The Project Gutenberg eBook of The Memoirs of Charles-Lewis, Baron de Pollnitz, Volume III

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Title: The Memoirs of Charles-Lewis, Baron de Pollnitz, Volume III

Author: Freiherr von Karl Ludwig Pöllnitz

Release date: January 6, 2012 [eBook #38507]

Language: English

Credits: Produced by Robert Connal, Henry Gardiner and the Online
Distributed Proofreading Team at (This
file was produced from images generously made available
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Transcriber's Note: The original publication has been replicated faithfully except as listed here. Footnotes are located here.
There is an index.

Baron de Pollnitz.

The OBSERVATIONS He made in his
late Travels from Prussia thro'

Discovering not only the PRESENT STATE
of the Chief Cities and Towns;


The CHARACTERS of the Principal Persons at the Several COURTS.


Printed for Daniel Browne, at the Black Swan, without Temple-Bar; and John Brindley, at the King's-Arms, in New Bond-street.

By the Translator.

The Baron de Pollnitz's Account of his Travels, and of the Observations he made wherever he came, both of Persons and Things, has had such a Run in Foreign Parts, that the Bookseller at Amsterdam, who first printed it in three Volumes in 12mo, soon after published a second Edition of it in four Volumes, and has now printed a third Edition in five Volumes.

The three first Volumes, which are those that are translated in our first and second, he calls Letters; and to the fourth and fifth he has given the Title of Memoirs, which is that we have chose for our Translation of the Whole.

It happens that these two New Volumes were written by our Author before the firstiv and second that were translated and publish'd last Year; but why they were not also printed before the others, is thus accounted for by M. Changuion the Bookseller at Amsterdam, in his Preface to the Original of these Memoirs, viz.

'The Author, when at Paris, sold the Copy to a Person, who sold it again to a Bookseller in Holland; and the latter was actually going to print it when he heard that I was just ready to publish the Letters of the Baron de Pollnitz, (the same that are the Subject of our two first Volumes). The Title-Pages of the one and the other had such a Resemblance, that the Bookseller in Holland, who purchas'd the Copy, of which these two additional Volumes are a Translation imagin'd it to be the same with the other, and laid the MS. by. But not long after this, he took it into his head to review it, and by comparing it with the former Volumes, he found this a quite different Treatise. He saw, that it not only contain'd a History of the Author's Life and Family, but an Account of several Courts and Courtiers of Europe, very circumstantial, and altogether new; and that here was a Relation of several Travels of our Author, that to Spain in particular, of which there's not a Word in the former Volumes; in short, that this Copy of his was the Account of the Baron's first Travels, antecedent to those already publish'd.'v

Upon his communicating this Discovery to M. Changuion, the latter bargain'd with him for it, and has just published it in Holland, as a Sequel to the former Volumes, tho' if he had had the MS. sooner, he would undoubtedly have given it the Preference.

At the End of the last Volume there is a Translation of a remarkable Piece from the Italian Original, which is the Confession of Faith made by the Baron de Pollnitz, and his Motives for changing his Religion.

The said Bookseller thinks, that the Author (tho' he has since abjur'd the Romish for the Protestant Religion, as may be seen in our Preface to the first Volume) will not be angry with him for publishing that Piece, because it has such a tendency to confute the malicious Insinuations which he complains of in his Memoirs, and proves, that if he did not then embrace the True Religion, he took the Pains however to examine it.

On the other hand, the Publication of this ample Confession will demonstrate to all Catholics, that whatsoever Arguments they employ against Christians of the Protestant Communions, the latter are not afraid to let them see the Light.

To conclude; tho' some Places are here and there mention'd in these Volumes, which are also to be found in the Two First, and with that Conformity indeed betwixt them, which the Truth unavoidably demanded; yet 'tisvi proper to observe, that the Descriptions are sometimes more copious, the Reflections almost every where different; and that in both there is an agreeable Variety and Vivacity which we flatter our selves will not fail to recommend These to the same good Acceptance from the Public, with which it has favor'd the former Volumes.1

Baron de Pollnitz.
Vol. III.

To Madame de ——

The Family I am descended from was originally of Thuringia. My Grandfather, after having turn'd Protestant, came and settled in the Electorate of Brandenburg, where he was kindly receiv'd, and advanc'd to the chief Employments by the Elector Frederic-William, who made him Master of the Horse, Minister of State, Chamberlain, Major-General, Colonel of his Guards, and Commandant at Berlin. His Brother who came along with him had also a share of his Favor; for he was made Colonel of a Regiment of Horse, Lieutenant-General, and Governor of Lipstadt. They both married, but the only one that left Male Issue was my Grandfather, who by Eleonora of Nassau, Daughter to Prince Maurice of Orange, had two Sons, and two Daughters. This however2 prov'd a very unsuitable Match; for my Grandmother was imperious, frugal, and jealous, whereas her Husband was extravagant, and an Admirer of the Fair Sex: which Tempers so opposite to each other created a Misunderstanding between them, that amounted almost to a staunch Hatred. Yet my Grandfather, some time before he died, settled all his Estate upon her, repented of the Vexation he had given her, and he thought this Generosity of his would have made her easy, but it only render'd her the more impatient to be a Widow, insomuch that she had not the Complaisance to conceal it from him; and the very last Words he liv'd to hear her pronounce, were neither comforting nor Christian.

Soon after the Death of my Grandfather my Uncle died, who was my Father's own Brother. The only Issue he left was a Daughter, who was chief Maid of Honour to the Queen Sophia Charlotte, whose Bounties to her render'd her a Person of no small Note in Germany.

My Father married the Daughter of Baron D—— by whom he had my Brother in 1690. I was born thirteen Months after him, viz. the 25th of February 1692, at Issouin, a Village in the Electorate of Cologn, where my Father then lay with his Regiment in Winter-Quarters. The Electoress was my God-mother, and I was christen'd Charles-Lewis. Before I was full two years of Age I had the misfortune to lose my Father, who died at Maestricht, and left my Mother a Widow with three Children, and a very little Estate to maintain us. My Grandmother, who, as I had said before, had all my Grandfather's Estate, was so extremely penurious, that she had not the heart to part with any of it to my Mother, whose Situation would have been3 very melancholy had it not been for the Generosity of the King (at that time only Elector). This Prince sent for her back to Berlin, and gave her a Pension; and in a little time after, my Relations help'd her to another Husband, viz. M. de M—— Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs, who tho' he died at the end of ten Months left her so warm a Widow, that me might very well pass for one of the best Fortunes at Court; and then she threw up her Pension, rather than keep it to the prejudice of other Persons that stood more in need of it, which she thought was an Abuse of the Elector's Bounty.

My Mother's Fondness for me would not suffer her to part with me, so that I was brought up under her Wing, and at a Court which was at that time the most splendid in Germany.


Frederic-William, when he died, left five Princes, viz. the Elector, whom he had by Louisa-Henrietta of Nassau Princess of Orange; and the Margraves Charles, Philip, Albert, and Christian, by Dorothy Princess of Holstein, Dowager of the Duke of Zell. These Princes, at an Age more proper for Pleasure than Business, studied how to be most agreeable. Being frank and generous they adorn'd the Court, even more by their personal Qualities than by their Magnificence; and the Elector himself contributed to the splendor of it, by giving frequent Feasts, tho' he was reproach'd with being too much addicted to them, too scrupulous in the Ceremonies he requir'd to be observ'd at them, and more expensive in them than elegant. Nevertheless, this is what strikes Foreigners more than any thing; and 'tis Entertainments of this kind that give a Court its fullest Lustre. The true Ornament of ours was4 the Electoress, Daughter of Ernest Augustus, Elector of Hanover, and Sister to George I. King of England. Our Elector, after burying his first Wife the Princess of Hesse, marry'd his second on the 28th of September 1684, when he was only the Electoral Prince. The latter Princess, from what Lineage soever Heaven had sent her, had Qualities that would have procur'd her respect: Her Beauty was regular, and tho' she was but little in stature, her Air was majestic. She spoke all the Languages of Europe that are in present use, with ease, and was so good as to converse with all Foreigners in their own Tongue. She understood History, Natural Philosophy, and Divinity; but with Knowledge so extensive, she was extremely careful to avoid the reputation of being Learned. As fond as she was of Reading, she was not an enemy to Pleasures. She lov'd Music, Dancing, and Plays; and by her command, Comedies were often represented, in which sometimes she did not disdain to be an Actress. Her regard for all who excell'd in any Art drew them to her Court, in which Politeness bore sway, as much as in any other Court of Europe. Of all things in the world she had nothing near so much at heart as the Education of her Son the Electoral Prince, whom she lov'd tenderly, and omitted nothing to inspire him with all the Ideas that might hereafter render him as exalted in Sentiments as he was to be in Power: And the young Prince on his part seem'd to make a suitable return for the Princess's care of him.

While the Court was thus addicted to Pleasures and Feastings, they gave themselves little or no trouble about the Affairs of Government; so that Dankelman the Prime Minister bore the5 weight of all. He had then the Elector's intire Confidence, and so absolute an ascendant over his mind, that he was suppos'd to be perfectly secure against the disgraces to which Favorites are commonly expos'd. The Favor he stood in, was owing to the most important Service that 'tis possible for a Subject to render to his Sovereign: For one day when this Prince (as yet only the Prince Electoral) was drinking Coffee with his Mother-in-law the Electoress, he was taken so ill on a sudden that he was oblig'd to retire to his Apartment, where he was seiz'd with Convulsions which threaten'd his Life. It happen'd that Dankelman then the Secretary of his Dispatches was the only Person at hand, to relieve him: He open'd a Box in which there were certain Antidotes, and having given him several Doses, for want of a Surgeon and a Lancet he open'd a Vein with a Penknife; and his management was attended with such good success, that the Prince, after having had a hearty Vomit, found himself quite out of danger.

An Event of this nature could not but make a great Noise: The Vulgar especially, who are fond of nothing so much as what is extraordinary, thought that the Prince's Indisposition did not proceed from a natural Cause, but imagin'd that the Electoress's tenderness for the Margraves her Sons was reason good enough to suspect that she wanted to get rid of the Prince her Son-in-law, which was to be sure the shortest way to let them into the Succession. The Electoral Prince's retreat to the Court of the Landgrave of Hesse-Cassel seemed to give a Sanction also to a Suspicion of that sort. But be this as it will, the Prince stay'd there several years, during which he married the Landgrave's Sister, by whom he had6 only one Daughter, who marry'd in 1700, to the Hereditary Prince of Hesse, now King of Sweden.

Dankelman was artful enough to make his advantage of this happy Incident of having sav'd his Master's Life: He stuck closer to him than ever; and that grateful Prince, as soon he came to the Electoral Dignity, made him his prime Minister, and confer'd all the marks of Friendship on him, that 'tis possible for any Subject to aspire to; insomuch that Dankelman giving the Elector to understand one day, that he fear'd his Favour would be of no long duration, this Prince was so good-natur'd, or so weak, as to fortify him as far as was in the power of the most solemn Oaths[1]. Dankelman was so credulous as to trust to those Protestations; and forgetting that the most solid Friendship of Princes cannot be proof against their Inconstancy or Caprice, he thought himself above the reach of Fate, and behav'd like a Man that had nothing to fear. But the little care he took to gain People's Love, and the ever-odious Titles of Minister and Favourite, made him soon hated by the whole Court. The Elector himself began by degrees to be out of conceit with him; for their Tempers were incompatible; the Minister being Covetous, and the Prince a Man of Pomp and Expence; and he was so perpetually teaz'd with the Remonstrances of Dankelman, that he hated him in his heart long before he durst make it appear. The Minister too much elated with his Favour, and not so careful to please his Master as to censure his Actions,7 thought himself able to preserve the same ascendant over him, or at least, did not think the Elector would ever offer to ruin him; which Confidence of his hinder'd him from parrying the Thrusts that were made at him in secret; so that he was arrested at midnight in his own House, and carry'd to Spandaw in one of the Elector's Coaches, under a Guard of twenty Men.

His being so suddenly disgrac'd was matter of surprize to every body, but of concern to few. 'Twas observ'd that on the very day wherein Dankelman was arrested, the Elector spoke to him so kindly in presence of the whole Court, that those of the nicest penetration little thought his Fall to be so near. Indeed, every body had long before endeavour'd, or wish'd for an opportunity to trip up his heels; and the natural Inconstancy of the Elector to his Favorites, and this Minister's want of complaisance to the Elector, made it very probable that he would quickly be tumbled from that Summit of Favor, on which he thought himself so sure of keeping his Hold; there wanted only a more specious pretext to remove a Man from Court, who had all along seem'd to aim at nothing but the welfare of the Government; and such a one naturally presented itself in the affair of the Duchy of Limbourg.

This Duchy had been mortgag'd by Spain, as Security for considerable Sums which were owing by that Crown to the Elector, who in consequence put his Troops to quarter there for the Winter. The Dutch, to whom Spain was a Debtor in like manner, would gladly also have had that Duchy made over to them, as Security for their Debt; which not being to be done without the evacuation of our Troops, the matter was propos'd to8 Dankelman, who, whether he was surpriz'd, or brib'd, gave his consent to it. This was imputed to him as a Crime of State the more heinous, because Spain being at that time ready to conclude a Peace with France, in pursuance of the Treaty of Ryswic, was very indifferent as to complying with the Demands of the Elector. To this the Minister fell a Sacrifice, but by good luck for him he had remitted several Sums to Foreign Countries, so that his disgrace was the lighter; which moreover had this singularity in it, that neither of his three Brothers nor any of his Creatures had a share in it, but were all continued in their Employments; and all the alteration that happen'd, was, that the Count de Barfous, then a Veldt-Marshal, performed for some time the Functions of the Prime Minister.

In the mean time another Idol of Fortune rose upon the ruin of Dankelman. This was John Casimir de Kolbe, a Gentleman originally of the Palatinate: His first appearance at Court was in the time of Frederic-William the Great, in the retinue of the Princess-Palatine de Simmeren, Sister of the first Electoress, who having desir'd the Elector to give Kolbe some Employment; he made him a Privy-Counsellor, but gave him liberty to attend the Princess as much as ever, who was so good to him that she was reproach'd with caring for no body else. He went with her into the Palatinate, where that Princess died soon after, and then Kolbe return'd to Court, where he was a meer Stranger, without Relations, Acquaintance or Protection; and 'twas a long time before any the least notice was taken of him. But after the death of Frederic-William, he made his Court to Frederic his Son who succeeded him, and to Dankelman his Minister. Being always humble,9 and a Flatterer into the bargain, he quickly gain'd their Friendship by his Assiduity, and by his study'd Affectation not to meddle or make in any Affairs. Dankelman, as crafty a Man as he was, did not perceive the Snare, but contributed most of all to his Favor, thinking all the while that he was promoting a Creature from whom he had nothing to fear. But Kolbe no sooner perceiv'd the Elector's Coldness to his Minister than he resolv'd to make his Advantage of it. He did not alter his Measures immediately, but seeming to have as little Concern in Affairs as ever, his only Aim was to feed and propagate the ill Humors which the Elector was often in with his Favorite. This Prince was inconstant, suspicious and choleric; and when those three Passions were stirr'd up and managed, he was to be persuaded to any thing. Kolbe who for a long time had made his Temper his only Study, plainly perceiv'd his Foible, artfully wrought upon it, and in the sequel made it subservient to the Accomplishment of his Designs. He soon attain'd to the highest Degree of Favor; the Elector made him his Great Chamberlain and First Minister; all the Court was oblig'd to truckle to him; and as it always happens in the Changes of Government, the Minister in Disgrace was regretted. Indeed Kolbe did not want for personal Qualities enough to make him belov'd; but the worst on't was, they were eclips'd by an astonishing Fondness for his Wife, to whom he was so blindly complaisant, that all the good People at Court despis'd and hated him.

This Lady has play'd so extraordinary a Part in the World, that I can't avoid giving you some Account of her Origin and Character. Her Father,10 one Rickers, was a Bargeman at Emmerick, a Town in the Duchy of Cleves, where for better Subsistance he kept a sort of Tavern. He had two Daughters, who pass'd for fine Women, that brought a good deal of Company to his House, and in a Journey which the Elector made to Cleves, Bidekan his Valet de Chambre fell in love with the eldest, the Lady I am speaking of, marry'd her and took her with him to Berlin, where she fell so passionately in love with Kolbe, that after having been his Mistress in her Husband's Life-time, he was hardly cold in his Grave but she became his Wife. The Wedding was kept at the House of one Commesser, another of the Elector's Valets de Chambre, where that Prince was present, with seven or eight Persons in his Company; and from that very Juncture he began to shew such great Marks of Complaisance to the Lady, that several People thought she ow'd them to something more than to the Friendship he had for his Favorite. Nevertheless I am very well persuaded they were mistaken; and I remember, that when I was Gentleman of the Bed-chamber to the Elector, he said to me in one of his ill Humors with his Favorite and his Wife (and in these sort of Pets he was not capable of dissembling) I know the Notion that prevails of my being under certain Tyes to Kolbe's Lady, but there is nothing in it; and the Wrong is greater to me than to her. For really was it not enough for a Woman of such mean Extraction, Parts and Beauty too, to be the Wife of a Minister, but she must also be ambitious to be the Mistress of a Sovereign? Yet it must be confess'd, that whether it was meer Humor, or a weak Attachment to the Favorite, the Elector heap'd Wealth and Honors upon this Lady, insomuch that nothing would serve him but she must be admitted11 to the Electoress's Circle, who at that time indeed obstinately refus'd it; for who is there would not have been disgusted to have seen the Daughter of Rickers the Bargeman mixing with Ladies of Quality that had a Right to be in the Circle? However, some time after, the Electoress was oblig'd to wave all the Pleas of Decorum, for the sake of the Need she stood in of the Great Chamberlain; and his Wife had the Honor of the Circle.

The same Year that Kolbe was declared Prime Minister, the Emperor made him a Count of the Empire. He then chang'd his Name for that of Count de Wartemberg, which was the Name of a ruinous Castle that he had in the Palatinate. His Lady, when she became a Countess, had a mind that her Children by her first Marriage should be promoted to the Dignity of Barons; and they were accordingly call'd Barons of Asbach. But these new Titles of the Count and Barons compleatly turn'd the Head of Madame de Wartemberg, and she was every day guilty of Extravagancies which were disgusting and ridiculous.

Such, Madame, was the State of our Court in my early years. It began to shew its Superiority over almost all the Courts of Germany, by the Influence it had upon the Affairs of Europe: But that which added new Lustre to it, was the erecting the Duchy of Prussia into a Kingdom. The first Hint of this was given by France to Frederic-William; but that Elector, whether it was owing to some Obstacles that he foresaw, or to the little Advantage he thought to reap from it, was not willing to put the Project in execution. His Son too perhaps would have miscarried in it, had it not been for the Situation of Affairs in Europe, on account of the Spanish Succession. Kolbe, whom I shall hereafter call the Count of12 Wartemberg, had all the Honour of this Event, because it happen'd in his Ministry. I had some Particulars, Madame, from his own Mouth, which I think important enough to have a place in these Memoirs. The Affair is moreover so weighty of it self that I shall trace it from its very beginning.

Great Events commonly have their Source in Trifles. This was owing to nothing more than the Refusal of the Prince of Orange, who was King of England, to give an Arm-Chair to the Elector in a Conference betwixt those two Princes at the Hague in 1695. The Elector cou'd not bear that the Prince of Orange, who had always been his Inferior, shou'd carry it to him in such a lofty manner, after Fortune had rais'd him to the Throne of England; and from that time he resolved to be a King too.

Dankelman the then Prime Minister, who cou'd not foresee the Situation that Europe was in some Years after, would fain have diverted the Elector from a Project which he thought a perfect Chimæra; he put him in mind of the Difficulties Frederic-William met with in it, and of the Reasons he had to refuse the Offers which France made to him on that head; he shew'd him that the same Reasons were still subsisting, and reinforc'd by yet greater Difficulties; and that it was Madness to attempt a Thing, the Success whereof was neither certain nor advantageous, his Rank being so near a-kin to Royalty, that he would be never the better for the Title. But the Elector had the refusal of the Arm-chair too much at heart to hearken to any Reasons that could be brought against his Design, and sent Dankelman, his Minister's Brother, to Vienna,13 to impart to the Emperor the Scheme which he had form'd to erect Prussia into a Kingdom.

Prussia, which is a Province detach'd from Poland, formerly belong'd to the Lithuanians, from whom it was conquer'd by the Teutonic Order. Albert Margrave of Brandenburg, the Grand Master of the said Order, who had marry'd Dorothy, Daughter of Frederic I. King of Denmark, took it from those Knights in 1511, and made himself Master of it. This engag'd him in a War with Sigismond I. King of Poland, his Uncle by the Mother's side, who had Pretensions upon the said Province; which War continu'd five Years, till it was concluded by a Treaty, whereby it was stipulated, That the Eastern Prussia shou'd remain hereditary with the Title of a Duchy to Albert, who, together with his Descendants shou'd perform Allegiance and Homage for it to the King and Republic of Poland, to which it was to revert on the failure of Issue Male in the Family of Albert.

The Emperor Charles V. oppos'd this Transaction, by pretending that Prussia was a Fief of the Empire; and that therefore Sigismond had no Right to dispose of it. The Imperial Decree which was pass'd upon this Occasion, had however no Effect, by reason of the Wars which the Emperor was at that time engag'd in, and Albert remain'd in peaceable Possession of Prussia. He was succeeded by his only Son Albert-Frederic, who receiv'd the Investiture of it from the King of Poland, for himself and his Cousin-Germans in 1569. This Prince dying without Issue, John Sigismond Elector of Brandenburg succeeded him, and again receiv'd the Investiture of it from the King of Poland, for himself and his three Brothers. Since that time the Duchy14 of Prussia has always been in the Brandenburg Family from Father to Son; but the Elector Frederic-William the Great, having made War upon Charles-Gustavus King of Sweden, in favour of the Crown and Republic of Poland, the Sovereignty of Prussia was, in Acknowledgment thereof, yielded to him, for himself and all his Male Descendants, by the Treaty of Bydgost in 1659.

By virtue of this Treaty, the Elector claim'd that Prussia depended on no other Power; and that he held it immediately by Divine Right; and upon this Plea he thought himself authoriz'd to be declar'd King. But before he took this Step, it was necessary to secure the Consent of a Part, at least, of the Princes of the Empire. As the Emperor's Consent was not only the most important, but the most difficult to obtain, the whole stress of the Negociation lay almost at the Court of Vienna.

When Dankelman arriv'd there, he did not find the Court in a Temper to grant it. The august Title of a King conferr'd upon an Elector, was at first thought to be prejudicial to the Imperial Authority, and it was look'd upon as exposing of that Dignity, to acquiesce in the Elector's Demand before they had at least felt the Pulses of the Generality of the Princes of Europe, and especially those of the Empire. 'Twas but reasonable to imagine the Pope would oppose it strenuously upon the score of the Protestant Religion, which by the Elector's Advancement might gather fresh Strength. All Kings in general were interested not to suffer an Instance which had a seeming Tendency to authorize every Prince to take the same Step, on the single Pretence of being possess'd of a Bit of Land, and15 holding it of no Power but God. But the Persons from whom the greatest Objections were expected, were the Electors; and indeed they had reason to fear, 1. That when the Elector of Brandenburg came to be a King, he wou'd no longer look upon them as his Equals, but wou'd claim certain Distinctions from them in the Empire and in the Dyets. 2. That he would withdraw the Dominions of his Electorate from the Obedience of the Empire, and from the Laws to which all the other Electors were subject. This Article was of the utmost consequence to them, especially with regard to the Contingent they are oblig'd to furnish towards Wars which concern the Empire, and which are the more burthensome, the fewer Heads they fall upon.

These being then the Notions of the Court of Vienna, Dankelman had no great Hopes of succeeding in his Negociation. Nevertheless the Court always took care to keep fair with the Elector, whom they look'd upon as an Ally that was well worth preserving; and perhaps they flatter'd themselves they should get more by Promises and Expectations than by granting him his Demand.

The Death of John Sobieski King of Poland, which happen'd on the 17th of June 1696, was another Inducement to the Emperor to pursue the same Politics. The Elector of Brandenburg by having Prussia in his Neighbourhood, might be of great Weight in the Election of a new King of Poland; and the Emperor who had a Design to advance the Margrave Lewis of Baden to the Throne, pretended to enter into the Views of the Elector, that this Prince might afterwards fall in with his at the Dyet of Election. For this end the Emperor's Ministers gave Dankelman to16 understand, that the first thing to be done was to clear the Difficulties which the several Powers of Europe might raise against the Elector's Project; and that the Congress of Ryswic, at which all the Ministers were to be present, was the most favourable Opportunity.

Hereupon Dankelman was recall'd from the Court of Vienna, and sent to Ryswic as Plenipotentiary from the Elector, jointly with M. de Schmettau. The Elector for his part set out for Konigsberg, the Capital of Prussia, that he might be nearer at hand to favor the Election of the Margrave Lewis of Baden. Mean time he was strenuously sollicited in favor of Alexander and Constantine Princes of Poland, who for that reason came themselves to Berlin; but the Elector was far from breaking the secret Engagements which he had made with the Emperor: Therefore he answer'd the Solicitations of those two Princes in a very ambiguous manner, by engaging himself to nothing, and only telling them that he was going into Prussia that he might be the better inform'd of every thing that pass'd at the Dyet of Election.

The Necessity which the Elector stood in of Poland to succeed in his Views, laid him under an indispensible Obligation to concern himself in that Election. He fully expected that the Right which the said Republic claim'd to Prussia wou'd induce it to oppose his Designs with Vigor; and besides, under the Pretext of interesting himself in the Election of a King, he might form a Party that hereafter would be capable to serve him; therefore, as soon as he arriv'd at Konigsberg, he dispatch'd a Messenger to the Cardinal Radziowsky Primate of Poland, to acquaint him of his Arrival, and sent M. Dorerbeck17 Great Cup-bearer of Prussia as his Ambassador to the Dyet of Election, with Orders to support the Interests of the Margrave Lewis of Baden, but in the mean time to do nothing that might disoblige the Poles.

The Margrave Lewis of Baden was soon out of the Question; for the two strongest Parties oblig'd him to retire, as well as the other Competitors for the Crown. These two Parties were the one for Frederic-Augustus Elector of Saxony, and the other for the Prince of Conti. The Cardinal Primate favor'd the latter, and France seem'd to have his Election very much at heart; yet Frederic-Augustus's Party carried it, and he was proclaim'd King.

The Cardinal Primate was still obstinate for the Prince of Conti, and actually sent one of his near Relations to the Elector to sollicit him in his Favor; but the Elector, who thought the Elector of Saxony's Party the most substantial and the most powerful, did not scruple to own him for King, and return'd for Answer to the Cardinal, That he advis'd him, as the Chief Pastor of Poland, to maintain Peace in his Flock, and to submit to the Elector of Saxony. Nevertheless the Primate stood out stiffly, and form'd a Party in Poland, considerable enough to give the new King Uneasiness. The Elector still persevering in his Views to make himself necessary to Poland, return'd next year to Konigsberg, in hopes of appeasing the Disturbances rais'd there by the two different Parties. Kolbe, who was not yet Count of Wartemberg, but only Great Chamberlain, made a Journey to Warsaw for this purpose, on the part of the Elector, and complimented the King on his Accession to the Crown. The King in his Turn sent the Count de Bilinsky Great Chamberlain18 of the Crown to the Elector, to compliment him on his Arrival at Konigsberg, and there to negociate an Interview betwixt them. The Elector wish'd for it too heartily to refuse it, and Fredericshoss, one of his Pleasure-houses, was chose for the place of Meeting. There every thing pass'd, as is common upon those Occasions; a great deal of Business was talk'd of, and referred to the Ministers for Conclusion. The two Princes made each other magnificent Presents, and exchang'd all the Tokens of the sincerest Friendship. This Union seem'd still increasing by the Sale which the King of Poland made this year to the Elector of the Fee for protecting the Abbey-Town of Quedlimbourg, which no Elector of Saxony would ever part with before, whatsoever Instances were made to them by the Family of Brandenburg. The Elector had less Reason than any of his Predecessors to hope for Success in this Affair. Poland, besides the Pleas of Interest, had others of Resentment; and this Prince's Conduct in the affair of Elbing bid fair to set the King and the Elector at variance. The Dispute was about a Demand of 400,000 Crowns which the Elector made upon Poland, for the Expences of the War, which his Father, Frederic-William the Great, had carry'd on in favor of the Republic against Charles XI. King of Sweden. The King of Poland in the Interview at Fredericshoff had promis'd to persuade the Republic to pay that Sum. The Elector whose Patience was worn out in Expectation of the Performance, notwithstanding the many Reasons he had to keep fair with Poland, caused the City of Elbing, which had been mortgag'd to him for that Sum, to be invested. And M. de Brantz, my Uncle, who was Lieutenant-General,19 was sent upon this Expedition, at the Head of a Body of 12000 Men.

The Poles no sooner heard of it but they made a very great Clamor, and the King complain'd loudly of the Elector's Proceeding, who being, said he, his Cousin, his Friend, and Ally, ought to have had more Regard for him. 'Twas at least after this manner that he express'd himself in the Circular Letters, which he wrote to assemble the Nobility of Poland. But the Elector went on still his own way, and the City of Elbing was taken before the Poles had so much as a Thought of defending it. As soon as the King of Poland was told of it, he ordered the Elector's Resident to depart the City of Thorn in 24 Hours, and the Kingdom without Delay. M. de Reitwitz, Envoy of Poland to the Elector, fearing the same Treatment, was absent from Court for a Fortnight; but return'd then, causing his Appearance to be notify'd to the Ministers, not as Envoy from the King of Poland, but as Envoy from the Elector of Saxony. By this piece of Management 'tis plain that the King of Poland did not take the Affair of Elbing so much to heart as he seem'd to do; and some time after the Matter was accommodated; the Elector consenting to lose one fourth of the Debt, and the Poles promising to pay the rest at the Expiration of three Months, and depositing their King's Crown for Security. The Elector on his part restor'd Elbing on condition nevertheless, that he should have it again at the three Month's end, if the 300,000 Crowns were not then paid. This Affair has ever since remain'd in statu quo: The Poles are still Debtors for that Sum, and the Elector contents himself with detaining the Crown, which is still at Berlin, in the Gallery20 over the great Stables, where 'tis kept in a Case, seal'd with the Seal of the Kingdom of Poland.

Mean time the Peace of Ryswic was just sign'd, and sooner than expected, by reason France receded from several Pretensions; which every body knows she was induc'd to do from the View she had at that time to the Spanish Succession, and to that end it was absolutely necessary for her to make a Peace with that Power and to disarm the Allies. Consequently Messieurs Dankelman and Schmettau had no time to push the Negociation of the Affair of Prussia any farther; nevertheless they acted with the Dutch to some purpose.

The Elector had sent Bartholdi to Vienna in the place of Dankelman, and M. Blaspiel to Dusseldorff to the Elector Palatine, whom he thought proper to treat with extraordinary Regard, as well upon his own Account, as with relation to the Empress his Sister who had a very great Ascendant over the Emperor.

Bartholdi when he arriv'd at Vienna found the Court in the very same Disposition as it was in the time of Dankelman. There was a great shew of Good-will, but no Advance made; for the Emperor's Ministers were never at a loss for a Reason to defer coming to the Point. The Republic of Poland furnish'd very cogent ones too, by the Protestations it made against every Step taken towards erecting Prussia into a Kingdom, on pretence that it formerly belong'd to the Republic, and that the Poles only suffer'd it to fall to the House of Brandenburg, on condition of its reverting to them on the Failure of Issue Male in that Family. The Emperor said he could not help having Regard to those Protestations, the Alliance which he had been in for a long time21 with the Republic being become much firmer since the raising the Siege of Vienna, when John Sobiesky at the Head of the Poles so effectually reliev'd it. Bartholdi being dishearten'd with all these Delays, began to despair of the Success of the Negociation. He flatter'd himself for a while that the languishing State of Charles II. King of Spain, which presag'd his approaching Death, and the cruel War between the Houses of Austria and Bourbon, on account of the Spanish Succession, would promote the Success of his Master's Designs; and that the State Policy which at that Juncture oblig'd the Emperor to strengthen himself with Allies, would make him chuse to retain in his Party a Prince so powerful and so necessary to his Interests as the Elector. But Bartholdi was deceiv'd; and whether the Court of Vienna flatter'd itself that the Elector wou'd never venture to take the part of France, or whether they thought it more nearly concern'd them to humor the Powers that oppos'd the Elector's Views, they had always some fresh Pretence or other to trump up.

Bartholdi cou'd not avoid giving an Account to the Elector his Master of what he thought of these continual Delays, and he told him there was no manner of Reason to hope that the Emperor would recognize him for King before he was sure of the Consent of the Pope, and of all the Princes of the Empire; that it was easy to see this was only a civil Excuse that the Emperor made use of for his Refusal, rather than to make him his Enemy; and that the Case was really so desperate, that he knew of but one Stratagem to make use of before he retir'd; and that was that he shou'd write with his own Hand to the Prince of ——, who, said Bartholdi, was the22 only Person in the World to induce the Emperor to be more favorable. His Dispatch was written in a Cypher, and the Secretary who decypher'd it, thought he met with the Name of the Emperor's Confessor, instead of that of the Prince of ----. The Elector approv'd of his Minister's Hint, and wrote immediately to the Confessor, who happen'd to be a Jesuit. This Reverend Father was overjoy'd to find himself courted by one of the greatest Protestant Princes, and promising himself that he should reap considerable Advantages for his Society, from the Success of a Negociation which the Elector had so much at heart, and in which two of his most able Ministers had already miscarried, he made no scruple to undertake it.

As soon as he began to meddle with it, it assum'd a new Face; the Court of Rome made but a faint Opposition to it: That of Vienna being alarmed at the News they received from the Count de Harrach their Ambassador at Madrid, of the bad State of the King of Spain's Health, and of the Spaniards Byass for the Duke of Anjou, became more tractable; and the very Reasons that Bartholdi urg'd in vain, began to be relish'd when they were represented by the Confessor. This Jesuit convinc'd the Emperor, that as he was resolv'd to dispute the Succession to the Crown of Spain with France, such an Ally as the Elector would give great Weight to either of the two Parties that he fell in with. The Confessor's Arguments were applauded by some, and faintly rejected by others; so that the Father, by craftily taking advantage of the Good-Will of the latter, and of the Lethargy of the former, brought the Affair of Prussia in less than two23 Month's Time to the Point of a happy Conclusion.

While such effectual Endeavors were us'd for the Elector at the Court of Vienna, his Interest was as successfully manag'd with the King of England. The Electoress, together with her Mother the Electoress of Hanover, went to pay him a Visit at Aix la Chapelle; and in that Interview, these two Princesses prevail'd on King William of England to recognize the Elector of Brandenburg for King of Prussia, and to call the House of Hanover to the Succession of the Crown of England.

One particular Circumstance in this Journey that prov'd of such Service to the Elector's Designs, and which many People look'd upon as a politic Action, is, that it would not have been undertaken, had it not been for the extreme Fondness of Madame de Wartemberg to be admitted in the Electoress's Circle. This Princess upon the Intelligence she receiv'd that her Mother the Electoress of Hanover was going to Aix la Chapelle, was very desirous to go with her, but she cou'd not hope to obtain the Elector's Consent to it, nor to have Money enough with her to bear her Expences, if the Count de Wartemberg oppos'd it; and therefore she charg'd Madamoiselle de Pollnitz my Cousin to speak to him about it. The Count de Wartemberg promis'd not only to obtain the Elector's Consent, but also to give the Electoress an Order at large to take up any Sums of Money that she should want, provided that Princess would on her part only acknowledge the Favor, by granting his Wife the Honor of Admittance to her Circle. The Electoress had this Journey so much at heart, because she knew it wou'd give her the Pleasure24 of seeing a Mother whom she tenderly lov'd, as well as a Freedom, for some time at least, from the Constraint she was oblig'd to live in at Berlin, that she consented to the Count's Demand. Madame de Wartemberg was admitted to the Circle, and all the Mortification the Electoress gave her, was always to talk to her in French, which being a Language she did not understand, plainly shew'd the Obscurity of the Countess's Birth; for at that Time all Persons of any Rank or Figure convers'd in that Language commonly at our Court. The Electoress's Condescension upon this Occasion is the only thing for which she was to blame; for 'twas a Precedent which gave others Authority to desire the same Favor; and to this may be said to be owing the unequal Matches which several of the Nobility made afterwards.

The Count de Wartemberg, in order to obtain the Elector's Consent, gave him to understand that the Princess his Consort cou'd do more than any body to prevail with the King of England to recognize him for King. This was touching him in the most sensible part; and therefore he made no Scruple to let the Electoress go, who went and met her Mother at Aix la Chapelle, and from thence they set out afterwards for Brussels. There they stay'd a few days, in order to disguise the Motives of their Journey, and from thence they went to Loo, where the King of England was. They each obtain'd of the Prince what they went to ask him; the House of Hanover was soon after call'd to the Succession of the Crown of England, and the King gave his Promise, that as soon as the Emperor had own'd the Elector King of Prussia, he wou'd be one of the first to follow his Example.25

As soon as the News reach'd Vienna that the King of England had promis'd to recognize the Elector of Brandenburg King of Prussia, the remaining Difficulties were soon got over; the Protestations of the Republic of Poland were superseded, and the Emperor declar'd at length that he own'd Prussia for a Kingdom, and the Elector of Brandenburg for King; on condition however,

1. That the Elector should never withdraw from the Empire the Provinces of his Dominions thereon depending.

2. That in the Emperor's Presence he should require no other Distinctions than those which he actually enjoy'd now.

3. That his Imperial Majesty when he wrote to him should only give him the Title of your Royal Dilection.

4. That nevertheless his Ministers at Vienna should be treated on a Par with those of Crown'd Heads.

5. That the Elector should maintain six thousand Men in Italy at his own expence, in case the Emperor should be oblig'd to go to War for the Spanish Succession.

6. That those Troops should remain there as long as the War continu'd.

Thus, Madame, after tedious delays the Court of Vienna consented at last to the Success of this great Event, which after all ow'd its cause to the refusal of an Arm-chair, and its issue to the mistake of a Secretary. Nevertheless it did not fail to cost the Elector six Millions, of which the Jesuits of Vienna had 200,000 Crowns to their share.

This agreeable News was scarce arriv'd at Berlin when they heard of the Death of the King26 of Spain, which happen'd the 1st of November, 1700. His Death was notify'd to the Elector by M. Desalleurs, Envoy of France to our Court, as was also the Will whereby the Duke of Anjou was call'd to the Succession of all the late King's Dominions. The Elector had entered into such Engagements with the Emperor, that he could not own him; for which reason the King of France recall'd M. Desalleurs, and likewise refus'd to acknowledge the Elector for King, who in his turn recall'd M. Spanheim, and sent him to England with the Title of Ambassador.

The Elector was so urgent to be crown'd, that he hasten'd to Konigsberg, the capital City of Prussia, without staying for the fine Season of the Year; having fix'd on the 17th of December for his Departure thither with the whole Court. My Mother would also have been one of the Company, but she was too far gone with Child. She was now marry'd to her third Husband, who was the Count de Wesen; and the Nuptials were perform'd at Konigsberg in 1698, when the Elector was there about the Election of the King of Poland. This was a Match, in the making of which, neither Love nor Interest had the least share: M. de Wesen, tho' come of a very good Family in the Duchy of Zell, was Heir but to a very small Estate, and that he was obliged to divide with a great many Brothers; and my Mother before he marry'd her had never so much as spoke to him, nor had she seen him but while he was in the Office of Chief Steward. The Elector himself made the Match at the solicitation of Madame de Wartemberg who had a very great kindness for M. Wesen formerly, and perhaps had so still, and by helping him to a rich Widow, she was willing to make him a recompence for the27 Respect he had paid to her. There was no necessity of using powerful Arguments with the Elector, to engage him to bring this Match about. It was his Foible to make Matches, and were they good or bad, provided he saw the Weddings, 'twas all alike to him. Consequently, as soon as Madame de Wartemberg had proposed this Marriage to him, he promis'd to mention it himself to my Mother; nay, more than that, he came to her House and made the Proposal. My Mother desir'd to be excus'd, saying to his Highness, that she had been already married twice, that she had two Sons by her first Husband, and that she did not care to hazard their Interests and her own Peace by engaging herself in Matrimony a third time. The Elector made her answer, that he would have it so, and that her Children, so far from Losers, should be Gainers by it, because he would take care of them. He added that he would allow her twenty-four Hours time to consider of it, and then he left her, forbidding her to stir to the Door, and promising to come and see her again next day, in order to have her Answer. He then went into my Grandmother's Chamber, and said so many fine things to her, in favor of the Son-in-Law he had in his eye for her, that she was for it by all means.

My Mother continued very wavering till next day, when the Elector return'd as he had promis'd: And as 'tis not an easy matter to resist the Orders of one's Sovereign, my Mother, tho' still against a new Engagement in her heart, seemed however to consent to the Marriage, which in a few days after was celebrated, and honour'd with the presence of the Elector, who had the goodness to assure my Brother and me that it should not be the worse for us. Mean time all my28 Relations exclaim'd against my Mother, and when she return'd to Berlin not a Soul of them went to see her. My Grandmother by my Father's side was loudest in her Complaint; for her great Age and the Honour she had of attending the late Electoress, Mother to the Elector, made her take the freedom to tell that Prince her mind. She was in a passion with him even to a degree of Childishness, telling him that it griev'd her to the heart that she was not strong enough to twist the neck of the Man that he had given to her Daughter-in-Law for a Husband. The Elector to pacify her, promis'd her that he would be such a friend to M. de Wesen, that this Marriage instead of being a prejudice should be an advantage to us. And as soon as he had left her, he declared him Marshal of his Court.

This Office obliging my Father-in-law to follow the Prince in his Travels, he left my Mother at Berlin, and carry'd me with him to Konigsberg, to shew me the Ceremony of the Elector's Coronation.

His Court was so numerous that upon the Road from Berlin to Konigsberg, which is reckon'd fourscore German Miles, there were no less than thirty thousand Hackney-Horses, besides those belonging to the Stables of the King and Princes. The King, who was excessively fond of Ceremony, omitted nothing that could be an addition to the splendor of his Coronation. This Ceremony cost him immense Sums of Money, and convinc'd Foreigners who came thither from a curiosity to see it, that our Court was inferior to few others for Magnificence.

Tho' one would think the preparations for such a solemn Festival must take up a tedious deal of time, yet the King's Impatience hurry'd29 them so fast that every thing was ready by the eighteenth of January, about a Fortnight after the Arrival of the Court. The Proclamation for erecting Prussia into a Kingdom was made two Days before the King's Coronation, with the sound of the Cannon, and all the Bells of the City, by four Heralds at Arms in Mantles of blue Velvet with the Royal Arms thereon embroider'd, and riding upon Horses richly accouter'd, the Housings being of Silver-Brocade, sprinkled with Eagles and Coronets of Gold. They went with a very numerous Train to the chief Quarters of the City, and there made Proclamation in these terms:

Whereas it has pleased the Divine Providence to erect this Sovereign Duchy of Prussia into a Kingdom, and to set up for our King the most High and most Potent Prince Frederic I. our gracious Sovereign; we have thought fit to give notice thereof to the People of this Kingdom, that they may say as we do, "Long live Frederic, our most Merciful and most Gracious King! Long live Sophia-Charlotte, our most Gracious Queen."

The King to render the Ceremony of his Coronation still more august, instituted the Day before[2] the Order of the Black Eagle, the Badges of which are an Orange Ribband with a Cross hanging to it enamell'd with Blue, in form of the Cross of Malta: In a Star of Silver which is embroider'd upon the Coat, there is a black Eagle which gripes in one Claw a Crown, and in the other a Scepter; and round the 'Scutcheon are these words, SUUM CUIQUE, (i. e. to every30 one his own.) The principal Statutes of this Order are, 1. That the Number of the Knights shall not exceed thirty, exclusive of the Princes of the Royal Family, and Sovereign Princes. 2. That the Knights shall prove their Nobility by sixteen Descents. 3. That they shall promise to be just, chaste, and to protect and support Widows and Orphans, according to their motto, Suum cuique.

