron de Kurtzrok, the Imperial President.

[24] In 1734, he was install'd Vice-Chancellor of the Empire, in the room of the Count de Schonborn, Bishop of Bamberg, who retir'd.

[25] The common People cou'd never forgive him for his manner of raising Taxes; by filling the King's Coffers with all the Silver of the Kingdom, and substituting instead of it a Copper Money, which will perpetuate his Memory; especially the Coins on which he caus'd the seven Planets to be engrav'd; which are sought after, and hoarded up as Monuments of his Administration.

[26] Second Wife of King Frederic IV. who died in October 1730. He