Tho' it was contrary to custom, to install the Knights before the Coronation, the King was not so scrupulous as to conform to it, foreseeing that the Ceremony of his Coronation receiv'd a new Lustre from this Foundation. Nevertheless the Knights and Officers of the Order had then no other Badges but the Ribband and Star embroider'd on their Clothes; and 'twas not till two Years after that the King gave to the new Knights, for days of Ceremony, a Dress consisting of a Vest of Cloth of Gold, with another over it of Sky-blue Velvet, reaching down to the Mid-leg, with a Lining of Straw-color, and ty'd under the Cravat with yellow Ribbands, the Tassels of which hang down to the Knees. Their Sash is of Straw-color'd Velvet, embroider'd with Gold. Their Mantle is also of Straw-color'd Velvet, lin'd with Gold-Mohair, and over it is a Collar of Gold enamell'd with blue, forming these two Letters F. R. to signify Fredericus Rex: This is call'd the Grand Collar of the Order. The Knights wear black Velvet Caps on their Heads, with white Plumes of Feathers. The King's Habit differs not from that of the Knights; but the Habits of the Grand Master of the Ceremonies, the Secretary, and the Treasurer, differ in that they only wear over their common Clothes full Gowns of Straw-color'd Velvet, with an Orange-color'd Lining, and upon31 them the Cross of the Order, fasten'd only by an Orange-color'd Ribband that hangs to their Neck.

The King at the first Promotion, or rather on the day that he instituted the Order, created the full number of Knights, prescribed by the Statutes. He also gave the Ribband of the Order to the Electoral Prince his Son, and to his two Brothers the Margraves Christian and Albert. The Margrave Philip staying behind at Berlin to govern in the King's Absence, the Ribband was sent to him by a Gentleman of the Bed-chamber.

On the Coronation-day, about nine in the Morning the King was dressed by the great Chamberlain, attended by all the Officers of the Bed-chamber. His Coat was Scarlet embroider'd with Gold, and brilliant Diamonds were his Buttons. Over that, he had a Royal Mantle of Crimson-Velvet, lin'd and turn'd up with Ermin, which was fasten'd to his Breast by a Clasp of three Diamonds. As soon as the King was dressed he went into a Hall in his Apartment, where a Throne had been erected, on each side of which, there lay on two Tables of Silver the Royal Ornaments that were to serve the King and Queen. The King being seated on his Throne, ordered they should be brought to him, and they were accordingly presented to him on the Knee. Having the Crown in his Hand, he put it himself on his Head, and then taking the Sceptre in his right Hand and the Royal Globe in his left, in that posture he receiv'd the first Homages of the Prince Royal and of the Margraves, who bent one Knee before him. After this the King arose and went to the Queen's Apartment, preceded by the Knights of the Order, the two Margraves, the Prince Royal, and the Noblemen that carried the Regalia design'd for the Queen.32

Her Majesty was dress'd in a Purple Gown, and a Royal Mantle like the King's. She was dress'd in her own Nut-brown Hair without any Powder, which in conjunction with the Lustre of the Diamonds gave her an Air still more noble and majestic. As soon as she perceiv'd the King, who met her at the entrance of his Chamber, she fell on her knees, in which situation the King embrac'd her, and with his own Hands set the Crown upon her Head. She took the Scepter and Globe from the hands of the Lords who carried them, and the King raising her up she follow'd him into his Apartment, where she also receiv'd the Homage of the Prince Royal and the Margraves, in the same manner as they had perform'd them to the King.

Their Majesties went afterwards to Church with all the Pomp and Magnificence, (I dare to say it) of the ancient Kings of Asia. The King walk'd under a Canopy of Silver-Brocade embroider'd with Gold borne by ten Prussian Lords of the first Quality, and at some distance came the Queen under another Canopy like to that of the King. The Grand Chamberlain held up the Train of the King's Mantle, and the Queen's was born by the Duchess of Holstein, and the Ladies Stingland and Bulau, the one Lady of Honour to the Queen, and the other having the first Reversion of that Office. The Duke of Holstein officiated as Great Master of her Houshold; and the Princess of Holstein walk'd at the head of the Court-Ladies. Their Majesties were receiv'd by the two Bishops that were to perform the Ceremony of the Coronation, who were dress'd in purple Velvet, after the English mode, and had for their Assistants six Ministers, three of them Calvinists and three Lutherans.33 They conducted the King and Queen to their Thrones which had been erected on the two sides of the Altar, the King's on the Right, and the Queen's on the Left. Tho' there is no Altar in the Calvinist Churches, the King had one, and had actually made a present of a magnificent Crucifix to be plac'd upon it, in order to shew how much he wish'd the Union of the two Protestant Churches.

The Prince Royal seated himself a little behind the King towards the Right on a Folding-chair, with his Governor the Count de Dobna behind him: The Margraves also sate in two Folding-chairs on both sides of the Queen. The Duke and Duchess of Holstein, and the Ladies Stingland and Bulau, sate upon Stools immediately behind the Queen. The Princess of Holstein was also placed upon a Stool, but a little farther off. On both sides of the Altar two Galleries were erected, the one for the Duchess of Courland the King's Sister, the young Duke her Son, and the three Princesses her Daughters-in-Law, the other for the Ambassadors and Foreign Ministers.

When the King was to receive the sacred Unction, he went and kneel'd at the foot of the Altar, gave the Globe and Sceptre to the Lords who had before carried them, took off his Crown with his own hands, which he plac'd on a Cushion like to that on which he kneel'd, and then receiv'd three Unctions, one on the Forehead, and the two others on his Wrists. The Great Chamberlain dried up the Oil with Cotton and Linnen, which one of the Ministers presented to him on a Plate of Gold. After this the King took his Crown again which no other hand had touch'd, and plac'd it himself on his head; and having also taken the Sceptre and Globe again, he went and34 replac'd himself on his Throne. The same Ceremonies were observ'd at the Anointing of the Queen, with this difference only, that she all the while kept the Crown on her Head, and that Madame Stingland, her Lady of Honour, dried up the Oil.

This done, the two Bishops with the six Ministers pay'd the first Homage to both the King and Queen. The Bishop at Consecration said to the King, May Blessing and Prosperity attend Frederic King of Prussia! May the Lord, the God of our King say the same! May he continue his Presence with him as he has done hitherto, to the end that his Royal Throne may aggrandize his Power from day to day.

The same Bishop said to the Queen, May Blessing and Prosperity attend Sophia-Charlotta Queen of Prussia! May the Lord our God preserve her for a Token of his Blessing to her People, and may she from this time forward see Prosperity and Salvation spread ever her Royal Family, and over her Children, in the Peace of Israel!

While the Music as it were repeated these same words, the Prince Royal and the Margraves went and paid their Homage also to the King and Queen, kneeling on the last Step of their Throne and kissing their Hands. The Homage of the other Nobility only consisted in their making a profound Obeysance without stirring out of their places.

The Bishop who had perform'd the Consecration, turning about to the People, said with a loud Voice, Fear God and honour your King and your Queen, for their Power cometh from the Lord who hath created Heaven and Earth. May the same Lord vouchsafe to be their Guide and Guardian! May he cover them with his Shadow, that the Heat of the35 Sun and the Rays of the Moon, may never hurt their Sight! May the Lord keep them from all Evil? save their Souls, and go in and out before them with Blessing, till Time Shall be no more. After some other Prayers, the King renew'd the Edicts against Duels, and swore to observe them upon the Holy Gospels. And therewith ended this long Ceremony.

The King had all the reason in the World to be pleased with it, by reason of the exactness with which every one perform'd his Function, which was a thing hardly to have been expected in a Ceremony that was quite new to the Performers; but they so well knew his delicacy in every matter of Ceremony, and the Emulation they had to please him in this Taste was such, that the most consummate Experience could not have acquitted itself better.

The Queen herself was the only Person that got a reprimand, and that was by her taking some Snuff. Her Throne being over-against the King's, she watch'd a long time for an opportunity, and when she thought his Majesty did not observe her she stole out her Snuff-Box. The King happening to turn his Eyes towards her the very same moment, she would fain have conceal'd it, but his Majesty's Countenance was so fix'd on her that she was convinc'd he perceiv'd it; and indeed this Prince who was upon this occasion not to be trifled with, immediately order'd one of his Gentlemen who was behind him to go and ask the Queen in his Name, Whether she remember'd the Place where she was, and the Rank she held there.

The King and Queen going out of the Church caus'd Gold and Silver Medals to the value of ten thousand Crowns to be scatter'd among the36 People, which had on one side their Effigies with these words, FREDERICUS ET SOPHIA-CHARLOTTA, REX ET REGINA; and on the reverse a Crown with these words, PRIMA MEÆ GENTIS.

The Ceremonies at the Royal Feast which follow'd, were not much short of those at the Coronation. It was kept in the great Hall of the Palace, to which the King and Queen repair'd almost with the same Train, and in the same order as they had observ'd going to Church.

When they were seated at Table, their Majesties return'd their Sceptres and Globes into the hands of the Lords who had the Honour of carrying them before. These Lords then plac'd themselves at each side of the Table, and remain'd there during the whole Feast. The Prince Royal, the two Margraves and the Duchess of Courland the King's Sister, were the only Persons that had the honour of dining with their Majesties. Of all the Ceremonies that were observ'd there, the two following are what I have no where seen but in Germany. As soon as the King and Queen had taken their Seats at Table, the two Grand Marshals went out of the Hall into the Courtyard of the Palace, and from thence rode on horseback to the great Stables attended by Kettle-drums, Trumpets, and a great many Officers of the King's Kitchen. There they found a whole Ox roasting on a Spit and stuff'd with all sorts of Wild-fowl, of which they cut off a piece and carry'd it in a Gold Dish to their Majesties Table.

After this, the Great Cup-Bearer went with the like Train to the same Stables, where there were two Fountains of Wine running from the Beaks of two Eagles. Of this he fill'd a gold37 Goblet, and went and presented it to the King. His Majesty having taken it and return'd it to him, he presented it afterwards to the Queen, who return'd it to him in like manner; and then he carry'd it to the great Beaufet, which was set up at the other end of the Room over-against the King's Table. As often as the King or Queen drank, nine Cannon were fired; six when the Prince Royal drank, and three whenever the Margraves and the Duchess of Courland drank.

This Repast held a very long time, yet none of the Courtiers sate down to Table till their Majesties were retir'd to their Apartments. About nine o'clock at Night all the Bells in the City were rung, and the Noise of the Cannon added to that of the Kettle-drums and Trumpets, serv'd as a signal for the Bonfires that were lighted in all the Cross-streets. The Burghers illuminated the Fronts of their Houses. Some of the most substantial had also erected Triumphal Arches before their Houses, with Emblems and Devices; others let Wine run for the Populace, and in short there was no Burgher but strove to signalize their Joy some way or other.

Their Majesties being desirous to honour the public Rejoicings with their presence, went into the Streets about ten o'clock in a magnificent Coach, accompanied by all their Courtiers on horseback. When they came before the Town-House they were harangu'd by the chief Burgo-Master, who presented them with a Collation in Panniers of Silver, after which they pass'd by the House of the Duke of Holstein Governour of Konigsberg. The Front of the House represented the Temple of Glory; the Duke's Gentlemen represented the Priests of the Temple, and threw Amber and Incense into the Coals which were upon38 the Altar; the Duke's Children, who were eight in number, were dressed like Shepherds and Shepherdesses, and as the King and Queen pass'd by, the eldest presented them with a Basket of Flowers, and pronounc'd some Verses to them in the German Language, expressing the Vows which all the People made for the duration of their Prosperity. Their Majesties, after stopping some time before this House, return'd to the Palace.

Throughout all the King's Dominions there were the like Demonstrations of Joy, and the Coronation-day was celebrated every where like a Sunday. The King and Queen spent the whole Carnival at Konigsberg, where they receiv'd the Count de Tobianski the Great Cup-bearer of Poland, who came as Ambassador from the King his Master, to congratulate their Majesties on their Coronation. It must be observed in the mean time, that the Republic of Poland never recogniz'd the King of Prussia's Royalty, tho' two of its Kings, viz. the Elector of Saxony, and King Stanislaus four years after recogniz'd him by their Ambassadors.

The departure of the Court for Berlin was fix'd for the eighth of March. As the King had not yet made his entry at Konigsberg, the Citizens entreated him to permit them to accompany him as far as the limits of their Territory, which was granted them. Then several triumphal Arches were erected, all the Streets were hung with Tapestry, and the King set out from Konigsberg attended by all the City Companies. His Majesty rode on horseback, supported by two Equerries on foot. His Clothes were of Crimson-Velvet lin'd with Ermin and embroider'd with Gold, and the Buttons were of Diamonds. He had on his Hat a Loop and a Hat-band39 of Diamonds. His Horse was most richly accouter'd: The Bit, Stirrups, and all the Ornaments of the Bridle, were of massy Gold; the Housing of Crimson-Velvet, all cover'd with Gold Embroidery and Diamonds. The Queen's Coach was also of extraordinary Magnificence. Her Majesty sate in it accompanied only by the Duchess of Courland, who sate over-against her.

In short, they went out of Konigsberg with all the Pomp and Apparatus that us'd to attend Public Entrys. When their Majesties were got a quarter of a League out of the Town, they alighted and went into their Travelling-Coaches, and there they received the last Compliments which were paid by the Echevins bare-headed and kneeling. Then the King and Queen return'd into the City through another Gate, and staid in their Palace till next day that they set out for Berlin.

The Court was oblig'd to go by the way of Dantzic, because of the sudden Thaw of the Weissel, which render'd it impassable. The Magistrates of Dantzic immediately sent out Deputies to their Majesties, to intreat them to permit their City to make a public Entry for them; but the King thank'd them, and was not willing they should be at any expence. Nevertheless at the Entrance of the Territory of Dantzic two Burgo-Masters, four Counsellors, and the Syndic of the Town, at the head of the Youth on horseback, went and paid their Majesties a Compliment. He that spoke was the chief Burgo-Master, who pray'd their Majesties to suffer the City to defray their Expences, while they stay'd in their Territory. The King and Queen alighted at a House erected on purpose for their Reception, which40 was of Wood, and represented the Temple of Glory. There their Majesties found a magnificent Collation and a very fine Concert of Music. In other Rooms several Tables were set up for the Gentlemen of his Retinue. The King and Queen having spent the Night there, pass'd thro' Dantzic next day, and went over the Weissel, which at that part of it was still frozen. Yet as there was cause to apprehend that it was not froze hard enough to be pass'd with safety, the Magistrates, to prevent any Accident, had cover'd the Ice with Straw, Beams and Planks; and twenty-four young Men and as many Lasses, dressed like Sailors in Jackets of Velvet and Sattin, assisted the King and Queen in their passage; during which, the Girls presented them with Fish, Fruit, Sweet-Meats and Flowers, and the young Sailors play'd to them on several Instruments of Music. When their Majesties had passed the River, they dismiss'd the Deputies of the City, and made them each a Present of a Gold Chain and Medal, on which were their Effigies. On the seventeenth of March the King arriv'd at Potzdam[3], and the Queen at Lutzelbourg. The King who had a Design to make a solemn Entry at Berlin, stay'd at Potzdam till the sixth of May, to give time for making the necessary Preparations to receive him, and for the finishing one of the Fronts of his Palace, which he wish'd might be compleated by that day.

Towards the latter end of April the King set out from Potzdam for Schonhausen, where the Queen met him some days after, and there their Majesties prepared to make their Entry into Berlin.41

This Ceremony was perform'd with all the Pomp and Magnificence possible. The City had caus'd seven Triumphal Arches to be erected; the Description of one of those Arches may suffice to give an Idea of the Taste of our Court for Entertainments of this kind. This Arch, which was at the Bars entring the Suburb, seem'd to have been built by Gardeners. It was one entire Green-house with Pillars and Pilasters, adorn'd with Flowers. Pomona and Flora were seen to support the Pictures of the King and Queen. The Spring, attended by the Zephyrs, presented them with Fruits and Flowers, and a Row of Orange-Trees and Laurels in gilded Boxes lin'd the Way from that Arch to St. George's Gate, which has ever since that Day been call'd the Royal Gate, because their Majesties enter'd thro' it into the Town.

Next day after their Entry the Deputies of the Provinces presented the King with Free Gifts on his joyful Arrival, and the Margrave Philip Grand Master of the Artillery, caus'd a Fire-work to be play'd off, which represented the King's Return to Berlin, by that of Jason, after the Conquest of the Golden Fleece.

After some other Festivals of this nature, occasion'd by the public Joy, the Court separated, when the King set out for Oranjebourg[4], and the Queen to Lutzelbourg. The Prince Royal staid at Berlin to finish his Exercises. Care had been taken to form a numerous Court for him, of all young Gentlemen of his own Age, of whom this young Prince had form'd two Companies, of which himself commanded the first, and the Duke of Courland the second. I was of this second42 Company, and we went sometimes to perform our Military Exercises at Lutzelbourg before the Queen, who lov'd to see the Prince her Son display the first Fruits of his Military Genius. We also acted some Comedies before her; for the Princess aim'd to inspire the Prince her Son with a delicate Taste, even in Pleasures.

'Twas at this time that a Storm arose at Court against the Count de Wartemberg Great Chamberlain, and lately declar'd Prime Minister, which threaten'd his Ruin; but it spent itself upon those only who had rais'd it. The principal Authors of the Cabal were the Count de Lottum, M. ——, and the Grand Marshal, who had been for a long time the Great Chamberlain's sworn Enemy. The Count de Wesen, my Father-in-law, was pitch'd upon by these Gentlemen to raise the first Prejudices in the King's Mind against this Minister. I have had the Honor to acquaint you, Madame, that the Countess de Wartemberg always wish'd well to M. de Wesen of which the advantagious Match she had procur'd for him was a very convincing Proof. One would have thought therefore after such great Service, that he ought in Gratitude to have devoted himself entirely to the Fortune of the Count her Husband. But my Father-in-law puff'd up by the Choice which the Count's Enemies had made of him, forgot his Duty and his Interest, and accepted a Commission for the undertaking of which he had in truth all the necessary Temerity, but not that Judgment nor that Favor, which was absolutely requisite for conducting so ticklish an Affair.

The King had a real Love for M. de Wartemberg, yet he sometimes made him feel his ill Humors. The Prince seem'd one day to be so angry with him, and spoke of him to my Father-in-law43 with so much Resentment, that the latter thought he had now a fair Opportunity to ruin the Count. He said to the King, that the whole Court was surpriz'd at his extraordinary Kindness to a Minister who every day abus'd his Name in the Oppression of the People, and in the Commission of a thousand Acts of Injustice against his faithful Servants; that his Rapines were excessive; and that his Wife's Extravagance was so great, that he could shew by the Accounts of the Comptrollers of the Kitchen, that the Great Chamberlain's Table cost more than his Majesty's. I know very well, added M. de Wesen, that if the Prime Minister should hear of what I have now had the Honor to say to your Majesty, I am undone; but if I held my peace, I thought I should be wanting in my Duty; and what I have asserted I am ready to prove.

The King heard what he said very attentively, and my Father-in-law was so vain as to think he had made Impression enough upon him to strike M. de Wartemberg quite out of his Favor; but this shallow Statesman, my Father-in-law, did not consider that a Prince who complains of his Favorite is not always dispos'd to receive the ill Impressions that others are ready to give of him. Whether the King therefore thought after this manner, or whether he was shock'd at the Ingratitude of M. de Wesen, who ow'd his Fortune to M. de Wartemberg, he told the Minister the Conversation that had pass'd, but assur'd him that he did not give Credit to the Report; and that if he pleas'd he would take a Revenge on the Man that had made it.

The crafty Minister affected at that time an Air of Moderation, which cost him the less Pains because he was an excellent Comedian. He said44 to the King that he thought himself sufficiently reveng'd, by the little Heed his Majesty gave to the scandalous Tales which his Enemies gave out against him, and he desir'd his Majesty to pardon those who had offer'd to abuse his Goodness, for the sake of oppressing him. Thus did he for a while conceal the keenest Resentment under the Mask of the most forgiving Temper; being resolv'd in his Heart to ruin those who had employ'd M. de Wesen, tho' they were protected by the Queen, but especially to make their Tool feel all the Weight of his Vengeance.

A Journey which the King took to Goltz, one of his Hunting-Seats, near the Fortress of Custrin, gave him a good Opportunity for it. Being alone with the King in the same Coach, he put him so much out of conceit with M. de Wesen, that when he arriv'd at Goltz, all that came to wait on him, as he alighted out of the Coach, perceiv'd he was in an ill Humor. Contrary to his usual custom, he spoke to no body, only he order'd my Father-in-law to give his Attendance. When he had sat down, he scarce touch'd the Bread, but he found fault with it, and complained of it to M. de Wesen, as the Person who had the Direction of what came to his Table. M. de Wesen said to the King, That 'twas true the Bread was not as it us'd to be, because the Carriage of the Pantry broke down by the way, and the Baker came too late to Town to provide more. The King not well pleas'd with this Answer, said, he was weary of being ill serv'd, and that he expected every one shou'd do their Duty. At the same time he threw his Napkin on the Ground. M. de Wesen fetch'd another, and offer'd it to the King, but he would not take it, and order'd him to be gone that Moment out of45 his Presence. Two Hours after, M. de Wesen was arrested by an Exempt of the Life-Guards, who conducted him in his Coach under a Guard to Custrin, the Capital of the New Marquisate, situate upon the Oder. There my Father-in-law was kept as a State-Criminal, and the Minister sent Orders to the Aulic Counsellor to go to my Mother's House, and clap a Seal upon her Husband's Effects. She was at that time in the Country, and my Brother happen'd to be at Church with our Governor, so that I was alone in the House when those Gentlemen came to execute their Order. After they had shew'd it to me, they ask'd me which was my Father-in-law's Apartment, that they might not be oblig'd to put the Seal upon every thing. I made no scruple to shew it to them, and as they withdrew they left me a Writing which was an Order to my Mother not to come to Court, nor to sollicite her Husband's Liberty. I sent immediately For my Governor, that he might go with this disagreeable News to my Mother, whose Surprize was as great as her Sorrow; for as she had an entire Love for her Husband, so she knew nothing of his Intrigues against the Minister, to whom she thought he was all along devoted. As the King's Order tied up her Hands, and hinder'd her from coming to Court, I was charg'd to do what I could there, to obtain my Father-in-law's Liberty.

One day as the Queen made an Entertainment at Lutzelbourg for the King, I presented a Petition to him, in my Mother's Name, intreating him to remove the Seal from her Effects, and the Guard from her House; and that his Majesty would be pleas'd to appoint Commissioners to try her Husband; to the end, that if guilty, he46 might be punish'd, or if innocent, that he might be set at liberty. My Youth, and the Tears which I shed at the Delivery of this Petition, melted the King's Heart, who told me, That he would do what my Mother desir'd, for her sake only; that he sympathiz'd in her Affliction; but that her Husband had so justly provok'd him, that he could not avoid making him sensible of his Indignation: That withal, he was very glad to see me so good-natur'd, as to sollicite in favor of a Man who he knew had not dealt well either by my Brother or me, notwithstanding the Injunction he laid upon him, when he match'd him to my Mother. I made him answer, that I had no reason to complain of my Father-in-law; and that tho' I had, my Mother's extreme Concern of Mind for what had happen'd, wou'd be a sufficient Motive for me to sollicite his Liberty. I commend you said the King, for these Principles. Go and tell your Mother that she shall be made easy, and be assur'd that I will take care of you. Those were the very Expressions of the King, who, when I stoop'd to embrace his Knees, encourag'd me also by clapping his Hand upon my Shoulder. As soon as he was gone, the Queen sent for me into her Closet, to give her an Account of this Conversation. I found her resting on a Couch, attended by none but Madamoiselle de Pollnitz my Cousin, who sat on the Ground at her Feet. When the Queen had enquir'd after my Mother's Health, she order'd me to assure her of her Esteem and Friendship; and when I had repeated to her what the King had said to me, she made Answer, That she was very glad the King was so well inclin'd to me. Cultivate his good Disposition, said she, make it your Study to merit his Favor. As for me, I will do47 every thing in my power to preserve you in it; and you may always be sure of my Protection.

So gracious a Reception both from the King and Queen gave me great Hopes; and I return'd to Berlin, not doubting but the Promises he had made to me wou'd soon be perform'd; yet 'twas not without tedious Sollicitations from my Mother's Friends that she obtain'd her Husband's Liberty, after seven Months Confinement, besides paying a Fine for him of ten thousand Crowns. The Revenge which the Minister took upon those who had made my Father-in-law their Agent, was not so much talk'd of; for he contented himself with banishing them to their respective Estates or Governments, and disposing of their Offices among his most obsequious Creatures. One of these was the Count de Witgenstein, upon whom he confer'd the Office of the Grand Marshal. He was a Person of a good Family, but neither he nor his Ancestors had ever done any Service to the State; and all his Merit was an entire Devotion to the Prime Minister, to whom he was more a Slave than a Friend. As long as the Count de Wartemberg continu'd in Favor, he kept his ground at Court; but the Fall of that Minister was attended with his. The Disgrace of my Father-in-law did not fail likewise to create a great deal of Trouble in my Family. My Mother follow'd him to his Estate in the Duchy of Zell, and I was sent with my Brother under the Conduct of a Governor to Lunebourg, there to finish my Studies.

All Europe was at this time in motion, and had taken part in the Quarrel between the Houses of Austria and Bourbon, on account of the Succession to the Monarchy of Spain. Philip of Anjou was already in possession of it, by virtue48 of Charles II's last Will and Testament; and in pursuance of the Right he had to it by his Grandmother Mary Theresa of Austria. The Emperor founded his Claim upon the Renunciation made by that Princess when she was married to Lewis XIV. The greatest part of Europe, which the exorbitant Power of France had begun to alarm, sided with the Emperor, who quitted his Rights in favor of the Archduke his Son. Besides the common Interest which it seem'd to be of all Europe to hinder two such Monarchies as France and Spain from being govern'd by one Prince, several Potentates had their particular Reasons, for laying hold of this opportunity, to make war with France.

The Court of England was alarm'd at the Proceeding of Lewis XIV. who had just recogniz'd the Son of James II. lately deceas'd at St. Germains, for King of England, by the Name of James III. in prejudice of King William, who had been recogniz'd by the Treaty of Ryswic.

The Dutch govern'd themselves by the Views of King William, who was all along their Stadtholder: And they could not forget the War in 1672, the Wounds of which were still bleeding.

The King of Prussia, besides his Interest in common with the other Electors, to hinder France from becoming too powerful, for fear lest hereafter the said Court should saddle them with whom it pleas'd for an Emperor, had Engagements subsisting with the Court of Vienna and the King of England. And in consequence of those Engagements he furnish'd the Emperor with 6000 Men, and gave Orders for a Levy in his Dominions of 20,000 Men, which King William had demanded of him, and which were49 during the whole War in the Pay of the United Provinces.

France had no Allies but the Electors of Bavaria and Cologn, who suffer'd themselves to be prevail'd on by the Promises of France; the chief of which was, That she would not make an end of the War till she had caus'd the Elector of Bavaria to be declar'd King of Swabia.

The Duke of Savoy was proof against the Advantages offered him by France: And notwithstanding the Marriage of his two Daughters to the Duke of Burgundy and the Duke of Anjou, King of Spain, he was the most zealous Ally against those two Crowns. He foresaw too very plainly, that as long as those two Powers were united, such was the Situation of his Dominions, that they wou'd hem him in between them; and therefore when the Duchess his Mother, who was a thorow French Woman, ask'd him, What would become of his Daughters, if he dethron'd the King of Spain, and ruin'd France, he reply'd to her, And if I do not, what will become of my Son?

These, Madame, were in general the various Motions that affected Europe when King William of England died: Nor did this Accident occasion any Alteration; for the Princess Anne Stuart, who succeeded him by the Name of Queen Anne, pursued the same Views as her Predecessor, and the War of the Allies against France was carried on with the same Vigor.

By the Death of the King of England, who was the last Prince of the Orange Branch, our King was Heir to all his personal Estate; yet his Right was contested by the Prince of Nassau-Friesland, who, tho' not so nearly related as the King, had the Advantage of Kindred by the50 Male Line, and had a Will of King William in his Favor, which intitled him to his Succession. As the States-General of the United Provinces were the Executors of this Will, the King immediately communicated his Pretensions to them, as he did also to Queen Anne, by M. de Spanheim his Ambassador at London. He founded his Right upon a Will of Frederic-Henry Prince of Orange, King William's Grandfather, who had a Son and three Daughters, the eldest of whom married to the Elector of Brandenburg the King's Father; the second to the Prince de Simmeren, a younger Prince of the present reigning Palatine Family, who dying without Issue, left his Right of Succession to the Electorate, to the Branch of Neuburg; and the third was married to the Prince of Anhalt-Dessau.

The Will of Frederic-Henry call'd the Male Descendants to his Succession; and on Failure of them the three Princesses his Daughters; by virtue of which, the King who descended from the eldest, claimed to be the lawful Heir, notwithstanding the Testament of King William, who could not dispose of an Estate which was intail'd. The King, for the better Manifestation of his Rights, set out for the Hague, accompanied by the Margrave Albert, his Brother, who left him at Wesel in order to join the Army at Keiserswaert[5].

At Wesel[6] the King receiv'd Messieurs de Lintelo, Slingenlandt, and Tour, Deputies from the States-General, to whom he paid the same Honors as to Sovereigns, and receiv'd them standing, with only an Arm-Chair behind him. They51 gave him an Account of the last Will and Testament of King William, which they had caus'd to be open'd in the Presence of M. Schmettau his Ambassador, Mr. Stanhope the Envoy Extraordinary of England, the Envoys of the Princesses of Anhalt and Nassau-Friesland, the Envoy of the Prince of Nassau-Siegen, the Commissioners of the States appointed for that purpose, and the Counsellors of the Domains of the late King William. They added that they had found in this Will, that the Prince of Nassau, hereditary Governor of Friesland, was call'd to the Succession as universal Heir, and they exhorted the King to own him as such. But notwithstanding all this, he enter'd his solemn Protest against the Will, and then set out for the Hague.

The King at his arrival alighted at the Palace of the Old Court, which was part of the Inheritance of the King of England, and of which he had already taken Possession, as well as of Honslaerdyke, another Palace of the late King of England. The Dutch wou'd fain have secur'd the Succession to the Prince of Nassau-Friesland, but they could not easily do this, without embroiling themselves with the King. Therefore they chose to temporize, and came to no Conclusion while the King staid in Holland, during which they endeavor'd to amuse him by procuring him all the Pleasures that their Country afforded; but the Grand Affair of the Succession to the King of England engross'd all his Thoughts, and he went away very much dissatisfy'd with the Conduct of the States-General at this Juncture.

As soon as he return'd to Berlin, he sent for my Brother and me from Lunenburg, for fear lest my Mother, who was a Lutheran, should persuade us to embrace that Religion. Next year52 he establish'd an Academy, into which he gave Orders for our Entrance. The View of this Establishment was to educate the young Nobility of the Court, in a manner suitable to their Extraction. The King had the Nomination of those that were to be admitted into this Academy, and Care had been taken to furnish it with the best Masters in all the Arts and Sciences. The Expence of the Students there were very moderate, the King having taken upon him to pay the Extraordinaries. This illustrious School, which was then call'd, The Academy of Princes, has lost very much of its former Splendor.

I found the Court of Berlin in the same State as when I left it. The Count de Wartemberg was still in the highest Favor; and the Count de Barfous, the only Man who had presum'd for some time to make head against the Minister, had at length been oblig'd to retire to his Estate; but what made his Banishment from Court the more tolerable to him, was a Pension which the King allow'd him of 20,000 Crowns. His Post of Velt-Marshal was given to M. de Wartensleben, Lieutenant-General of the Emperor's Troops, and General of those of the Duke of Saxe Gotha. This was also a Creature of the Prime Minister; yet he had Honor and Honesty enough to oppose him on Occasions, where he thought the Welfare of the State was concern'd. The Count de Lottum, who had been involv'd in the Disgrace of my Father-in-law, and whose Office of Grand Marshal had been conferr'd on the Count de Witgenstein, retain'd a certain Air of Favor in his Disgrace, as did also the Count de Barfous. The King had given him the Government of Wesel, to which he retir'd; and as he could not avoid doing justice to his Merit and Fidelity, he gave53 him the Command of the Troops design'd for the Netherlands. He was charg'd with the Blockade of Rhinberg, a Place in the Electorate of Cologn, which the French then possess'd, under color of being that Elector's auxiliary Forces. The Town surrendring in a little time, he undertook the Blockade of Guelders, which made a part of the Spanish Netherlands, and was yielded to us by the Peace of Utrecht. The taking of these two important Places in the midst of Winter, and the Behaviour of the Count de Lottum, who notwithstanding the Severity of the Season, and the Treatment he had received from Court, took all the Care possible for the Preservation of the King's Troops, made him so much extoll'd at Court, as was mortifying to the Prime Minister.

France endeavor'd to repair the Loss of these two Places by seizing the Principality of Orange, which we were not near enough to defend, and he put the Prince of Conti in immediate Possession of it, who had some claim to it through the Chalons Family, of which he call'd himself Heir. But he soon after yielded the said Principality and his Pretensions, to Lewis XIV. who likewise caus'd an Edict to be publish'd there, by which it was put to the choice of all the Inhabitants to turn Catholics, or to sell their Effects and retire out of the Kingdom within the space of three Months. The Generality of those who were not willing to change their Religion, retir'd to our Court, and among others, the Members of the Parliament. The King reliev'd them as far as he could, and caus'd Collections to be made in all the Churches of his Dominions, the Money of which was distributed to those who had the most pressing Occasion for it.54

Soon after the Loss of Orange, the Margrave Albert married the Princess of Courland. That Prince in 1696, had succeeded the late Margrave Charles, his Father, in the Grand Mastership[7] of the Order of St. John. This Order is the same as that of Maltha, and is only separated from it since Luther. The Commanderies, subject to the Elector of Brandenburg, which became Protestant, put themselves under the Elector's Protection, and chose a Grand Master, or rather the Elector chose one for them. The Choice has always fallen upon a younger Prince of the Family, who is not engag'd by it to any Vow, more than the Knights, who are only obliged to prove their Nobility, to which the Sovereign very often objects.

The Princess of Courland was the eldest of the three Daughters that the Duke of Courland had by his first Lady. He married to his second Wife the King's Sister, and some time after he died. The Duchess his Widow, who had been oblig'd to abandon Courland, which the Swedes, the Poles and the Muscovites equally harass'd, came to Konigsberg, to be present at the Coronation of the King her Brother, who gave her that Protection she expected. Here it was, that the Year before she had married the Margrave of Brandenburg Bareith, the King's Cousin; and when she went with her Husband into his Dominions, she left the eldest of her Daughters-in-law with the Queen, in hopes of her marrying the Margrave Albert: And the Queen, who was fond of this Princess, ordered it so, that she obtain'd the King's Consent to the Marriage, which was celebrated some time after at Lutzelbourg.55

Much about this time we had a new Ceremony in our Climates. This[8] was the Erection of a Statue which the King caus'd to be set up in honor of his Father Frederic-William the Great. 'Tis perfectly like that of Lewis XIV. in the Square of Vendôme at Paris. The Pedestal and Base are of white Marble. This Statue was set up July 12, 1703; and the King in order to do the more Honor to the Elector his Father, caus'd the Ceremony to be perform'd with a magnificent Apparatus, in presence of the whole Court, and all the Benches of Justice.

The following Year 1704 was happy to the Allies, by their Victories at Donawert and Hochstet. The Troops that the King had sent into Franconia and Bavaria, to the Emperor and the City of Nuremberg[9], which call'd for Help against the Bavarians, contributed not a little to the obtaining of those Victories. The King received the News of it by an Express that was dispatch'd to him from the Prince of Anhalt, under whose Command those Succours acted. This Express was follow'd some Days after by a second, charg'd with a Letter from Prince Eugene of Savoy, who therein gave a sublime Encomium on the Valor of the Prussian Troops. I have been an Eye-witness, said he in his Letter, particularly with regard to the Infantry of the Right Wing, that all the Officers as well as the common Soldiers fought with the most intrepid Courage, and for several Hours check'd the Efforts of the Enemy, who at length not being able to resist their Bravery, and the continual Fire which they made, were put into such a Confusion, that56 they were oblig'd to fly with Precipitation, and to abandon the Field of Battle to us. The Prince attributes this vigorous Action of the Prussian Soldiers to the most exemplary Courage and Valor of the Prince of Anhalt their Commander. 'Tis but Justice, continu'd Prince Eugene, to give the Prince of Anhalt the Praise he has so well deserved. He hazarded his Person upon all Occasions, and not intimidated by the Danger to which he expos'd it, I always saw him at the Head of his Troops, leading them on to Battle, and encouraging them by his own Example; so that it may be said to his Honor, that he contributed the greatest Share to that Victory. This was a Panegyric the more pleasing to the Subject of it, because it proceeded from the Mouth of a Prince, who was too great a Master of Courage to be mistaken.

After the Campaign was over, my Lord Marlborough came to Berlin, where he receiv'd all the Marks of Esteem from the King, which he could possibly have desired. Every Point that he negociated for the Operations of the Campaign was granted him, and he went away from Court highly satisfied. As soon as he was gone the Prince Royal set out for Hanover, from whence he went to Holland; and he intended to pass over to England, but an Event which happen'd to the Grief of him and the whole Court, oblig'd him to return to Berlin.

This was the unexpected Death of the Queen, on the 1st of February 1705, after a few days Illness. This Princess us'd for some time past to go to Hanover, to make a Visit to the Electoress her Mother, of whom, as I have already had the Honor to acquaint you, she was extremely fond. The Day that she was to set57 out for this Journey she found herself indispos'd, but did not discover it, for fear lest the King should not permit her to go. Her Illness continu'd during the whole Journey, and When she came to Hanover, what with the fatigue of receiving Visits from the Ladies of the Court, and her dancing at a Ball the same day, she grew much worse. She came from the Ball with a Soreness in her Throat, which prov'd so violent that the Physicians and Surgeons soon despair'd of curing her. The Queen, tho' in the Flower of her Age, was not at all terrify'd when she saw Death approaching her. She wrote a very tender Letter to the King, in which she thanked him for the Love he had always manifested to her, and recommended her Domestics to him. Her Brother the Duke Ernest Augustus was so deeply concern'd to see her in such a condition, that she did what she could to comfort him: There is nothing so natural, said she to him, as Death; 'tis unavoidable, and tho' I am young enough to hope to live a few Years longer, yet I am not loth to die.

M. de la Bergerie the Minister of the French Church, who assisted her in her last Moments, was so surpriz'd at her courage and calmness, that he was more attentive to hear her than to exhort her. I have, said she, for twenty Years seriously study'd my Religion, and have read the Books that treat of it with too much application to be in any doubt as to my Principles. You cannot mention any thing to me but what I have read, and what you can say to me will certainly add nothing to my Opinion. Then turning towards my Cousin, who was on the other side of her Bed, Alas! said she, what a deal of needless Ceremony is now going to be us'd about this Body of mine! At58 the same time almost, she stretch'd out her Hand to Duke Ernest her Brother, and said to him, Dear Brother, I am choak'd; and that Moment she expir'd.

A Courier was immediately dispatch'd to the Prince Royal, who was at the Hague, and M. de Bulau the Steward of the Queen's Houshold carried the News to the King, who was so surpriz'd at it, that he fainted away several times. When he came to himself he shew'd marks of the sincerest Affliction, and seem'd fully sensible what a loss he had sustain'd. Indeed this Princess truly deserv'd his Lamentation, as well as the Sorrow of the whole State; and I for my part with my whole Family lost a solid and sincere Protectress.

The King's Grief was such, that it had no Interval, but in his application to pay those Honours to the Queen, that were due to her Rank. He was willing to signalize it by the magnificence of a Funeral Pomp, and for this purpose he himself issued the necessary Orders. The Elector of Hanover (afterwards King of England) omitted nothing on his part to shew his Sorrow for the loss of so dear a Sister. Her Body was laid for several days upon a sumptuous Bed of State; her Ladies and the Officers of her Houshold who had waited on her to Hanover encompass'd it, and the Elector's Guards and Officers stay'd with the Queen's Corpse, and pay'd the same Attendance as if she had been living. When every thing was ready to carry the Corpse to Berlin, the Elector caus'd it to be convey'd by all his Guards even to the Frontiers of the Duchy of Zell, where it was receiv'd by M. de Bulau the Grand Marshal of the Court, who conducted it to the Territories of Brandenburg; and there it59 was receiv'd by the Count de Witgenstein, who accompany'd it as far as Berlin, where I remember it arriv'd about ten o'clock at Night in a terrible Shower of Rain. The King accompany'd by the Prince Royal and the Margraves in long Mourning-Cloaks and by the Ladies of the Court in deep Mourning-Veils, receiv'd the Queen's Corpse at its being taken out of the Funeral-Chariot, and accompany'd it into the Old Chapel where a magnificent Cataphalque was erected for depositing it.

It represented a Temple of an Oval Form, whose Roof was supported by Pillars of the Corinthian Order, between each of which were plac'd Statues that represented the Queen's Vertues. In the middle of the Cataphalque just in the Upright there was a Glory, in which there was the Queen's Cypher form'd by Stars. All the Statues, that were silver'd, added to the Lustres, Branches and Chandeliers, made a noble Contrast with the Black that cover'd the Walls and the Roof. There the Queen's Corpse was repos'd till every thing was ready for her Interment. I will not here enter into the detail of that Ceremony, which was one of the most magnificent. What I observ'd extraordinary in it was, that 'twas the King's pleasure that the Parliament of Orange, of which the greatest part were Refugees at Court, should appear there in their Scarlet Robes.

The Queen's Death occasion'd no alteration in Affairs; for she meddled with the Government very little, and left all the care of it to the King and his Ministers: But in matters of Pleasure she was not so unconcern'd; and she understood them so well, that she was soon miss'd. The Courtiers sustain'd a Lose that was irreparable; for this Princess, who knew every body, was perfectly60 acquainted with every one's Birth and Merit, and took a delight to distinguish them. Being lofty, but at the same time polite, she knew better than any body in the World what it was to keep a Court; and being virtuous without meanness, she could tell (which is no easy matter) how to prescribe just Bounds to that Air of Gallantry, which alone is capable of rendering a Court agreeable, and preserving Politeness in it.

The only Princess capable of supplying her place was the Margravine Philippa, who then held the first Rank at Court. She was the Daughter of the Prince of Anhalt-Dessau, and of the Princess of Orange. She was good-natur'd and merry, and fond of Pleasures, but understood the delicacy of them. She might sometimes have made us forget the loss of the Queen, if the austere and perhaps jealous Humor of her Husband the Margrave Philip had not inclin'd that Prince to prefer his Residence at his House at Schwedt to the Court.

Soon after the Queen, died the Emperor Leopold; which was an Event that affected us not so much as the other, but concern'd the rest of Europe more. It was presently imagin'd that the Views to the Succession of Spain would have suffer'd some alteration by this Prince's Death; for the Emperor Joseph who succeeded his Father having no Son, the Archduke his Brother who disputed the Crown of Spain with the Duke of Anjou was his only Heir, and might one day or other by his Death become Master of the Empire, and of the Dominions of the House of Austria. Therefore they who dreaded to see the two Crowns united upon one Head, had as much and more reason to fear the Archduke's making himself Master of Spain; the Duke of Anjou61 who was already in possession of that Crown, being at that time very remote from that of France, by reason of the great number of Princes that had a prior Right to his. Nevertheless the Powers of Europe were not mov'd by these Reflections, and the War was continu'd on the side of the Allies with considerable Success.

The King of Sweden might, if he had pleased, have stopp'd the progress of it, and immortaliz'd his Name by rendring himself the Arbiter of a Quarrel, which divided Europe; for the Prosperity of his Arms had render'd him the Terror of all the Powers in the North. He had in the Year 1704 depriv'd the Elector of Saxony of the Crown of Poland, by causing King Stanislaus Leszinski the Palatine of Posen, to be proclaim'd King of Poland; and he was already in the middle of Saxony where he committed universal Ravage, and when he might have turn'd the Balance which way he pleas'd, the wrong Advice of his Favorite, corrupted by my Lord Marlborough, was the cause of the Misfortunes into which that Prince was afterwards precipitated.

Our Court has had a sufficient share in these different Events; but perhaps, Madame, 'tis so little known at your's as to deserve your Curiosity: but I will only tell you of what I think most important.

The Swedes and Poles had scarce laid down their Arms when the Differences between the King of Denmark and the Duke of Holstein gave them a fresh occasion to take them up again. In the Conferences that were begun at Pinneberg in 1696, there were hopes that those Princes would soon be reconcil'd; but they only patch'd up a Peace which could not last long, because of the Umbrage the King of Denmark took at the Duke62 of Holstein's strict Alliance with Sweden; and they quarrel'd again about the limits of their Dominions. The Danes were the Aggressors, and they demanded a reinforcement of four thousand Men of the King of Poland. This Prince, who naturally took part with those that declar'd against Sweden, was pleas'd well enough with the Danes Demand, and as there was an absolute necessity of passing those Troops over the Lands of the King, (at that time Elector) he sent the Count de Flemming, now his Prime Minister, to our Court, in order to sollicite their passage. Of a great many Arguments that were alledg'd against it, the most specious were, 'That the Mediators being still actually employ'd in procuring a just and equitable Accommodation, it was the duty of a Mediator to hinder the Rupture, rather than contribute to it by favoring this passage: That the Court of Prussia was Guarantee for the King of Sweden and the Duke of Holstein, that neither of those two Princes should begin the War against the King of Denmark; and that consequently as War was not declar'd against that Prince, his Danish Majesty had no need of Foreign Assistance; and that finally by giving passage to those Troops the Duke of Holstein would have just reason to accuse the Mediation of Partiality.' Nevertheless, after all these fine reasons, the four thousand Men had their Passage, either from surprise or the connivance of the Court. The King of Poland on his part, in order to make a considerable Diversion in favor of the King of Denmark, brought Troops from Livonia and besieg'd Riga, which then belong'd to the Swedes. This Conduct of the King of Poland, was, Madame, as the fatal Signal and the Primum Mobile of that63 tragical War, which tho' so glorious for the King of Sweden in the beginning, ended in the ruin not only of his Kingdom, but also of Poland and Saxony. And the greatest Gainer by it was the Czar.

The Danes while they waited for the Succours they had demanded from Poland, besieg'd the Fortress of Tonningen in the Duchy of Sleswic. The King of Sweden and the Duke of Holstein, before they oppos'd this Enterprize, preferr'd their Complaints to the Dyet of the Empire, and then prepar'd for driving the Danes out of the Country. The Elector of Hanover and the Duke of Zell join'd those two Princes, and the latter marching to the Relief of Tonningen had the Honor of obliging the Besiegers to abandon it, upon the report only of his Approach. This Prince therefore having nothing to do towards Tonningen, went with his Troops and rejoin'd the Elector of Hanover. They met the four thousand Men whom the King of Poland was sending to the Assistance of the Danes, but only took their Baggage and Arms, and then left them at liberty to return home.

The King of Sweden, on his part, push'd on the War against the Poles. That great Prince whom extraordinary Undertakings never startled, having already ravag'd a part of Poland, design'd a bold stroke, which was no less than dethroning the lawful King of that Country, and setting up another in his room. He had cast his eyes upon James of Poland, Son of King John Sobieski; but the King of Poland parry'd this blow, by causing the Prince James and his Brother Prince Constantine, to be carried away from an Estate of theirs near Breslau to Saxony, where they were strictly guarded like64 Prisoners at the Castle of Leipsic. The Confinement of these Princes did indeed hinder either of them from being elected King; but the King of Sweden still persisted in his design of dethroning the King of Poland, on purpose to be reveng'd of that Prince for being so rash as to be the first that declar'd War against him. He caused the Election to fall upon Stanislaus Leczinski the Palatine of Posen. The Bishop of Posen officiated as Cardinal Primate in this Ceremony, and proclaim'd the new King. The King of Sweden wrote to all the Princes with whom he was at peace, to acquaint them of this new Election, and to exhort them to recognize it. The Letter he wrote to our King had no Influence over him; for he made answer, that he had recogniz'd one King of Poland already, and that as long as he liv'd he would acknowledge no other. He wrote at the same time to the King of Poland, to demand the Liberty of the two Princes. The Emperor, to whom the eldest had the Honour of being Brother-in-law, seconded the King's Demand; but the Solicitations of both had no consequence, and the Princes were not releas'd till a long time after.

The following Year the King undertook to procure a Peace between the Kings of Sweden and Poland; but as the view of such Reconciliation was to re-establish the Prince of Saxony upon the Throne of Poland, the King of Sweden would hearken to no Proposal of Peace, unless the dethron'd King would solemnly renounce the Crown. Mean time his Swedish Majesty, in order to mollify his Refusal of the King's Mediation, sent an Ambassador-Extraordinary to him to recognize him as King of Prussia. This Ambassador65 was the first that ever made a public Entry at Berlin, and 'twas one of the most splendid that cou'd be, tho' all the Equipages were in Mourning by reason of the Death of the Queen.

Thus did this crafty King, by amusing those he had a mind to keep fair with, always push at his own ends. He continu'd to ravage Poland, and drove the King from thence into his Electorate of Saxony. There the Swedish Soldiers took up their Winter-Quarters, and committed such Outrages as one would not have expected from a Nation so fruitful in Heroes. The Swedish Prince signaliz'd his Entrance into Saxony by a glorious Action, which was procuring the Liberty of the two Polish Princes, who had for two Years been detain'd Prisoners with very great Severity and as little Reason. He afterwards march'd through all Saxony with the haughtiness of a Conqueror who comes to prescribe Laws to those whom he has reduc'd to his Obedience. As for King Stanislaus whom he had caus'd to be crown'd King of Poland at Warsaw, he led him about, with him as it were in Triumph. As this new King advanc'd towards the Territories of the Electorate of Brandenburg, to meet the Queen his Wife who was coming from Stetin, our Court caus'd all the Honours to be paid to him that were due to the Royal Dignity, without recognizing him all the while for King. This Complaisance of our Court won the King of Sweden's Heart. Mean time the Neighbourhood of this great Monarch, who, where-ever he march'd, carried Fire and Sword with him, gave vast uneasiness, and the Joy was as great when he manifested a Design to turn his Arms against the Muscovites, which he was put upon to do by the English. They66 had for some time past suspected him to be supported under-hand by France, and they thought the best way to embroil him with that Crown was to engage him in a War with the Czar. The Person commission'd to negociate this Affair was my Lord Marlborough, who went to the King of Sweden, and soon put his Negociation in a hopeful way to succeed. He found about the King a Minister so sordid, that he was not proof against an Offer of three hundred thousand Crowns, to betray his Master into a War which could not but be fatal to him; whereas, if he had pleas'd, he might have acquir'd immortal Glory in the midst of Saxony, by rendring himself the Umpire of two of the most potent Families in Europe, then contending for the Crown of Spain. This Minister knowing his Master's ambitious Temper, propos'd no less to him than dethroning the Czar. The young Monarch full of Zeal and Courage did not imagine how impossible it was to dethrone a Prince who was retir'd behind Provinces quite deserted, and where the Snow lay so deep that 'twas difficult to distinguish whether they walk'd upon Land or Rivers. He march'd out of the Electorate of Saxony at the Head of his Troops about the end of the Year 1707. Never had People juster Reasons for giving public Marks of their Joy, than the Saxons had to see the Swedish Monarch turn his Back to them. His Troops had committed excessive Outrages in the Electorate; all the flat Country of Saxony was intirely ruin'd, and, except some great Towns such as Leipsic, where they generously enough spent part of the Money they had extorted from the poor Saxon Peasant, there was not a Hamlet but was laid waste to such a degree, that there were no hopes67 of its being restor'd to its original Condition one while.

Yet if the Misfortunes of an Enemy can in any measure compensate the Losses he has occasion'd, the Saxons had all the reason in the World to be pleas'd in the Sequel. The Swedish Troops gave way every where to the Muscovites, who flush'd with former Victories, beat them to nothing.

The greatest Loss the King of Sweden sustain'd was near Pultowa. This Prince, who was more ambitious than prudent, being got too far into Muscovy, did not perceive his error till it was too late to retrieve it. The Czar had the Precaution, as he retir'd a little before into his own Dominions, to burn above forty Leagues of Country thro' which the King of Sweden was to pass to him; so that this Prince soon found himself in a very sad situation, not being able to stay in a place where there was no manner of Provision, and forc'd to engage with an Army well intrench'd and far superior to his own. But there was no avoiding it, and a Battle was fought the 8th of July 1709, when the Swedes were all either cut in pieces or taken Prisoners by the Muscovites. The King who was oblig'd by a Wound in his Heel to be carry'd in a Litter had like to have been kill'd, for one Cannon-Ball kill'd one of his Horses, and a second demolish'd his Litter. The whole Army was in pain for the King's Life; but the Officers who were near his Person snatch'd him out of danger, and advis'd him to provide for his safety. This Prince was very loth to comply with such a resolution, but finding himself oblig'd to yield to Force, retir'd to Bender, a little Town at the entrance of Moldavia, which belongs to the Turkish Empire. The King of Sweden was no sooner safe,68 but the Remains of his Army with their Generals at their head submitted to the Conqueror. This, Madame, was the Success of the Battle of Pultowa; a Battle glorious to the Muscovites, but so fatal to the King of Sweden that he could never recover it: For after this Defeat this young Hero was always expos'd to the most cruel Reverses of that very Fortune, which in his early Years seem'd to delight in heaping Favors on him.

Mean time the two Families in competition for the Crown of Spain had not yet sheath'd their Swords. The King of Sweden was even yet in the Electorate of Saxony when the French lost the famous Battle of Ramellies, which procur'd the Allies the greatest part of the Spanish Netherlands. The Troops in Italy also distinguish'd themselves, and particularly the Prussians, who had so great a share in the raising of the Siege of Turin, that the Duke of Savoy wrote a Letter to the King, in which he extolled the Valor of the Prussian Generals and Soldiers. "Yesterday, said he, the Enemy's Army was intirely put to the rout in their own Lines before this place (Turin), in which your Majesty's Troops had the greatest share, and I can never enough commend their Bravery, nor the notable Valour of the Prince of Anhalt, who led them on, &c." This Letter was dated the 8th of September, 1706.

The Prince of Anhalt too sent an Express with the same News to the King, and gave a great Character of the Troops under his Command. "As your Majesty's Troops, said he, in his Letter, were the first that enter'd the Enemy's Trenches, so they have suffer'd very much, and especially the Grenadiers. I may69 say that your Majesty's Forces have behav'd so well, that they are intitled to universal Praise and Admiration, &c." Then he enter'd into the Detail of the Losses sustain'd by the French, which were indeed very considerable. 'Twas upon this occasion that the Marshal de Marsin was wounded and taken Prisoner, and besides forty-five Pieces of heavy Cannon and one hundred and forty lesser that were taken from them, they lost a great Convoy of two thousand Mules and one thousand Horses, which was guarded by the Regiment of Dragoons of Chatillon.

The raising of this Siege, and the Reputation the Prussian Troops thereby acquired was very acceptable News to the King, and while the Court was rejoicing for this, there arriv'd other Advices which gave them no less pleasure; and that was the raising of the Siege of Barcelona. This City had been besieg'd for some time by the Marshal de Tesse; but King Charles who defended it made so stout a Resistance and such destructive Sallies upon the French Army, that the latter was oblig'd to retire. The King was inform'd of it by an Express from King Charles.

So many Successes one after another rais'd the hopes of the Allies prodigiously. The Terror the French Arms had for a long time impress'd upon their Minds soon wore off, and nothing was heard every where but shouts of Joy, to see so haughty a Nation at last humbled. Our Court was more rejoic'd than any other at this great News, and every one envy'd the Fortune of the Prussian Soldiers, when they saw that the Duke of Savoy and the Prince of Anhalt themselves, gave them the highest Encomia.70

At this happy Juncture was celebrated the Marriage of the Prince Royal, which had been concluded at Hanover, a Journey the King made thither with the Prince his Son. This young Prince had for a long time such a veneration for the Princess the Elector's Daughter, as 'twas possible for the most accomplish'd Merit to inspire him with, and of all the Princesses in the World she was like to be the most acceptable to her Subjects; she represented to us the Idea of the late Queen, and as she was her Niece and design'd to succeed to her Dominions, she seem'd also to have inherited all the great Qualities that made the former ador'd at our Court. The Electoral Prince of Hanover married her at Hanover by Proxy, in presence of the Count de Finck the King's Ambassador. The Princess set out from thence some days after with a Train becoming her present and her future Dignity. The Elector her Father had given her the most magnificent Suits of Apparel and Jewels that could be got for Money, and they were purchas'd at Paris by a Man sent on purpose. The Duchess of Orleans was desirous to chuse and give Directions for the Clothes, and she afterwards shewed them to Lewis XIV. who thought them so rich that he said it were to be wish'd for the sake of the Mercers of Paris, that there were more Princesses that could afford to make such Purchases.

'Twas Novemb. 27, 1706, that this Princess made her public Entry at Berlin. The King met her about half a League out of Town. As soon as her Royal Highness perceiv'd the King's Coach she alighted, as the King did also from his and went to meet her. After having embraced the Princess he presented the71 Prince Royal to her, together with his Brothers and the two Princesses. Then the King took Coach again, where the Princess plac'd herself on the King's left hand; and the two Margraves sate over-against them; the Prince-Royal and the King's three Brothers being mounted on Horseback. The Entry was one of the most magnificent that was ever seen. All the Troops then at Berlin were under Arms, as well as all the City-Militia, and drawn up in a Line from the Out-parts of the Town quite to the Palace. The next day after the Princess's Arrival, there was a sumptuous Feast, at which the Prince Royal and the Princess had Arm-Chairs, but for that day only; for the next day their Royal Hignesses sate in upright Chairs at the two ends of the Table.

Our Court was then as splendid as in the time of the late Queen. There was a continual Round of Pleasures, and every day was remarkable for Feasts, Balls, Comedies, &c. These Rejoicings had lasted a good while, when all on a sudden we had a most terrible Alarm. The King fell dangerously ill, and his Physicians began to despair of his Recovery. But God, who always considers the Wants of his People, did us the favor to restore him to us for a while longer. Upon his Recovery he receiv'd the Compliments of the whole Court, and the Congratulations of the Princes his Allies, who acknowledg'd as well as his Subjects how necessary his Preservation was to the Common Cause.

Not long after the King's Recovery, I saw the young Count de Metternich arrive at Berlin, who came to bring the King Advice, That the Swissers had at length recogniz'd his Majesty for Sovereign Prince of Neufchâtel, preferably to the72 other Princes his Competitors. The Count de Metternich, who was the King's Ambassador in Swisserland, had the good Fortune to carry this Point, notwithstanding the Menaces of France, who asserted the Interests of several of her Subjects, at the Head of whom was the Prince of Conti. Madame de Nemours, the Sovereign of Neufchâtel, was no sooner dead, but each of the Claimants put in their Plea of Right to this Sovereignty. As soon as the News of her Death was confirm'd, the King sent Orders to M. de Metternich, his Ambassador-Extraordinary and his Plenipotentiary in Swisserland, to repair to Neufchâtel and take care of his Interests. He went thither accordingly on the 30th of June, and caus'd a Memorial to be distributed at his Arrival, containing the King's Right to the said Principality. The French Competitors on their part distributed another, to establish their own Rights, and invalidate the Pretensions of the King. There happen'd to be Disputes between the Prince of Conti and the Prussian Ambassador about Precedency. M. de Puisieux the Ambassador of France, as it was his Duty to do, maintain'd the Interests of the Prince of Conti, and presented to the Council of Neufchâtel a Memorial so haughty and menacing, as if it had come from victorious France in the Time when she was flush'd with Conquests. He said in this Memorial, "That the King his Master cannot look with Indifference upon the Conduct at Neufchâtel, in presuming to be so disrespectful to the Princes of his Family; that it wou'd be the wisest way for the Gentlemen of the Council speedily to take Measures to prevent this Pretension of the Prussian Minister from being carried any further, a Pretension, said73 he, which has no Foundation, but in Malice or Ignorance; because even tho' the new Title, which the Elector of Brandenburg has assum'd for some years, were universally recogniz'd, yet this very Pretension of his Ambassador's would be always chimerical." Here M. de Puisieux gave them Warning, "That if they did not soon alter their Conduct, the King of France wou'd take Measures very opposite to the pacific and kind Sentiments which he had entertain'd since the Affair of Neufchâtel was first in agitation." Such, Madame, was the Strain in which the French Minister talk'd. This Memorial was follow'd by several others, which went to the very bottom of the Affair; and M. de Puisieux, in order to engage the Council of Neufchâtel to favour the French Claimants, still continued to talk in such a high Stile, as prejudiced every body against the Side that he espous'd. You may judge of this Ambassador's manner of Negociation, by the last Memorial which he presented towards the close of October 1707. After having establish'd the Right of the French Competitors with continual Invectives, he concluded thus; If it happens contrary to my Expectation, that your Answer is not conformable to what I demand,—I have fresh Orders from his Majesty to assure you, that nothing will be capable to hinder the Effects of his Indignation, or to screen you from that just Vengeance which he proposes to take. Then, as if he affected to speak in a softer Strain, he said to them with an Air of Protection, "That he hop'd while he staid at Neufchâtel, to find favourable Inclinations for the entire Performance of what he wish'd for." 'Tis the only thing you can do (these are the last Words of his Memorial) to merit the Continuance74 of his Majesty's Good-will. I wish for my own part, that you wou'd furnish me with Opportunities to help maintain you in it. But all these Menaces of the French Ambassador came to nothing, and only procur'd him sharp Answers from the Ambassadors of Prussia, England, and Holland; for things went on in the same Course in the Council of Neufchâtel, and the whole Affair was determined to the Satisfaction of the King, who was proclaim'd Sovereign thereof on the 3d of November 1707.

As soon as the King had been recogniz'd in that Sovereignty, the Count de Metternich sent his Son to his Majesty with the Sentence of the three Estates, declaring the King lawful Heir of the said Principality, by Louisa of Nassau his Mother, the eldest Daughter of Prince Frederic-Henry, Son of William of Nassau call'd the Belgic, to whom there had been a Transfer of the Rights of the House of Chalons, to which the Sovereignty and Domaine of Neufchâtel originally belong'd.

The News of the Acquisition of this Sovereignty cou'd not but be very acceptable to the King, who gave the young Count a most favorable Reception, made him noble Presents, and amongst others, gave him the Key of Chamberlain.

Not many days after, viz. Nov. 23, 1707, the Court had a fresh Subject of Joy, by the Princess Royal's safe Delivery of a Prince, whom the King immediately declared Prince of Orange, and made him at the same time a Knight of the Grand Order. His Majesty after this dispatch'd Couriers to his Ambassadors at the Courts of the Princes his Allies to acquaint them of the Birth of his Grandson. M. de Spanheim the Ambassador in England received Orders to desire the75 Queen to be God-mother to the young Prince;, and M. de Schmettau Ambassador in Holland, and M. de Metternich Ambassador in Swisserland, were charged to invite the States with whom they resided to be God-fathers. Besides these Powers, the King and the Elector of Hanover were God-fathers, and the Electoress of Hanover was God-mother. The Baptism was performed with great Magnificence on the 3d of December in the Church of the Dome. The Joy at Court for the Birth of this Prince was of no long Duration; for in a few Months after, he died: but the Sorrow for the Loss of him was alleviated, by the Hopes that the Prince Royal had Youth and Health enough to give us soon more Heirs. The Incident that was most alarming, was the weakly Condition of the King, who recover'd but slowly from his Grand Ailment; so that his Physicians advis'd him to make use of the Waters ofCarlsbadt in Bohemia; and at the beginning of the fine Season, his Majesty went thither accordingly.

The King's Departure being resolv'd on, I begg'd his Majesty's leave, to make the Campaign in Flanders in quality of a Voluntier. I set out from Berlin with the Gens d'Arms, in which my Brother was a Cornet, and we join'd the Army near Louvain. The Count de Lottum receiv'd me as a Voluntier; and I had the Pleasure to be near him all the Campaign. Not many days after I had reached the Army, the Electoral Prince of Hanover, (now George II. King of England) arrived in the Camp of my Lord Marlborough, and did that General the Honor to serve with him as a Voluntier. The young Prince distinguish'd himself very much in this Campaign, and gave the76 English sufficient Proof that he was worthy hereafter of wearing their Crown. 'Twas in this Campaign that the famous Battel of Audenarde was fought, in which the French were again obliged to yield to the Efforts of the Allies. It must be said however, in their favor, that they were forc'd to fight without Artillery; for they had but four Pieces of Cannon, the rest of their Ordnance and Baggage not being yet arriv'd. The Action was very hot on both sides; they fought for several Hours with exceeding Obstinacy, and always with a considerable Loss on the part of the Enemy; whose Infantry was not only put to the rout, but a great many Squadrons of the French King's Houshold Troops; which advanc'd to support the Foot; were cut in pieces; whereupon the Confusion was so great, and the fire so furious in several places at once, that 'twas almost impossible to distinguish the Allies from the Enemy; therefore Orders were given to fire no more till next Morning, but to let the Enemy escape, rather than run the risque of putting our own Army in confusion.

The Night being come, the French scarce made any more Resistance but retir'd by the way that goes from Audenarde to Ghent, thro' the Village of Heusden. This very Evening as I was standing with some Officers of the Guards, at a small distance from the Prussian Guards, I perceiv'd a Trooper riding full speed towards us, who, when he arriv'd said, Gentlemen, the Duke de Vendosme orders you to retire towards Ghent. I cannot express to you how much he was surpriz'd when we told him for Answer, That he was a Prisoner. Kill me, said he, upon the spot, I don't desire to out-live what has happened to me. We comforted him as well as we cou'd, and carried77 him to the Count de Lottum's Quarters, to whom he made himself known for M. Duplanti, Aid de Camp to the Duke de Vendosme. What led him into the mistake was the Habit of the Prussian Guards, which is not very different from that of the French.

The Battle of Audenarde was the more glorious for the Allies, because it was a Victory gain'd over the Duke of Burgundy who commanded the Army of France, and had with him the Duke of Berry his Brother, and the Chevalier de St. George; but they say this Battle was quite against the Opinion of the Duke de Vendosme, whose Advice was not hearken'd to, and the Cabals which the Duke of Burgundy gave into, hinder'd the Designs of that famous General from being follow'd, and were the Cause of the Loss of the Battle.

Next day about ten o'clock at Night the Count de Lottum was detach'd from the Grand Army with forty Squadrons and thirty Battalions, and without any Resistance took possession, of the Lines towards Ypres, which were immediately demolish'd. The 19th of that Month was celebrated by the Army as a Day of Thanksgiving for the Victory they had gain'd; upon which all the Cannon were fir'd, and there was a triple Salvo of all the small Arms.

On the 26th, my Lord Marlborough, who only waited for a Convoy of the heavy Artillery to begin the Siege of Lisle, sent a Detachment to Brussels, where there was a considerable Train, which came partly from Sas van Ghent and Maestricht. This March was cover'd by 22,000 Men of Prince Eugene's Army, which he himself commanded in Person. This great Convoy arriving78 safe before Lisle, the Town was invested the 13th of August. As it was one of the most considerable Sieges that had been undertaken for a long time; and as 'twas natural to expect a vigorous Resistance, on the part of the Marshal de Boufflers who commanded in the Place, there came Voluntiers from all Quarters to the Camp of the Besiegers. Two great Princes, both able Generals, thought fit to be present at this Siege, viz. the King of Poland and the Landgrave of Hesse-Cassel, who were at the opening of the Trenches, which was on the 22d at Night.

Some Days after, the Enemy approach'd so near to us, that it was believed they had an Inclination to engage. Our Generals were therefore at the head of the Army as soon as the Day broke. Prince Eugene join'd my Lord Marlborough with twenty-six Battalions and seventy-six Squadrons of his Army which form'd the Siege; and the Army being drawn up in three Lines, of which the two foremost consisted of the Cavalry; they remain'd in this Posture till about ten o' clock in the Forenoon, when 'twas visible that the Enemy had no mind to come to a Battle, and that they only meant to disturb us; for which Reason the Generals caus'd Entrenchments to be cast up, which were finish'd next Day, and the Detachment which Prince Eugene brought, was sent back again, excepting some Squadrons that staid.

There was then so little Apprehension of an Attack, that most of the Generals quitted the Grand Army to assist in the storming of the Counterscarp, which happen'd on the 5th of September at Night. Our Men earned it, tho' with very great Loss on our side, and made Lodgments on it. When this Attack was over,79 we set out to return to the Grand Army; but to our misfortune the Guide that had conducted us, was run away; and as it was not then more than one or two o'clock in the Morning, we were in a very great Perplexity, and fell exactly into the Road that led to the Centre of the Enemy's Camp. I was on horseback, perhaps a hundred Yards from the Count de Lottum who was in his Coach, when all on a sudden I heard some body call out, Who goes there? I confess to you, Madame that I was somewhat surpriz'd, but I comforted my self with the Thought, that it was perhaps a Centinel of some Walloon Regiment of the Spanish Troops, so that I answer'd, Officers. We were got in the midst of Hedges and Trees, which hinder'd me of the Benefit of a little Moonlight, by which I might perhaps have discover'd with whom we had to do; and therefore I still went on: but I was no sooner out of the Thicket, than I found my self near enough to a Body of Horse, to discern that 'twas impossible it shou'd belong to us, because it was too near the Place, and because it fronted us. I presently saw our Danger; I turn'd back as gently as I cou'd possibly to the Count de Lottum, and told him what I had observ'd. M. de K—— his first Adjutant call'd me a Simpleton. Kraut the second Adjutant treated me in much the same Stile; and in short I had like to have been dismissed for a Fool; only the Count de Lottum thought it was Wisdom to run no hazard, and therefore he order'd his Coachman to turn about, and the Officer of the Ordnance was detach'd to see whether I was mistaken. The Truth of the Fact being by him confirm'd, the Adjutants were almost frighten'd out of their Wits, made a thousand Apologies, and promis'd to make me any sort of80 amends, if we were but so fortunate as to escape the Danger which threaten'd us. At last we were delivered out of it, I don't well know how; for had the Enemy advanc'd ever so little, we were sure of being left dead on the Spot.

Thus, Madame, have I given you what pass'd most remarkable since the Storm of the Counterscarp. On the 11th, some Motion was made on the part of the Enemy, who even advanc'd almost up to our Trenches; but we were in a Posture to receive them. Their Army lay all Night under Arms, and next Morning at Daybreak drew up in Order of Battle, but contrary to our Expectation nothing came of it; for the Princes of France, the Chevalier de St. George, the Duke de Vendosme, and several General Officers contented themselves with taking a View of our Camp; but as they advanc'd somewhat too near to our Intrenchments, we were oblig'd to be a little rude to such great Princes, and to let fly some Cannon-Ball among them, whereupon they thought fit to retire.

My Lord Duke heard the same Day, that M. de Chamillard, Secretary at War, was arriv'd from Versailles in the Army of France, to be present at a Council which was to be held there. It was therein resolv'd, That we should not be attack'd, and that their only Business should be to cut off our Convoys from Brussels. To execute this Project they posted themselves behind the Scheld, from whence they indeed did very much incommode us. We had no Passage left now but from Ostend, by which General Webb brought us a considerable Convoy. M. de la Motte, a Lieutenant-General of the French Army endeavor'd to hinder its Passage; he had also the Advantage of the Ground. Nevertheless he was defeated near81 Wynendale. To this Convoy may be ascrib'd the Conquest of Lisle, which was at length oblig'd to surrender on the 28th of October, and the Marshal de Boufflers retir'd into the Citadel; yet as brave as the Garison was that march'd into it with him, he could not hold it out long. Thus the Allies gain'd some considerable Advantage or other every day. Never did they make a more glorious Campaign; for besides the taking of Lisle and its Citadel, they had also the Glory in this same Campaign of raising the Siege which the Elector of Bavaria had laid to Brussels, and of reducing Ghent and Bruges.

I forgot to tell you, that during the Siege of Lisle, we had like to have lost Prince Eugene. This Prince receiv'd a Packet one day by the Post, and having broke it open, he saw a greasy Paper, which gave him a mistrust; but he only threw it upon the Ground, and a Person that gathered it up being taken ill, it induc'd them to make an Experiment upon a Dog, which when they had rubb'd it about his Nose, died that Instant. Thus was God pleas'd to preserve this Hero from the basest of Treasons.

I wish'd I could have been at the taking of Lisle, but was oblig'd to quit the Army some time before, M. Dankelman my Tutor having receiv'd the King's Orders to send me to Berlin, where his Majesty design'd to give me a Place at Court; and as he had Thoughts of marrying again, he propos'd to prefer me to an Employment under the new Queen.

The King's Marriage was talk'd of at the Waters of Carelsbadt. I have had the honor to acquaint you, Madame, that the Physicians not knowing what Remedy to prescribe, for curing him of the Faintness, which was the Relic of his82 great illness in 1707, had at all adventures order'd the Waters of Carelsbadt, and the King was perfectly recover'd by them. The Recovery of his Health reviv'd the Pleasures of the Court. The voluptuous Courtier, who had not yet forgot what the Presence of an amiable Queen is capable of doing, began to form Vows, that the King might make a Choice as good as the first: nay, the matter was carried farther; it was mention'd to his Majesty, who was told withal, that nothing was more necessary, than to think immediately of a second Marriage; and that the Prince Royal having no Children, there was Danger of his Majesty's leaving no Issue. In short, every body voted so heartily for a Marriage, that the King, who also was desirous of it, declar'd he wou'd marry again. The only difficulty was to know, who should be the Princess that was to be advanc'd to the Throne; and then arose several Parties, who had each very different Views.

The Great Chamberlain was for the Princess of Nassau-Friesland, a Marriage with whom, he imagin'd, would put an end to all the Disputes about King William's Succession. The King approv'd of the Proposal, and sent the Baron de Schalifer to negociate the Treaty. You would not believe perhaps, Madame, that the very Mother of this Princess caus'd it to miscarry, from a Jealousy of her Daughter's Grandeur. Her Pretext was, that she had before vainly flatter'd herself with the Hopes of marrying her Daughter to the Prince Royal; that she had been bubbled then; and that it would be the same thing now. The Assurances that the Baron gave her to the contrary, and the Advantages he shew'd her would accrue to her Family from this Match, were all to no83 purpose; she remain'd inflexible; and told him in plain Terms, that she could not bear to think of seeing her Daughter so much above her. The Baron having made some other Attempts, this jealous Mother prevail'd on her Daughter to refuse the greatest Offer she could ever hope for. A great many of the Courtiers were not sorry to see this Match broke off. They had been jealous for a long time of the great Credit of the Prince of Anhalt, who being Uncle to the Princess in question, 'twas natural to presume, that she would grow more powerful than before, besides the being more united than ever to the Great Chamberlain, to whom the Prince would be oblig'd for this Marriage.

Then the Princess of Hesse was propos'd, and the Princess of Culmbach. The former had the Negative put upon her the very Moment that she was mention'd, and that by the King himself. The latter was known to the King, who had seen her at Hall, as he return'd from Carelsbadt. His Majesty thought very well of her, and had even seem'd inclinable to determine in her favor, when, opposite Cabals were set at work, which quite frustrated the Proposal.

The Duchess of Zeitz, the King's Sister, who married a Duke of Meckelbourg to her first Husband, proposed the Princess of Meckelbourg to the King. His Majesty, who had still perhaps the Princess of Culmbach in his Thoughts, did not seem at first to relish this Proposal; nevertheless upon the Instances made to him by the Duchess his Sister, he promised her to see the Princess of Meckelbourg before he determin'd in favor of any other Person. This he did accordingly, some time after he return'd to Berlin, when he went to Schwerin, the Capital City of Meckelbourg,84 on pretence of endeavoring to accommodate the Differences between the Duke and the Nobility. There it was that the King saw the Princess; she pleas'd him, and besides he had heard so much in her Praise, that at length he determin'd to have her; and as soon as he return'd to Oranienbourg, he declared his Marriage.

This News did not create so much Joy at our Court as I imagin'd it wou'd; and the Courtiers began to reflect seriously, upon what they had seem'd to wish for with Impatience. They call'd to mind the Time of the late Queen. Moreover, the Age and Health of the Prince and Princess Royal gave them ground enough to hope, that the Brandenburg Family would not want Heirs. In fine, the Character of Mother-in-law, ever hated, gave Apprehension that there wou'd soon be a Division in the Royal Family. For my own part, I verily believe, Madame, that what most of all disgusted the Courtiers, in the Choice which the King had now made, was, that the Queen was a devout Lady, a Quality not very likely to make that Air of Gallantry prevail at Court, which captivates the Heart of the Courtier.

The King had no sooner declar'd his Intention to marry again, but there was a Multitude of Sollicitors to be of the Queen's Houshold. One Bassompierre put himself upon the List, and he desir'd the King wou'd make him the Queen's Chamberlain. The King made him answer, that he would put no Officers about the Queen, except such as should be agreeable to her; but that he would favor him so far, as to put him in the number of those that shou'd be propos'd to the Queen as soon as she arriv'd. Bassompierre85 thought that by making previous Application to the Queen, he should not fail of being admitted, and therefore he set out Post to meet her. He told her Majesty that the King had sent him to be her Chamberlain. The Queen believ'd him, admitted him in that quality, and also gave him a Letter to carry to the King, with which he return'd to Berlin. He told the King, that the Queen had appointed him her Chamberlain. His Majesty easily imagin'd that the Queen had been surpriz'd; and being justly angry with Bassompierre, forbad him the Court. This Bassompierre had a Brother who came to Berlin the same time as he did: These two Gentlemen said they were of that honest Family of Bassompierre, of which there are some still in Lorrain: And by that Name they went, Anno 1707, in the Army in Flanders. The eldest said he had been a Colonel in France, and that his Brother was a Captain in the same Regiment. They pretended that they left their Country, the eldest for having fought a Duel, and the youngest for being his Second. The King had receiv'd them kindly, and given them Pensions, with a Promise to prefer them to the Army the first Opportunity that should offer. These two Brothers were at Court in a very agreeable Situation, and wou'd, no doubt, have long enjoy'd it, when the eldest attempted to be the Queen's Chamberlain; in which perhaps too he would have succeeded, if his Eagerness for it had not made him take that Step, by which he incurr'd his Majesty's Indignation. He was very much astonish'd at the Order which was signify'd to him, not to be seen any more at Court; and at length fearing he shou'd be found out to be what he really was, he retir'd, and went with his Brother to Saxony, where they were both admitted86 into the King of Poland's Horse-Guards; but they did not enjoy that Shelter long: for the Electoress of Hanover having heard of their Intrigue at Berlin, wrote to a great Lady in France, and desir'd her to inform her who those Bassompierres were. The Lady, who knew nothing at all of 'em, naturally mistrusted that they were Fortune-Hunters; but for better Information she enquir'd of M. d'Argenson, Lieutenant of the Police, who upon the Description given him of those Gentlemen, discover'd they were a couple of Sparks, whose Duel of Honor wou'd have been rewarded with the Brand of the Flower de Lis and the Galleys, if they could have been apprehended in France. Upon this Discovery Messieurs de Bassompierre were banish'd out of Poland, and what became of them afterwards I cannot tell.

Mean time all the necessary Preparations were making at Berlin for the Reception of the Queen, who was preparing on her part for her public Entry. The Duke of Meckelbourg married the Princess his Sister by Proxy from the King. Next day the new Queen set out from Schwerin, in company with the Duchess her Mother, the Duke her Brother, and the Duchess of Meckelbourg her Sister-in law. This Train went with her to the very Frontier of Meckelbourg, which borders upon the Electorate of Brandenburg, and there the Queen found M. d'Erlach, Marshal of the Court, who receiv'd her in the King's Name, and offer'd her his House. This Princess, after having taken leave of her Family, took Coach and arriv'd at Oranienburg the 24th of November. The King went and met her about half a League from that House. As soon as she perceiv'd his Majesty, she alighted out of87 her Coach and fell on her Knees. The King took her up and embrac'd her, and after presenting the whole Royal Family to her they went to the Castle. The King conducted the Queen to her Apartment, where she always eat alone, to the very Day of the Celebration of the Marriage. The 27th she made her Entry at Berlin, where she was receiv'd with all possible Magnificence, and next Day their Majesties were married in the Church of the Dome. The 29th, the King and Queen receiv'd the Compliments of all the Deputies, Courts of Justice and Foreign Ministers; and on the same day there was a great Entertainment which their Majesties honor'd with their Presence. I was not willing, Madame, to tire you with a tedious Detail of all the Ceremonies: I have already had the Honor to acquaint you, that the King spar'd for nothing that might contribute to the Magnificence of the Feast, which lasted several days, and was more sumptuous every day than other. What I thought remarkable, was a Battle of wild Beasts, at which their Majesties were present on the 17th of December, when the Queen kill'd a Bear from her Gallery, with a shot from a Hand-Gun.

The Arrival of the new Queen created no great Change at Court, and except the first Rank which she had of the Ladies every thing continued in the same state. The Princess-Royal kept her Court at her own Lodgings twice a Week, that is to say, on those Days when there was no Circle at the Queen's; for upon the Drawing-Room Days she went to her Majesty's Apartment, as did most of the Princesses, and they stay'd there to sup. Her Majesty likewise granted the same Honor to several other Ladies,88 to whom she gave an Invitation by a Gentleman when they were in the Circle.

'Twas at the time of the King's Marriage that I lost my Father-in-law: I was very much concern'd for his Death, especially on account of the Trouble it gave my Mother, who could never get over it as long as she liv'd. The very day that the News of it was brought to me, the King declar'd me a Gentleman of his Bed-chamber. I have had the Honor to tell you, Madame, that I was taken out of the Army in hopes of being plac'd near the Queen, but when I came to Court I found all her Houshold settled, and my Name not in the List. I spoke of this to the Grand Marshal, who bid me not be vexed, for that he would shortly get me a Post about the King, and that was the Office of Gentleman of the Bed-chamber, to which I was nominated some time after, i. e. about the latter end of the Year 1708.

You know, Madame, and one can hardly forget the prodigious cold Weather we had the Winter following. It began on the Feast of Epiphany, 1709, and was universal all over Europe. The Corn and Vines suffer'd so much by it that there was a scarcity which lasted long enough to starve a number of poor People, who cou'd not get Bread, it was so excessive dear. Never was there a more melancholy Year; and there was such a poor melancholy Court all the while, that it seem'd as if the severe cold Weather had chill'd our Spirits. But when the fine Weather return'd they began to revive, and every one prepar'd to set out for the Army. The Prince Royal went to make the Campaign in Flanders as a Voluntier, and M. d'Arnheim departed to rejoin the Troops of which he had the89 Command in Piedmont. This Campaign was very glorious to the Allies, but 'twas a very bloody one. The famous Battle of Malplaquet was one of those Victories which procured us Laurels cover'd with Funeral Scutcheons, and two more such Victories would have ruin'd the Infantry of the Allies. The Prince Royal was Witness of the Bravery of our Troops, which distinguish'd themselves in this Campaign, wherein they had been great Sufferers. The Enemy on their part besides the Battle lost also Mons and Tournay.

I could have wish'd to have made this Campaign, but when I ask'd the King's Leave to go, his Majesty refus'd me, saying, that he design'd me for some other Business than that of Arms. This Answer pleas'd me to the Life, and as I was young and by consequence apt enough to be vain, I was so simple as to believe my self for a while in the highest Favor. But I was soon convinc'd of my mistake. What serv'd to open my Eyes was this. The Post of Gentleman of the Bed-chamber, with which the King had honor'd me, made it my duty to attend the King's Coach on horseback as often as his Majesty went abroad; but being one day so much out of order that 'twas impossible for me to ride a Horse, as ill luck would have it, the King happen'd to go that very day from[10]Charlottenbourg to Berlin, and perceiv'd that I was not upon Duty. This incens'd him so much against me, that when I attended to receive his Hat and Cane upon his Return, he said the harshest things that cou'd be to me, the least of which was, that if I ever fail'd in my Duty again, he would deprive me of the Honor of serving him. Guess,90 Madame, how much I was mortify'd at such a Reprimand given in presence of eight or ten Persons that were in the King's Chamber. Indeed I had much ado to brook it, and at first dash I really had a Thought of resigning my Post. I spoke of it to the Count de Witgenstein, who pacify'd me a little by giving me to understand, that if I did not abate of my Fire I had nothing to do but to renounce all Advancement in the Service of my King, a Service always preferable to any Fortunes that can be made at the Court of any Foreign Prince. He promis'd to set me right in the King's Opinion, and he kept his Word; for two or three Days afterwards as the King return'd to Charlottenbourg, when I happen'd to be all alone in his Chamber with the Chamberlain in waiting, his Majesty did me the Honor to ask me, If I was still in a Pet? I return'd no other Answer but a profound Obeisance. The King said to me a second time, I ask you if you are out of humor because I chid you t'other day? I made Answer with all the Respect possible, That indeed I was vex'd to my heart that I had given his Majesty any Cause to be out of Temper with me; that no body was more ambitious than I was of serving him faithfully; and that tho' I had the Misfortune lately to be wanting in my Duty, it was owing to a very sad Indisposition. But, said the King, you should have let me know it then, and I should not have reprimanded you. After all, I did so only to try you, for in the main I was not so angry as I seem'd to be. Jackel the King's Jester, who was present at this Conversation, took up the Discourse and said to the King, But, good Sir, the Indisposition he talks of, is of his own making; for the true Cause is, he has no Saddle-Horses, and the reason of this, is91 because he has not wherewithal to feed them. Why then, said the King, I will give him wherewithal: The Great Chamberlain, said he to me, shall dispatch you a Warrant for that purpose; go to him. I then advanc'd to kiss the King's Robe, but he drew back, and as I was stooping he laid his Hand upon my Head, and said to me, You are young, be good, and I will take care of you. In a few days after, I had my Warrant dispatch'd to send for Forage to Michlenhoff, where the like was distributed to other Courtiers who had obtain'd the same Favor.

At the same time the Duke of Meckelbourg the Queen's Brother came to Berlin, where he had a magnificent Reception, yet he was not very well pleas'd with his Journey; for this Prince expected, as he was a Sovereign, to have Precedency of the Margraves the King's Brothers, which was deny'd him. He eat in private with the King, but the Margraves were not present, and he stay'd at Court but three or four days, during which he was lodg'd at the Palace and serv'd by the King's Officers.

As for our new Queen she became so devout in a little time after her Marriage, that every body was surpriz'd, and the Courtiers very much disgusted. Nothing was talk'd of in her presence but Religion, and in the Morning her Anti-chamber was frequented by Ministers, by Dr. Francke whom she had sent for on purpose from Hall, and by Borst her Confessor. It look'd as if one was in the Anti-chamber of some Governess of a Convent, rather than in the Palace of a great Queen. Under pretence of Prayers for Deliverance from the Plague which infected some of our Provinces, there was nothing to be heard in her Apartments but Litanies. The King92 did not like all this Cant; for tho' he had a great deal of Religion, he did not love Bigotry. He made the Queen sensible that her manner of living was not suitable to one that sate upon a Throne, and got her content to the Removal of those Persons from about her who had exhorted her to embrace the Party of the Pietists. Francke was sent back to Hall to the great College which the Queen had newly founded for Orphans, and whereof that Doctor had the Direction. Then there was only Borst her Majesty's Confessor left at Court, and he was advis'd not to give himself so much Trouble about the Queen's Salvation. This Princess was so zealous for her Religion, that she did not believe those who profess'd a contrary one could be saved. I remember that one day as she was talking about Religion to the King, she told him that she was very much grieved to find him a Calvinist, and by that means out of the Road to Salvation. The King who seem'd in an amaze at the Compliment, said to her, What, do you think then that I shall be damn'd? And what will you say then when you speak of me after Death? For you could not say der SEELIGE Konig, (an Expression us'd in the German Tongue, speaking of a Person deceas'd, and which signifies, the King is sav'd.) The Queen was a little puzzled how to reply, but after a few Moments Reflection she said, I will say, der liebe verstorbene Konig, which signifies the Dear King deceas'd. This Answer made the King uneasy, who return'd soon after to his Apartment. I was that day in Waiting, and by consequence in his Majesty's Apartment with some of the Court-Nobility, when the King told us with a deal of Concern upon his Mind of the Conversation he had with the Queen, which affected93 him the more, because at that time he thought very seriously of the Union of the Protestant Churches.

Mean time the Pestilence, which had discover'd it self in some of our Provinces, frighten'd us very much. The King upon this occasion acted like a true Father of his People, by sending Money and Provisions to those that were afflicted with it, and by causing a Day of solemn Fasting and Prayers to be celebrated in all the Churches of his Dominions to beg of God that he wou'd please to avert this Scourge from our Country. Moreover he caused Lazarets or Pest-Houses to be erected at the Gates of all the Towns where those who came from any suspected Place were to perform Quarantain. As the whole time was now spent in Sermons and Prayers for removing the Pestilence, the detail of which would not be very pleasing, I think it will not be amiss here to tell you how the Service was perform'd before the King and Queen. I will begin by giving you some Account of[11]Berlin, and of his Majesty's[12]Palace.

The City of Berlin[13] wou'd not have been what it is at this day, had it not been for the French Protestants. They had been kindly receiv'd by the Elector Frederic-William: And the King, every whit as generous as his Father, prolong'd and even augmented the Franchises granted to the French, and in order to convince those Exiles that he was dispos'd to be a Father94 to them, he had a mind that they should be no longer distinguish'd from his natural-born Subjects; but caus'd Churches to be built for them of which he maintain'd the Ministers, gave them a very fine College for the Education of their Children, and also chose a Company of Musketeers out of them in which none but French were admitted.

These Refugees were so sensible of the King's Goodness to them, that they had an Emulation to shew their Gratitude to him by making Trade to flourish. They were equally zealous for the embellishing and aggrandizing of the City, and caus'd a great many Houses to be built there which were both neat and commodious. They added to the City all that Quarter call'd the New Town, which is certainly the most beautiful part of Berlin. Of the Streets which run in a strait Line, the principal is adorn'd with six Rows of Lime-Trees that form as many Walks, the middlemost of which is lin'd with a Balustrade to keep off Coaches and Carriages. These Walks terminate in a Wood, thro' which there's an Avenue of a League, which leads to Charlottenbourg, a Royal Palace.

At the Entrance of the New Town there's the Arsenal[14], a Structure which may pass for one of the finest in Europe: 'Tis a Quadrangle with a large Square in the middle. The four outward Fronts are almost exactly alike. The principal is divided into three Buildings, of which that in the middle projects a little forwards. The Grand Floor consists of Arches charged with Rustics, which support Pilasters of the Ionic Order. The part which projects from the middle95 is adorn'd with four Columns, and has a large Pediment at the end of it. The grand or principal Gate is in the middle. On the two sides there are four great fine Statues representing the Cardinal Virtues on Pedestals. These seem to look towards the King's Picture, which is represented in a great Medal of Brass gilt in the coping of the Gate. Over this Picture, there's his Majesty's Cypher in the middle of a Cartridge crown'd, supported by Fame and Victory. The Cartridge is fill'd up with an Entablature upon which there's a Latin Inscription in Letters of Gold, to the Honor of the King. Finally, over this Entablature there's a great Pediment in Basso-Relievo perfectly beautiful, representing a Mars which seems to rest upon a Trophy, and to look upon a couple of Slaves chain'd at his Feet. The whole is compleated by a Balustrade which rests upon the Pedestals that support the Trophies. This stately Edifice is encompass'd with Spurs of Iron in the form of Cannon, upon which there's the King's Cypher gilt; and these Spurs serve for a Support to the Iron Chains which are hung in Festoons from one to the other.

The Inside of this Structure is as magnificent as the Outside. Two Rows of Pillars support the lowermost Arch-Roof and form three Walks, of which the middlemost is the narrowest, but the only one that serves for the Passage; those on the sides being full of noble Brass-Guns. The King had a Design to have a Cannon of a hundred Pounder plac'd at each Corner; but there is only one finish'd which is call'd Asia, a terrible Machine fitter to adorn an Arsenal than for any other use. The Ascent to it is by a Step, because they were oblig'd to build the Carriage in proportion to the piece that it bears. This96 Cannon is adorn'd all over with Eagles and Crowns; and the King's-Arms are represented on it under a Royal Pavilion, as are also those of the Margrave Philip the King's Brother, as Grand Master of the Artillery. This is all that is remarkable on the side of the New Town.

The King's Palace is also very magnificent; and the whole is so majestic, that it appears at the first sight to be the Residence of some great Monarch. Yet there's one fault in it, which is, that Uniformity has not been nicely observ'd in it, because it has been carry'd on by Fits and Girds, and every Architect has followed his particular Plan.

This Palace consists of four large Buildings, which forms in the middle a Court that is not so broad as 'tis long. The first Thing in the main Front is a great high Portico with two Gates Arch-wise on the two sides. The Proportions of the Columns and the Height of the Portico were copy'd from Constantine's Triumphal Arch at Rome. On the two sides of the Portico there are twelve great Transom Windows encompass'd with Ornaments. The Fronts that are on the side of the Court are much more magnificent than the outer ones, but then they are more irregular. The Inside of the Palace is not executed much better. Two Grand Stair-Cases lead to the Guard-Room, the one on the Right and the other on the Left of the Entry. The Stair-Case on the Left-hand is of a particular Contrivance, being in form of a Glacis without any Step, so that a Coach may go up to it. The Guard-Room is long but narrow, and has no Light but what comes from the Windows on the Cupola over the Stair-Case. The Entry is in the middle. There is a Turning on the Left to enter into the97 King's Apartment, which shews at first sight three Chambers in a Row. The third of these Rooms separates the least Apartment from the greatest, of which the former is on the Right and the latter on the Left. I will only speak to you of the last, which is the most magnificent. In turning therefore to the Left one perceives a long Suite of Apartments, which form a magnificent Point of View. The Furniture is surprizingly rich; nor is any thing to be seen, look which way you will, but Gold, Silver, Marble, Brass, Painting, Glass, China, &c. in a word, every thing that can be wish'd for, that is rich and elegant. At the end of this Suite of Apartments there is a long Gallery, the Cieling of which, like that of Versailles, represents the principal Actions of the King, and the sides are adorn'd with Pictures done by the most famous Hands, the Frames of which are of Brass gilt.

At the end of this Gallery there was formerly a great Amber-Cabinet, with divers Compartiments in Basso-Relievo, which perhaps had not its Fellow in the World; but the King being desirous to make the Czar a Present worthy of his Acceptance, gave him this Cabinet and a Yatcht that cost eighty thousand Crowns.

Were I to enter into the detail of the Beauties and Magnificence one meets with at every step in this Palace, I should never have done; I believe it may be sufficient to say that the King, as far as possible, imitated the Inside of the Palace of Versailles. This great Prince took Lewis XIV. for a Model, and after his Example was intent on building magnificent Structures and establishing different Manufactures, whereby the Poor might earn their Living, and get for a reasonable Price those Commodities which heretofore they98 used to import from Foreign Countries, at a very great Expence. Thus, Madame, have I given you an account of almost all the greatest Remarkables at Berlin. I shall now let you know after what manner their Majesties are every day attended.[15]

I begin with the King's Levee. His Majesty commonly rose between five and six o'clock in the Morning, (I mean at the time that I have the Honour to speak to you of;) tho' formerly he rose at three or four o'clock. As soon as the King awak'd, the Page of the Back-Stairs who had watch'd with him went and gave notice of it to the Valets de Chambre and the Yeomen of the Wardrobe, who presently came in, undrew the Bed-Curtains, and open'd the Window-Shutters, after which they went out and declar'd that the King was stirring. Then the Chamberlain in waiting, the Gentleman of the Bed-Chamber, and the Officers upon Guard came in and made a very low Bow. The next that enter'd were the Physicians, to whom his Majesty gave an account how he had rested. Then the Pages of the Back-Stairs brought a great Silver Table with Coffee upon it, which was presented to the King by the first Valet de Chambre in waiting upon a Gold Salver, and the Page presented it about to all the Persons of Quality that were at the Levee. Every body was oblig'd to drink two Cups, or else they run the risk of being reprimanded. After drinking of the Coffee the Table was carry'd away, and the King convers'd half an hour or more with those that were present: Then he veil'd his Bonnet and all the Company retir'd. The Valets de Chambre and the Grooms of the99 Wardrobe stay'd to dress the King, which when they had done, his Majesty retir'd into his Closet, where was a Desk for Prayer, and there he commonly stay'd an Hour, while they made his Bed. After this he return'd into his Chamber, and then the Prime Minister came in to give him an account of his Dispatches, which lasted till ten o'clock or thereabouts. After this the King went to Council, where he stay'd a little above an Hour. This Council consisted of the Prince Royal, the Margrave Philip Brother to the King, and the Ministers. When the Council broke up the King went into his Closet, and there gave out his Orders. Then two Kettle-Drummers plac'd in opposite Balconies that look'd into the lesser Court, gave notice by the Sound of their Kettle-Drums to the Officers of the Kitchen and Buttery to get everything ready for the King's Service. As soon as the Cloth was laid, the Kettle-Drums were sounded a second time. During this, the King accompany'd by the Prince Royal and the Margraves his Brothers, pass'd thro' the Guard-Room into the Queen's Apartment, where were all the Princesses. A few moments after, the Kettle-Drums and twenty-four Trumpets divided into two Bodies, gave notice for serving up Dinner. At the same time, two of the Life-Guards and six of the Guard of Hundred Swissers took possession of the Room where the King was to eat. The two Life-Guard Men posted themselves behind the Arm-Chair of the King and Queen, and the six Swissers encompass'd the Table three on each side with their Halberds in their hands. When Dinner was serv'd up, the Great Chamberlain with his Staff in hand went and acquainted the King of it, who immediately enter'd the Hall, follow'd by the Queen, who was led by100 the Prince Royal; as were the Princess Royal and the Margravines by the Margraves. At their entrance into the Hall, the King gave his Hat and Cane, and the Queen her Gloves and Fan, to the Chamberlains in waiting. Then two Gentlemen of the Bed-Chamber held out a great Silver gilt Bason for them to wash in, and when they had wash'd, the two Chamberlains gave them the Napkins. The two Gentlemen of the Bed-Chamber always offer'd the Bason in like manner to the Princes and Princesses to wash in, but they wou'd not accept it.

When their Majesties had wash'd, the Grand Marshal who stood about the middle of the Table opposite to the King gave a Rap with his Staff; at the same time making a profound Obeisance; then a Page that stood by him did the like, and after saying a short Grace their Majesties seated themselves in their Arm-Chairs, and their Royal Highnesses in other Chairs, with only Backs. Then the Carver approaching the Table tasted the Provision, and therewith serv'd their Majesties, and the Princes according to their Rank. When their Majesties call'd for Liquor the Chamberlain gave the hint to a Page, and he did the same to a Gentleman of the Bed-Chamber upon Duty, who then went to the Side-board and fetch'd Wine and Water in two Bottles upon a Salver of Gold. The Chamberlain tasted both, and then presented both to their Majesties. The King always drank the Queen's Health, and the Queen in like manner drank the King's. This done, their Majesties dismiss'd the Court by making a Salute to the Grand Marshal. Then the Court retir'd, and none stay'd but the Waiters. Before their Majesties rose from Table the Prime Minister as well as the Master of the Horse approach'd,101 with the Grand Master of the Wardrobe and the Captain of the Guards, to receive the King's Orders, in case his Majesty was willing to ride out. When the Dessart was ready to be serv'd, notice was brought to the Grand Marshal or to him that bore the Staff in his absence, who then return'd to the King's Table. When his Majesty rose from Table the Chamberlain brought him Water to wash his Mouth, and the Queen's Chamberlain and their Royal Highnesses Gentlemen attended the Queen and Princesses with the same. After this the King led the Queen into her own Apartment, where he stay'd a little time, then return'd to his own, and rested himself for an hour in his Closet.

When the King was awaked, the Chamberlain and the Gentleman of the Bed-Chamber enter'd his Majesty's Closet, where sometimes the Queen paid him a Visit, and at other times the Prime Minister came and talk'd with him about Business. In the Summer-time the King went abroad for the Air, or the Pleasure of Fishing or Hunting, especially the Heron, in which he took great delight. About six o'clock in the Evening his Majesty went to the Queen's Apartment, and stay'd there about an Hour, after which he return'd to his own, to that call'd la Tabagie or the Tobacco-Room, because there he smoak'd his Pipe, and several of the Nobility had the Honour of smoaking there with him. The King never supp'd unless it was in extraordinary cases, but amus'd himself with a Game at Chess. When he had done playing he conversed very familiarly with the Chamberlain, the Gentlemen of the Bed-Chamber, and some privileg'd Courtiers; and when he had a mind to put an end to the Conversation, he gave his Orders to the Grand102 Master of the Wardrobe what Clothes to equip him with next day, and then every body retir'd, and the Valets de Chambre and the Grooms of the Wardrobe went and put his Majesty to bed. This, Madame, was the manner how the Service was perform'd at our Court. Never was there any Interruption in the Hours prescrib'd for his Majesty's Exercises, unless he labor'd under some Ailment. I thought that this Detail, tho' perhaps a little tedious, wou'd not be quite so unpleasant as the Recital of all the Litanies and other Prayers, in which the Queen was constant for the remainder of the Year.

In the beginning of the Year following, that is to say the 19th of January 1710, the Count de Lottum presented the King with eleven Pieces of Cannon, and several Colors and Standards that fell to his Majesty's share in the distribution that was made of those that were taken from the French, during the Campaign.

At the same time we lost the Duke of Courland for ever. This young Prince was the King's Nephew by his Mother, who was his Majesty's Sister by the same Father, but not by the same Mother. He was but an Infant when he lost his Father the Duke of Courland, whose death was to him the greatest of all Misfortunes, because of the Misunderstanding which the Guardianship of this young Prince created between those who aspir'd to it. The Duchess his Mother asserted that she was the rightful Guardian of the Prince, her Son. His Uncle also pretended 'twas his Right. In short, the Nobility of Courland disputed it with them both. During these Domestic Troubles, the several Parties, not watchful of their Neighbours Motions, quickly found they had powerful Enemies to cope with. The Saxons103 being the nearest, were the most forward to take possession of their Country. The Muscovites were soon at their heels, and in concert with the Saxons rush'd upon what they thought most convenient. But they were both soon oblig'd to abandon that Duchy to the King of Sweden, who came at the head of his Troops, and without much difficulty sent them going. But after all, Fortune being weary of seconding the Arms of the Swedish Monarch, he was oblig'd not long after his Entrance into Courland, to yield the said Duchy to the Muscovites, who remain'd the sole Possessors of it.

All these Troubles had oblig'd the Duchess, with the Prince her Son, to retire. She came to Berlin where she was present at the King's Coronation, and afterwards, as I have already had the Honor to tell you, she marry'd the Margrave of Brandenburg Bareith. This Princess followed the Margrave her Husband into his Dominions, and took the Duke of Courland her Son along with her. There did this young Prince stay with the Margrave his Father-in-law, till after the King of Sweden's Defeat at Pultowa by the Muscovite Army. When the latter were become Masters of Courland, the Duke flatter'd himself that he should be able to prevail on the Czar to restore him to his Dominions: nor was he deceiv'd in his Expectation; for the Czar was very ready to consent to it, on condition nevertheless that he should marry his Niece, the Daughter of the late Czar, his Brother. The Match was truly illustrious, for the Princess was both the Daughter and Niece of a potent Monarch; but her Education had been very different from that of the young Prince, and there was all the Reason in the World to think, that they would104 not like one another long. The Duke for his part could have wish'd to be restor'd to his Duchy upon other Terms; but at length, thinking he could not do better than to accept of those, and to put himself again at the head of his Subjects, who had for several Years wish'd for his Presence; he set out for the Czar's Court, and there married the Princess. This Marriage, which was concluded with some Reluctance on the part of the young Duke, seem'd to portend him none but unhappy Days; and in short, he was scarce married, but he fell dangerously sick, and in a few days after died, which Illness they said was owing to his having been forc'd to drink to excess on his Wedding-Day. This occasion'd a general Desolation throughout the Duchy of Courland, the poor People having entertain'd some Hopes that the Presence of their lawful Sovereign would make them forget the Evils they had suffer'd by several years continual Wars.

Towards the Conclusion of this Year, the famous Count de Wartemberg, Prime Minister and Great Chamberlain was disgrac'd; which, tho' it had been long wish'd for, was surprizing to all Mankind, who thought the Credit of that Minister too well establish'd, the chief Places of the Kingdom being in the hands of his Creatures, from whose Gratitude there was nothing that he might not promise himself; besides, they did not think any Person would be so daring, as to cast the first Stone; the then recent Instance of the Count de Wesen being a sufficient Warning to deter any Persons from entring into so dangerous a Combination. Nevertheless there were two Persons at Court who were not terrify'd by the Peril, to which an Enterprize of this nature expos'd them. The Name of both these Courtiers105 was Kamcke, and being Cousins into the bargain, they were only distinguish'd by the Appellations of Great and Little.

The Great Kamcke had been successively Page to the King, Page of the Bed-chamber, afterwards a declar'd Favorite, and at last Great Master of the Wardrobe, which Post he held at the time of the Prime Minister's Disgrace. The Favor with which the King honor'd him, was what made him esteem'd more than any thing else; for setting that aside, he was not remarkable for either the Virtues or the Vices which contribute almost in the same measure to the forming of Great Men. He was reckoned a Man of fine Parts, because he was fortunate enough to gain, and to preserve the King's Favor; and he had the Reputation of being good-natur'd, because having a place in which he might have done a great deal of Mischief, he did none at all. 'Tis true too on the other hand, that he did no body any Service; the Lethargy of his Temperament not permitting him to put himself upon those Motions, which are equally necessary to serve a Friend, and to ruin an Enemy.

The Little Kamcke, his Cousin, was of a Temper quite different. He was not only a Person of a piercing sparkling Wit, but had all the Politeness of the most elegant Courtier. Being ambitious and vain, but always with Temper; he was cut out for those delicate Undertakings to which the Success alone gives a Sanction; and what is seldom to be found in so young a Man, he had all the Management and Dissimulation necessary for Execution. The Count de Wartemberg had always hated him; for he suspected him to have had a hand in those Ballads which M——, afterwards the King of Poland's Minister, had106 made upon the whole Court, and in which the Count and Countess were very ill treated; but Little Kamcke, who never despair'd of his Success, still continued to make his court to the King, without seeming to take the least Notice of the Minister's Ill-will. His assiduous Attendance was at length rewarded; the King begun by granting him the Honor of playing with him every Night at Chess; which was a Favor this young Courtier so artfully improv'd, that in a little time after, his Majesty made him a Minister of State. The Count de Wartemberg was mortify'd in two Respects by the Advancement of Little Kamcke; for he did not expect such a Favor to be convey'd by any Canal but himself; and besides it was granted to a crafty Enemy, whose rising Credit might well give him Umbrage. Kamcke for his own part believing that he was only obliged to his own Merit for his Preferment, had even less regard for the Prime Minister than before. They star'd upon one another at first, without venturing to make an Attack; but by degrees they came to high Words; and at length Kamcke being puff'd up with his Favor; and being moreover supported by all good Men, he vow'd the Destruction of the Prime Minister, and his Creature, the Grand Marshal. He was so cunning as to engage his Cousin Kamcke in the Scheme, because the latter being Great Master of the Wardrobe, cou'd give the Prime Minister the fatal Blow with more Ease than any other Person; and he succeeded happily; for he aggravated to his Majesty the Complaints of the People, and the Murmurings of the whole Court. The Queen too being prejudic'd by the Kamcke spoke sharply against the King, who at last consented to the removal107 of a Minister, whom till then he had thought he could not be without.

This great Scene was open'd by the Disgrace of the Count de Witgenstein, the Grand Marshal of the Court, and the Prime Minister's Creature, who was arrested in his House on the 27th of December at 10 o'clock at Night, by a Lieutenant of the Guards and ten Grenadiers. Next day, about 9 in the Forenoon, M. de Gersdorf, Colonel of the Regiment of Guards, accompanied by Stoffius, Treasurer of the Order of the Black Eagle, came from the King to demand his Ribban. He presently restor'd it, assuring them that he was wrongfully maltreated; but that nevertheless he did not complain of the King, and that they were only his Enemies who had impos'd upon his Majesty's Goodness to ruin him. Not long after an Officer of the Guards came in and told him, that he had Orders to carry him to Spandau. He made answer, that he was ready to go wherever the King commanded him; only he desir'd Leave to write to his Mother-in-law, who was the Queen's Lady of Honor. The Officer told him, that he was forbid to let him speak or write to any Person whatsoever; and then he took him with him into a Coach that was attended by 12 Life-Guard Men.

The Noise of his Confinement being presently spread throughout the Town, a Multitude of People gather'd in a trice before his House, every one crying out against the Grand Marshal, calling him the People's Blood-sucker, and the Author of all their Taxes. When they saw him put into a Coach to be carried to Spandau[16], their Shouts, were doubled; but the Grand Marshal, without108 being shock'd, let down the Glasses of his Coach, and told the furious Rabble, that he had been a faithful Servant to his King, and that he had never done any thing in his Administration that could be laid to his Charge; but the Clamours of the People hinder'd him from being heard, and he went out of Town, laden with Curses.

The Hatred that was manifested against him, came from a Source which always touches the People in the most sensible part; he was suspected to have had a hand in the Creation of several Taxes; and to have been the Projector of the Insurance-Office from Fire. The Establishment of this Office was very well design'd; for it undertook to indemnify private Persons for the Loss they might have sustain'd by Fire; and for this purpose, every one was tax'd in a certain Sum of Money, that there might always be a Fund sufficient to answer the Losses by Fires. Frauds were soon committed in the Management of the Moneys that seem'd to be appropriated for a very good Use; and by degrees that Establishment, which was erected for the Relief of the People in their extreme Necessities, serv'd only to oppress them.

The Disgrace of the Grand Marshal was soon followed by that of the Prime Minister. Two days after the Confinement of the former, the King ordered M. d'Ilgen one of his Ministers, and principal Secretary of State, to demand the Seals of his Prime Minister, and to order him in his Name to have nothing more to do with the Affairs of the Government. He receiv'd this News with Courage, and said to the Secretary of State, that he never had any other Will but his Majesty's, and that therefore he was ready to obey his Orders. The next day he received109 Orders to quit the Palace, and to retire to his Estate at Wolfersdorff, a few Leagues from Berlin. He immediately made ready to be gone; but before he set out, he sent to desire the King to give him leave to wait on him, to thank him for all the Favors he had receiv'd at his Majesty's hands; to which the King consented, and the Prime Minister appear'd with an Air suitable to the situation of his Affairs. He put every Wile in practice that is possible to be of service to a Minister who has had long experience of a Court, and a perfect Knowledge of his Master's Temper; he pray'd, he wept, but contrary to his own Expectation and that of the whole Court, the King continu'd stedfast, and dismiss'd him, tho' with all the possible marks of Friendship and Affection; for when he was going out of his Closet the King call'd him back, and taking a Ring of twenty thousand Crowns from his Fingers, he gave it to him, and said that he desir'd him to keep it as a mark of his Esteem. Thus did the King to his regret dismiss a Person, whom if he had pleas'd he might still have kept in his Service.

The Prime Minister, the moment he went from the King, set out for Wolfersdorff, from whence he wrote a very moving Letter to his Majesty to desire him to accept of that Estate for a Present, together with his Wife's Garden which is now the Queen's, (they call it Monbijou[17]) and all his Porcellane Ware. The King return'd him a very obliging Answer, and accepted of the Presents he offer'd him, on condition however to pay him for them; and indeed not long after the Count de Wartemberg receiv'd the Value of them. Yet notwithstanding this mark of Esteem110 he was on the brink of being arrested; and T—— who was near the King's Person at that critical Juncture, assur'd me afterwards that 'twas Little Kamcke that had diverted the King from it. The Count's Enemies had so incens'd his Majesty against him, that the Order for his Arrest was just ready to be dispatch'd, when Little Kamcke represented to the King, that all things duly consider'd, the Prime Minister was not so culpable as to deserve being arrested; that Banishment was sufficient; that however, if his Majesty was apprehensive, that the Count knowing the Secrets of the State would discover them to other Powers, the only way was to secure his Fidelity to him by a handsome Pension, on condition however that he should never lie out of Francfort on the Main, where he would be near his Majesty's Territories and out of a Capacity to give him any Umbrage. The King approved of this Advice, and sent to tell the Count that he would continue a Pension of twenty-four thousand Crowns to him for his Life, on condition that he would promise not to stir out of Francfort. This was a very advantageous Offer, to a Man who trembled every moment for fear of losing his Liberty, and therefore without much deliberation what to do, he thought of nothing but packing up and carrying off the Wealth he had heap'd together. When the Count and Countess came to Court they had not wherewithal to subsist; but they went away with Millions, and the Countess alone had as many Diamonds as were worth half a Million of Crowns. She was mortally uneasy for fear of being stripp'd of her Treasure, till she saw herself quite out of the King's Dominions, and then her Spirits began to rise. Upon the Road they were overtaken by111 an Express, who brought an Order to the Count de Wartemberg to deliver up the Golden Key to the Great Chamberlain, together with the Commission of Hereditary Post-Master; which he obey'd instantly with very great Submission, and afterwards continued his Journey towards Francfort.

The King gave the Chamberlain's Key to the Great Kamcke, Grand Master of his Wardrobe, and the Office of Post-Master was executed in Commission by Little Kamcke. As to the place of Prime Minister, it was not fill'd up; and the King, lest it should be thought that he intended to be still govern'd as he had been all along, declar'd he would have no more Prime Ministers. Not long after the Count de Wartemberg's Departure, the King sent for Count Christoper de Dobna, and the Count de B——, to come to Berlin. The former for some time made a Figure very like to that of a First Minister, but had not the Title. The Post of Grand Marshal was supply'd by M. de Printz, with the Applause of the whole Court. The Count de Witgenstein was restor'd not long after to his Liberty, on paying down a Fine to the King of fourscore thousand Crowns. Thus, Madame, have you had the Catastrophe of the two chief Favorites of our Court.

I had left Berlin for some Months when this great Revolution happen'd, which I heard the first News at Hanover. I happen'd to be with the Electoress when she receiv'd the Letter from the King, that inform'd her of the Change he had made At his Court, and of his Intention to be for the future his own Prime Minister. For my part I was gone from Berlin with a design to travel, because of some very harsh words which112 the King said to me one day when I had fail'd to pay my Attendance as a Gentleman of the Bed-Chamber. The Assiduity with which I made my Court to the Margrave Philip subjected me to a very sharp Reprimand from the King. What gave occasion to it was this, I endeavour'd to be with the Margrave as often as possible, tho' indeed I was not there so often as I wish'd; for I don't think there was a Prince in the World to whom a Man could make his Court with so much Pleasure and Freedom. As the Margrave was almost always at Schwedt, it happen'd one day that when 'twas my turn to wait on the King, I took it in my head to stay at the Margrave's Court, so that a Man who happen'd to be then going out of the Service was oblig'd to be continu'd in it some time longer. The King asking him the reason, the Gentleman made him Answer that I was the cause of it, and that I had not so much as taken care to speak to any body to officiate for me. I arriv'd in two, or three days, and enter'd into the Service the Week following. The King who knew very well that my Attachment to the Margrave his Brother was the only cause of my Absence from my Post, ask'd me as soon as I made my Appearance before him, whether I serv'd his Brother or him, and why I did not do my Duty better? I was so thunder-struck at the manner with which the King said these few words to me, that really I don't remember in the least what I said for my Excuse; but I don't forget, that whether he thought my Plea good or bad, he made me no Answer. I was so nettled at this Rebuke from the King in the presence of several Persons, that I resolv'd to be gone out of sight for a while, the better to digest my Resentment. I therefore ask'd his113 Majesty's Leave to travel, which I easily obtain'd, on condition however that I should not go to France. For the King was then at War with that Crown, which besides did not look upon him in any other Light than as Elector.

As soon as I had obtain'd a Permission to travel, I prepar'd to set out, but after having taken Leave of their Majesties, I went to pass a few days more at the Court of the Margrave Philip: And the Margravine engag'd me to go to Dessau to pay my Devoirs there to the Princesses her Sisters. I had the Honor to find them at Oranjebaum, a House built by the late Princess of Orange, their Mother; and 'tis a magnificent Palace, worthy of the Princess by whose Order it was erected. I stay'd there eight or ten Days, and then continu'd my Journey towards the Duchy of Hanover, where I wanted to go and see my Mother, before I engag'd farther in the great Journey that I had in my Thoughts.

From Oranjebaum I went to[18]Hall in Saxony, which is a City that belongs to the King, and is a part of the Duchy of Magdebourg. The Courts of Justice and the Regency of the Duchy were formerly held in this City, but now they are kept in the City of Magdebourg[19]. And Hall is only remarkable for its University which was founded in 1695, and for its excellent Salt-Works. From Hall I went to Halberstadt, the Capital of a Principality of the same Name. This City was for eight hundred Years subject to its Bishops till it was seculariz'd and yielded by the Treaty of Westphalia114 in 1648, to the Electoral Family of Brandenburg. The River here is very small, for which reason the Trade of this Town is inconsiderable; but as it is the Seat of the Regency of the Principality, and of the Courts of justice, 'tis much frequented. Its Cathedral Church, which is worth seeing, belongs to a Chapter wherein the Catholics and the Protestants are equally admitted, and both have the Liberty of their Public Worship. The Catholics have several Convents in the Town, of which that of the Recollets is the most beautiful, and their Church is very fine. These Fryars say they owe their Foundation to the ancient Counts of Regenstein, who were heretofore Feudataries to the House of Brunswic, and whose Lands belong now to the King, notwithstanding the very fair Pretensions of the Dukes of Brunswic, and especially of the Duke of Blankenbourg, Father to the Empress, to whose share those Pretensions devolv'd. In 1709 this Prince gave a Sum of Money for new vamping the Tomb of their Founder, which they have done, and moreover added a Latin Inscription to it in Capital Letters of Gold. When the King went to Halberstadt he honor'd this Convent with his Presence, on which occasion the Father-Guardian preach'd before him and gave the Sacramental Benediction, because his Majesty had a mind to see the Ceremonies of the Catholic Church.

From Halberstadt I went to Wolfembuttle[20], which City is the common Residence of the Dukes of Brunswic. Tis built only of Timber, and has no remarkable Structure but the Palace which is very fine, and the Library which is worthy of the Observation of115 the Learned and the Curious, not only for the Beauty of the Room and the regular Disposition of the Books, but for the Number of the Printed Volumes and Manuscripts. As soon as I arriv'd I sent to know if I might have the Honor of waiting on the Duke, who was then at Saltzdabl, a League from Wolfembuttle. From this City to the Castle the Road is lin'd with a very fine Row of Trees. His Highness having permitted me to pay him my Respects, I waited on him, and was receiv'd with extraordinary Kindness. This Prince, who was then fourscore Years of Age, had nevertheless all the Presence of Mind and all the Vigour of a Man of thirty. I believe it needless to observe to you that the Person whom I have the Honor to mention to you was the late Duke Anthony-Ulric. This Duke besides a superior Understanding knew many things, which Princes are glad to abandon to Persons of a mean Condition. If you have read the Romance of Octavia, and his Translation of several of Corneille's and Racine's Tragedies, you will readily own that no Person ever wrote in our Language more politely. This Prince was also perfect Master of the Roman History, which he had made his particular Study. He had moreover a wonderful Taste for every thing that was Elegant, and especially for the Liberal Arts. One may judge of the Skill he had in Architecture by his Castle of Saltzdabl, which is a Structure not inferior in Magnificence to any that has been rais'd by Sovereign Princes. In this Castle, besides immensely rich Furniture, there is a numerous but choice Collection of Pictures that are put up in a great Gallery, which is one of the finest Rooms in all Germany. The116 Duke did me the Honor after I had din'd to carry me to it.

The Ducal Family of Brunswic was at that time no more than the Duke Anthony-Ulric, and his two Sons, of whom the present Duke Regent was the eldest. Tho' this Prince has been three times married he has had no Issue, so that the only one of the Family that has had Children is the Duke of Blankenbourg, who marry'd a Princess of Oetingen, by whom he has had three Daughters, the eldest of whom wears the Imperial Crown, the second was marry'd to a Prince of the Czarian Family, and the third to the Prince of Brunswic-Bevern presumptive Heir of the Dominions of Wolfembuttle.

The Ducal Family of Brunswic is intirely Lutheran; yet the late Duke Anthony died a Catholic, to which Religion he was converted a little before his Death. The Enemies of his Reputation affected to give out, that Ambition was the motive of his entring into the Pale of the Church, and that the Bishopric of Hildesheim or the Electorate of Cologne, which were both vacant at that time by the Elector's being put under the Ban of the Empire, was the View of his Conversion: but 'tis easy to perceive that this Reproach is nothing but meer Calumny, if it be consider'd, that the Duke of Brunswic consider'd only in that Quality had too high a Rank in the Empire to be flatter'd with the Episcopal or Electoral Dignity, especially at the Age of fourscore, and when he could not hope for Posterity to inherit either. 'Tis very certain that the Conversion of this Prince was the Effect of a long Examination which he had made of the Religion that he embrac'd, he having entertain'd Thoughts of it for several years. When117 he consented that his Grand-Daughter should be married to the Emperor, it was demanded of that Princess, that she should abjure the Religion in which she had been educated. There was at that time an Assembly of the ablest Divines in Germany, who agreed as the French Ministers did when Henry IV. consulted them about his Conversion, that Salvation was to be had in the Catholic Religion. This Confession of the Ministers was some encouragement to the timorous Princess, who being but young and very tender-conscienc'd, thought there was Danger in taking such a Step. The Duke, in order to reconcile her thoroughly to it, promis'd her to turn Catholic himself; and Imhoff his Minister did the same. As the latter was a Man of good Sense, and moreover of great Probity, he had acquir'd his Master's Confidence, and as Religion had for some time past the principal Share in their Conversation, Imhoff after having weigh'd every thing well, could not deny, that the Catholic was the only true Religion; and he made his Abjuration of the Protestant, some time after the Princess. The Duke was a good while longer before he took this Step; for tho' he was a real Catholic in his Heart, he was willing to prepare his Subjects for this Alteration by gentle means; but when he receiv'd a Letter from his Grand-Daughter, he made no longer Delay. This Princess arriving at Barcelona, and hearing that the Duke had not yet perform'd the Promise he made to change his Religion, she wrote a long Letter to him, wherein she let him know how uneasy she was, for fear that the Religion which he had advis'd her to chuse was not the true Religion, because he was so long in embracing it himself. Then the Duke declar'd himself,118 and convinc'd his Grand-Daughter, that not content with having procur'd her one of the principal Crowns in this World, he had also done his Endeavor to secure her another that was more glorious and more durable.

After the Duke had embrac'd the Catholic Religion, he caus'd a Church to be built at Brunswic[21], which is a City but two small Leagues from Wolfembuttle, thro' a very strait Road, lin'd on both sides with Trees. When I had taken a good View of all that was worth seeing at Saltzdabl, I came to this City, which I found did not come up near to the Notion I had of it; nevertheless 'tis the Capital of the Duchy of Brunswic. They say 'twas built Anno 868, by Bruno the Son of Alphonsus Duke of Saxony, who call'd it after his own Name. It was afterwards very much enlarg'd by the Emperor Henry the Faulconer. 'Twas formerly rank'd among the chief Hanse Towns, and govern'd it self after the manner of a Republic, pretending to be independent of its Dukes, who always oppos'd it's Liberty Sword in hand, and 'twas not without great difficulty that they brought it in Subjection to them. Henry Duke of Brunswic, surnam'd the Young, besieg'd it three times, but always in vain. At length in 1617, the City was compell'd to perform Homage to Duke Frederic-Ulric, the then Regent. Nevertheless it preserv'd its Privileges, which still gave it an Appearance of Freedom till 1671, when Rodolph Augustus, Duke of Brunswic-Wolfembuttle, made himself absolute Master of it. Duke Anthony-Ulric once had a Design to fortify this Place, and the Duke his Son seem'd at first to have the same119 Intention; but afterwards he chose rather to have noble Structures erected in it, amongst which there's a very great Palace, where ten Sovereigns might lodge without incommoding one another. This Prince caus'd it to be built for the Duchess his Wife, in case she should survive him; and no Cost was spar'd to render it one of the richest and most magnificent Palaces that was ever seen, to the intent that the Charms of so fine a Habitation might contribute in some measure to make the Duchess more cheerful in her melancholy State of Widowhood; which indeed could not but be the more so to the Princess, because by losing her Husband, she must also lose her Sovereignty; for they had no Children, and the Duke was too old for them ever to expect any.

This is the only Palace in Brunswic that is remarkable. The Duke of Blankenbourg's, 'tis true, is very large, and has very fine Apartments, but is old, and has nothing extraordinary; it joins to the Church of St. Alaise, which is the principal Church, and the Place where several of the Dukes are buried. On the Square over-against the Church, there's a Lion of Brass, on a very high Pedestal, representing that which they say was tam'd by the Duke Henry surnam'd the Lion, to such a degree, that the terrible Animal follow'd him wherever he went; and even after the Duke's Death and Interment in the Church of St. Alaise, the Lion went towards the Church Door, try'd to break it open, stay'd there in spite of all the Attempts to take him off, and died on the very Spot, for Grief that he had lost his Master.

I afterwards went to Zell[22], and from thence120 to Hanover. The first of these Towns is small, and has nothing remarkable. It was formerly the common Residence of the Dukes of Zell, who had a very commodious Castle in it; but since that Country devolv'd by Inheritance to the House of Hanover, there's nothing remaining here but the Courts of Justice and the Regency.

Hanover[23] is the Capital of the Electorate, and the Seat of the Electors. This Court was always one of the politest in Germany, especially during the Life of the late Princess Sophia, the Electoress Dowager and Mother. This August Princess, who was descended from the most illustrious Blood in Europe, was the Daughter of the unhappy Frederic, the Elector Palatine, and of the Princess of England, Daughter of K. James I. by whom the Right of Succession to the Crown of England devolv'd to the House of Hanover. This Princess, tho' she was full Fourscore when I was at Hanover, labour'd under none of those Infirmities, which one would think to be inseparable from so great an Age: She was really a Prodigy for Vivacity and Memory; she spoke French, English and Italian as well as her Mother-Tongue, and had moreover a wonderful just way of Thinking, which she had taken the pains to cultivate by great Reading. This Princess had been the Mother of several Children, of whom there were then but three Princes surviving, viz. the eldest, who was then the Elector, and afterwards King of Great Britain; the second whose Name was Duke Maximilian; and121 the third the Duke Ernest Augustus, afterwards Bishop of Osnabrug and Duke of York.

Of the Electoress's three Sons, none but the Elector had any Children; and these are the Electoral Prince, now King of England, and the Princess Royal, now our Queen.

The Electoral Prince's Family was more numerous. He has had a Son and several Daughters by the Princess of Brandenburg-Anspach. I had the Honor of waiting on the Princes and Princesses the very next day after my Arrival, and was received very graciously, especially by the Electoress Mother, who all the Time that I staid at Court, honor'd me with her special Protection.

I spent all the Carnival time at this Court, where 'twas open'd on the 2d day of January by a French Comedy, after which there was Play and a Drawing-Room at the Electoress's Apartment till ten o'clock at Night. Next day there was a Ridotto in imitation of that of Venice, that is to say, a public Ball, to which every body was admitted that had a Mask, but not with Arms. This Ball was held at the Town-House, every other day during the whole Carnival. In the same Room where the Ridotto was perform'd, they play'd at Ombre and Picquet, and in another at Basset; there was a third Room in which the Tables were cover'd with a cold Treat; and next to this third Room there was a fourth, in which were distributed Coffee, Chocolate, Liquors, &c.

I had a very great Share in all the Diversions of the Carnival, being then at an Age when nothing is so much minded as Pleasures; especially when a Person has Money enough to keep him from the Uneasiness, which is the necessary122 consequence of the want of that precious Metal. Of this I was now furnish'd with a handsome Stock, and therewith cut a very gay Figure; but was soon oblig'd to lessen my Expences, because nothing would serve me but I must try a fatal Experiment, in which I was bit. I had a mind to try Fortune at Gaming; and play'd at first with pretty good Luck; but afterwards the Chance turn'd, and I was soon in a very great Quandary what to do with my Person, being neither able to proceed in my Journey, nor return from whence I came; and much less to stay at Hanover, where I had always made some Figure. I then did what young Fellows us'd to do in such a Situation; that is to say, made several Bargains, but none to my Advantage. At last I was oblig'd to expose my Circumstances to my Mother, who was still my Guardian. I had much ado to get the Money of her that I wanted; but I wrote such moving Letters to her, that she was sensible at last that she was my Mother, and after having made me wait a little while, she was so good as to send me the necessary Sums.

This little Disorder in my Affairs happen'd at a very unseasonable Time: for the Electoress had been so kind as to get a Passport for me to go to Paris, by means of the late Madame of France; but as the same was only granted for two Months, 'twas impossible for me to make use of it, having been oblig'd to spend almost all that time in contriving Expedients to retrieve my Finances.

The Money that my Mother was so kind as to send me, put me again into a Condition of travelling. The Emperor Joseph's Death happening at that time, I resolv'd to go and see the Election123 of a new Emperor. This great Prince died at Vienna, the 17th of May, at 32 years of Age and nine Months. He left the Imperial Throne vacant, but his other Crowns devolv'd by Hereditary Right to his Brother. As soon as that Emperor died, the Empress Mother assum'd the Government of his Hereditary Kingdoms and Dominions, in the Absence of the King her Son, to whom she sent an Express to carry the News, as she did also to each of the Electors. The Saxon and Palatine Electors, as Vicars of the Empire, took Care of the Government of it during the Inter-regnum; and the Elector of Mentz, as Great Chancellor of the Empire, wrote circular Letters (which are call'd Letters of Intimation) to invite the Electors to the Assembly that was to be at Francfort for the ensuing Election.

As this Assembly was not to be till August, I went in the mean while to Holland. The first Town I pass'd thro' after I left Hanover, was Minden, which is a Town upon the Weser, encompass'd with Walls, and defended by some Half-Moons, which nevertheless don't hinder one's seeing every thing that passes in the Square from a Hill that commands the Town, and from whence 'tis an easy matter to beat it to the ground. 'Twas formerly a Hanse Town, being a part of Westphalia, and had always the Title of a Bishopric, till the Treaty of Munster, when it was seculariz'd, and given to the Family of Brandenburg, who settled a Regency here. It always retain'd two Chapters, one of Canons, and the other of Canonesses, into which the Ladies must make proof of their Nobility to be admitted. The famous Count Tilly, General of the Imperial Troops, when he was pursuing Maurice the124 Landgrave of Hesse-Cassel, attack'd and took this Place in 1626, when the General, exasperated with the Town, which tho' extremely weak, refused to comply with the very advantagious Terms that he offer'd it, took it by Storm, and put near 3000 Men, Soldiers and Inhabitants, to the Sword.

As I proceeded, I passed thro' Hervorden, which is an ill-built Town, in the County of Ravensberg. 'Tis an Imperial Town, and yet the King maintains a Garison in it. There's a Chapter of Ladies, the Abbess of which is a Native Princess of the Empire; and indeed this is what the Town is most remarkable for, it being otherwise not very considerable any more than the Towns of Lipstadt and Ham. These belong both to the King, of which the first is fortify'd, and Justice is therein administer'd, in the Name of the King and the Count de la Lippe, who has half of the Revenue. Every thing relating to the Fortifications or the Garison, is the King's. The Baron de Heiden, General of the Horse, was Governor of it when I was there.

After having left these two Places, there is no considerable Town till we come to Wesel, which stands upon the Rhine, and is a part of the Duchy of Cleves. 'Tis now one of the strongest Places in Europe; for the King, who was about fortifying it when I was there, ordered that no Cost should be spar'd to carry the Works to the utmost Perfection. The Person he employ'd to direct them was M. Bot a Frenchman, and Governor of the Place, one of the ablest Engineers now living. When I had rested a few days at Wesel I fell down the Rhine to Nimeguen, and by the way saw Emmerick and Schenk. Emmerick is a Hanse Town upon125 the Rhine, which was taken by the French in 1652, and restor'd two years after to the Elector of Brandenburg. Schenk, which is the first place in Holland, stands at the Point where the Rhine divides it self into two Branches, one of which is call'd Vahal, and the other retains the Name of the Rhine. This Place was built in 1586, by Martin Schenk a Gueldrian, from whom it took the Name.

Nimeguen[24] is built upon a Hill which rises by degrees to the very Centre of the Place, and is part of the Province of Guelderland. This Town is famous for having been taken and re-taken in the War the Dutch carry'd on with Spain for preserving their Liberty. That Crown was oblig'd at last to yield it to the Dutch, from whom Lewis XIV. took it in 1672; but it was restor'd to them soon after. 'Twas in this Place that the Peace was concluded between France and the Allies in 1678. At the beginning of the War for the Spanish Succession, the Duke of Burgundy endeavor'd to make himself Master of it, but he had not the Fortune to succeed. The Dutch have made it very strong, it being their main Bulwark towards the Duchy of Cleves. To go by Land from Nimeguen to Utrecht, I cross'd the Vahal over a Flying-Bridge. I shall not speak of this City now; for I did not stay there, but went strait to Leyden[25], a City in the Province of Holland, famous for its University, founded in 1575.

This is without dispute one of the finest Cities in all the United Provinces. 'Tis situate in the ancient Channel of the Rhine. The Streets which are broad and very long, are extremely126 neat, and are for the most part divided by Canals, that are of a great Conveniency to its Trade, which consists chiefly in Woollen Cloth, whereof the City of Leyden makes more than any other Town in Holland. There's a Library also in this City, which is a very good Collection of the most curious printed Volumes, and a great Number of very scarce old MSS. Here is likewise a Physic-Garden worth seeing, and especially a Hall for Anatomies, in which there is all manner of Curiosities. This City sustain'd a Siege by the Spaniards in 1574, when the Dutch shook off their Tyrants Yoke. During this the City was reduc'd to the last Extremity, the Siege having continu'd from Easter to the 3d of October, when the Spaniards were oblig'd to retire. Tho' Leyden is a very pretty City, yet I take it to be one of the dullest Places in all Holland to live in; for go where one will, we meet with such sickly Countenances as makes one melancholy to see them: not but that the Town's-People are as healthy here as elsewhere; only the Habit they have got of appearing always in their Night-Gowns, and of even walking the Streets in them, makes them look more like Valetudinarians, than People in Health.

After a few days stay at Leyden, I went to the Hague[26], which I think may well be call'd the principal Village of Europe, it having neither Walls nor Ramparts; but bating that, 'tis one of the pleasantest Places in all Holland; it being so delightful that the States-General have chose it, preferably to any other, for holding their Assemblies; and here also reside the Ministers of the Foreign Courts. There is not a Place in all127 Holland that yields such fine Walks, and the People are polite and much more sociable than in any other part of the Country. Most of the People of Quality meet every Evening alternately at one another's Houses: These Assemblies would be much finer than they are in general, if the Company was not so promiscuous; but the Freedom of the Country, and the Wealth of the Inhabitants, very often set the Burgher upon a Level with the Man of Quality, and sometimes too above him.

The Houses at the Hague are very fine, yet they are all without the Rules of Architecture, without Ornament, and in a manner without Regularity, excepting the Palaces of the Old Court and of Prince Maurice, and the House of M. Obdam. There's not a House in short that has the air of a great Man's House; the inner Rooms are commonly very mean, and not very commodious; they have no Notion of Anti-Chambers; the Domestics pass their Time in the Kitchens or the Entries; and, except at the Houses of Ambassadors, what we call a Swiss or Porter, is no where to be seen. There's a great Number of Jews at the Hague, who make a fine Figure, especially the Portuguese Jews. These Gentlemen have the Equipages of Ambassadors, with magnificent Houses and Gardens; and they often make Treats with the utmost Delicacy and Splendor. They are admitted into all Companies, and only differ from the Christians of this Country by being possess'd of much more Wealth, and living at a far greater Expence. I knew one of 'em whose Name was Duliz, that was very much esteem'd: He was good-natur'd, generous, extremely charitable, and reliev'd all indifferently that were Objects of128 Compassion, without giving himself the Trouble of enquiring whether the Sharers of his Bounty were Jews or Christians: And to my own knowledge he contributed as freely for the Maintenance of a Church, as if it had been his own Synagogue.

When I had staid about a Month at the Hague, I set out to see the chief Towns of Holland. The two first that one comes to are Delft and Rotterdam. Delft[27] is a League from the Hague. They say that this Town was built by Godfrey the Crooked when he had conquer'd this Country; and that Albert of Bavaria having made himself master of it, demolish'd its Walls and Castle. It was entirely burnt to the ground by Accident in 1536, and afterwards re-built. The like Misfortune happen'd to it again in 1654, when the Powder Magazine took fire, and the Town, tho' not totally consum'd, was nevertheless very much damag'd. It was again entirely re-built in the general Taste of all the Towns of Holland, that is to say, with Canals. There are two fine Churches at Delft, in the Chief of which there is the Tomb of Prince William of Orange, who was assassinated in this Town in 1584, by Belthazar Gerard, a Native of Franche-Comte; and in the other Church there is the Tomb of the famous Dutch Admiral Martin Trompe, which is of Marble, with a very fine Inscription, and beautiful Basso-Relievo's, which represent the principal Actions of that great Man. 'Twas in this Town, that the Plenipotentiaries of France resided during the Congress of Ryswic. All Ambassadors are receiv'd here on the part of the States, and 'tis here that they begin their129 March for their public Entry at the Hague. The Road which leads to it is lin'd with Elms, and entirely pav'd with Brick. There is not a Place in all Holland where so many Passage-Boats are continually coming and going. They set out every Half-hour for the Hague, and every Hour for Rotterdam. These Boats are the favorite Carriers of the Country; and they are the most convenient Passage, not only for the Regularity of their Departure and Arrival, but because the Fare is settled. I forgot to tell you, that Delft is the Place where they make the fine Earthen Ware.

From Delft I went and lay at Rotterdam[28]. This City, which stands upon the Maese, is second to Amsterdam for Trade, notwithstanding the Difficulty of entring the Maese, at the Mouth of which River Ships are oblig'd to stay for the Tide, and for a Pilot that knows the Coast. They say that Rotterdam derives its Origin from Ruther King of the Franks. This City is large and well built; and by its several Canals has a convenient Communication with all the Towns of Holland. The only Monument at Rotterdam is a Statue of Brass in the great Square, representing the famous Erasmus, to whom this City gave Birth.

From Rotterdam I went to Dort, or Dordrecht, which is a very ancient Town, and the first in Rank in the Dominions of Holland. It stands in an Island between the Maese, the Merwe, the Rhine, and the Ling, having been broke off from the main Land in 1421, by an Inundation, which laid almost all its Territory under Water, and drown'd about 100,000 Persons. All these Rivers form a kind of Sea; so130 that at a distance the Situation of this Town looks very much like that of Venice. This Place was anciently the Residence of the Counts of Holland, one of whom, viz. Albert of Bavaria, founded a Collegiate Church here in 1363. The Protestants assembled that famous National Synod here in 1618, which did not separate till the year following, after having establish'd that Religion which prevails at this time in the United Provinces.

When I had staid at Dort as long as was necessary to see the Town and Parts adjacent, I return'd to Rotterdam, from whence I went next day in a Boat for Amsterdam[29]. This is the most famous City in all Holland, its Extent, vast Trade and Riches being the Admiration of all Foreigners; and what is more surprizing is, that it owes its Aggrandizement to itself, and its great Wealth to its Commerce. 'Tis said that this City was not known before the Year 1204; and that then it was no more than a little Castle call'd Amstel, from the Name of the River on which it was built. The then Lord of it, Gysbrecht van Amstel brought Inhabitants to it, who were for most part poor Cottagers, that carried on a small Trade with their Neighbours by means of their Fishery; and at last by the force of Industry throve so well, that Amstel from a Village, became in a few years, a very considerable Town, which was always subject to its own Lords, till a second Gysbrecht being concern'd in the Assassination of Florence V. Count of Holland, was oblig'd for some time to get out of the way, which prov'd to the Detriment of Amsterdam; but Gysbrecht returning at length began to131 build Bridges and Towers, as he did several Houses at the same time in the neighbouring Country; and then they began to call the Place Amsteldam, by the Addition of the Word Dam, i. e. a Dyke, to its former Name of Amstel. This little Town was united afterwards to the County of Holland. William IV. Sovereign of the Country, gave it several Privileges in 1342. These Albert of Bavaria confirm'd afterwards, by giving the Inhabitants a Power also of enlarging the Town, which by its Situation, and the Industry of the Inhabitants to improve its Commerce, soon became considerable; yet it continued without any Walls, even so long as the Year 1482. In the 16th Century this City increas'd considerably in Power; and during the Troubles which arose on account of Religion, took great Care to preserve the Catholic Religion, and their due Allegiance to its Princes. It turn'd out the Ministers of the Reformed Religion, and all that had embrac'd that Doctrine several times. But at length finding its Trade decay; and that the Succours brought to it by the Duke of Alva, Governor of the Netherlands, were scatter'd, 'twas oblig'd to surrender to the Prince of Orange in 1587, on condition nevertheless that the Catholics should not be molested. This indeed was promis'd, but not duly perform'd; for the Clergy and Friars were soon after expell'd, and the Altars demolish'd; the consequence of which was the putting an entire stop to all the public Exercise of the Catholic Religion. The War which the Inhabitants of Amsterdam had upon their hands, and the Persecution of the Catholics had hurt its Trade very much, till the Civil Wars kindled in the neighbouring Provinces drove several Merchants132 from Brussels, Antwerp, &c. to Amsterdam, where these new Citizens contributed so much to the Revival of its Commerce, that they have render'd it one of the finest and richest Cities in Being; and 'tis commonly call'd, The Warehouse of the World.

If the Situation of Amsterdam be duly considered, it may be said to be one of the Wonders of the World. It stands so low, that it wou'd be continually in danger of being drown'd, were not the Water kept out by Dykes as high as the Waves. The River Amstel, so gentle that one can hardly perceive which way it runs, passes thro' the whole City, and forms the great Canal over which there are two Bridges. That which is at the Mouth of the Sea, call'd the Pont-neuf, is one of the finest of the kind, not only for its Sluices, but for the noble View there is from thence of the Harbor, where Ships are continually going out or coming in from all parts of the World. Besides the Great Canal, there are others which deserve to be taken notice of, as, The Emperors Canal, The Lords Canal; that of the Cingle, and the Princes Canal: All these Canals are broad and deep, and furnish'd with great Kays. The Sides are fac'd with Free-stone or Brick, and adorn'd with Lime-Trees and Elms. Very fine Houses are built on most of these Kays, and especially upon the Kay of The Lords Canal; and new ones are building every day, which are very beautiful; and tho' they are small, and not in the Rules of Architecture, have a certain Air of Neatness which is to be found no where else. Almost all the Houses have very fine Steps of shining black Marble, and noble Window-Frames, with very fine Panes, which are often of polish'd Glass.133

The Streets of Amsterdam are generally pretty narrow, yet very fine and neat; and on certain Days of the Week great Care is taken to wash them. I must tell you by the way, that there is not a place where the People are so fond of washing as they are at Amsterdam; for they scour the inside of their Houses every Week without fail, together with the Furniture of the Kitchen; so that they are always in the Suds. 'Tis true, that without this Care every thing would grow mouldy and spoil, as Foreigners have very often experienc'd, who, how loth soever to comply with this sort of Slavery, which they thought only the Fashion of the Country, were soon oblig'd to submit to it: And I believe, that were it not for this Necessity of always washing, the Dutch wou'd not lose so much Time about it; for in other respects I have not observ'd 'em so nice. These People wear a Shirt for a Fortnight very well under a nasty, greasy Woollen Waistcoat: and their manner of eating is as slovenly; for the Generality know no Forks but their Fingers, wherewith they scoop up the Sallad swimming in the Vinegar, which is commonly their favorite Dish[30].

Of all the Public Buildings at Amsterdam, the Stadt-house is certainly the most magnificent. 'Tis a great Pile built of Free-stones very finely set, and forms a long Square. The 7 Porticoes which are in the main Front, and which the Architect has reduc'd to the number of 7, to denote the 7 United Provinces, are look'd upon as a defect in Architecture; for they are so narrow, that three Persons can scarce walk a-breast in them: which indeed is contrary to the Rules of134 Architecture, but yet no Fault in a Building, which like the Stadt-house is frequently expos'd to the Rage and Riots of a People as turbulent as the Amsterdamers. These seven Porticoes lead to two Gates at the Foot of the Grand Stair-Case. I don't pretend, Madame, to give you all the particular Beauties of this Structure, being not acquainted enough with the Rules, or even the Terms of Architecture, to presume to enter into any Description of this nature; therefore I shall confine my self to what most strikes the Eye.

The Pediment of the principal Front was to my mind well fancy'd. 'Tis adorn'd with a Relievo of white Marble, in which a Woman is represented supporting the Arms of the City. There is also a Neptune, some Figures of Heroes, Lions, Unicorns, and the whole is of admirable Workmanship. This Pediment is crown'd with three fine Statues of Brass, which denote Justice, Power and Plenty. On the very Top of this whole Building there's a Tower in form of a Dome. Here is a very fine Clock with Chimes, which are a pretty Amusement for such as are fond of that sort of Music.

The Inside of this House is every part of it very magnificent. The Chamber where they pass Sentence on Criminals is lin'd throughout with Marble, and adorn'd with Basso-Relievo's, representing all the Emblems and Attributes of Justice. That which is most admir'd there is a fine Marble Statue representing Themis. This Room is rais'd very high, and a little too dark; yet 'tis so contriv'd, that all the People in the Square may see the Criminals try'd. The three Porticoes at the Entrance answer to the three Windows of this Hall, which Windows instead135 of Glass, have noble Bars of Brass curiously wrought.

The Great Hall is another stately Room, to which there's an Ascent by a large Stair-Case with two Flights. All the Walls are lin'd with Basso-Relievo's of Marble, intermix'd with fine Paintings. There are two Galleries or Corridors at the two ends of the Hall, which lead to Apartments on the right and left. In these Chambers are kept the several Offices relating to Affairs of the City. The Jurisdiction or Province of each Chamber is inscrib'd over the Door; and the Affairs there treated, are represented in magnificent Basso-Relievo's. In one of these Rooms, such Persons as are not of the Reform'd Religion are oblig'd to be married before the Echevin, or else they are condemn'd in a Fine; and according to the Laws, their Marriage is to be reckon'd null and void.

In the Town-House is kept the famous Bank, which is the Repository of such a vast Treasure. Prodigious Arches and huge double Bars of Iron before the Windows, render it inaccessible. The Vaults are admirable, being built upon Piles in the middle of the Water, and yet so dry as if they were cut out of a Rock. One part of these Vaults serves for containing the immense Wealth, the other for confining Criminals. I had the Curiosity to go and see those Dungeons, which are all very lightsome and kept very neat; and in spite of the Proverb, they may be said to be very fine Prisons.

After I had been at the Town-House, I went to visit the Square where the Merchants assemble about the Affairs of their Trade from Noon till half an Hour past one o'clock. This Square, which is longer than 'tis broad, is surrounded136 with a large open Gallery or Corridor, supported by Free-stone Pillars, for shelter in case of Rain; and is call'd the Bourse or Exchange. Here are Merchants of all Nations, the diversity of whose Habits and Languages is as pleasing as the Beauty of the Place; and especially the Hurry those People are in that are call'd Brokers, who are the Men employ'd by the great Merchants to traffick the Bills of Exchange, or to transact their other Affairs. To see them scowering from one to the other all about this Square, there's no body but wou'd think they were mad.

The India-House and Admiralty-Office are also worth seeing. The first serves as a Warehouse for laying up such Merchandize as comes from the Indies. In the latter there is all the necessary Rigging for fitting out a Fleet to Sea. The India Company have their separate Arsenal, which is in nothing inferior to that of the States. In this City there are Hospitals also of every Kind very well maintain'd, and Houses of Correction for both Sexes. Amsterdam is the Place of Refuge for Sects of all Denominations, who have their several Chappels or Chambers there, wherein they exercise their Religion, but the Calvinists and Lutherans only are allow'd the Liberty of Public Worship. However the Jews have two fine Synagogues here; the one for the German, and the other for the Portuguese Nation. Of this Sect there are great Numbers, and they live in a particular Quarter, which is not the most inconsiderable of the City.

But notwithstanding all this Magnificence of Buildings, and the Concourse of so many Nations, I was quite out of conceit with Amsterdam. Every body sticks to Trade, and the Gratification of their Avarice is their whole Study. The137 Generality with their immense Wealth live like Misers; and all their Happiness, their Pleasure and their Pride consists in having a great deal of Money: They think of nothing but how to acquire Riches; and they look upon every Man that lives genteelly as a Prodigal. As to the Dutch Freedom, I don't believe there's a Place where it bears greater Sway than at Amsterdam. 'Tis true, that this so much boasted Liberty serves very often but to render the Citizens insolent with Impunity; for there is not a Scrub but thinks himself as good a Man as the best in the Country: Foreigners have sometimes much ado to bear it, they being often abus'd without daring to complain; for it costs so much to obtain Justice here, that People had rather put up with an Insult, than seek a Remedy by due Course of Law. The Attorneys and Solicitors of this City outdo those of all other Countries in flattering their Clients to their Ruin, and most of this Gentry cut a great Figure, have noble Houses and Gardens, and some too have very spruce Equipages.

From Amsterdam I went to Harlem[31], which is but three Leagues. Heretofore, while the Catholic Religion subsisted in this Country, it was a Bishopric, Suffragan of Utrecht. The Town stands but a League from the Sea, or rather upon its Shore, the Sea having overflow'd a considerable part of the Country, which forms a Lake, now call'd the Harlem Meer, or Sea of Harlem. This Town communicates by its Canals both with Amsterdam and Leyden. They pretend it was founded by the Normans in the ninth Century. Pope Paul IV. erected it into a138 Bishopric in 1559, at the Request of Philip II. King of Spain. In 1572 the Bishop was turn'd out by the Protestants, not long after which the Town was besieg'd and taken by Frederic of Toledo Son to the Duke of Alva, who oblig'd the Inhabitants to surrender at Discretion, and caus'd them to be treated in the most barbarous manner in the World. The Dutch retook it afterwards, and have held it ever since. There are very fine Walks in this City, and especially a Grove which is deem'd a charming Place by the Citizens of Amsterdam, who come hither in the Summer to make their Parties of Pleasure.

After having seen what was most remarkable at Harlem, I return'd by the way of Leyden to the Hague, where I had not been many days, before the King arriv'd, having pass'd the same day before Rotterdam, where he had been saluted with a triple Discharge of the Cannon, as he was also at Delfshaven, where he found his Yatcht, follow'd by several others that had been sent to him from the Hague. These attended the King to Delft, where his Coaches staid for him, with which he came to his Palace of the Old Court.

There he found a Guard of fourscore Men, with a Captain and a Pair of Colors. His Majesty caus'd his Arrival to be immediately notify'd to the President of the Assembly of the States-General, and next day, after Sermon time, he receiv'd the Deputation from the said States, consisting of nine Members, who when they arriv'd at the King's Palace found the Guard under Arms, Colors flying, and the Drum beating, and were receiv'd at the bottom of the Stairs by the Grand Marshal and several Gentlemen of the Chamber, and introduc'd into the139 King's Bed-chamber, who receiv'd them bare-headed and standing before an Arm-Chair. As the Audience was only to compliment his Majesty upon his Arrival, it was very short; and the States returning to the usual Place of their Assembly, went afterwards and din'd with the King.

Some days after this his Majesty set out for Honslaerdyk, a Place two Leagues from the Hague, which he enjoy'd by Inheritance from the late K. William of England. Thither I follow'd the King, who staid there till he had receiv'd Advice, that the Prince of Nassau, Governor of Friseland, was to come from the Army in Flanders to the Hague, there to make an end of the Differences betwixt him and his Majesty about the Succession to the Family of Orange, of which that Prince took the Title, by virtue of the last Will and Testament of the late King of England, the last Prince of the said Family. The King had been expecting him for some days, when a Courier arriv'd with the News, that the Prince was drown'd in the Passage of the Moerdyke. Having embark'd there with his Retinue to pass the Stryen-Sas, he was not got above thirty or forty Paces from Shore, when a furious Gust of Wind arose, by which the Vessel was overset and lost. As the Sea swell'd at the same time, and the Prince knew not how to swim, he could not get ashore. Colonel Hilkes who accompanied him was drown'd with him, and none but his Domestics escap'd. The unfortunate Prince was seen to hang by the Mast of the Vessel for some Moments, and there were some hopes of relieving him, had it not been for a Wave, which drove by a Blast of Wind carried him off from the piece of Wood he clung to, and cast him away. The Body of this Prince,140 who was very much regretted, was not found till about a Week after, in the very same place where the Vessel happen'd to be cast away. 'Twas carried to Dort where 'twas embalm'd, and then remov'd to Lewarden, there to be interr'd in the Tomb of his Family.

The King was the more afflicted at this sad Accident, because the News was told him too hastily, by a foolish Courier, who, for want of knowing his Master's Temper, thought that the News of the Prince of Friseland's Death wou'd not be disagreeable to him; but the King gave public Demonstration how sorry he was for his Loss, and sent a Gentleman of the Bed-chamber to the last Princess-Dowager of Nassau, to assure her how much he sympathiz'd in her loss.

The Death of the Prince of Friseland interrupted the whole Treaty of Accommodation. The said Prince left a Daughter, and the Princess his Wife pregnant, who wrote to the States to desire them not to do any thing in prejudice of the Infant of whom she hoped to be deliver'd; and that as they were Executors Testamentary, they would preserve the Bulk of his Inheritance entire; and that otherwise she openly protested against every thing that might be done. This Demand did not hinder the States from granting the King a provisional Portion; and it was agreed, that his Majesty, as well as the Heirs of the Prince of Nassau, now deceas'd, should be paid 150000 Dutch Florins a year, out of the Estate of the Orange Family: That the Palaces of Prince Frederic-Henry, of which the King was already in Possession, shou'd continue his; but that the Dieren Palace shou'd be common both to the King and the Prince's Heirs; and that the rest should be referr'd to a definitive Accommodation,141 which is the Thing that still remains to be done. I had the Honor to pay my Court punctually all the Time that his Majesty spent at the Hague; and when he set out, I went with him to Dieren, where I took leave of the King, little thinking 'twou'd be the last Time I should see him.

I went thro' Dusseldorff[32], the Capital of the Duchy of Berg, which was then the Residence of the Elector Palatine, who, it must be noted, was the first of the Palatine Electors that liv'd here; for the Electors commonly resided heretofore at Heidelberg or Manheim. The Elector John-William had preferred Dusseldorff to all other Places, from an early liking that he took to that Town, of which he was Master, even in the Life-time of the Elector his Father; who when he married his Son to the Emperor Leopold's Sister, yielded to him the Duchies of Juliers and Berg, of which Dusseldorff is the Capital City, and wou'd have been one of the finest in Germany, if the Emperor had liv'd long enough to put the great Projects which he had form'd in execution. This Prince had already begun to augment the City with one entire Quarter, the Streets whereof were as strait as a Line; and I saw the Plan of a new Palace that he intended to build, which wou'd certainly have been one of Europe's Grand Structures. As to that now at Dusseldorff, the only beautiful part of it is that call'd the Gallery; tho' why it has that Name I can't imagine, since nothing resembles a Gallery less. It contains five Rooms, three of which are much bigger than the others. One of these142 Rooms is quite full of magnificent Paintings by the famous Rubens. In another there's a great number of Paintings by Van der Werf, a Dutch Painter who died lately at the Hague. If a Man has ever so little Taste or Skill in Painting, 'tis impossible for him to be indifferent for such Pictures, which may be said to be all Master-pieces. Such are those representing the good old Man Simeon holding the Savior of the World in his Arms; our Lord teaching in the Temple; and the Pictures of the Elector and Electoress, in two particular Rooms of the first Story of this Gallery, are the Models of the most magnificent Statues of Italy, sent for by the Elector from all parts of that Country at a vast Expence. The three others are full of modern Statues of Marble and Brass, which are for the most part done by the famous Gripilli an Italian, and an excellent Artist, especially for Busts that require a Likeness.

In the Court-yard of the Palace there's an Equestrian Statue of the Elector arm'd cap-a-pee, with the Electoral Bonnet on his Head, and mounted upon a very fine Horse of yellow Copper. In the same Court there is likewise a very fine Fountain, the Group of which is of Brass very curiously wrought, but so incumber'd with Works of different Kinds, that 'tis difficult to distinguish them.

Five Leagues from Dusseldorff there's a Hunting-Seat call'd Bensberg[33], which is built in a Forest on a Hill, from whence there's a fine Prospect of the City of Cologne, the Rhine, and all the flat Country. To this Castle there's a large Avenue, by a gradual Ascent, till one comes to the Grate of the first Court, on each143 side whereof there's a large Guard-House, the Front of which forms a Gallery supported by Pillars of grayish Marble, which is dug in this Country. The rest of this Seat has very much the air of the Castle of Versailles, only 'tis not so large or lofty. In the two Wings of this Building, there are two Stair-Cases which lead to the Apartments. 'Tis plain that this Structure was design'd entirely by an Italian; because, according to the Fashion of that Country, the Apartments consist of a great number of Rooms all upon one Floor too, but without any Closets or Conveniencies. The outside of this Structure is the oddest thing in the World. It consists of numberless Ornaments, which 'tis impossible to distinguish: And I think it no Injustice to the Castle of Bensberg, to say, 'tis a noble fine House full of Imperfections.

After having given you an Account of the Elector's several Buildings, I fancy, Madame, that some short Memoirs of his Family will not be disagreeable to you. To be sure you are not ignorant, that the Succession of the Neubourg Family to the Dignity of Elector Palatine, is owing only to the Extinction of the Protestant Palatine Family, the last of which was the Elector Charles, who left but one Sister, married to Monsieur Philip of France, Duke of Orleans, Brother to Lewis XIV. Philip-William Duke of Neubourg, the Father of him whom I have had the Honor of mentioning to you, was the first Elector of this Branch. This Prince, who had a numerous Family, match'd them to the chief Crowns of Europe, and he had no less than four Princes and five Princesses.

The eldest of the Princes was the Elector John-William of Neubourg, who married to his first144 Wife an Archduchess of Austria, Sister to the Emperor Leopold, by whom he had no Issue. He married to his second Wife Anne-Mary-Louisa of Medicis, Daughter to Cosmo III. Great Duke of Tuscany; but having no more Issue by this Match than by the former, he took the Hereditary Prince of Sultzbach to his Court, where he was brought up as the Heir of his Family, in case that himself and the Princes his Brothers died without Male Issue. This young Prince was then look'd upon as the Electoral Prince, and receiv'd all the Honors as such. The Person who had the Care of his Education was the Baron de Seckingen; and it may be said, that he did his utmost to make a great Prince of him.

The second was Charles-Lewis, now the Elector.

The third Francis-Lewis de Neubourg, Elector of Triers and Grand Master of the Teutonic Order.

The fourth Alexander-Sigismond, Bishop of Augsbourg.

The Princesses were all married. The eldest, whose Name was Eleonora-Magdalena-Theresa of Neubourg, married the Emperor Leopold, Father to the present Emperor, and died Jan. 19, 1719, aged 74.

The second was married to the King of Portugal.

The third, nam'd Mary-Anne of Neubourg, was married to Charles II. King of Spain.

The fourth, Dorothy of Neubourg was married to the Duke of Parma, by whom she had among other Children Princess Elizabeth Farnese, the second Wife of Philip V. King of Spain.145

The fifth and last of these Princesses, Hedwiga-Elizabeth of Neubourg, was married to James-Lewis Sobieski, by whom she had Clementina Sobieski, Wife to the Chevalier de St. George. The Mother died at Olaw the 10th of August 1722, aged 50.

After having pass'd some time at the Palatine Court, I set out about the middle of August for Francfort on the Main, where I arriv'd a few days before the opening of the Conferences for the Election of an Emperor.

Francfort[34] is one of the most considerable Towns of all Germany, has the Title of an Imperial City, and is a part of the Diocese of Mentz. 'Tis divided into two parts by the Main, over which there is a fine Stone Bridge. The frequent Fires which this City has suffer'd, and especially that of 1719, have contributed not a little to its Embellishment, all the Houses being re-built in a better Taste than before; yet most of the Buildings are still of Timber and fac'd with Plaister that is color'd, few private Men having been at the Expence of building with Stone. Francfort may thank the Jews for most of those Fires; for the Jews who are very numerous here, live in a Quarter by themselves, which is shut up every Night; and being so narrow, that they are straiten'd for Room, they are oblig'd to lie in Heaps as it were upon one another, in very high Houses, which being moreover of Timber, easily catch Fire. They have seen their whole Quarter in Ashes twice successively, because they refus'd the Assistance they might have had to extinguish the Flames; for they never wou'd open their Gates for fear of being robb'd,146 unless when they saw that the People were going to break them open by Force. Notwithstanding all the Reasons for not suffering them at Francfort, they have a better Toleration than the Calvinists, and have fine Synagogues; whereas the Calvinists do not enjoy the free Exercise of their Religion, the Magistrates and most of the Inhabitants being Lutherans.

The City of Francfort is one of the first that embrac'd the Opinions of Luther, which presently occasion'd a Revolt: For the Inhabitants demanding the free Exercise of Lutheranism, and the Clergy and Senate vigorously opposing it, there was an Insurrection, in which the Inhabitants having the Advantage, they depos'd the Senate, and establish'd a sort of Magistracy compos'd of twenty-four, taken from the Body of the Populace. These Acts of Violence had such fatal Consequences, that at last in 1530 the City embrac'd the Confession of Augsbourg, enter'd into the League of Smalcald, and had a share in the other Calamities which afflicted the Empire. 'Twas besieg'd twice in 1552, by Maurice Elector of Saxony, and by Albert Margrave of Brandenburg, surnam'd the Alcibiades of Germany, who made himself Master of it; but it soon after recover'd its Liberty, and since that time has increas'd very much. The Elections and Coronations of the Emperors render it a very considerable Place. These two Grand Ceremonies are perform'd in the Church of St. Bartholomew, which is a vile, little, dark Building, very improper, in short, for Solemnities of that sort. The Imperial Feast is kept on the very Day of the Coronation, in the Great Hall of the Town-house, which is indeed a very wide but irregular Room. The Town-house is called Romer:147 They say 'twas anciently the House of a private Gentleman, who made a Present of it to the City. If that be true, it may be said the Gentleman liv'd at large.

This City has considerable Fairs, which draw a great Number of Merchants to it and People of Quality. The River Main which falls into the Rhine near Mentz, is a great Advantage to its Commerce. This, Madame, is within a Trifle all that can be said of Francfort. I am now to have the Honor of giving you a particular Account of the chief Circumstances that attended the Election and Coronation of the Emperor.

The Conferences for the Election were open'd on the 25th of August, and held from nine o'clock in the Morning till Noon. The Plenipotentiaries of the absent Electors therein communicated their full Powers, and referr'd them to the Elector of Mentz, who afterwards made a Speech upon what had given occasion to that August Assembly. In this first Session it was resolv'd, that every thing there treated of shou'd be kept secret; and then they adjourn'd.

The March of the Electors of Mentz and Triers to and from the Town-house was very grand. The first was Lotharius-Francis de Schonborn, of the Family of the Counts of Schonborn; and the second was Charles-Joseph de Lorrain, who was of the Lorrain Family, and died in 1715, on the 4th of December. These two Princes rode each in a great Coach, cover'd with black Cloth, attended by all their Houshold and Guards in close Mourning.

The Equipages of the Ambassadors of the absent Electors were very spruce, especially the Equipages of the Ambassadors of Saxony, who had also the Honor to have with them their Master's148 Son, who went by the Name of the Count of Lusatia. Besides, the King of Poland had given them his own Equipage, and permitted them to cloath their Domestics in his Livery.

The Ambassadors whom the King (of Prussia) sent in quality of Elector of Brandenburg, appear'd likewise with a Splendor worthy of the Prince whom they represented. They were the Count de Dlona and M. Henning; but the former had the Honors of the Embassy. This Minister appear'd with a Train of 40 Gentlemen of the King's Bed-chamber; he had 5 Coaches drawn by 6 Horses each, 8 Pages, 36 Footmen and 2 Swiss. M. Henning, who was appointed to attend to the Business, had not the Satisfaction to see the Success of these Assemblies; for having in the very first Session spoke with great Zeal for the Interests of his Country, he heated himself to such a degree, that he found himself out of Order when he came home; and that very Night he had a Fit of an Apoplexy of which he died next day. The Count de Metternich was appointed to supply his Place. No body was fitter to serve the King in the Assembly at Francfort than this Nobleman, who had in several Embassies acquir'd a great Knowledge of the Affairs of the Empire; and particularly in the Embassy at Ratisbon, in which he was employ'd a long time.

As soon as the Conferences were open'd, the Foreign Ministers, viz. the Pope's Nuncio, the Envoys of Savoy and of the other Princes of Italy, the Envoy Extraordinary of the States-General, and those of the Princes of the Empire, notify'd their Arrival to the Electoral College, and sent their Credentials to the Chancery, which was149 kept at the Palace of the Elector of Mentz, that Prince being by Birth Chancellor of the Empire.

At the beginning of these Conferences there were some Difficulties started, relating to the Pretensions of the Nuncio and Nephew of the then Pope Clement XI. who pretended that the Electors should pay him the first Visit; and that when he return'd it to them, they were bound to give him the Right Hand. The Electors were very much startled at the Nuncio's Demand, and publickly refus'd to subscribe to such Claims; so that no Visit was made on either side, and the Nuncio only saw the Electors in a Garden where they happen'd to meet by Chance. The Nuncio threaten'd he would protest against the Ninth Electorate establish'd in favor of the Family of Brunswic-Hanover, and against the Royal Dignity of Prussia; but he was given to understand, that neither of his Protestations would avail any thing. And the Ambassadors of Prussia sent him word in plain Terms, that if he offered to protest against the Regal Dignity of their Master, the King would not fail to give Order to his Troops that were in Italy, to enter into the Ecclesiastic State, and to live at Discretion therein, as if it were an Enemy's Country. The Nuncio frighted by those Menaces, and thinking he already saw the Prussian Troops in his Holiness's Territories, sent his Secretary forthwith to the Ambassadors to assure them that he wou'd not protest; that he never had a Thought nor Order for it; that his Holiness had all the Respect and Esteem for the King their Master which so great a Prince deserv'd; and that he would be glad to give Proofs of it upon every Occasion.150

The Electors of Cologn and Bavaria protested likewise against the Assembly, in case they were refused Admission to the Conferences for the Election; but they were of no more avail than those of the Nuncio. Those Princes sent their Protests by the Post, in form of Letters, directed to the Count de Papenheim Marshal of the Empire, and seal'd with an unknown Seal. The Situation those Electors stood in at that time, did not permit them to cause their Protests to be publish'd with the due Formalities, nevertheless they were soon made public. The Respect and Friendship People had for the illustrious Family of Bavaria, made every body eager to have Copies of 'em, but they signify'd nothing, and the Conferences continu'd.

On the 2d of October the Conferences being ended for that Day, the Magistrates and Heads of the Militia, went in a Body to the Town-house, to take the Oath prescrib'd by the Golden Bull. They there found the Electors, who were at that time in Francfort, and the Ambassadors of the absent Electors, all sitting in Chairs of State, under a great Canopy of black Velvet. After the Oath was read, the Magistrates and the Officers of the Militia took it in presence of the Elector of Mentz, as did also the Citizens and the Garison, but the Ceremony was different; for it was not taken in the Town-house, but without it, in an open Gallery, rais'd in a great Square, and hung with Cloth. There the Chancellors of the two Spiritual Electors and the Magistrates receiv'd the Oath of the Citizens, in presence of the Electors and Ambassadors, who were plac'd at the Windows of the Town-house. The Burghers, who were to the Number of 14 Companies,151 took the Oath first, and then the Soldiers of the Garrison.

On the 10th of October Proclamation was made by Sound of Trumpet for all Foreigners, who were not in the Retinue of the Electors, or the Electoral Ambassadors, to retire out of the City before the Sun was set, till the Electors had chose an Emperor. The Nuncio thought at first, that his Character and the Respect due to the Holy Father would exempt him from the general Rule; but being inform'd of the contrary, he retir'd to Aschaffenbourg.

On the 12th, about seven in the Morning all the Bells were rung, upon which the Burghers and the Soldiers of the Garrison assembled at the Houses of their respective commanding Officers; and then went and posted themselves in the Streets leading from the Town-house to the Church of St. Bartholomew. The Burghers had the Post of Honor from the Soldiers. At nine o'clock the Electors and Ambassadors went to the Town-house, the Courts and Equipages of all but the Ambassadors of Bohemia having laid aside their Mourning.

The Moment after the Electors arriv'd in the usual Chamber of the Assembly they went into other Rooms, where they caus'd themselves to be dress'd in their Electoral Habits, which are very majestic, being wide Gowns very much plaited with very long Sleeves, the Linings and Facings being of Ermin; and over all the Electors wear a sort of Mantle of Ermin. The Habits for the Spiritual and Temporal Electors are much the same, only those of the former are of Scarlet, and those of the latter of Crimson-Velvet. Their Caps are of the Color of their Habits, and like them turn'd up with Ermin.152

As soon as the Electors were dress'd they return'd to the Assembly-Room, and then went with the Ambassadors of the other Electors from the Town-House to the Square, where they found Horses sumptuously caparison'd, which they mounted, and thus rode in Cavalcade to St. Bartholomew's Church. The three Electors rode first in one Row bare-headed. The four Ambassadors of the absent Electors rode next, according to the Rank of their Masters. Their Electoral Highnesses and the Ambassadors were receiv'd at the Door of the Church by the Bishop of Neustadt at the Head of the Chapter, who conducted them into the Choir, where they plac'd themselves, according to their Rank, in the Stalls of the Canons, which were lin'd with Velvet and Gold-Lace. The Elector of Triers sate by himself opposite to the Altar, where a Praying-Desk and an Arm-Chair were set up for him, which were lin'd also with Crimson-Velvet.

When all the Company were seated, the Bishop of Neustadt began the Mass. At the first Consecration, the Ambassadors of the Protestant Electors went into the Chappel of the Conclave which joins to the Choir: After the Elevation of the Host they return'd to their Places, where they remain'd during the rest of the Office, and then the Electors and Ambassadors all went up to the Altar. The Elector of Mentz was in the middle between the Elector of Triers on his Right and the Elector-Palatine on his Left. The Ambassadors were in the same Row, according to their Rank, on the Right and Left of the Electors. The Elector of Mentz took the Book of the Gospels and laid his Right Hand upon it, as did also the Electors that were present, and the Ambassadors of those who were absent, and then153 took the customary Oath to elect no Person for Emperor but one that they should think in Conscience to be most qualify'd. After having taken the Oath they went into the Chapel of the Conclave, where they were shut up near three Hours. Then they return'd into the Church and plac'd themselves in a Gallery erected over the Grate that separates the Choir from the Nave, which was lin'd with Scarlet Cloth and hung with Tapestry, and had seven Arm-Chairs plac'd in it of red Velvet, adorn'd with Lace and Fringe of Gold. The Electors and Ambassadors being seated, the Chancellor of Mentz read aloud the Act which had been just drawn up in the Conclave, whereby Charles King of the Romans, and of Spain, was proclaim'd Emperor. Then the whole Church resounded with great Shouts of Long live the Emperor! And at the same instant the Cannon was fir'd from the Ramparts, and the Burghers and the Garison made three Discharges of their small Arms.

After the Proclamation the Electors and the Ambassadors descended from the Gallery to their Places in the Choir, and after the singing of Te Deum which was tun'd by the Bishop of Neustadt, they return'd to the Town-House in the same Order that they came. There the Electors quitted their Robes of Ceremony, and each return'd to their Palaces, where they stay'd till the Evening; and the Ambassadors did the same. At Night they all supp'd at the House of the Count de Windisgratcht, the first Ambassador of Bohemia, and by consequence the Ambassador of the new Emperor, who gave a magnificent Feast, which was accompany'd with a very fine Concert of Music. This great Day's Work was concluded by the Choice which the Electoral College made154 of Prince Charles of Neubourg, to carry to the new Emperor the Act of his Proclamation.

Notwithstanding the surprizing Concourse of People from all Quarters to see this august Ceremony, there was not the least Disorder in the whole Solemnity, excepting a little Dispute that happen'd between the Prince de la Tour Taxis and the Count of Nassau-Weilbourg. The former, tho' of a modern Family in comparison to the Count, yet presuming upon his Title of Prince, claim'd Precedency of the Count, but the latter decided the Difference in an instant; for he took the Prince by the Arm, and pushing him behind him, said to him, You are to know, Sir, that such Princes as you are, walk behind such Counts as I am. The Prince very much stunn'd at the Compliment, did not think proper to push his Pretensions farther.

Immediately after the Ceremony of the Election was over, I set out for Zell, where I had the Misfortune to find my self Motherless as well as Fatherless. My Mother having died there during my stay at Francfort, whose Death grieved me very much, and the more because 'twas the first Incident I had met with in all my Life to give me a serious Concern: But now perhaps, that I am more us'd to Disappointments, such News would not make so much Impression upon me as it did then.

I stay'd some time at Zell to settle several Affairs with my Brother relating to my Mother's Succession, till I had a Letter acquainting me that the Ceremony of the Emperor's Coronation was fix'd for the 22d of December, and thereupon I set out immediately again for Francfort.155

I travell'd thro' Hanover, which I have already had the Honor to mention to you, and from Hanover I went to Cassel, which Town is the common Residence of the Landgrave of Hesse, and divided into two Parts by the River Fulde. The New Town is very well built with pretty Houses, and the Streets are very even and spacious. The Landgrave's Palace which is old is encompass'd with Ramparts, part of which on that side next to the Country forms a Terras planted with Orange-Trees, which in Winter are cover'd by a boarded House. The Name of the present Landgrave is Charles, who was born the 3d of August 1654, and has had seven Children by Mary-Amelia of Courland.

1. Prince Frederic, born the 28th of August 1676, who became King of Sweden by his Marriage with Eleonora Princess of Sweden, who succeeded Charles XII. He had to his first Wife Louisa-Dorothea-Sophia only Daughter of the King of Prussia, at which time he was Stadtholder of Cleves, and had a Regiment of Foot in his Majesty's Service.

2. The Princess Sophia-Charlotta Duchess-Dowager of Mecklemburg-Swerin, who lives still in Mecklemburg, from whence she often goes to the Court of her Father.

3. Prince William, who is a Lieutenant-General of the Dutch Forces, and Governor of Maestricht. He marry'd Wilhelmina of Saxe-Zeits.

4. The Princess Mary-Louisa, Dowager of the Prince of Nassau-Friesland drown'd in his Passage at the Moerdyke.

5. The Prince Maximilian, marry'd to a Princess of Hesse-Darmstad.

6. The Prince George, a General Officer in the Service of Prussia, Colonel of a Regiment of156 Foot, and Knight of the Order of the Black Eagle.

7. Wilhelmina-Charlotte, who was a most accomplish'd Princess, but died some time ago.

These Princes and Princesses met very often at the Court of the Landgrave their Father, and then render'd it one of the most splendid in Germany, not only by reason of their Magnificence, but for their affable Deportment to all Mankind, but especially to Foreigners. I was loth to go from Cassel, but as the Term fix'd for the Emperor's Coronation drew near, I could not stay there any longer.

And indeed, I arrived at Francfort but a few Hours before the Emperor. The Electors and Ambassadors went out of Town and met his Imperial Majesty, as did also the Magistrates with the Burgo-Master, and complimented him under a Tent erected there for that purpose. When the Compliments were ended his Majesty went again into his Coach, as did the Electors and Ambassadors into theirs, and they enter'd the City while the Cannon fir'd and the People shouted, Long live the Emperor Charles VI. His Imperial Majesty alighted at the Church of St. Bartholomew. The Elector-Palatine who was so indispos'd that he could not go out to meet his Majesty, receiv'd him at the Door of the Church, as did also the Bishop of Neustadt at the Head of the Chapter; and his Majesty was conducted to a Throne set up for him on the Right-side of the Altar, by the Electors. The Elector-Palatine walk'd before, and the two other Electors supported the Emperor. When he was seated on his Throne, the Bishop tun'd the Te Deum, and gave the Benediction. The Emperor was afterwards conducted with the157 same Ceremonies to his Palace, which was hung with Mourning. The Electors and Ambassadors having accompany'd his Imperial Majesty to his Closet, retir'd to their respective Habitations. The next and following Days the Emperor receiv'd the Visits of the Electors, the Ambassadors, and the Electoress Palatine, which he return'd.

When the 22d of December, the Day fix'd for the Coronation, was arriv'd, all the Burghers and the Garison were drawn up under Arms all the way from the Imperial Palace to the Church. The Procession was begun by the Footmen and Pages belonging to the Ambassadors, to the Elector-Palatine and to the Emperor, and they were follow'd by the Courtiers of the Elector and of the Emperor, and by Persons of Quality that were in the Ambassadors Retinue. After them there appear'd six Heralds at Arms, the first of which carry'd a single Eagle, the second a double Cross, the third a Lion, and the three others Spread-Eagles, the whole after the manner of the Roman Ensigns. After the Heralds, came the Ambassadors, the Vicars of the Electors, and the Elector-Palatine, bearing the Imperialia or Ornaments of the Empire; and immediately after them the Emperor appear'd, under a stately Canopy. His Habit was like that of the Secular Electors, that is to say, a Robe of Crimson-Velvet turn'd up with Ermin: He had on his Head a Crown enrich'd with Diamonds, which was the Crown of his Family, and he rode a very fine Spanish Horse, the Equipage of which was truly magnificent. Behind the Emperor came the principal Officers of his Houshold, and the Captain of the Guards at the Head of his Company;158 and the Elector-Palatine's Life-Guards closed the March.

When the Emperor arrived at the Church, the Electors of Mentz and Triers in their Pontificalibus went and receiv'd him at the Door, from whence they conducted him to his Seat in the Choir over-against the High Altar. There his Imperial Majesty heard the Mass, after which he was conducted to the Town-House almost in the same Order as was observ'd at his coming to Church, with this Difference, that the Emperor was deck'd with the Ornaments of the Empire, which consist of the Crown, the Mantle, and Charlemain's Sword. His Majesty was now on foot between the two Ecclesiastical Electors, who accompany'd him, as did the Elector-Palatine, and the Vicars and Ambassadors of the absent Electors to the Great Hall of the Town-House, where the Imperial Feast was prepar'd. The Emperor plac'd himself at one of the Windows looking into the great Square, on purpose to be seen by the People; of whom there was such a Multitude, that not only the Square but the Windows and Roofs of the Houses were cover'd with them.

From this Window his Majesty saw the Officers of the Empire perform their Functions. The Count de Papenheim the Elector of Saxony's Vicar, as Grand Marshal of the Empire, was the first that began the Ceremony. He was mounted on a very fine Horse, which he rode full gallop to a Heap of Oats in one Corner of the Square, wherewith he fill'd a Measure of Silver, after which he return'd to the Middle of the Square, where he threw both the Oats and the Measure among the Populace, and then he went to the Banquetting-Room.159

The Elector-Palatine appear'd next, encompass'd with his Guards, and preceded by his Courtiers. He went on horseback to a Kitchen built for the purpose in the great Square, where he found a whole Ox roasting on a Spit, of which he cut off a Slice, and putting it into a Gold Dish he carry'd it to the Emperor's Table.

The Count de Zinzendorf, Vicar to the Elector of Hanover as Treasurer of the Empire, came next. He was on horseback attended by the Emperor's Guards, and taking a compass round the Square he scatter'd Medals of Gold and Silver among the Populace, which he took out of a couple of Bags of Cloth that were ty'd to his Saddle-Bow. These Medals represented on one side the Globe of the Earth encompass'd with Clouds, and this Latin Inscription, Constantiâ & Fortitudine. On the other side was this Legend, Carolus, Hispaniarum, Hung. & Bohem. Rex. A. A. Electus in Regem Roman. coronat. Francof. 22 Decemb. 1711. Over which there was an Imperial Crown like to that of Charlemain.

The Count de Dhona Ambassador from the King as Elector of Brandenburg, perform'd the Function of Great Chamberlain of the Empire in the absence of the Prince of Hohenzollern the Elector's Vicar, who was at that time indispos'd. The Count preceded by all his Livery, and accompany'd by some of the Emperor's Guards, rode on horseback towards the middle of the Square, where a Table was erected on which there was a Basin and Ewer of Silver gilt full of Water, with a Napkin that had been dipp'd in it, all which he took and carry'd into the Banquetting-Room, and gave to the Emperor to wash.160

Afterwards the Count de Kinski, Ambassador of his Imperial Majesty as King of Bohemia, officiated for the Person whom he represented, as Great Cup-Bearer of the Empire: For this purpose he took a Goblet of Gold and fetch'd Wine at a Fountain erected in the middle of the Square representing the Imperial Eagle; which done, the Count went into the Banquetting-Room, and gave it to the Emperor to drink.

Thus did the Officers of the Empire acquit themselves of their several Functions: After this the Emperor plac'd himself alone at a Table upon a rais'd Floor, cover'd with red Cloth; and over it there was a Canopy of Gold Brocade. When the Emperor was seated the Electors plac'd themselves at Tables that were prepar'd for them on both sides of the Hall, on Floors that were a Step lower than the Emperor's. Over each Table there was a Canopy of Crimson-Velvet inrich'd with Gold, and they had each an Arm-Chair of the same. On the Right-side of each Table there was a magnificent Beaufet. The three Electors sate alone at their several Tables, and the Ambassadors of the absent Electors, after having stood a little while behind the Chairs plac'd for their respective Masters, went into another Room. On the following Days the Electors din'd with the Emperor, and his Majesty went also and din'd with the Electors. At length, after the Emperor had perform'd all the Ceremonies that are observ'd at Coronations, he set out from Francfort for his Hereditary Dominions, where he was impatiently expected by his Subjects.

Just as I was ready to depart from Francfort I receiv'd the melancholy News of the Death of the King's Brother the Margrave Philip, to161 whom I was very much attached, and was therefore mightily afflicted for the Loss of him. The King's Ambassadors, to avoid the Expence of putting their Equipage in Mourning, kept his Death secret, so that they did not notify it to his Imperial Majesty till the Day before he went.

I set out from Francfort much about the same time as the Emperor did, and pass'd through Cassel, Hanover, and Dusseldorff. I lik'd Francfort so well before, that it tempted me to return to it; and besides, that was the Place to which a Passport was to be directed that I had sent for from France, in order to carry me to Paris. As soon as I receiv'd it I traveled thro' Minden, which I have already had the Honor to mention to you; and from thence, after having pass'd through Bilefeld a little Town in the County of Ravensberg, I arriv'd at Munster.

This, which was formerly an Imperial City, is now the See of a Bishop, Prince of the Empire, and Lord of the Town and its Jurisdiction. It stands in Westphalia in a large Plain, and on a little River which renders it very strong. It was the Birth-place of the famous Muntzer, the Head of the Anabaptists, a Sect of Heretics, who grew so powerful that they undertook to make themselves Masters of the City, and to chuse themselves a King; and about the End of the sixteenth Century, they accordingly chose for their Sovereign one John of Leyden, a Taylor, infamous for the Cruelties and Outrages which he committed. But Heaven deliver'd the City from such a Scourge; for at length after some Resistance it was reduc'd, and John of Leyden was put to death by the Hangman. The City revolted again afterwards; but at last the Bishop162 humbled it in 1661, and since that time it has always been subject to the Bishops its Sovereigns. 'Twas at Munster that was held the famous Assembly of Westphalia, which establish'd the Fortune of many Sovereigns, and the Religion of their Subjects. The Peace which was there sign'd serves also as a Basis for all the Treaties that are made at this time. The Treaty of Munster imported in substance, "That Maximilian Duke of Bavaria should remain in Possession of the Electorate of the Counts Palatine, which had been given him by the Emperor Ferdinand II: That Charles Lewis Count Palatine should be restor'd to his Principality, and be created an eighth Elector for himself and his Descendants. That the Protestants should have their Churches and the free Exercise of their Religion, on the Footing as it was in 1624; and that they should retain the Church-Revenues, of which they had been possess'd ever since the first of January, that Year: That Sweden should have Hither-Pomerania, a Part of the other Pomerania, the Island and Principality of Rugen, the Town and Port of Wismar, Archbishopric of Bremen, and the Bishopric of Verden, with the Title of a Duchy: That the Elector of Brandenburg should have the Bishoprics of Halberstadt, Minden and Camin, with the Farther-Pomerania: That France should have the intire Sovereignty of Metz, Toul, and Verdun, and the Dependencies thereof, that of Pignerol and Brisac, the Landgraviate of Upper and Lower Alsace, &c. That the Confederates should restore the Towns they had taken, and disband their Troops; and that the seven Circles of the Empire should163 furnish five Millions of Rixdollars for the Pay of the Swedish Soldiers." Such were the Conditions of this Peace, which was not very advantageous to the Catholic Religion.

The Bishop who had the See of Munster while I was there, was of the Family of Metternich, and at the same time Bishop of Paderborn. I did not stay long in that City, but proceeded thro' Dusseldorff, where I found the whole Court return'd from Francfort.

From thence I set out for Cologne[35], where M. Happe who was appointed by the King to levy the Contributions which Luxembourg and other neighbouring Countries were oblig'd to pay, entertain'd me very civilly, gave me an Apartment at his House, and made me exceeding welcome.

I stay'd some time in this City, which is a very flourishing Town by reason of its convenient Situation for the Trade of their Merchants, who have great Vessels constantly going up and down the Rhine, to Francfort and Holland. 'Tis a pretty large City, but always very dirty and ill pav'd, and the Houses are for most part very old, and consequently dark and incommodious. The City is governed by a Senate, which does not depend on the Elector, whose Power is very much limited, he having no Authority but in Criminal Affairs; yet he is allow'd Sovereign Command for three Days, after which if he stays at Cologne he is no more regarded than a private Gentleman. This is the reason that the Prince commonly resides at Bonn, and that he only goes to Cologne on the Eves of the Grand Festivals, to officiate there. Nevertheless the City is oblig'd164 to pay Homage to the Elector, and to swear Fidelity to him, on Condition that he preserve them in the Enjoyment of their Privileges; which is a Condition that the Elector can scarce violate were he ever so much inclin'd to it, because 'tis the City that maintains the Garison, and is Mistress of the Arsenal.

The Catholic is the only Religion that is allow'd to be exercised at Cologne. Nor are Protestants admitted into the Senate, or any Employment in the City, but go to preach at Mulheim, a little Town in the Country of Berg, which belongs to the Elector-Palatine.

I had not the Honor of seeing the Elector, who by reason of the Misfortunes he had suffer'd in the late Wars, was oblig'd at that time to live in France. His Name was Joseph-Clement of Bavaria. He possess'd the Bishoprics of Hildesheim and Liege, together with the Archbishopric of Cologne. He died the 12th of November 1723, after having caus'd his Nephew the Duke Clement of Bavaria, Bishop of Munster and Paderborn to be chose Co-adjutor of Cologne.

The Archbishops of Cologne are Great Chancellors of the Empire in Italy, but don't officiate as such; for most of the Princes of Italy pretend to be independent of the Empire, or call themselves perpetual Vicars thereof; and in this Quality they perform what the Emperor might do within the Extent of their Jurisdictions. This however extends only to common Cases, for in extraordinary ones they are oblig'd to have recourse to the Imperial Court. Then 'tis the Elector of Mentz alone who officiates in quality of Chancellor of Germany; and 'tis he that has the Custody of the Archives and Titles which relate to Italy.165

The Electors of Cologne for a long time contested with those of Mentz the Right of consecrating the Emperors, tho' the latter pretend this Honor belongs to them, as Primates of Germany. But the Differences between those Princes have been regulated; and they have agreed that either of them, in whose Diocese the Emperor happens to be crown'd, should consecrate him; and that if the Coronation should be perform'd in neither of their Dioceses, then they should take it by turns. Nevertheless after this Accommodation the Elector of Cologne consecrated the Emperor Leopold in 1658, at Francfort a City in the Diocese of Mentz; but it was done with the Consent of the Elector of Mentz, and without making it a Precedent for the future.

I have observ'd, that at Cologne most of the public Buildings are either Churches or Convents. The Metropolitan Church would be one of the most magnificent in all Germany, were it finish'd. Among other stately Tombs here is that of the Three Kings who came to worship the Savior of the World, whose Bodies they say were remov'd from Constantinople to Milan, and from thence brought hither. All the People have a very great Veneration for these Reliques.

Except the Churches and the Monasteries one sees no public Structures, nor any House fine enough to raise a Stranger's Admiration; here is still to be seen the House where Death put an end to the Misfortunes of Mary de Medicis, Queen of France, who came to Cologne for Refuge from the Persecution of Cardinal Richelieu. This Cardinal, tho' he was oblig'd to that Princess for his prodigious Wealth, was not content with having forc'd her to quit the Kingdom of166 France, but abridg'd her even of the Necessaries of Life; insomuch that 'twas a hard matter for her to find a Butcher that would undertake to serve the Table of that unfortunate Princess with Meat. She died the 3d of July, 1643.

After I had amused my self with seeing what was to be seen in the City of Cologne, I long'd so much to see that famous City Paris, that I set out thither very soon. I forgot to tell you that the Out-works of Cologne, especially the Ramparts are very agreeable. There are noble Rows of Elms which serve for Walks, and terminate in a Kay that runs along the Rhine, and would be a very fine one, if it was not disfigur'd by a Half-moon, which has been cut out to cover the Gate of the Rhine, and to secure the Passage of the Flying-Bridge.

When I set out from Cologne I went down the Rhine and the Vahal, as far as Dort, and from thence (without once going ashore) to Antwerp, which City I take to be the most beautiful of all the Netherlands. It makes a part of Austrian Brabant, and is the Capital of the Marquisate of the Holy Empire. 'Tis situate in a great Plain on the Right-side of the Schelde, at a Place where that River separates the Duchy of Brabant from the County of Flanders. It contains a number of Churches built in a very good Taste, and a great many very noble public Edifices. The Church of our Lady, which is the Cathedral, is a Work that has nothing like it except it be in Italy. 'Tis above 500 Feet in length, 240 in breadth, and 340 in height. It contains Sixty-six Chapels, adorn'd with Marble Columns, all different, and with fine Paintings. The Tower which serves for the Steeple is very lofty and perfectly beautiful.167

The most magnificent of the Churches, next to the Cathedral, was that of the Jesuits, which was consum'd by Lightning the 18th of July, 1718. The Pavement was of Marble, in Compartiments. There were two low Isles, one above the other, which were supported by fifty-six Marble Pillars. The four Arches were clos'd with thirty-eight great Pictures in gilt Frames, and the Walls in which there were forty Windows were lin'd with Marble. The great Roof was of very fine carv'd Work, charg'd with a small Dome, very lightsome and very well made. As to the High Altar it would require an able Connoisseur to give such a Description of it as the Beauty of the Workmanship requires: For my own part all I can say of it is, that 'twas all over Marble, Jasper, Porphyry, and Gold. The Picture represented the Assumption of the Virgin Mary, and was a complete Piece. Our Lady's Chapel, which was a part of the same Church, was as rich as the rest of the Building, the Sides and the Roof of it being fac'd with Marble, and adorn'd with six Statues of Alabaster. Besides this Chapel there were fifty others, all of the utmost Magnificence. The Great Gate of the Church, and the Jesuits College adjoining to it, were answerable to the Beauty of the Structure. All this stately Building was entirely destroy'd; and what is most to be pitied, the Pictures of the famous Rubens, of which this Church was full, were destroy'd with it; a Loss the more considerable, because 'tis not to be repair'd; for as to the rest, they are preparing to build a Church as magnificent as the former.

There are several other fine Edifices at Antwerp, of which I don't undertake the Description. I shall only mention a Word or two of168 the Town-House and the Exchange. The former stands in a great Square, encompass'd with fine Houses. Tho' the Building is quite in the Gothic Taste, yet 'tis a noble Monument of the Wealth of those who founded it. The Exchange is worth seeing, on account of the Galleries round the Square, in which the Merchants assemble as they do at Amsterdam, from 12 o'clock till half an hour past 1.

The Citadel or Castle of Antwerp was formerly reckon'd one of the strongest and most regular Citadels in Europe; but the Works which Lewis XIV. caus'd to be made in the Netherlands, and upon all the Frontiers of the Kingdom, have very much sunk the Reputation of the ancient Fortifications. 'Twas in the Square of this Castle, which was built by Order of the Duke of Alva, that he caus'd that famous Statue of Brass to be erected, which would have been an eternal Monument of his Pride and Cruelty, if it had not been pull'd down and broke to pieces by the Populace, as soon as the Duke quitted the Netherlands by Order of his Master K. Philip II. 'Tis said that while he commanded in this Country, he caus'd above 18000 Persons to be executed by the common Hangman.

Next to the Citadel, I cannot help giving you some Account of the Harbor, which is very beautiful and commodious. Here is a very large Square, where, by the Help of a certain Machine, they easily unload all the Goods. Another good Conveniency, and what contributes to render this a very trading City, is, that besides the River there are eight great Canals, by which Ships may enter into the City. Yet notwithstanding all these Conveniencies, the Trade of Antwerp, tho' considerable, is not near so flourishing now,169 as it was before the Civil Wars, and the new Opinions in Affairs of Religion. 'Tis even astonishing how this City could hold up its Head again after the Calamities it suffer'd, even from its own Sovereign, whose Troops in 1576, burnt above 600 Houses in Antwerp; and while the unfortunate Inhabitants were running, as it were, into the midst of the Flames, to rescue their best Effects, the Spaniards fell upon 'em, and kill'd and drown'd near 10000. This terrible Fire was the total Ruin of Antwerp; the Town-House and several noble Palaces were reduc'd to Ashes; and the immense Riches which they contain'd were carry'd off by Plunderers, who pillag'd for three Days, during which they committed all manner of Outrages. Nevertheless, this unhappy City, which had like to have been buried for ever under its own Ashes, was rais'd to Life again some time after by the Confederates, who remain'd, as it were, its Sovereigns, till 1585, when the Prince of Parma took it from them, after a Siege that lasted near twelve Months, and was one of the most famous Sieges that had ever been known before, as well upon account of the few Troops the Duke of Parma had to carry it on, which in all were but 1200 Men, as for that famous Dyke by which he shut up the Harbor, and for the Bridge which he laid over the Scheld.

Antwerp remain'd under the Dominion of the House of Austria from that Time to the Death of Charles II. King of Spain, when it was oblig'd to receive a French Garison in the Name of Philip V. whom the Elector of Bavaria, Governor of the Netherlands, own'd for King of Spain. But by the Battle of Ramellies, Antwerp and a part of the Netherlands were reduc'd under170 the Dominion of the Emperor. During the War that was enter'd into for the Spanish Monarchy, a Battle was fought in the Neighbourhood of Antwerp, near the Village of Ekeren, for which both Parties sung Te Deum.

Having set out from Antwerp to pursue my Journey to Paris, I pass'd thro' Mechlin[36], which is a very fine City, and the See of an Archbishop, whose Revenue is very considerable. The Metropolitan Church is dedicated to St. Rambaut. This City is the Seat of a Great Royal Council, which is, as it were, the Parliament of the Country, and was establish'd by Charles Duke of Burgundy in 1473. Mechlin is famous for the Lace made there, which is finer and better than any that is made in the other Towns of the Netherlands.

From Mechlin I went to Brussels[37], the Capital of the Duchy of Brabant. This City stands on the little River Senna, that falls into the Scheld by the Canal of Vilvorde, and divides the lower Town by several Canals that terminate in the said Canal of Vilvorde, which is very convenient for their Trade, whereof this City has a considerable Share. There are several Manufactures at Brussels, of which that of Devos for Tapistry is worth seeing; that skilful Operator having carried his Art to the utmost degree of Perfection that the Curious can desire. The common People of Brussels are more polite than in any other City of the Netherlands; for most of the Nobility of the Country come hither commonly to pass the Winter; and there are few Families of Note that have not a House here.171

The Royal Palace is very large, and the Apartments beautiful, tho' very old. This Palace stands high above the City, being situate upon a Hill, from whence there is a noble Prospect, which is diversify'd by the Gardens, and the Park that joins to the Palace, wherein there are several very pleasant Walks, adorn'd with fine Grottos and Fountains.

The Town-house is another very fine Building. It stands in a Square, encompass'd with Grand Houses, built after Brussels was bombarded by the French, under the Command of the Marshal de Villeroy, when this Quarter of the Town in particular suffer'd very great Damage; but it is since become the more agreeable by the magnificent Houses built where the old ones stood.

I left Brussels to go to Mons the Capital City of Hainault, which stands upon a Hill, on the Banks of the little River of Trouil, and is one of the strongest Places in the Low-Countries. Lewis XIV. besieg'd it in Person, and took it in 1691. It was restor'd to Spain by the Peace of Ryswic, but afterwards at the Death of Charles II. King of Spain, it return'd as well as all the Low-Countries under the Dominion of France. But at length after the Battle of Malplaquet, it became subject to the House of Austria. In this City there's a famous Abbey of Nuns, which is a very honorable Retreat for young Women of Quality, who are Orphans, or don't care to be dependant on their Parents. They wear the Habit of Nuns in the Morning, to be present at the Office; but in the Afternoon they dress like Gentlewomen; and they make no Vow.172

From Mons I went to Valenciennes[38], which City is a part of the Province of Hainault, and the chief Town of French Flanders. Its beautiful Fortifications display the same Magnificence that was always observ'd in all the Works erected in the Reign of Lewis XIV. That Monarch besieg'd Valenciennes in Person, in the Year 1677; and after having taken it by Storm, caus'd a strong Citadel to be erected in it at the Expence of the Inhabitants. This City had been besieg'd by the Marshals Turenne and La Ferte in the Year 1656; but Don John of Austria, the Governor of the Netherlands, accompanied by the Prince of Condé, who at that time, bore Arms against the King, made them raise the Siege; and in this Expedition the Marshal de la Ferte was taken Prisoner.

The late Elector of Cologne liv'd at Valenciennes when I was there, the Casualties of the War having oblig'd him to quit his own Dominions. I was introduc'd to that Prince by the Prince de Tingri, when his Electoral Highness gave me a favorable Reception, and told me that he knew my Father; but I plainly perceiv'd by what he said, that this Prince would have been as glad to be in his City of Bonn, as in a Town of France.

I stay'd at Valenciennes three Days, after which I set out for Cambray[39]. This City is the Capital of the Cambresis, and one of the strongest Places in Europe. They say its Original is very ancient; for some Authors pretend, that Camber King of the Sicambri was the Founder of it. The Kings of France conquer'd it,173 and were Masters of it a long while. After the Death of Charles the Bald, it was for some time a Bone of Contention between the Emperor, the King of France, and the Earls of Flanders; but the latter seiz'd it, and the Emperors afterwards declar'd it a free City of the Empire. Francis I. King of France granted it a Neutrality; but the Emperor Charles V. made himself Master of it; and afterwards during the Revolutions of the Netherlands, it fell under the Dominion of the Duke d'Alençon, Brother to Henry III. who restor'd it to the French by a Treaty, which he concluded with John de Montluc, whom King Henry IV. afterwards made Prince of Cambray. Not long after this, the Spaniards took it by surprize, and kept it till 1677, when Lewis XIV. took it, and it has remain'd ever since in the Possession of France, which Crown has considerably augmented its Fortifications.

Cambray has the Title of an Archbishopric, which was erected in 1559, by Pope Paul II. at the Request of Philip II. King of Spain. The Suffragans granted to this Metropolitan were the Bishoprics of Arras, Tournay, St. Omer and Namur, which were anciently Suffragan Sees to the Church of Rheims. The Archbishop takes the Title of Duke of Cambray, Count of the Cambresis, and Prince of the Holy Empire. He that was the Archbishop while I was there, was the illustrious M. de Fenelon, a Prelate as venerable for his Piety, as for the Delicacy of his Pen. The present Archbishop is the natural Son of the late Duke of Orleans the Regent, and was formerly Bishop and Duke of Laon. This Prelate fully answers the vast Hopes that were conceiv'd, from his good Qualities in his Non-age. His Predecessor in this174 Dignity was the famous Cardinal Dubois, the Minister of France.

I forgot to tell you, that the City of Cambray is also of great Note for the famous League that was concluded between the Pope, the Emperor Maximilian, Lewis XII. King of France, and Ferdinand King of Arragon, against the Republic of Venice.

From Cambray I went to St. Quintin, which City is the Capital of the Vermandois, and is of Note for the famous Battle of St. Quintin, call'd also the Battle of St. Lawrence, because 'twas fought on the 10th of August, in 1557. After the Truce was broke between Henry II. King of France, and Philip II. King of Spain, Philibert-Emanuel Duke of Savoy, who was Governor of the Netherlands, besieg'd the City of St. Quintin, which was destitute of Troops, and moreover in a very bad Condition. The Admiral Coligni got into it with some Forces, which gave Time to the Constable de Montmorency to pass the Somme with the French Army under his Command, and throw some Succours into the Town. This was executed indeed, but with so much Precipitation, that the Men who entered it were scarce five hundred in number. The Constable perceiving the Approach of the Spaniards, and his Troops being moreover incumber'd with their Equipage, endeavored to make his Retreat; but the Duke taking advantage of his Incumbrance, surpriz'd him between the Villages of Essigny and Rizerolles, and charg'd him home before he had Time to put his Men into Order of Battle; and the Constable and his Son were taken Prisoners, with a great many Persons of Distinction. The Number of the Slain was even greater than that of the Prisoners; and among175 the former was John of Bourbon, Duke of Anguien, a Prince of the Blood Royal, and above 600 Gentlemen. The Spaniards Loss did not exceed 500 Men. Philip II. in acknowledgment for this Victory, made that extraordinary Vow, which he afterwards perform'd, to build the Monastery of St. Lawrence at the Escurial; upon which a certain Ambassador of France, when he was shew'd that stately Edifice, said, That Philip must needs be terribly afraid when he made so considerable a Vow. After the Battle, St. Quintin surrender'd to the Spaniards, who kept it till the Treaty of Chateau-Cambresis, in 1559.

From St. Quintin I went to Compiegne, a City in the Diocese of Soissons, which is situate on the West side of the Oyse and the Aisne. The famous Maid of Orleans ow'd the Loss of her Liberty to this City. For that illustrious Heroine going to the Relief of Compiegne, which the English had resolv'd to besiege, had the Misfortune to fall into their hands, and was carried Prisoner to Roan, where they burnt her for a Witch. 'Twas at the Castle of Compiegne that the Cardinal de Richlieu kept the Queen Mary de Medicis a Prisoner, till that Princess found Means to escape, and to retire to Flanders. I have had the Honor already to tell you, that this unfortunate Queen died at Cologn.

This same Castle was also for some time the Residence of the Elector of Bavaria, after he was ejected out of his Dominions by the victorious Arms of the Emperor. The Court his Electoral Highness kept here was so splendid, that it did not look like the Court of a Refugee Prince.

Near Compiegne there's a very large Forest, which renders the Neighbourhood of this City176 very pleasant. There are fine Roads cut out in this Forest, which render it very convenient for Hunting.

The only considerable Place from Compiegne to Paris is Senlis; and that purely on account of its being the See of a Bishop: for setting aside its Situation, which is very agreeable, by reason of the Neighbourhood of the beautiful Forest of Chantilly, Senlis is a very trifling Place. Near this City is the Abbey of our Lady of Victory, which Philip Augustus caus'd to be built as an Acknowledgment for the Victory he won in Person at Bouvines, over the Emperor Otho IV. and his Confederates, on Sunday July 27th, 1215; upon which very Day, his Son too won another Battle over the English in Anjou. They say that the two Couriers that were carrying the News of each of the Victories, from the one Army to the other, met at the very Place where now stands the Church of this Abbey.

Betwixt Senlis and Paris there stands the little Town of St. Denys, famous for the magnificent Abbey which gives Name to it. In this Church are the Tombs of the Kings and Princes of France, whose Mausoleums are of rich Workmanship. Here is a Treasure also which contains a great Number of very curious Pieces. The Abbey of St. Denys has also given its Name to the great Plain in which it stands. 'Twas in this Plain that the famous Battle was fought between the Catholics and Hugonots, in the Reign of Charles IX. when the Constable Montmorency, who at the Age of 83, commanded the Catholics, was wounded, but gain'd the Victory over the Heretics.

At my leaving St. Denys, I had at length the pleasure of seeing what I had a long time177 passionately wish'd for, I mean the famous City of Paris[40], where I arriv'd about the beginning of the Year 1712. I make no scruple to call it the chief City of the World, as it is the Capital of the chief Kingdom in Christendom. The Extent of its Circumference, the Beauty of its Buildings, the Multitude of its Inhabitants, the continual Arrival and the Residence of Foreigners there, the Variety and Plenty of Commodities of all sorts, render it the finest City in the World; and on those Accounts 'tis justly reckon'd as the Ornament, the Soul and the Strength of the French Empire. I was not willing however to make any stay here at first, because of my Impatience to see the famous Castle of Versailles, so much talk'd of at all Foreign Courts.

I had entertain'd so grand an Idea of this Palace, and was so fully persuaded of its being all over Gold and Azure, that at the first Sight the Beauty of it did not strike me. The Entrance to Versailles, as one comes from Paris, does not set it off at all, tho' the Avenue that leads to it is one of the most magnificent; but when one comes up to the Castle, and turns about towards this Grand Avenue, the two sumptuous Stables on the sides of it form a Prospect, which gives a sublime Idea of the Master of those stately Piles of Building. The Front of the Castle, which looks towards the Gardens is the finest; and on that Side is the superb Gallery, which is the Admiration of all Foreigners. What most surpriz'd me at Versailles is the Inside of the Castle, which if one examines it well, looks like several Castles join'd together. The Royal Family, which was still pretty numerous, was lodg'd there very much at their Ease, each having their Guard-Chamber, an Anti-Chamber, a Presence-Chamber,178 a Bed-Chamber, and Great Closet and Wardrobes. The chief Officers and Ladies attending the Princesses were also commodiously lodg'd. The greatest part of the Lords of the Court had Lodgings too here, which were indeed pretty much straiten'd for want of room, but very convenient. In short, I was assur'd, that when Lewis XIV. was at Versailles, about 20,000 Persons lay every Night in the Body of this Castle, and the Buildings in the Verge of it, the Apartments and other Lodgings being so well laid out, that all this great Multitude did not croud one another.

The finest Pieces in the Inside of the Castle are the Gallery and the Saloons that join to it. The Walls are lin'd with Marble. Every Place shines with the Works of the greatest Masters in Gold and Brass, and with noble Pier-Glasses. I have heard say, that before the War for the Spanish Succession, all the Tables, Chandeliers and Stands, which are now of Marble and gilt Frames, were of Massy Silver; but the King converted them into Money to help defray the vast Expences of the Wars he was then engaged in. The Cieling of the Gallery represents in several Pictures the principal Actions of Lewis the XIVth's Life; and is also adorn'd with Cartridges and Gildings, which are remarkable both for their Richness and their Elegance.

The Chapel is perfectly answerable to the Magnificence of the Inside of the Castle. The Critics indeed think 'tis too lofty for its Bigness; and without pretending to much Skill in Architecture, of which what I now say is perhaps a Proof, I should readily subscribe to their Opinion. Indeed a Man ought to be plac'd in the Pew from whence the King hears Mass, to have a just View179 of the fine Paintings with which the Cieling is enrich'd; and than which there's nothing to be seen that is finer or better fancy'd. The principal Picture represents God the Father in all his Glory, as fully as Human Weakness can conceive it. This is a piece of Painting I am never weary of admiring; and I found some new Pleasure every time I look'd on it. The Cieling is supported by noble Pillars of a white Stone, as beautiful as Marble, which form a Gallery that runs round the Chapel, of an equal height all along with the King's Pew, and the Ballisters are of yellow Copper and Marble. When one looks down from the Pew, the Chapel seems too low, and the Great Altar not high enough. Opposite to the King's Pew, and exactly over the High Altar, there's an Organ-Loft of a very good Contrivance, where the King's Music sits. 'Tis a very good Band; and those who are nice Judges always admire the first Touch they give to their Instruments, the Moment that the King enters the Chapel to hear Mass.

I own to you, Madame, that I thought it one of the finest Sights in the World, to see Lewis XIV. enter the Chapel in all his Grandeur, attended by the Cardinals and the Lords of his Court. The Life-Guards and the Hundred Swiss took up the Gallery and the Bottom of the Chapel, and the Drums beat, and the Swiss Fifes play'd till his Majesty was seated. On Communion or Sermon Days the King went down into the Chapel, and then the Pavement, which is of very fine Marble, was cover'd all over with noble Tapestry. When the King receiv'd the Sacrament, a Praying-Desk was set for him over-against the High Altar, and then the Hundred Swissers were rang'd in two180 Rows, and the Courtiers encompass'd his Majesty. During the Sermon the King's Chair of State was plac'd over-against the Pulpit, and the Princes and Princesses of the Royal Family and Blood were seated in Folding Chairs, on both sides of the King in the same Line. But the Princes and Princesses very seldom assisted at the King's Mass; and when they did, they kneel'd leaning on the same Ballustrade that the King did, but quite off of his Carpet.

The Gardens of Versailles may be rank'd among the modern Wonders; and I don't believe that the so much boasted Gardens of the superb Semiramis were finer. For really, considering the Statues, Vases and Water-works of Marble and Brass, one wou'd think Pains had been taken to ransac Greece and Rome it self, both ancient and modern, for its most wonderful Productions on purpose to bring them to this charming Place. These Gardens were plann'd by the famous Le Nautre. At the end of the Great Walk which fronts the Castle there's a very spacious Canal. It forms a Cross to a certain Distance, one side of which leads to the Menagerie, and the other to Trianon. The Menagerie is a very little House with only a few Rooms, from whence the King may see the rarest Animals of all sorts, which are kept there. As for Trianon and its Gardens, one would not think at the first View that they were made by Man. The Whole is perfectly inchanting, and a Person ever so little captivated with the strange Tales of the Fairies, wou'd not scruple to think this magnificent Structure the Master-piece of those ingenious Work-women. The whole Building, to outward Appearance, seems very small; but when one examines the Inside of it, the Apartments181 are both spacious and commodious. The Outside of this Palace is partly hid by fine Groves; what appears of it is fac'd with white Marble, adorn'd with an Order of Pilasters of red Marble, with Windows in form of Arches between them. Lewis XIV. often retir'd to this charming Solitude, to be shelter'd from the Importunities of the Courtiers; and no body was admitted to him but such Persons as his Majesty appointed.

A little League from Versailles there's Marly, another Royal Palace; and which of all the Palaces has the most pleasant Gardens, tho' those of Versailles are by much more sumptuous. The Great Cascade, which is all of Marble of various Colors, makes a stately Appearance. When one is at the Top of this Cascade, and looks toward the Palace, one sees all the Gardens, and a Plain thro' which the River Seine winds itself, having on one side the Castle of St. Germain en Laye; and on the other the Castle de Maisons, belonging to the President of that Name, which forms an admirable Point of View. Lewis XIV. who was fond of Marly, condescended to divest himself there of part of his Grandeur, and did a great many Ladies of Quality the Honor to make them sit down with him at Table. Thus, Madame, have I given you a slight Sketch of the famous Palace of Versailles, and its Neighbourhood. I did not think it so proper to give you an exact Detail of the Beauties one discovers at every Step in this magnificent Palace. You have undoubtedly seen a good Description of them already, in the Books printed upon that Subject. I shall now add a Word or two of the Princes and Princesses of the Royal Family.182

I shall not presume to say any thing of the August Head of this illustrious Family, since it wou'd require a more delicate Pen than mine to treat so sublime a Subject with suitable Dignity. All that I shall do my self the Honor to Say to you of Lewis XIV. is, that if a good Mien was to be the Merit for the Crown of France, this Great Prince might have put in his Claim for it upon that account, as justly as on the account of his Birth. He was already advanc'd in years in 1712, when I had the Honor to see him; and yet he had a nobler Air than any Man in his Kingdom.

The Duke of Burgundy, who became Dauphin of France, by the Death of his Father, Lewis XIVth's Son, who was the year before carried off in a very few days by the Small-Pox at his Palace of Meudon, was the first Prince in the Kingdom next to the King. His Great Qualities prognosticated that if he liv'd, his Reign wou'd be very happy: Being Devout, without neglecting any of the Duties of a Prince, he had a way of reconciling the Retirement of a Cloyster to the Bustle of a Court; and tho' he had the Great Affair of his Salvation always at heart, yet he thought, and justly too, that his Practice of Piety ought not to exclude his Application to the Affairs of State. He married a Princess, whose great Qualities wou'd have made the French happy, if an untimely Death had not snatch'd her away in the Flower of her Age. Her Name was Mary Adelaide of Savoy. I can assure you, Madame, that I never saw one that had a more Noble and Majestic Presence than this Princess. And several Ladies that had the Honor of being with her in private assur'd me, that none could be more sprightly and gay. Her183 Youth made her fond of Pleasures; but yet she never was forgetful of her Duties. She had an extraordinary Respect and Regard for the King. She went every Evening to Madame de Maintenon's Apartment when the King was there, and after the Council was over, she put every thing in practice that her gay Humor cou'd imagine to divert him. The Princess had also a particular Esteem for the Dauphin her Husband, and as this Prince never fail'd of being at Mass, nor at Vespers, or the Evening Prayers, the Dauphiness always went with him, and very readily made her Pleasures give place to her Duties.

I had not been long at the Court of France when this illustrious Couple died within a few days of one another. The first who paid that Tribute to Nature was the Dauphiness. This Princess fell sick at Versailles, soon after which the Purples discover'd themselves; and at length her Distemper appearing desperate, she was admonish'd to prepare for Death: but this was Advice she could not find in her heart to comply with, it being a hard matter to renounce a voluptuous Life; especially when supported with the Hopes of being e'er long possess'd of one of the first Crowns in the World. This Princess died, as it were, in the Arms of the Duchess of Orleans, who by her Desire never left her during all the time of her Illness.

The King, who was very much afflicted for her Death, set out immediately for Marly, whither the Dauphin follow'd him. This Prince knowing the Value of the Jewel he had lost, so indulg'd his Grief that he sicken'd almost as soon as he arriv'd at Marly, of the same Distemper that had just depriv'd him of his Consort. He received the Sentence of his Death with a Resolution184 truly Christian; and in the Height of his Distemper was often heard to put up this Petition, My God! save the King and Government. The Night he died he had a very great Desire to hear Mass; and whatever they could say to convince him that the Rules of the Church did not allow it to be celebrated at that Hour, yet he wou'd not take a Denial; so that as soon as the Midnight Bell rung, Mass was said in his Chamber, at an Altar that was put up at his Bed's feet. After the Elevation of the Host, the Dauphin was very much compos'd, and continu'd praying to God till his Strength failing him every Minute more and more, he gave up the Ghost. This happen'd on the 18th of February 1712, six Days after the Death of the Dauphiness.

The King had need of all his Stock of Courage to support so many Shocks one after another. The Royal Family was in the utmost Consternation. Those that were about the King wou'd fain have persuaded him to retire elsewhere a little while for Change of Air; but he answered undauntedly, That he was every where in the Hands of God; and that therefore he would continue where he was. This great Prince had soon after, another Trial of his Patience, by the News he receiv'd of the Death of the Duke of Bretagne, who upon the Decease of his Father had been declar'd the Dauphin. This young Prince died at Versailles the 8th of March 1712, when he was but five Years old. There never was a more sorrowful Scene than to see the Funeral Pomp of this Year, which serv'd at the same time for the Father, Mother and Son.

The only one that remain'd of this August Stock was the Duke of Anjou now Lewis XV.185 This Prince too, who was but a Child, was such a poor Weakling all along, that no body thought he would live; and he was at this time in such a bad way, that the very Physicians despair'd of his Recovery. Nevertheless he insensibly gathered Strength, and now the French see their young Monarch in a more vigorous State of Health than they could have hoped for in his Childhood: For this I believe they are oblig'd to the great Care which was taken of this young Prince by the Duchess of Ventadour, who was charg'd with his Education, in which Post she acquitted herself with all the Zeal that a Person could do, who knew the Value of that precious Deposit which was committed to her trust.

The next to the Throne after this young Prince was the Duke of Berry, Brother to the Duke of Burgundy. He was of a fair Complexion, and for his Age a little too corpulent. He spent his time chiefly in Hunting, and when the Chace was over he us'd to go to his Duchess's Apartments to game; for this Princess, after the Death of the Duchess of Burgundy, kept an Assembly.

The last Prince of the Royal Family was the Duke of Orleans, afterwards Regent of the Kingdom; of whom I shall have occasion to say more, when at the death of Lewis le Grand he took on him the Government of the Kingdom during the present Monarch's Minority.

The first People at Court next to the Princes of the Royal Family, were the Princes of the Blood. The chief was the Duke of Chartres, now Duke of Orleans, by the Death of his Father who was the Regent of France during the Minority of Lewis XV.

The Duke of Bourbon, and the Counts de Charolois and Clermont compos'd the Condé Branch.186 The first of these Princes whom they call only The Duke, was a tall portly Man, very free and easy, but had the misfortune to lose one Eye when he was a hunting by some small Shot that scatter'd from the Duke of Berry's Fowling-piece, as he let fly at some Game.

The other two Princes were well-shap'd and very fair, but being as yet very young, they were as well as the Duke of Chartres in the hands of their Governors.

The Prince of Conti, Son of him who was formerly decked King of Poland, was the only Prince of the second Branch of Bourbon.

These, Madame, were the Princes that then composed the Court of France. I shall now do myself the Honor to give you some account of the Princesses according to their Rank, distinguishing them as I have done the Princes, by the Titles of Princesses of the Royal Family, and Princesses of the Blood.

The first Princess of the Royal Family was the Dauphiness, whom I have had the Honor to mention to you.

Next to the Dauphiness, the Duchess of Berry was first in Rank. This Princess was the Daughter of the Duke of Orleans, afterwards the Regent. She resembled her Father very much for her Wit, and had she not been a little too bulky she would have been one of the most amiable Princesses of the whole Court. I shall have occasion to let you into this Princess's Character presently.

Madame, the second Wife of Philip of Orleans, Brother to Lewis XIV. was the third Princess at Court, during the Life of the Dauphiness. Her Name was Elizabeth-Charlotte of Bavaria; being the Daughter of the Elector Charles-Lewis187 by Charlotte of Hesse, and the last of the illustrious Branch of the Palatine Family. The Court I constantly pay'd to this Princess, to whom I was moreover well recommended by the Electoress of Hanover Mother to the King of England, enables me to tell you some Particulars which will give you a just Notion of her.

This Princess was very affable, yet not very forward to grant her Protection. She talk'd a great deal, and talk'd well. She lov'd especially to speak in her Mother-Tongue, which she had not forgot tho' she had been fifty Years in France, for which reason she was overjoy'd to see her Countrymen, and to correspond with them by Letters. She was very punctual in writing to the Electoress of Hanover, and to several other Personages in Germany; and the Letters she commonly wrote were not little Billets, but took up twenty or thirty Sheets of Paper. Of these I had a sight of several that would have been worth publishing, and have not seen any thing better writ in the German Tongue. In short, this Princess did nothing but write from Morning till Night. Immediately after she rose, which was always about ten o'clock, she sate down at her Toilet. From thence she went into her Closet, where after having spent some time in Prayer, she took Pen and Ink and wrote till she went to Mass. After this was ended, she wrote again till Dinner-time, which did not last long, and then she fell to writing again till ten o'clock at Night. About nine o'clock when she received Company in her Closet she was found sitting at a great Table spread with Papers, and there was an Ombre Table just by it, at which the Marshal de Cleremhault's Lady and the other Ladies of the Princess's Houshold used to play. Every188 now and then the Princess cast an Eye upon the Game, and would give her Advice and write at the same time. At other times she convers'd with those who paid their Court to her. I once saw this Princess napping, and the Moment after start out of her Sleep and write on. This, Madame, was the common Life of the Princess when she was at Versailles. Sometimes however she went out a hunting with the King, dress'd like an Amazon, and sometimes to the Opera. For this Princess was very fond of Plays, so that after the Death of Lewis XIV. when the Court came to settle at Paris she often made the French and Italian Comedians perform at the Theatre of the Royal Palace.

As to Rank, never did any Princess support it better than this. As she was punctual to the last degree in requiring the Honors due to her, so she return'd to every one the Honors that belong'd to them. I heard her once talk very sharply upon this head to the Duchess of Berry; and indeed none but she durst have talk'd to that Princess in such a Stile. It happen'd in Lewis XVth's Minority that the Duchess of Berry came to her one Evening in a Scarf. After she had been there about half an Hour she ask'd Madame de Mouchy what o'clock it was; whereupon the Princess ask'd the Duchess of Berry what she said to Madame de Mouchy. The Duchess made her Answer, that she was going to the Tuilleries, and therefore she ask'd what time of Night it was. How! to the Tuilleries, said Madame; What are you going to take an Airing by the Light of Flambeaus? For, indeed, it was just Night. No, Madame, said the Duchess of Berry, I am going to the King. To the King! reply'd Madame; Pray excuse me for expressing my Surprize!189 What, go to the King, Madame, in that Dress! I thought you knew your Duty to him better: I beseech you, Madame, do no such thing. Render to the King the Respect that you owe him, and then you will have a Right to challenge what is your due from every body else.

The Duchess of Berry, who was not pleas'd at this Reprimand, was going to reply, but Madame interrupted her, and said, No, Madame, nothing can excuse you: Surely you may think fit to dress your self as seldom as you go to the King, since I that am your Grandmother dress my self every day. Speak the Truth, and say 'tis meer Laziness that hinders you from putting on your Clothes, which is a Fault that becomes neither your Age nor your Rank. A Princess ought to be dress'd like a Princess, and a Chambermaid like a Chambermaid. The Duchess of Berry being not us'd to such Lectures, was extremely mortify'd at being so check'd, and upon this occasion she did what she us'd to do when any thing was ever said that offended her, and when Decency did not permit her to make a haughty Reply; that is, she arose, made a low Curt'sy, and went away. Madame fell to writing again, but talk'd still of the same Subject, and not without some Warmth. She said, looking about to all the Company, Was I in the wrong, pray, to talk as I did to the Duchess of Berry? What say you to it? You will easily suppose, Madame, that nobody open'd their Lips, but while she was running on still in the same strain, to the great Confusion of every Soul in her Closet, the Princess of Conti came in, which gave a Turn to the Conversation.

After Lewis XIVth's Death, Madame follow'd the Court to Paris, where she resided in the Winter, but commonly spent the fine Season190 at St. Cloud. From thence she came very often to the King's Apartment, us'd to be at the Theatre, and return in the Evening to St. Cloud. She had then with her Mademoiselle, now the Abbess of Chelles, and Mademoiselle de Valois, now the Princess of Modena. The other Princesses, her Grandaughters, liv'd at Paris with the Duchess of Orleans their Mother. This Princess, tho' the Mother of the Duchess of Berry, had not the Precedency of her, and when she was at her Daughter's House she had only a Folding-Chair allowed her, whereas the Duchess sate in an Arm-Chair. The Duchess of Orleans was the last of the Royal Family.

The first of the Princesses of the Blood was the Princess-Dowager of Condé, Anne of Bavaria Countess-Palatine, Daughter of Edward Prince-Palatine of the Rhine. She was call'd only, Madame the Princess. She commonly resided at Paris, where she liv'd a very exemplary Life for her Piety and great Charity. She died the 23d of February, 1723, at seventy-five Years of Age.

This Princess was Mother to the Duke of Bourbon (that died in 1710) whose Wife Louisa-Francese of Bourbon, the legitimated Daughter of Lewis XIV. was, I can assure you, Madame, one of the most beautiful Princesses of the Court; and tho' already the Mother of eight Children, it was much more natural to take her for their Sister. With so much Beauty, she had also Charms still more preferable; and all these external Qualities were supported by a majestic Air, and a Deportment which gain'd this illustrious Princess Respect at the same time that her affable and obliging Behavior procured her Love. She had moreover a lively sparkling Wit, always sure191 to divert, whether in giving Merit its due Praise, or whether by her delicate Raillery, she expos'd the Ridicule of that Behavior, which notwithstanding the good Taste of the Age had perhaps made the Fortune of some fawning Courtier.

The next in Rank to that Princess was the first Dowager-Princess of Conti, the legitimated Daughter of Lewis XIV. The Air, Shape and Beauty of this Princess, have made such a noise in the World, that I believe, Madame, you are not ignorant that she was reckon'd the tip-top Beauty of the Kingdom; and really tho' she was pretty much advanc'd in Years, she had still that Air of Majesty and Modesty which partakes of the Grandeur of her Father, and of the exemplary Piety of her Mother in her latter Years. After the Death of Lewis XIVth's Son the Dauphin, this Princess was very much retir'd, so that I never saw her any where but at Madame's Apartments; and since the Death of the King she scarce appears any where at all.

The Princess of Conti, the second Dowager is by Birth Princess of Condé. She is Mother of the Prince of Conti, of Mademoiselle de Conti, who died Duchess of Bourbon, and of Mademoiselle de la Roche-sur-Yon. It may be said that this Branch of Bourbon have had their share of Sense and Virtue.

The Duchess of Maine and the late Duchess of Vendôme were Sisters of the second Dowager-Princess of Conti, and the Daughters of Henry Julius Prince of Condé, and of the Princess-Palatine, whom I have already had the Honor to mention to you.

The Duchess of Maine is a Princess of real Merit, and a great Wit. She degenerates in no respect from the illustrious Blood of Condé. She192 liv'd with more Splendor than any Princess of France. She commonly resided at Seaux, a magnificent Castle not far from Paris, and one of the finest that I have seen, not only for its commodious Apartments which are also richly furnish'd, but for the extent of the Park in which there's such an agreeable Variety of Groves, and of Marble and Brazen Statues, as presents the curious Spectator always with something new. It may be said, that in her time the Pleasures had fix'd their Residence in this charming Place. There was a Resort from all parts to this Princess, and People were glad to leave both the Court and City, being sure of finding something at Seaux better contriv'd than the common Representations on the Stage; and indeed they were never disappointed, the Duchess of Maine having an exquisite Taste in such things; for she lov'd the fine Sciences, and was a better Judge than any body, of what they call Composures. This illustrious Princess took a delight in bespeaking Plays, and sometimes did not think it beneath her to act a part in them her self. The famous Baron and Beauval had often the Honor of performing with her. Those who have frequented the French Theatre know full well that such a choice was a very evident Proof of that Princess's Taste for good Declamation. After the Comedy there was generally a Party for Play, and then a magnificent Supper, after which there was sometimes a Fire-Work, but most commonly there was a Ball, at which there was always a vast Number of Masks; yet the whole was so well ordered, that there was plenty of Refreshments for every body.

These, Madame, were the Princes and Princesses who form'd the Court of France when I193 came thither, and I thought 'twas proper to give you a Character of them before I mention'd the Conduct I observ'd at my Arrival there.

I first got my self introduc'd to Madame, to whom I was moreover recommended by the Electress of Hanover, the King of England's Mother. This Princess, who always retain'd a particular Regard for the Germans, receiv'd me with even more kindness than she commonly shew'd to those of that Nation. She did me the Honor to introduce me to the King herself, one Night after his Majesty had supp'd. This Prince was in his Bed-Chamber, with all the Princes and Princesses of the Royal Family. The King remember'd my Name, and did me the Honor to ask me, whether I was not the Son of one Pollnitz, who had been at his Court from the Elector of Brandenbourg? And upon my telling him that I was his Grandson, he said to me, Indeed, you seem to me to be too young to be taken for his Son. His Majesty then ask'd me if I intended to make any stay in France. I answer'd, that I was so overjoy'd to find myself at the Feet of the greatest of Kings, that I would do my self the Honor to pay my Duty to him as long as possible. The King seem'd to like my Answer, and turning towards Madame, he said to her, speaking of me, He talks French well. He afterwards did me the Honor of a Salute, and told me as he withdrew that he should take a pleasure in doing me Service.

Next day Madame introduc'd me to the Duke of Burgundy the Dauphin, and to the Dauphiness, which illustrious Couple died some time after, as I have had the Honor to tell you. Madame also caus'd me to be introduc'd to the Duke and Duchess of Berry, but neither of 'em said one194 word to me. I was very well receiv'd by the Duke and Duchess of Orleans. It was not easy to see this Prince without loving him; for his Affability supported by a most sparkling Wit, and the most elegant Accomplishments, endear'd him to all that had the Honor of Access to him. This Prince constantly paid his Attendance at Court, and had the greatest Respect for Madame. He never miss'd a Day of waiting upon this Princess. He went to her Apartments every Night at half an Hour past eight, and play'd at Chess there till the King's Supper-time; but this Prince only sate down at the Game, and as he went in and out he always kiss'd her Hand.

The Court of France, tho' very splendid by reason of the number of Princes and Princesses of which it consists, was nevertheless not so gay as I expected. The Life at Versailles was the most uniform in the World: The King's Hours were settled, and he that had seen but one Day there had seen a Year. The King rose at nine or ten o'clock. The Princes and all the Courtiers attended his Levee, and after he was dress'd he kneel'd down to Prayers on a Cushion of Black Velvet, with his Chaplains and the Bishops that were at his Levee, kneeling also round him. When Prayers were ended, the King went into his Closet, where sometimes the Ministers came to speak to him about Business, and in the mean while the Courtiers walk'd in the great Gallery, thro' which the King walk'd to hear Mass, and there all the Courtiers waited to be seen by his Majesty as he pass'd. I never saw a Nation more fond of paying their Attendance at Court than the French; for I have even seen many Courtiers, who thinking the Prince had not observ'd them, stept forwards into another Room, and then another,195 till by chance his Majesty happen'd to cast his Eyes upon them.

After Mass was over the King return'd to his Closet; sometimes he held a Council and afterwards din'd alone, at which time one might also observe how the Courtiers strove to be seen by him. The King eat with a good Appetite, nay I thought he eat voraciously. His Dinner lasted three Quarters of an Hour, and upon certain Days there was Music. After Dinner, the King went down by the Back-stairs, and took Coach to go a hunting in the Park of Versailles, which was full of small Game. He return'd about the Dusk of the Evening, and went to Madame de Maintenon's Apartment, where there were only a few of the old Courtiers, and generally speaking, none but Ladies; as, Madame de Caylus, a Cousin of Madame de Maintenon, and Madame de Dangeau, who play'd at Cards with the King when the Ministers were not there; for then, instead of Gaming, Business was the Subject, and there every thing was commonly settled. At ten o'clock at Night, when word was brought to the King that Supper was serv'd up, his Majesty went to the Table, where the Princes and Princesses always accompanied him. The Duchesses were plac'd behind the Folding-Chairs of the Princes, on both sides of the Table; and the other Ladies of Quality stood on the Right hand of the King's Arm-chair. His Majesty, after making a Bow to the Princes and Princesses and all the Ladies, sate down in his Chair, and then the Princes and Princesses took their Seats, as did also the Duchesses. The other Ladies of Quality pass'd into a Salon just by, where they were at liberty to sit down. The Supper lasted no longer than the Dinner: The King talk'd196 there but little, and sometimes he address'd himself to Madame, or to the Duchess of Orleans; but I never heard him speak to the Dukes of Berry and Orleans, nor even to the Duchess of Berry.

After Supper was over, the King, preceded by the Princes, went into his Bed-Chamber, where he found such of the Ladies as were not Duchesses, to whom he put off his Hat, and then sate down by the Ballustrade that was before his Bed, where he stay'd till the Princesses and Duchesses were enter'd into the Room. I observ'd that the old Court-Ladies made a profound Curt'sy to the King's Bed when they enter'd his Chamber, which the young Ladies did not; for being perhaps more puff'd up with their Youth and their Charms, they did not think themselves oblig'd to pay so much Respect. When the Duchesses who had attended at Supper enter'd to the King's Bed-Chamber, the King made an Obeisance to them, as he did to the other Ladies; and then the King preceded by the Princes, and followed by the Princesses who had supp'd with him, went into his Closet, to which the Princes and Princesses of the Blood also repair'd. His Majesty convers'd with 'em for a while, during which the Duchesses and the other Ladies withdrew. At length the King dismiss'd the Princes and Princesses, and went to Bed. Then the Courtiers separated, and the Generality retir'd. Some went to the Duke of Berry's Couchée, and others to the Duke of Orleans's. Those who paid their Court to this Prince were well receiv'd by him. For my own part I went thither as often as I could, not so much to pay my Court to Madame, as from a natural liking I had to this Prince.197

Thus, Madame, did the King pass his Life. The Pleasures of the Courtiers were at best but dull, Gaming being almost their whole Amusement. The Assembly was commonly held at the House of the Prince d'Armagnac of Lorrain, Master of the Horse, where there was Play in the Afternoon. Foreigners were perfectly welcome to this Prince, as they were also to the Cardinal of Roban. The latter liv'd very magnificently, and at the Houses of these two Noblemen you were sure to see the Prime of the Nobility of France.

When the Court was at Fontainbleau[41], 'twas much more gay than it was when at Versailles, where it may be said, that it shone in its full Lustre. Nevertheless tho' Fontainbleau is not near so magnificent, it has the Air of a Castle, which Versailles has not. Moreover, Art and Nature seem to have acted in concert towards forming the magnificent Buildings which several Monarchs have caus'd to be erected at Fontainbleau: Whereas at Versailles Nature seems to have had nothing to do, every thing being the Work of Art, and too much adorned. Perhaps I may be the only one of this Opinion, but I always thought that the Magnificence at Versailles was too general.

I was at Fontainbleau some time after the Conclusion of the Suspension of Arms with the English. The News of the Peace on the point of being concluded, and the Victory at Denain, seem'd to have restor'd to the Court such an Air of Gayety as had not been known there for many years. The Elector of Bavaria was there at that time, and there was such Gaming at the Duchess of Berry's and the Duke of Antin's, as198 if they had no Sense at all of the public Calamities. The Party was of twelve Cutters at Lansquenet, who began with setting four Lewid'ors, and at last stak'd Rouleaus of a hundred Lewid'ors on a Card. I won seven hundred Lewid'ors there one Night, in less than an Hour's time, and the Duchess de la Ferte trick'd me out of no less than a hundred, besides fourscore that she borrow'd of me, and never paid me again. Perhaps she thought 'twas the best way to make herself amends for the Trouble she was pleas'd to take upon her, of setting my Money upon the Table, there being such a Croud of Ladies round it that I could not get near it.

While the Court was at Fontainbleau, who should come thither but Mr. St. John, since made Lord Bolingbroke, to settle the Plan of the Peace that was afterwards concluded at Utrecht. He could not have been better receiv'd than he was there if he had been a Sovereign Prince, for the King himself had an extraordinary Regard for him. I was one day to see his Majesty dine, when there was to be Music, but as soon as it struck up the King stopt it, by calling out aloud, I am informed that M. de St. John dines with the Duke of Antin. Let my Music wait on him there, and let him know that I send it to him, and that I wish it may give him Pleasure. You will easily imagine, Madame, that all the Courtiers, in imitation of the Monarch, strove who should be most complaisant to the English Minister, who for his part justly merited the Regard that was paid to him.

The Court stay'd at Fontainbleau some time after the Arrival of this Minister, and all the while there was nothing but Merriment and a continual Succession of Pleasures. The Hunting-Matches199 were of the utmost Magnificence. The Ladies were there either on horseback or in Chaises in the Retinue of the Duchess of Berry and Madame. So many fine Women mounted on horseback all richly dressed, the King in a Chaise attended by the whole Court on horseback, and the sumptuous Hunting-Equipages to be seen all at once in the pleasant Forest of Fontainbleau, form'd one of the finest Sights that could be. On the Days when there was no Hunting, the King took the Air in an open Calash round the great Canal, accompany'd by Ladies whose Habits were the finest and of the most beautiful Fancy that could be imagin'd. When the Court return'd from their Airing there was a Comedy or else a Drawing-Room at the Duchess of Berry's, where they play'd at Lansquenet.

At those times too when there was no Hunting there were Assemblies at M. le Grand's, and several others of Quality. I observ'd that most of the Nobility were more inclinable to be complaisant at Fontainbleau, than at Versailles: If a Man was ever so little known for a Person of Quality, they freely furnish'd him with the King's Horses for Hunting, which is scarce ever practis'd but in France and Lorrain. Indeed I have seen the same thing done at the Court of Bavaria, but 'twas very seldom.

After I had follow'd the Court for some time to Versailles and Fontainbleau, I went back again to the famous City of Paris. I no sooner arriv'd there but I had a considerable Fit of Sickness, which brought me almost to the Brink of the Grave. I committed myself to the care of the famous Dutch Physician Helvetius. This skilful Doctor set me upon my Legs in a very little time; and when I was able to go abroad, he200 advis'd me to take a Walk in the Garden of Luxembourg, which they cry'd up for the best Air in all Paris. I did not fail to pursue the Doctor's Direction, and observ'd indeed, that the Air I breath'd in that Garden was very good for me: But in a little time it had like to have prov'd most pernicious to me. For one Morning as I was walking there, I saw two Ladies coming a good way off, in a Deshabillé, who had both a grand Air, and a most noble Carriage. They were footing it on the very Terrass where I was walking; so that I sat down on a Bench to see them pass by. I confess to you, that I thought their Persons as lovely as their Undress was genteel and noble. As they sail'd by me, one of 'em happen'd to drop her Handkerchief, which I that instant snatch'd up and presented to her. She receiv'd it in a very polite manner, and I pass'd her a Compliment, to which she made a witty Reply. By degrees we entered into a Conversation, which tho' it held only a Quarter of an Hour, cost me very dear; for I fell in Love, and more deeply in Love than I can express to you. The Ladies asked my Name. You will imagine I did not put them to the trouble of asking it twice; the rather, because I hop'd that in requital they would tell me their Names: But notwithstanding all my Intreaty they wou'd not satisfy me. She that I was most enamour'd with at the first View, bid me in very good High-Dutch not to give my self any Uneasiness to know who they were; as she was going away, she said that I should not fail to see them again if I made any stay at Paris. I gave her my Hand and led her to her Coach, which seem'd to be well lin'd. I also saw a Couple of lusty Lackeys who were well clad. All this put together,201 confirm'd me in the Notion I had conceiv'd, that they were Ladies of Quality; or, at least, in good Keeping. I wou'd have given all the World to be inform'd exactly who and what they were; but 'twas absolutely impossible for me to make any Discovery. The Lackey that I had with me being a German, and even more a Stranger here than my self, was upon that account an improper Person, for the Management which is necessary for such Discoveries. I remain'd therefore mortally uneasy, and it had like to have made me as light-headed as I was in the Illness from which I was but newly recover'd. I did not fail to go to Luxembourg Gardens every day, and staid there from nine o'clock in the Morning till Night, excepting only the little time it took me to go home to Dinner. All these Jaunts forwards and backwards lasted about a Fortnight, at the end of which I found my self just as forward as I was the first Day. At last, when I had given over all Thoughts of being so happy as to find this Fair-one out, I was surpris'd to see her at a Place where I never dreamt of finding her. One day as I waited upon the Ladies de V—— and D—— to the Play-house where Cid was to be acted, and Quinaut the Elder began with playing Roderigo; judge, Madame, how great was my Surprize when I saw that the Heroine of my Passion was also the Heroine of this Play, in which she perform'd the Part of Clymene. In all my Life I was never so confounded, and began to question whether I ought to indulge a Passion of that nature. I perceiv'd some Reluctance in my Mind against attaching my self to a Person whose Profession is rarely susceptible of those nice Sentiments, which Persons202 of Honor always demand in Love. But the Course I took was really the same that a Boy of nineteen years of Age wou'd have done; that is to say, I acted the very contrary to what I ought to have done. I foolishly indulg'd my I Passion, so that I had scarce Patience to stay for the Interval between the Play and the Entertainment, before I went behind the Scenes, where I found my Fair-one, with several Gentlemen of my Acquaintance about her, whom I took at first for so many Rivals; and as if it was not Punishment enough to be in love, I must needs be jealous too. I spoke to D——, (which was the Name of this dissembling Creature) but I perceiv'd that what I said put her into a Flutter; and I observ'd that she was over and above complaisant to a Gentleman of the Long Robe who stood near her. I was not mistaken in my Guess; 'twas B——, one of the Counsellors of Parliament, who bore this Lady's Expences, and at such a Rate too, as if he had been an Officer of the Finances, rather than a Magistrate. I was so vain as to think of supplanting this Lover, or at least, if I could not quite non-suit him, I flatter'd my self that I should put him to a Non-plus. For this end I began to frequent the Comedy, and soon had the Comfort to find that my Love was not repaid with Ingratitude.

The Difficulty was to find a convenient Opportunity of seeing one another; but Love and Fortune soon pav'd the way for our Interview. Young Q——, the Sister of D——, who also liv'd with her, happen'd to have the Small-Pox. The Counsellor, who was extremely afraid of the Consequence, immediately took D—— from those Lodgings, and gave her an Apartment in the Hotel d'Entragues: But my comic Mistress203 gave me notice of her new Quarters; and the very same Day I hir'd a Chamber there too. I took no body with me but one Domestic, who was the Confident of my little Secrets; and there, in spite of my troublesome Argus, it was easy for me to see his Mistress, who would have been glad to be mine, if I had been so generous as he was, to give her 14000 Livres a year. But I chose rather to go snacks with him in the Favors which the Fair-one granted, than to pay so dear for the Exclusion of a Rival. The Counsellor, for his part, was not so indifferent, and having a Mistrust, he left no Stone unturn'd to find out the real Truth of the matter; nor was it long e'er his Curiosity was satisfy'd. Any other Person, not so deeply smitten as he was, might have known what he had to trust to for a Trifle of Expence; but this unbelieving Gallant, who, perhaps, was also too much conceited of his own Merit, and had too great an Opinion of his Nymph's Virtue, to presume to be jealous of her Honor upon slight Appearances, try'd new Experiments. He gave a Bribe to a Chambermaid, who made him see enough with his own Eyes intirely to remove those Suspicions which he had so fondly indulged. In a word, he saw me with his dear Mistress; and at a time too, when we should have least of all thought of being seen together. What a Fury the provok'd Lover was in, is easy to imagine, Nevertheless he was so prudent as to dissemble his Passion till I was retir'd to my own Chamber. Then, like another Roland, he took a Revenge for the Infidelity of his Angelica upon every thing that happen'd in his way. He broke and dash'd all to pieces; he tore off her Topknot, and threaten'd no less than utter Destruction204 to all about him. To all this Noise the Damsel return'd no Answer but Tears, which at length wrought so far upon this outragious Lover, as to pacify him: being then more calm, he larded his severe Reproaches with the softest Expressions; and taking the advantage of her Foible, offer'd her to increase her Pension, if she wou'd but promise him inviolable Fidelity. The Fair-one swore that nothing should, hereafter, lead her astray from her Duty; and in a Flood of Tears she consented to receive 2000 Crowns Addition to her Pension, which made it 20000 Livres a year. The Bargain was concluded with great Joy on both sides; but yet it was not strictly perform'd; for I continu'd my Visits to the Damsel, till at length her Sister being recover'd of her Distemper, Miss return'd to her own House. The Difficulties that then occurr'd, together with my own Fickleness, quite cool'd my Passion, which it was the easier for me to get rid of, because it was not in the least founded in Esteem; and perhaps, had it not been purely for the Pleasure of teazing that Limb of the Law, I had withdrawn my Addresses sooner.

My Amour with the fair Comedian did not sequester me from Company; and I will venture to say, that I made a tolerable Figure in a Country where every body that is not French passes readily for a Barbarian. Several Gentlemen who saw how graciously the King receiv'd me at Versailles, were eager to pay me their Respects; particularly the Duke D——, first Gentleman of the Bed-Chamber, made me such a Compliment as I cannot easily forget. I became acquainted with this Nobleman at Versailles. He accosted me with the utmost Civility205 in the Great Gallery, the very Day after I had been introduc'd to his Majesty, and told me that I had good reason to be pleas'd with the Reception which the King gave me; but much more with what he said when I was withdrawn; which was, That of all the Foreigners who had been introduc'd to him, no body had saluted him with a better Grace and a more easy Air than the Margrave of Anspach and me. The said Duke made a Proposal to me for my entring into the Service of France; and also promis'd me that I should be made a Colonel, if I would turn Roman Catholic. I thank'd him for his obliging Offers; but assur'd him, that Interest should never make me alter my Religion. I was also at that time full of the Prejudices of the Protestants against the Catholics; moreover, I was of an Age not mature enough for serious Reflections: for I thought of nothing in the world but my Pleasures; and indeed, how could a Man of my years help abandoning himself to them, when all the Kingdom, Paris especially, breath'd an Air of Gayety, which there was no withstanding? France saw that Peace which she had long wish'd for, on the point of being concluded; her late Losses had been expung'd by the Victory at Denain, and other Advantages which the French Troops obtain'd, not only by the raising of the Siege of Landrecy, which the Allies had invested, but by the taking of Marchiennes and St. Amant. The Allies began therefore to think of a Peace, and the English were at last willing to consent to it. I have already had the Honor to acquaint you, that my Lord St. John was come to the Court of France to have a Conference upon the Articles of the206 so much desir'd Peace; and that he was receiv'd there as a Man who came with the most important News that 'twas possible for them to receive.

As soon as that Minister was return'd to London, the Congress was open'd at Utrecht for a Peace; and France and England mutually sent their Ambassadors to one another. The Duke d'Aumont was appointed to go in that quality to the Court of England; and before he departed, the King gave him the Order of the Holy Ghost. This Nobleman was perfectly welcome to the Court-Party at London, which was desirous of Peace; but was an Eye-sore to the opposite Party, who hated to hear the mention of it. The French Ambassador was insulted, and treated with such Outrage, that his House was set on fire, and the Loss thereby sustain'd was very considerable; the said Duke having borrow'd the richest Furniture of several Persons, which was entirely burnt. The Duke of Orleans thereby lost a noble Suit of Hangings, and several very scarce Pictures.

The Person who was sent to France, as Ambassador from the Court of England, was the Duke of Shrewsbury, whose Reception by the King, the Court and the Kingdom was sufficient Demonstration how well they lik'd the Commission which he came to negotiate. This Ambassador kept no very great Table at the Court of France; nor was his Equipage very gay. He was indeed a Nobleman of very great Merit, but of a mean Presence; for he was blind of one Eye, and exclusive of that Defect no body would hardly have taken him for a Nobleman, if he had not been adorn'd with the Order of the Garter. He had his Duchess with207 him, who was an Italian Lady by Birth, and Sister to the famous P——, so well known in England for his Extravagancies and his tragical Exit. The Duke of Shrewsbury was betroth'd to her in Italy, and married in England. This Duchess appear'd at the Court of France with the most Foreign Air in the World. The Duchess d'Aumont was to have introduc'd her to the King and the Princesses; but as she was at that time indispos'd, she desir'd Madame de Chatillon to perform the Office for her. The King receiv'd the Ambassadress with great Marks of Distinction; and she was afterwards introduc'd to Madame, where she found a numerous Company that came thither out of meer Curiosity; and there it was that I had the Honor of seeing her. She seem'd at first in such Confusion, as if she had never liv'd in any Court, but by degrees she took courage. She talk'd a great deal, and talk'd well.

The same Night the Duchess of Shrewsbury was with the King at Supper, where she was plac'd in the Rank of the Duchesses, exactly behind the Duke of Berry. She talk'd a great deal to this Prince, tho' she had only a Glimpse of him once before at the Duchess of Berry's Apartment. All the Supper-time she did nothing but twitch him by the Sleeve, to advise him not to eat so much. Every body was very much surpriz'd to see this Familiarity of her's; and I observ'd that the Duke of Berry was not a little confounded at it. I forgot to mention one Circumstance wherein I thought the King was over and above polite. As he came to the Table he pass'd by the Duchess of Shrewsbury, without seeing her; but just as he was going to sit down, M. de Livry the Chief Steward acquainted him, that208 the Ambassadress of England was come to his Supper. Upon this, the King return'd that instant to the Place where she was, and said to her, That he had pass'd her without saluting her, because he did not see her; and that, he thought she was so fatigu'd with the Visits she had made in the Day that she was retir'd. The King also desir'd her to go and repose her self; but she made her Excuse and said, That 'twas impossible to have the Honor of paying Duty to so great a King as his Majesty, and to complain of Fatigue.

The Duchess of Shrewsbury was much of the same Temper as her Lord the Ambassador: She did not care for expensive Living. I remember that one day when I was at the Palace of Soissons, where she lodg'd, the Duchess de ----, who was a very gay Lady, wou'd fain have engag'd the Ambassadress to give a Ball: for this purpose she signify'd what a general Melancholy there was all over France, on account of the Death of the Princes, and a War of several years continuance; and said, every body expected that the Duke of Shrewsbury, who was come over to France to bring Peace, would also be inclinable to procure the Return of those Pleasures which so many Calamities had banish'd. But it all avail'd nothing; for the Ambassadress made answer to the Duchess, that she should be very glad to see a general Mirth at Paris; and that she thought the Duke of Shrewsbury had brought the French such important News, as wou'd have put an end to all Sadness for the past Misfortunes, without expecting him to procure other Pleasures. 'Twas to no purpose therefore to insist any longer on a Ball from that Quarter.209

You will undoubtedly be surpriz'd, Madame, when you hear who was the Person that gave the first Ball, instead of the Ambassador of England. 'Twas I that reviv'd Paris out of that fatal Lethargy, into which it seem'd to be fallen. I gave a Ball at Carneaux, or rather Mesdames de la M—— D—— and de V—— gave it for me. These Ladies having in form desir'd me to give a Ball, I immediately excus'd my self, on the consideration that as I was a Stranger it did not become me to set a Pattern for Entertainments, especially for a Peace which could be of no farther Advantage to me, than as it would indeed enable me to live more to my Satisfaction, in a Country where it had been long wish'd for. Moreover, there were other Reasons much of the same nature as those that govern'd the Duke of Shrewsbury, which made me grudge the Expence of a Ball that I foresaw would be very chargeable. My Arguments had some weight with the Ladies; but a Ball they were resolv'd to have, and therefore they made a Proposal to me, that if I would give them but ten Lewid'ors there should be a Ball, and I should have nothing else to do but to give out at the Opera and the Comedy, that there would be a Ball such a day at Carneaux. This I did not fail to do, and wherever I came I found People very well inclin'd to be present at the Assembly. The Ladies on their part hir'd the great Hall of the Carneaux, which they caus'd to be very finely illuminated, and having provided a very good Concert of Music there, they caus'd the Ball to be open'd by their Waiting-Women and Valets de Chambre. I supp'd with the Ladies that Evening, and ingenuously own'd to them that I did not very well know what Effect a Ball of that sort would have at Paris.210 After a good deal of joke upon it we went thither as soon as ever we had supp'd, and I confess that in my Life I never saw more Maskers. They crouded one another from the very Gate of the Court into the Hall, where the People were ready to faint for the very Heat, and did not know whom to apply to for a drop of Water: Every body rav'd against the Ball, and against the Person that gave it. But by good luck they did not know whom they were oblig'd to for such an Entertainment. Mean time I had the Precaution to provide some Refreshments for the Ladies in my Company, and they were not ill bestow'd. This Ball drew me in to give ten or a dozen other Entertainments of the like kind, and altogether as unprovided of Refreshments. Yet notwithstanding the general Thirst complain'd of for want of Liquor, and the Curses that I heard them utter against the Undertaker, there was always a vast Croud of Masqueraders.

Thus, Madame, did I pass my time at Paris, I kept the greatest and the gayest Company, and I had pretty good Fortune at Play, which, together with what was remitted to me from home, put me in a Condition to live there like a Prince. I made fresh Acquaintance every day, and they gave me fresh Pleasures, till I receiv'd News which troubled me very much, viz. the Death of our King Frederic I. which happen'd on the 15th of February this Year, and was occasion'd by one of the saddest Accidents that could have fallen out. 'Twas the Queen herself who in one of those Vertigo's, to which she had been for some time past subject, frighten'd the King so that he never recover'd it. It happen'd thus:

The Queen had for a long while given herself up to more than ordinary Devotion, and to a211 rigid Life not very agreeable to her natural Temper. But the Princess thought 'twas the best Course she could take, to stop the Mouths of those who had been so audacious as to give out that before her Marriage she was not always the Fondest of Retirement. The recluse and self-denying Life she led after Marriage, made her subject to Vapors, which ended in Frenzy, the Fits whereof were terrible. The King was not acquainted with her unhappy Disorder for a long time, till at last the Queen being one day in a more outragious Fit than ordinary, was so strong as to get loose from the Ladies that had the Care of her Person, and being but half dress'd, with her Hair dishevel'd, she went thro' a private Gallery to the King's Apartment. As she enter'd it she broke a Glass-Door, by which she cut both her Hands and Arms; and in this bloody pickle rush'd in upon the King like a Fury, and abus'd him with such Reproaches as would never have enter'd into the head of the poor Princess, if she had been well. The King, who was at the same time somewhat indispos'd, was taking a Nap in an easy Chair; but he started out of his Sleep, and imagin'd himself in the hands of a Ghost, every thing contributing to confirm him in that Notion. For the Queen having her Hair flying about her Temples, and no Clothes on but an Under-Petticoat, and a quilted Waistcoat of Marseilles Linnen, and her Arms and Face being moreover of a Gore-Blood, the King fancy'd her to be the White Woman[42], and did so much believe that this Apparition was a certain Presage of his approaching Dissolution, that it threw him the212 same Instant into a Fever, which oblig'd him to take to his Bed, and he never recover'd it. This Prince lay ill for near six Weeks, during which he had the Consolation to see how dear he was to his Subjects; for one day as he thought himself a little better, so that the Physicians began to have hopes of his Recovery, he caus'd himself to be carry'd towards a Window, from whence he saw the whole Square full of People, who were offering up Vows to Heaven for his Life. This was so moving a Scene to him, that the generous Prince could not refuse a Tribute of Tears for the Tenderness of his People. But their Prayers were not heard; and his Majesty died at Berlin with a Constancy and Courage worthy of him, after having given excellent Instructions to his Son the Prince Royal.

This young Prince was heartily griev'd for the Death of the King his Father, and as soon as he had receiv'd the first Homages of the Margraves who were the late King's Brothers, and of the whole Court, he shut himself up in his Apartment where he abandon'd himself to that Lamentation which he had reason to make for the Loss he had sustain'd. The Person that notify'd his Death to the Courtiers who crouded the Apartments, was M. de Printz, the Grand Marshal. They say, that when this Nobleman made his appearance to proclaim the melancholy News, it so seiz'd him that he could only say, The King, the King, the King! his redoubled Sighs discovering the rest that his Tongue had not power to declare.

The King's Funeral Obsequies were very magnificent. In the Streets, from the Palace to the place of Interment, several Regiments of Soldiers were drawn up in a Line on each213 side. The new King accompany'd the Convoy, and when the Corpse was deposited in the Royal Vault he went out of the Church, and mounting on horseback put himself at the Head of the Troops which made three Discharges of small Arms, and at the same time the Cannon were fir'd from the Ramparts. Thus, Madame, were the last Devoirs paid to Frederic our First King.

As to the Queen, the Physicians were of Opinion that her Native Air would be of service to her, and therefore she was carry'd to her Mother's Seat at Grabau in Mecklemburg, where she still remains, but without any Hopes as yet of her Recovery.

After the Death of Frederic I. the King his Son dismiss'd the whole Court, the three Companies of Life-Guards were broke, and the Guard of the hundred Swiss sent home to their own Country: In short, every thing assum'd a new Face. I saw, and was really mortify'd to see, that there was nothing more for me to hope for in my own Country. Nevertheless, tho' I thought I should have broke my Heart the first Moment that I receiv'd the melancholy News, my Sorrow was of no long duration. I had not, indeed, a very splendid Fortune to be my Comfort, but I was so young that I presum'd to think I should never come to want. Besides, my Birth was some Relief to my Mind; and to tell you the plain truth of the matter, as Things stood with me at that time, I was quite in love with Paris, which was reason good enough why I should not devote myself long to Melancholy.

Happening to be at the Fair of St. Germain, I there contracted Love for another Mistress. I had no reason to be asham'd of the choice I then made, because I might have hop'd to have been214 possess'd of every thing that was capable of fixing a Man of Gallantry. I abandon'd my self intirely to this new Amour, and as I was naturally fond of Expence, I laid out such a Sum that all my Friends were startled at it. My Equipages, Clothes, Liveries, &c. were all of the utmost Magnificence, and the frequent Presents that I made were very rich. But I was soon reduc'd to a Necessity of making very serious Reflections upon my past Conduct; tho' I had no body to blame but myself; for as to Mademoiselle de S—— (which was the Name of the Angel I ador'd) she would certainly have been well enough pleas'd with a Lover less profuse, so that with a little Oeconomy I might have made a gay Figure at Paris: But my new Passion would not suffer me to think so close of my Finances, which were now so much disorder'd that I saw no Remedy, except to return to my own Country: But I was so uneasy to think of going away, that I was very loth to fix on a day for my Departure. Mean time my dear Mistress and her Mother both press'd me with Tears in abundance to undertake a Journey so necessary; the one wishing it for my own sake, and the other for the sake of her Daughter; for the good Mother was as eager after Money, as the Daughter was disinterested. At length the melancholy Day being come, I set out from Paris without bidding Farewel to any one Friend whatsoever except Madame, and the Duke of Orleans, because I hop'd to be back again speedily. I left all my Servants behind, except only one Domestic who was privy to all my Affairs.

The Day that I set out I arriv'd about five o'clock in the Evening at Roye in Picardy, where I was told I could not proceed farther215 for want of Post-Horses, the Duke of Ossuna who was gone Ambassador of Spain to the Treaty at Utrecht, having taken them all up. I resolv'd therefore to go on with those that brought me to Roye. I halted at very sad Quarters, at a place betwixt Roye and Peronne. The first thing I did was to go to Bed, and really need enough I had of Rest; for my Head was so confus'd with a thousand different Thoughts, that I felt my Brains work almost as if I had been light-headed. But when I was in Bed 'twas much worse with me, I still indulg'd Melancholy. One while I wanted to go back again to Paris, whither my Love call'd me strongly. On the other hand, I was sensible of the sad Necessity of pursuing my Journey. In short, Swarms of different Inclinations succeeded each other; but at last, after a long debate with my self, I resolv'd to return to Paris. The time when I made this noble Resolution was about two o'clock in the Morning. I got up that Moment, and call'd for my Valet. As he lay in another part of the House which was separate from my Apartment, I thought 'twas better to go my self and awake him, than to lose my time in calling for him. I went out of my Chamber accordingly, but as ill luck would have it, I had not observ'd, or rather the confusion I was in made me forget that my Chamber-Door open'd into a Gallery that run round the House. This Gallery was so lately built that they had not time to put Rails to it, so that before I had gone two steps I had the finest tumble that ever I made in my Life. I fell from the Gallery into the Yard, and by good luck upon a heap of Dung, otherwise I might have been wounded, if not kill'd; so that all the harm I had was the surprize to find my self216 sinking in a Matrass as offensive as 'tis possible to conceive. My greatest perplexity was then to contrive how to get out of it, and to find the way back to my Chamber: But the Night was so dark, and I was so little acquainted with the House where I lodg'd, that I despair'd of getting out without Help; I began then to call out lustily for my Valet. But the Rascal never heard me, and indeed I was inform'd soon after, that he had been drunk, so that his Liquor had plung'd him into a profound Sleep. Seeing that I had to do with one that was as deaf as a Post, I thought fit to call out aloud for Mary, Catherine, Joan, and other Names, hoping that there was some Servant-Maid in the House, whom one at least of these Names would fit: Nor was I deceiv'd, for one of the Maids came to my Assistance, but the Wench taking me for a Spirit ran away in an instant, with a great Cry of Jesu-Maria. I was then terribly mortify'd: At this rate I plainly saw I should be forc'd to spend the rest of the Night in the Dunghill, and to wait with patience till the whole Family was risen. What made me the more apprehensive of the Consequences of this Disaster was, that tho' we were got into the Summer Season, yet the Nights were cold, and I had nothing over my Shirt but a Taffeta Night-Gown. I began again therefore to call and baul so loud, that at length some of the Family ran out to see what was the matter; but like the Servant-Maid they all took me for a Ghost come to haunt the House, and were afraid to come near me. At length, all this Noise awak'd my Valet, who ran out in his Shirt. He imagin'd at first that there had been a Design to murder me, but when I bid him put the Horses in my Chaise, he thought I was crazy; and indeed, I217 was pretty far gone that way. I repeated my Order to get my Chaise ready, that I might be gone that instant. My Valet, who had scarce recover'd from the Surprize he was in at my giving such an Order, said, Alas, Sir, be easy; 'tis but two o'clock in the Morning yet, at five you shall be gone. I told him, that he was a Fool, and that go I would. But he, like other Skipkennels who are apt to be fancy if their Masters treat them with any degree of Familiarity, refus'd point-blank to obey me. He said that I had no Consideration, that because I could not sleep my self I hinder'd others from sleeping; that I roll'd along the Day in an easy Chaise, whereas he rode generally upon very sorry Horses; that in short he wanted Rest, and that he would not set out till he had two Hours more Sleep, and had a good Breakfast. I was like to have been in a Passion, but saw 'twas to no purpose, and therefore we split the Difference; he compounded with me not to go to Bed again, and I gave him leave to take his Breakfast. When he thought fit to make an end, I got into my Chaise, and order'd the Postillion to strike into the Road for Paris. Then my Valet imagin'd indeed that I was crack-brain'd; he said I was wrong, and that we must turn into the Road to the Netherlands. I order'd him to hold his tongue, and go on. The poor Boy being confirm'd more and more in his Notion that I was Kite-headed, was wonderful uneasy, and at every Stage came with a sorrowful Countenance to the side of my Chaise to know how I did, and if I wanted any thing. At length I arriv'd at Paris, where all that knew of my Departure were startled to see me return'd so soon. I feign'd my self very much out of order, and that I came back again for fear of a Fit of218 Sickness, in which case I chose to be at Paris rather than any where else. But no body would believe me, for they thought that some Love-Affair at heart was the sole cause of my returning in such a hurry. I stay'd three Days at Paris, but did not go once to Versailles for fear of Madame, who was a Princess that did not love such Frolics, and I for my part did not love Reprimands, and therefore I thought it best to keep out of her way. Mean time the very same reason that determined me the first time to take a Journey to my own Country still subsisted, and at last I quitted Paris in good earnest, tho' I was resolv'd to be absent as little a while as possible.

I went the common Road to Brussels, and from thence through Breda and Gorcum, to Utrecht; having a desire to see in what state the Congress was, which was then held at that place.

Breda, which is a Place of Strength, situate on the River of Mercke, is part of Dutch Brabant, and one of the most considerable Towns in the Netherlands. This City and its Territory has the Title of a Barony, and has had several Masters. The last Owners of it were the Princes of Nassau, who acquired it in 1404, by Eagelbert of Nassau's Marriage with Joan the only Daughter of the Lord of Leck, who was Sovereign of Breda. Henry de Nassau founded the Castle in this Town, and the Tomb of René is still to be seen in the Collegiate Church of St. Peter, which was founded about the Year 1303. This City suffer'd very much towards the latter end of the sixteenth Century, during the Wars for Religion. 'Twas at first seiz'd by the Confederates, who form'd the Republic of the United Provinces. The Prince of Parma took it219 from them the 18th of June 1581; but Prince Maurice of Orange made himself Master of it in 1590, by means of a Boat laden with Turf, under which he had caus'd about threescore Soldiers to be conceal'd, who made themselves Masters of the Castle, and thereby gave the Prince an Opportunity to take the Town by Capitulation. They tell a very remarkable Story of one of the Soldiers that was hid in that Boat, viz. That having a Necessity of coughing, he desir'd one of his Comrades to kill him outright, for fear that his impertinent Cough should discover the Stratagem. This Soldier richly deserv'd to have his Name transmitted to Posterity; for sure a Roman could not have said a more gallant Thing, and an Instance of inferior Courage to this would perhaps have been rewarded with a Statue. Some Years after the Reduction of Breda, the great Spinola General of the Spanish Forces, besieg'd and took it after a Siege, or rather Blockade of eleven Months. 'Twas a fourth time besieg'd by Frederic-Henry Prince of Orange, who took it after a Siege of four Months, and then it came into the hands of the Dutch, who have remain'd Masters of it ever since, and have considerably augmented its Fortifications; and as the Place is situate in very Marshy Ground, they have erected Sluices there, by means of which they can easily lay all the neighbouring Country under Water. For the rest, this is not one of the best built Cities in the Netherlands, and were it not for its Ramparts would be a very inconsiderable Place. The King of Prussia, by virtue of his Pretensions to the Succession of William III. King of England, adds to his Titles that of Baron of Breda.220

Having pass'd through Gorcum, which I thought a Town of very little consequence, I came to Utrecht[43], which is one of the most noted Cities in the Netherlands, and gives Name to one of the seven Provinces, whereof it is the Capital. It was formerly a Bishop's See, and the Bishops were Sovereigns of the Province, and Princes of the Empire. The Dukes of Brabant and Cleves, the Counts of Holland and Guelderland, and other Sovereigns to the number of twenty-eight, were Feudataries to its Bishop. The Emperor Charlemain, that great Founder of Bishoprics, annex'd so Many Prerogatives to this with a View of engaging the Bishops to act with Zeal for Conversion of the Pagans who possess'd a Part of the Neighbouring Countries. Philip II. erected this Bishopric into an Archbishopric in favor of Schenck of Tautenbourg; but he did not enjoy the new Dignity long, for at the same time that this Country revolted from Spain, the Protestant Religion was introduc'd into it, and the Archbishop was expell'd. Henry of Bavaria was the last Bishop who was Sovereign of this Country, but his Subjects rebell'd against him and turn'd him out. This Bishop implor'd the Protection of Charles V. to whom with the Consent of his Clergy and States he transferr'd the Temporal Dominion of the Country in 1528, and from thence he was translated to the Bishopric of Worms. The famous Union of the seven Provinces, to which the Establishment of the Republic is owing, was concluded at Utrecht the 13th of January, 1579.

The City of Utrecht is famous also for the Birth of Pope Adrian VI, in 1459. They say this Pontiff was of mean Extraction, and was221 only oblig'd to his own Merit for his Advancement. The Emperor Maximilian trusted him with the Education of Charles his Grandson. He was afterwards sent to Spain with the Title of Ambassador to King Ferdinand, who gave him the Bishopric of Tortosa. Upon that Monarch's Death he shar'd the Regency of Spain with the Cardinal Ximenes, and afterwards remained sole Viceroy of that Kingdom. He was made a Cardinal the first of July 1517, by Pope Leo X. and chose Pope the ninth of January 1522.

While I am thus making Digressions in speaking of the City of Utrecht, you will also permit me to tell you that this City gave birth to the famous Anna-Maria Schuurman, that learned Lady who spoke Latin, Greek, Hebrew, the Syriac, Chaldee, Italian, Spanish, and French Languages as fluently as the Low Dutch, which was her Mother-Tongue. She also knew how to paint in Miniature, and to engrave both with the Graving Tool and the Diamond upon Copper and Glass. Queen Christina of Sweden did her the same Honor, as Alexander formerly did to Diogenes, for she went to pay her a Visit, and was surpriz'd at the Beauty of her Performances. This most ingenious Artist of her Sex died in 1678, at 71 Years of Age.

Balderic of Cleves the fifteenth Bishop of Utrecht, caus'd this City to be encompass'd with Walls; and Charles V. built its Castle, which has at present nine Bastions, two Half-moons, and a Hornwork. They say that the great Church dedicated to St. Martin, was built in the Year 630 by King Dagobert; and after it was destroy'd, together with all the other Buildings in the City by the Normans, Adelbolde the 19th Bishop caus'd it to be rebuilt and consecrated in222 1024, in presence of the Emperor Henry II. and twelve Bishops. It was ruin'd a second time, but was magnificently rebuilt. There's a very fine Tower at the Entrance 388 Foot high, from whence fifteen or sixteen Towns may be seen distinctly.

There's a better Air at Utrecht than in the other Towns of Holland, the Ground it stands on being much higher, and by consequence not so marshy. This Town, which is situate upon the old Channel of the Rhine, is incompass'd with a fine fruitful Plain, and has charming Walks in the Neighbourhood, which are not inferior to those at the Hague.

The French were at one time Masters of this Place, but on the 13th of November 1673, it reverted to its lawful Sovereigns. When I arriv'd here I heard that the Peace was just sign'd by the Plenipotentiaries of France and Spain on the one part, and by the Ministers of England, Portugal, Prussia, Savoy and Holland, on the other part. The principal Conditions were, That Philip V. should remain in possession of the Crown of Spain, on condition nevertheless that he should renounce the Succession to the Crown of France, for himself and his Descendants: That England should have Gibraltar in Spain, and Port-Mahon in the Mediterranean: That Dunkirk should be demolish'd: France, by the way, was very loth to consent to the ruin of a Place which had already cost her several Millions, and requir'd a considerable Expence moreover to demolish. The Elector of Brandenburg was recogniz'd King of Prussia, both by France and Spain, and had even the Title of Majesty given him, which France never us'd to allow to the Kings of Denmark and Poland. To the King of Prussia was223 also yielded what he before possess'd in Spanish Guelderland, as an Equivalent for the Principality of Orange, which that Monarch yielded to France. The Duke of Savoy was own'd King of Sicily, and he obtain'd some Places in the Milanese. The King of Portugal remain'd peaceable Possessor of the Conquests which he had made during the War. The Dutch got least of all by the Peace, and perhaps they repented that they did not accept of the Terms offer'd them at Gertruydenberg.

As soon as I arriv'd at Utrecht, I did not fail to make a Visit to the Ambassadors of Prussia, who were the Count de Denhoff, the Count de Metternich, and the Marshal de Biberstein. They receiv'd me with all the Civility possible, and presented me to all the Foreign Ministers. I found at this City the Countess Dowager of Wartemberg, who was lately come hither. The Count her Husband, who died at Francfort, desir'd upon his Death-bed that his Corpse might be carried to Berlin, which was perform'd with a good deal of Pomp. They say, that the late King, who was very fond of him, as I have already had the Honor to mention to you, wou'd needs see his Funeral Convoy; and as it pass'd before the Windows of his Castle he could not refrain shedding Tears. Perhaps he then repented that he had disgrac'd that Minister on such slight Pretences; and perhaps too, the melancholy Spectacle put him in mind of that unavoidable Coast, on which both the Majesty of Kings, and the Magnificence of Courtiers, will at last be run ashore.

The Countess of Wartemberg was more undaunted. She was far from indulging any mortifying Reflection; but on the contrary, was224 glad to find her self in possession of a very great Estate; and gladder still to think that she was uncontroulable. She left Francfort where she had resided ever since her Husband's Disgrace; and thinking that too melancholy a Place to spend her Life in, she made choice of the City of Utrecht, as the most gay of any that she knew. She soon had an Intrigue or two upon her hands; and when I arriv'd, I heard that the Chevalier de B—— was her Bosom Friend. This Gentleman was newly set out for Versailles, with a Commission to carry the News of the Peace. I was not much concerned whether I made any Visit to the Countess; for I observ'd that all of our Court who were then at Utrecht, were shy of her to such a degree, that I did not care to be the only one that shew'd any Regard for her. But tho' I had resolv'd not to visit her, I happen'd to fall in her Way. This Lady had brought a French Gentlewoman with her, whom I knew very well at Berlin; and as she had Wit at will, I had a mind to renew my Acquaintance with her, the rather because I had a Curiosity to know a little of the Countess's History. The first time I paid her a Visit she made me an Offer to carry me to see the Countess of Wartemberg; which I refus'd in such a manner that she did not insist upon my going. But she thought fit to tell the Countess that I was lately come to Utrecht; that I had paid her a Visit; and that she thought I perfectly resembled the Chevalier de B——. There needed no other Motive to set the Countess agog to see me; and she desir'd her Gentlewoman to bring me to her. But notwithstanding all her Persuasion, I peremptorily refus'd it. At last, as I was making a Visit one day to the Gentlewoman,225 who should bounce into the Room where I was, but the Countess de Wartemberg. She said, that tho' I scorn'd her so much as not to make her a Visit, she had resolv'd to come and see me. I was going to reply, but the Countess, without giving me time to speak, told me, that she thought me alter'd much for the better; that no two drops of Water were more like than I, and the Chevalier de B——; and that in short we perfectly resembled each other even in the Tone of our Voice: But by Madam de Wartemberg's leave, there never were two People more unlike. The Knight Commander was a handsome well-set Man, which you know, Madame, is a Character I never had the Vanity to affect; and I thought every part of the Countess's Compliment so extraordinary, that in truth, a Scholar just come from the College could not have been more dash'd than I was. I made an Answer, 'tis true, but to tell you frankly, I knew not what I said. I gave her my Hand, and led her to her own Apartment, where she still descanted upon the mighty Resemblance betwixt the Chevalier and me. In fine, I think I may venture to say, without giving my self an Air as if I was the Darling of the Fair Sex, and without passing in your Opinion for a Coxcomb, that 'twas my own fault I was not taken, in Body and Soul, for the Chevalier; but I was so fortunate as to be disintangled by a Valet de Chambre, who came to acquaint her of the Arrival of M. Menager the third Plenipotentiary of France at the Congress, to whom I had Obligations for bringing me out of this Scrape. This kind of Visit made me take proper Measures to prevent any more such, for the little time I had to stay in this City.226

From Utrecht I went to Wesel, and from thence thro' Westphalia to the Duchy of Magdebourg. The City of this Name was formerly an Archbishopric, erected by the Emperor Otho the Great in favor of the Vandals newly converted, but by the Peace of Westphalia the whole Country was seculariz'd with the Title of a Duchy, in favor of the Brandenburg Family, in Exchange for that part of Pomerania which was yielded to the Swedes. There are few Towns in Germany that have suffer'd so many Revolutions as Magdebourg. This City was put under the Ban of the Empire in 1553, by Charles V. for refusing Submission to his Orders, for it was then in open Rebellion, so that the Elector Maurice of Saxony was sent to reduce it. The Siege lasted a whole Year, the Elector not being very much in haste to push on the Conquest. As this War was undertaken purely for the Destruction of the Protestant Religion, which this City had embraced; the Elector, who was himself a Protestant, thought by spinning out the Siege to regain the good Opinion of those of his Religion, who were uneasy to see him support the Interests of the Emperor and the Catholics. The Elector however made them easy, by promising the Protestants of Magdebourg, that he would join them in the War against the Emperor, immediately after the Surrender of the Place. Matters were transacted on both sides with very great sincerity. The Place surrender'd, and the Elector entered it not as a victorious Prince, but rather as an Ally who brought Relief to it. He made use of the Garison to reinforce his Army, and then declar'd War against the Emperor, on pretence that the Religion and Liberty of Germany were in danger.227

A Change of this nature was so extraordinary, that the Emperor could not expect it: For this Prince had himself promoted the Elector of Saxony to the Dignity he possess'd, after having depriv'd the unfortunate Frederic of his Dominions; and for so considerable a Present he might very well hope the Elector would have made him grateful Returns. The Emperor therefore was so far from thinking himself oblig'd to be on his Guard for fear of Surprise, that he imagin'd himself in a State of perfect Security, when the Elector of Saxony had like to have surpriz'd him at Inspruck the Capital of Tirol. The Emperor knew nothing of the Plot, till he was on the point of being made Prisoner; and 'twas with much ado that he escap'd, for he was at that time ill of the Gout, and oblig'd to leave both his Equipage and Domestics behind him. He would upon this occasion have given the Prince John-Frederic his Liberty, but this Prince was loth to abandon him in this Misfortune, and accompany'd him into Carinthia, twenty-eight Leagues from Inspruck, where the Emperor made his Retreat.

The City of Magdebourg was a very great Sufferer in the War, which is commonly call'd, The War of thirty Years, because during that Term Germany was ravag'd on all sides. Tilly the Emperor's General besieg'd it in 1631, when 'twas taken by Storm, and all the Inhabitants put to the Sword. A Fire also had a part in its Destruction, and committed such Ravage that Magdebourg, which was one of the finest Cities in Germany, was intirely reduc'd to Ashes. The Burghers indeed had no body but themselves to blame for their Misfortune, for General Tilly would not have treated them so severely if they228 had not refus'd an advantageous Capitulation, of which he made them an Offer some days before the Storm.

But since this Town has been in the hands of the Brandenburg Family, the Electors have taken care to fortify it so well, that it would now be a hard matter to take it. The late King caus'd a Citadel to be built here, which is separated from the City by the Elbe. The present King has added considerable Works to it, which are remarkably substantial and magnificent. His Majesty has also caus'd a very fine Arsenal to be built in the Great Square, which tho' not very large, is stor'd with a considerable number of Cannon and other Arms. On the Right hand of this Square is the Great Church, formerly the Cathedral, a Gothic Building, where meets the Chapter which is still subsisting, tho' Protestant; and according to ancient Custom, none are admitted into it but Men of Quality.

The Situation of Magdebourg is very fine, having an Outlet on all sides to spacious Plains, that are very fruitful in Corn. The Elbe, which, as I have said, separates the Citadel from the Town, renders its Commerce also very easy with Hamburg, Saxony and Bohemia, for which reason several Merchants are settled here who have noble Houses. And since the King has transferr'd the Regency of the Country hither from Hall, the Town grows every day finer, so that it may now be reckon'd one of the most beautiful Towns in the two Circles of Saxony.

From Magdebourg in my Way to Berlin I pass'd thro' Brandenburg, which is a City on the River Havel, that was built by M. Branden, a Prince of Franconia. 'Twas heretofore a Bishopric, but now the whole Country is seculariz'd,229 and makes a part of the Marquisate of Brandenburg. Here is a considerable Trade, and the King keeps a Garison in it, consisting of a Battalion of the tall Grenadiers. You have so often seen the Regiment of which this Battalion is a part, that 'tis needless to commend it to you farther than to observe, that 'tis perhaps the finest Regiment in Europe.

I did not stay at Brandenburg, because I would be the sooner at Berlin. On the day that I arrived there I was so tir'd with having walk'd all Day and Night, that I kept my Bed till the Evening, when I had the Honor to wait on the Queen, the King having been gone a few days before to Potzdam, Her Majesty kept her Chamber, and had not been out of it since her last Lying-in, when she was deliver'd of the Princess Charlotta-Albertina, who died the Year following on the 10th of June. I was so coldly receiv'd by her Majesty, that I had no reason to hope for favor at Court, or at least with her Majesty. But the Margravines receiv'd me with all the Civility possible. The Margravine-Dowager especially assur'd me that she would continue that Protection with which she had always honor'd me.

As to the City of Berlin, it had not yet dry'd up its Tears for the Loss it had lately sustain'd, by the Death of Frederic. 'Tis true the King his Son gave great hopes, but the thorough Change he had made in his Court, caus'd the late King to be lamented. The new Monarch thought of nothing but keeping up a numerous Army, and that he might do this without laying a Burden upon his Subjects, he dismiss'd all his Court, and the intire Houshold of the King his Father, so that there was nobody at Court but the Ministers. Most of the Persons of Quality who230 lived heretofore at Berlin, were retir'd either to their Estates or their Governments, which made the City a most melancholy Place to stay in, and all these Alterations convinc'd me that there was nothing for me to expect in this Country. I therefore resolv'd to settle all my Domestic Affairs with the utmost speed, designing to return forthwith to Paris. Before I went thither, I made a Trip to Zell, in order to examine the Accompts of a Person I had deputed as my Attorney to receive the Deeds of my Mother's Estate. But to my sorrow, my Mother had by her Will devis'd the greatest part of her Estate to the Children she had by her former Husband, so that what I could lay claim to was far short of what I promis'd my self.

From Zell I went to Hambourg[44], purely to see that City. I had travel'd thither once before, but was then so young that I was not in a Capacity to take notice of any thing in this City worthy of Remark. Hambourg, which is one of the best Towns in Germany, is a part of Lower Saxony, being situate upon the Elbe a few Leagues from the Mouth of that River, which is a great Conveniency to its Trade. Before it was erected into a Republic 'twas a part of Holstein, on the Territory of which it was built; and therefore it had frequent Quarrels with the Dukes of Holstein, and the Kings of Denmark, who are the Sovereigns of Holstein. The latter, as well as the Swedes, have attempted several times to make themselves Masters of Hambourg, but have been repuls'd as often as they came before it: For this City is not easy to be reduc'd, because it has noble Ramparts and very strong Out-works, and it also takes care to be well provided with Artillery,231 and a good Garrison. Moreover, 'tis always sure of the Protection of the Families of Brandenburg and Brunswic, it being so advantagiously situated, that 'tis the Interest of both, that no Power whatsoever should take it.

Hambourg is also very considerable on account of the Wealth of its Inhabitants, who are almost all Merchants, and much of the Temper of the Dutch Merchants, very greedy of Gain and thrifty. Their greatest Delight is so have Gardens at the City-Gates, pretty much in the Taste of those of Holland. The Wives of the great Merchants are as much confin'd at Hambourg, as the Women of Quality are at Venice, but I observ'd they were only pent up from Foreigners. A Man may pass his time very well in this City, where there are several Persons of Quality to see, who make their Visitors perfectly welcome. The Walks in and about this City are charming, and especially that on the Ramparts is a noble one, there being a double Row of Trees which forms an agreeable Covert, and from whence there's a Prospect finely diversify'd by noble Houses, Gardens, Woods, Meadows, &c. in the midst of which one sees the Rivers Elbe and Alster, which both together yield a charming View. The River of Alster comes into the Town and forms a Basin very like a great Pond, which has a fine Kay on the sides of it planted with several Rows of Lime-Trees, between which there's a very fine Walk.

Near Hambourg lies the Town of Altena[45]. The King of Denmark gave it this Name to banter the Deputies of Hambourg who made Remonstrances to him against his building this Town too near to theirs, and in their Discourse232 to the King about the Town said several times, Sie ist al te na, which in the Language of the Country signifies, it is too near. The King taking particular Notice of the Monosyllables al te na, said to the Deputies that he could not excuse himself from carrying on the Town which he was building, and that all he could do to oblige them was to order it to be call'd by the Name of Altena, which they themselves had given it. And indeed, a more significant Name could not have been put upon this Town, for 'tis situate just at the Gates of Hambourg, and is a part of Danish Holstein. It was formerly a priviledg'd Place for Bankrupts, and for all that had committed any Crime in Hambourg. But the present King of Denmark, rather than this Town should continue any longer in the Enjoyment of a Privilege which fill'd it with Knaves and Vagabonds, delivers up Malefactors to the Magistrates of Hambourg whenever they reclaim them.

Altena is remarkable for the Multiplicity of Religions which are there publickly exercis'd. I believe, that excepting Amsterdam, there is not a Town in Europe where there are so many Sects; but few of 'em are allow'd a Church. The Neighbourhood of this Town to Hambourg, and its Situation moreover upon the Elbe, does great Prejudice to that City. 'Tis now several years since Altena was burnt by the Swedes, under the Command of the Count de Steinbock; when they scarce allow'd Time to the Inhabitants to make their Escape; so that they had the Grief to be Eye-Witnesses of the burning of their Houses and Goods, and several Old Men, and a number of Infants perish'd in the Flames. I found Altena in that sorrowful State when I first went thither;233 but upon a Review of it since, I see that 'tis rebuilt in such a manner, that 'tis now a finer and more flourishing Town than ever. After four or five days Stay at Hambourg I set out, and never did any body go off at a more proper Time; for in a few days after it, the Plague discover'd it self in the City; upon which it was shut up, and its Communication forbid with any other Place.

I return'd thro' Zell, where I made no manner of stay, to Aix-la-Chapelle[46], an Imperial City, on the Confines of the Duchies of Juliers and Limbourg. 'Tis encompass'd with Mountains, which form so pleasant a Vale, that Charlemain chose rather to reside at Aix-la-Chapelle, than in either of the many beautiful Cities which he conquer'd. This Emperor caus'd a Collegiate Church to be built here, in which his Tomb is still to be seen; and the Memory of that Prince is to this day held in great Veneration. On the Festival of St. Charles, there's a solemn Procession here, in which the Effigies of that Monarch is carried with an Equipage which excites Laughter rather than Devotion. The Preacher's Pulpit in this same Collegiate Church is inrich'd with Plates of Gold; and they say that the Branch which hangs down before the High Altar is of the same Metal. 'Tis in this Church that many Emperors have been consecrated; and several of the Imperial Ornaments are still kept there. The Emperor is born Canon of the Church of Aix, and takes the Oath as such on the Day of his Coronation.

Certain Reliques are preserv'd at Aix-la-Chapelle, which are shew'd but once in seven years; and234 then they are expos'd to View from the top of a Tower in the City, during which the People gaze at them on their Knees, in the Squares and Streets leading to the said Tower. This Ceremony was perform'd when I was at Aix in 1713, at which time there was a Concourse to it of an incredible number of Pilgrims from Hungary, Tirol, and all the Provinces of Germany. Persons of superior Rank are allow'd the Liberty of going up to the top of the Tower where those Reliques are expos'd, and may look near to them, but must by no means touch them. Of all that I saw, I only remember a Smock, which they affirm was the Virgin's: There were some spots on it, which they said were the Stains of the Milk with which she suckled the Savior of the World. This Shift seem'd to be quite seamless, and made of a sort of Stuff which I know not how to describe to you, for it was neither of Linnen nor Callico.

The City of Aix is very famous for its hot Baths, and for the Waters that are taken there twice a year, viz. in Spring and Autumn; at which two Seasons there's a great Resort hither of Foreigners. The Waters are hot, and of a very unpleasant Taste, and they smell like a rotten Egg; for which reason People are loth to take them when they first come; but after they are us'd to it, they go down very well. The Baths especially are wonderfully good against the Contraction of the Sinews and against Wounds. Nor is there a Place where the Waters are us'd with more Conveniency, there being plenty of every thing that one wou'd wish for, and especially good Company; for Brabant, Liege, France, Holland and Germany, lie so near to it,235 that there's always a great many People here, and very good Diversion.

I set out from Aix for Paris, by the way of Maestricht and Louvain; but as I travell'd Post thro' these Towns, I shall reserve the Description of them to you, till such time as I make a longer stay in them. On my Arrival at Paris I was deeper in Love than ever. I was receiv'd by my dear Mistress with such Tokens of Love, as gave me all the reason in the world to think, that I was the happiest Man living: And in reality I was so, because at that time I knew of no other Happiness than to be in her good Graces; yet my natural Levity made me soon think otherwise. I saw the Marchioness de P——; and I will frankly own to you, that all the Veneration I had for S—— abated. I thought then there was nothing to compare with the new Object of my Passion. S—— quickly perceiv'd my Inconstancy, and reproach'd me for it; but they were Reproaches unmix'd with Gall, and such as nothing but Love can inspire. The consequence was, that my Passion for her reviv'd; and upon this occasion I was made sensible, that a Flame not well extinguish'd is always apt to burst out again; and that there needs no great Compulsion to renew the Passion of Love. The Sentiments of the Man of Honor being join'd to those of the Lover, I ask'd my own Conscience what S—— had ever done to disgust me. And in fine, I gave Judgment against my self, that I could not without Ingratitude forsake so amiable a Mistress. I took care, therefore, to absent my self by degrees from the Marchioness de P——; and found it no very hard matter to stifle a Passion, which, to speak plainly, was but a sudden Flash.236

While I staid at the Court of France, I saw the Ceremony of the double Marriage of the Duke of Bourbon and the Prince of Conti, who married each other's Sister. The Duke married Mary-Anne of Bourbon-Conti, Sister to the Prince of Conti, who married Louisa-Elizabeth of Bourbon-Condé, the Duke's Sister.

These Marriages made no addition to the Pleasures of the Court, and every thing remained very quiet, till News came of the Advantages which the Marshal de Villars had gain'd over the Allies. This Campaign was both glorious and advantageous to the Marshal; and every body talk'd of the immense Sums of Money which he had put into his Pocket. His Conduct was narrowly pry'd into, and his Enemies charg'd that to him as a Crime, for which, perhaps, they would have commended any other General. They said that he brought with him several Waggons laden with Bandoliers for Safeguards; and that he got so much Money by this means, that at his Return he laid out 1,800,000 Livres in a Purchase. Nay, they had the Assurance to speak of it to the King, who said to the Marshal one day at Dinner, That he heard he had bought a fine Estate. 'Tis true, Sir, reply'd the Marshal, I have just purchas'd a very pretty Estate; and if I have the Honor to command your Army next year, I hope to buy a more considerable one and make your Enemies pay for it. This Answer quite broke the Measures of those who had endeavour'd to do the Marshal ill Offices. He knew very well that he had Enemies, but it gave him little Concern; for he was in high Favor, and he deserv'd it. They say that when he set out to make the Campaign in 1713, he said to the King at taking leave of him, I desire237 your Majesty to remember, that while I am going to fight your Enemies, I leave your Majesty in the midst of mine. He acquitted himself very bravely; and at length, by the Reduction of Landau and Fribourg, he procur'd that Peace, by which the Electors of Cologne and Bavaria were restor'd to their Dominions.

After I had been some Months at Paris I receiv'd Letters from Berlin, with Advice, that the King had Thoughts of forming his Houshold; and that I could not do better than to go and offer him my Service. I was not long in demurring upon what Course to take. I had always been bred up in Sentiments which convinc'd me, that to serve one's Sovereign was preferable to any other Service; and besides, I always found my self naturally attach'd to the Family of our Kings. I therefore resolv'd to leave Paris once more. You know my Humor so well, Madame, that you cannot think but it was with some Reluctance that I form'd a Resolution of this nature; and I will frankly own to you, that I was heartily grieved to leave a Place where I had my fill of Pleasures, which I knew I could not have a Taste of elsewhere: but at length I gave Attention only to my Duty; and tho' the Tears which I saw shed for my sake melted my Heart, yet they were not powerful enough to make me alter my Design.

From Paris to Wesel, I went the same Road that I came; and from Wesel I proceeded to Hanover, where I fell sick. My Design was to be incog. but the ill State of my Health oblig'd me to have recourse to a Physician; nay, I thought one while, that all the Remedies in the World would do me no good; and that238 'twas high Time for me to prepare in good earnest for my last long Journey. My Kinswoman Mademoiselle de Pollnitz was soon inform'd of my Arrival; and as soon acquainted the Electoress of it, who was so gracious as to send to know how I did; and this she repeated twice every day as long as I was ill. This Princess always had a Kindness for me, which I shall for ever acknowledge. I was told, that during my Illness, F—— thinking to divert the Company at my Expence, said at the Elector's Table, That my Distemper was not mortal; that I had caught it in France; and that there were Surgeons at Hanover who had Skill enough to set me to rights. The Electoress was very angry with him, and said, Sir, your Banter is absurd; if he had the Distemper that you say, he would have staid in France for the Cure, since he is not ignorant, that the People of this Country go thither for the same Purpose; and he has too much Sense not to follow their Example.

As soon as I was able to get abroad, I did not fail to wait on the Electoress with my most humble Thanks. That Princess gave me a much better Reception than I durst presume to have expected. The Kindness which she show'd to me, induc'd Mademoiselle de Pollnitz and Madame de K—— to think, that I might easily obtain Admission into her Service if I would but ask her; and accordingly those Ladies prevail'd on me to take that Step, tho' I very much question'd my Success; and I found by Experience that my Suspicion was but too well grounded. I made my Application to the Princess by Letter; in which, perhaps, I acted indiscreetly, because I thereby gave her Leisure239 to take the Opinion of other People. Accordingly she did so; and to my misfortune applied to Madame de B—— who could not endure me; because, as I heard afterwards, Madame of France had acquainted the Electoress, that I told her the Electoral Prince had a particular Respect for her Ladyship. This was enough to exasperate a Person against me, who made outward Profession of the most rigid Virtue; and when the Electoress consulted her about me, she was transported to think what an infallible Opportunity she had to be reveng'd. She artfully insinuated to the Electoress, that she ought not to admit me into her Service, and did not want Reasons to back her Insinuations; the Desire of Revenge being what always supplies specious Arguments in abundance to hurt an Enemy. The Electoress so well approv'd of those she made use of to exclude me from her Service, that she order'd M. de P—— to tell me, That she was very much oblig'd to me for the Attachment which I manifested for her Person; but that she could not imagine, that after I had serv'd a King, I should like to wait upon so old a Princess as she was: That 'twould be more suitable for me to be in the Service of her Son; and that she should take a Pleasure to help me to it: But that as for her self she must stay till she was Queen of England before she could admit me into her Service; because, if that should happen, she should then be in a better Capacity to make my Fortune. You perceive, Madame, this was a Refusal that I could not well complain of, 'twas so season'd with everything to take off the Bitterness of it. For my part, I own to you that I felt none. As I had only taken this Step in pure Complaisance to Mademoiselle de Pollnitz, she was stung to the quick at this240 Denial; not so much for my sake (I knew very well what the matter was) but for her own; whose Vanity was very much mortify'd by it; for she thought her self in Favor, and saw 'twas a Favor without any Credit: And her Resentment proceeded so far, that she hinder'd me from taking Leave of the Electoress, who in a few days after set out for Gohr with the Prince her Son. For my part I also set out from Hanover for Berlin.

When I came thither I found the King's Houshold Officers already nominated, yet this did not hinder me from asking his Majesty for Employment. The Person who spoke for me was M. de Printz the Grand Marshal, who brought me News of a Refusal of a very different sort from what I found at Hanover. In the latter, I had no reason to complain of the Electoress, who with all the Politeness possible refus'd me a Favor, which when all is said and done, I should not have valued, if I had not ask'd for it. But now I had a very cruel Repulse, by being deny'd the only thing for which I had undertaken the Journey to Berlin. The Behaviour of the Court to me in this Instance concern'd me not a little. I had never done any thing to seclude me from an Establishment in my own Country. My Ancestors had serv'd in it, and bore such a distinguish'd Rank in it too, that I might very well think some Notice would have been taken of me. Moreover, I had the Honour of being Gentleman of the Bed-chamber to the late King, but now had the Mortification of seeing Persons prefer'd before me who had never been seen at Court, and such too for most part as are of very obscure Birth. Finding therefore I had no hopes of succeeding at Court, I saw that241 I must go seek my Fortune elsewhere, and I thought of entring into the Service of the King of Poland. There was not a fitter Man upon earth to serve me with that Prince than his Prime Minister the Count de Flemming, who happen'd to be then at Berlin upon his Master's Affairs. I got my Friends to speak to the Count, and attended him constantly. That Minister seem'd inclinable to serve me, and promis'd to speak for me to the King his Master.

He set out for Warsaw the latter end of November, and thither I follow'd him; upon which he introduc'd me to the King, and to all the Court-Nobility. I cou'd not have set out better than I did at the Court of Poland. I was patronis'd by the Man who mov'd in the highest Sphere there, next to the King himself; and for that Reason every body strove to shew me Respect. The Count de Flemming seem'd to be pleas'd at the Regard that was paid to me; at least, I was so short-sighted as not to perceive that it was to him a matter of very great Indifference. I was excusable in not suspecting him of double dealing with me; for hitherto I had no other Reason but to applaud his Generosity, and that Good-will which he had express'd to do me Service. Endeavors were not wanting to undeceive me, and I soon after saw with my own Eyes, that the fair Promises he made to me were nothing more nor less, than what they call Court-Holy-Water.

Not long after my Arrival at Warsaw, the King of Poland set out for Germany. I thought my self bound in Interest to wait for his Return, in order to treat about my Affairs; and I spent this time at Warsaw in the most agreeable manner that could be. I was soon known by all242 the Polish Nobility, who were as civil to me as could be imagin'd. Every thing I beheld made me fancy I was at Paris, there being every where the same Politeness, and a certain easy Deportment which the French think none are Masters of but themselves. The Polish Ladies are very amiable, witty, and have a good deal of Sprightliness. With these Qualities, one would naturally imagine they are not indifferent to Pleasures; and I observ'd that they have a delicate and very exquisite Taste for every thing that passes under the Name of Diversions. They are passionately fond of Music, and still more of Plays. And at Warsaw they have as much of both as they desire; for the King, who is a Prince as gallant as he is magnificent, takes care that every thing be done at Court, in a manner worthy of a great Prince. He maintains a Set of French Comedians there; and moreover, frequently gives Balls and Concerts. These Diversions are generally attended with noble Feasts that the King makes for the Ladies of his Court; at which times, that Prince is always admir'd for his good Mien, and for that Gracefulness which sets off all his Actions.

The Polish Lords are not near so gay as the Ladies; or, at least, they don't come up to them for Elegance and Contrivance. Their Domestics and Equipage are generally slovenly; their Tables are indeed serv'd with Profusion, but without Delicacy, which I take to be intirely owing to the want of good Officers or skilful Cooks; for in other respects, Poland is a Country, where there is as good Cheer as any in the World. Their Butcher's Meat is delicious, and they have plenty of good Fish. Wine is not the Produce of the Country, but the want243 of it is not perceiv'd at the Tables of the Polish Nobility, where the Wine of Hungary, tho' very dear, is drank as common as Water. I observed one thing at the Generality of their Tables, that does not tally with the Grandeur which they pretend to, viz. That the Master of the House and his intimate Friends drink the best Wine, while the other Guests that are invited, are oblig'd to put up with the common sort. Tis to be observ'd, that tho' Poland abounds with all Necessaries for Life, yet 'tis a Country very inconvenient for Travellers, especially those who are not in a Capacity to carry every thing along with them. I have not seen a Place where there is so little Accommodation at the Public-Houses, there being hardly a Chair in them to sit down upon. Therefore the Travellers of any Fashion take care to carry all Necessaries with them. The Duke of York, Bishop of Osnabruck, said a very pertinent thing upon this occasion, viz. That he did not know a Country where Travellers were more at home than in Poland, because they were always making use of their own Furniture.

I heard that the King was shortly to go for Dresden, and therefore I set out thither immediately with the Count de Hoim, a Minister of State to his Polish Majesty. In my Way to Dresden I saw no Place of Note but Breslau and Leipsic. Breslau, the Capital of Silesia, is a pretty large and very beautiful City, which in the Winter-Season is inhabited by a great Number of Nobility. The Count de Flemming stopping there a couple of days, I halted there too. I saw very good Company here, especially at the Houses of the Count de Maltzam, and the Princess of Teschen, who was formerly the Princess Lubomirski.244 This Lady made a grand Figure, gave People a hearty Reception, and treated with Magnificence. I could have wish'd to have staid at Breslau a few days longer; but as the Count de Flemming, by whose Patronage I hop'd still to get some Establishment at Court, was going to the King in Saxony, I went with him to the Fair at Leipsic, where the King and Queen were already arriv'd. As the King had been absent a good while, the Princes of the Blood, and a great number of Persons of Quality, came hither to pay their Respects to him; and after the Fair was ended, his Majesty return'd to Dresden, where he had not been long arriv'd, but he married the Count de Saxony (his natural Son by the Countess of Koningsmarck) to Mademoiselle de Loven, who was a young Gentlewoman of a good Family, and one of the richest in Silesia. The Ceremony of this Marriage was perform'd in presence of the whole Court; and for several days the King gave Feasts answerable to his good Fancy and Magnificence. His Majesty is very fond of this Count of Saxony, who is one of the most amiable Gentlemen that I have seen; and besides, he very much resembles the King of Poland, which, to be sure, makes that Monarch the more in love with him.

Dresden[47] was then the Centre of the Pleasures of Germany, and the Plays, &c. exhibited here, made me almost think I was at Paris. I will not trouble you with all the Particulars of the several splendid Entertainments that were made in the Carnival Time, there having been enough written on that Subject already by other Pens. I shall have the Honor, therefore, to say245 nothing more of it to you, than that every Spectator was more charm'd with the King's affable Behavior, than they were with the Beauty of the Representations, and the Splendor of the Feasts.

I should, no doubt, have had a better Relish for all these Pleasures, if I could have lik'd the Situation of my Affairs. I had all along conceiv'd Hopes of entring into the Service of Poland, and plac'd a very great Dependance on the Promises made by the Count de Flemming; but when I came to Dresden, I found the Face of Affairs quite chang'd. I put him in remembrance of his Promise; but he answer'd me in such a droll manner, as convinc'd me that I ought not to expect any great Matter from him. However, that I might have nothing to reproach my self with, I still continu'd to give him Marks of a very great Attachment to his Person. Yet I met with several Rebuffs, which did not discourage me; and which I had the more Reason to bear with Patience, because I knew that he treated his most trusty Confidents in the same manner. At last, not caring, perhaps, to do any thing of himself, he sent me to M. de Lowendahl the Grand Marshal, and the latter referr'd me to M. de Fitzthum the King's Favorite. I was charm'd with this Gentleman's Politeness and good Manners; and I don't think there ever was a Favorite more obliging, and that took less upon him. Far from amusing me, he convinc'd me of the Impossibility there was of my obtaining any Place at Court, unless the King thro' his special Grace should be inclin'd to prefer me; which could not be done neither, without disobliging several of the Polish Noblemen, who likewise sollicited Places at Court, and seem'd to have a sort of Right to them by virtue246 of their Birth. I did not yet quite despair of Success; and as this was a Favor that could only be granted by means of the Count de Flemming, I had recourse again to that Minister; but I was never the nearer. To be sure I took a wrong time to speak to him about my Business, when perhaps he had other Affairs of greater Consequence that might ingross his Thoughts. In a word, he rebuff'd me to such a degree, as was sufficient to make me quite renounce my Pretensions. I took leave of the King and Queen, and prepar'd to go for Berlin.

But before I set out, an Adventure happen'd, which, together with my Vexation that I had not succeeded in my Designs, made me hate to stay any longer at Dresden, as much as I was in love with the Place when first I came to it. At Leipsic Fair I had drawn a Bill of 300 Crowns, payable to the Bearer. The Person for whom I drew the Bill had given a Commission to a Merchant at Dresden to receive that Sum. The Bill did not come to the Merchant's Hands, till the very Day of my Departure; and as the Term was expir'd, he sent to my Quarters for the Money. I was not at home that Minute; and the Man hearing that I was to set out the same Day, made use of a Custom introduc'd and constantly observ'd in Saxony; which is, to arrest the Person that fails to answer a Bill of Exchange upon the Day appointed; so that just as I was going into my Chaise I was made a Prisoner. It happen'd to be about ten o'clock at Night. By Misfortune I had lost a great deal at Play this Carnival; and not having so much Money by me, I had recourse to the Count de Flemming; who lent it to me. This was the only time that I can be sure that Nobleman did247 me any Service. I repaid him soon after my Arrival at Berlin.

Without making a long stay at Berlin, I went and pass'd a few days at an Estate which I have, two Leagues out of that City; but the Uneasiness that haunted me every where, made me resolve to return to France, having still in View the getting some Establishment at Berlin or elsewhere. While I was preparing every thing for my Journey, I had the Misfortune to break my Left Leg by a Fall from my Horse. This Accident, after the various Disgraces and Disappointments I had already suffer'd, Does it not, Madame, give you the Idea of another Orestes, pursu'd by Destiny from one Country to another? I could expect nothing more after this, than to fall into the Hands of some Quack of a Bone-setter, who, after putting me to Torture, would, perhaps, leave me a Cripple for all the rest of my Life. To tell you the plain Truth, I had some Apprehension of it; for a Man of my Kidney could not but be afraid of every thing in such a Case. However, whether it was owing to Hap-hazard, or to the Skill of the Surgeon, after suffering very great Torment, I was perfectly cur'd; and in such a manner, that I never felt any thing of it afterward. The ninth Day after my Fall I went to Berlin. As my Indisposition was such, that I could travel neither in a Chaise nor Coach, I hir'd Porters to carry me; so that my Entry was more than ordinary comic. This new Equipage surpriz'd all that saw it, the Children especially, who not being us'd to see such Carriages, follow'd me from the Out-parts of the City to my Lodgings; and as the Numbers swell'd by the Way, the Train consisted of at least 200 Followers, by that time I came home.248 I was very sensible, at my Arrival, that I had done wrong to be carried abroad so soon; for a Fever took me, and not long after an Imposthume gather'd, that bred the Distemper which they call in France the King's Evil. A fresh Reason this for my Complaint of the Severity of my Destiny; for in reality I suffer'd such Pains for above twenty Days, as are impossible for me to express.

As soon as I was in a Condition to go abroad, I waited on the Queen, who had just receiv'd Tydings, that the Elector of Hanover, her Father, was then call'd over by the English to succeed the deceas'd Queen Anne. No doubt, Madame, you remember the Joy there was at Court upon this News. The King made an Offer to the new Monarch of any Assistance that he might have occasion for, to support him on the Throne. Some days after the Arrival of this great News, I took leave of the Queen, and set out for Hambourg.

I was very well receiv'd in this City by L——, who was at that time Envoy from Prussia to the Circle of Lower Saxony. I knew him at a time when Fortune, as it were, frown'd upon him; but now it might be said, that she had loaded him with her Favors. He was glad to see me, and that he had an Opportunity of shewing me in what Grandure he liv'd. Since he had married a Woman, who was, indeed, very old, but very rich, he had been so wise as to make an Acquaintance with such as were capable of serving him; and whether 'twas owing to Money, or to mere Favor, he was quickly made a Minister of State; and in a little time after receiv'd the Key as one of the King's Chamberlains. I was very well pleas'd to see him in249 so splendid a Situation; but could not help taking pity on him for being yok'd to a Wife so disagreeable. She was a Person, who with the Obstinacy and Ill-nature of Old Age, had all the Mettle of Youth, besides her being a perfect Original both in her Apparel, and in the Furniture of her House. Her Husband could never prevail upon her to dress as became a Person of her Rank, nor to alter any thing in her Furniture, tho' ever so unpolite. I had the Pleasure one day that I was invited thither to Supper, of examining the Inside of the House at my Leisure. The Apartment where we supp'd was furnish'd in a very whimsical Manner. The first Room was lin'd with black Leather gilt, and round it were plac'd Chairs of green Taffety, adorn'd with Furbelows of a Rose Color. The second Chamber was hung with green Tapestry. The Chairs were of black Velvet, lac'd with Gold, and the Room was full of Crystal Sconces. At one End of it there was an Alcove hung with white Leather gilded, and in the Middle of the Alcove there was a Bed of a very extraordinary Fashion, which had no Curtains, but had four Pillars to support the Tester, and a Wooden Cornish at the top gilded; and the Whole was cover'd with Mother of Pearl and Tortoise-shell. The Bed had a Counterpane on it of black Velvet and Gold-Lace. In the four Corners of the Alcove were four Statues of white Marble, each holding a Wax-Candle. There were other Wax-Candles upon gilded Sconces, and a very fine Branch. The Whole, I assure you, look'd much more like a Room for lying in State, than a Chamber for Entertainment. We sat down, however, to Table; but this amiable Lady refus'd to be of the Company, and250 chose to stay behind a Door, which was in the Alcove, from whence she resolv'd to be a Spectatress of the Entertainment through the Chinks.

We were all heartily at Supper, and in very little pain for the Absence of our Landlady, when on a sudden there came from the Alcove a very ugly Figure, dress'd all in white. I was the first that perceiv'd it; and really, if I had given ever so little Credit to the haunting of Houses by Spirits, I should have thought I then saw one. The Whole perfectly resembled that Scene of the Knight in the Festin de Pierre, excepting nevertheless that we were not honor'd with the least Obeisance. I heard swearing and scolding at the Domestics, which made me suspect that it might be the Mistress of the House. Nor was I mistaken, we were obliged for this Apparition to a Wax-Candle that drop'd upon a Velvet Chair, which she perceiv'd from the Place where she was conceal'd, and stay'd some time, thinking that one or other of the Domestics would have remedied this Evil; but at last seeing that no body minded it, she resolv'd to come out her self to the Relief of the Chair. This Apparition was the Cause of a great Hurly-burly; the Lackeys excus'd themselves, because they were employ'd in waiting; and there were long and warm Disputes on both sides, betwixt the Mistress and the Servants, during which, the Guests, who rose in Respect to the Lady, were all the while standing. The Husband endeavor'd to pacify his dear Spouse, and made her sensible of the Situation in which she kept us; upon which, without making the least Compliment, she sate down at the Table, and I thought the Rage of the Storm was over; but far from it, she was no sooner seated than she began again to rave with more Fury than before. A251 Lackey, to whom, it seems, all this Bawling was more distasteful than it was to us, thought fit to tell her very bluntly, That she made a great Noise for nothing. Then the Lady was quite outragious, and went to give the Lackey a Blow with all the Weight of her Arm; but the Droll cunningly parry'd it, by receiving the Stroke upon a Plate he had in his Hand; which, as he manag'd it, serv'd him for a Shield. The Gentlewoman gave herself such a terrible Blow, that for one while she could not speak; and when she came to her self, she made a worse Racket than before. At length, the Lackey was turn'd out of the Room; and at that very instant, luckily for us, the Pain which the Lady felt for the Blow, increas'd to such a degree, that she was forc'd to retire. She was no sooner gone but we all burst out in a Laugh. The Husband himself was ready to split his Sides, and desir'd the Company to be under no manner of Restraint, but to talk as gayly of this Adventure as we pleas'd. Indeed we were heartily merry at the Expence of the Old Lady; but yet we were the greatest Losers by it in the end; for while we thought her a good way out of Hearing, she thought fit to stay at the Door to listen to what we said, which not being to her liking, she took an immediate Revenge, for she deprived us of the Dessert, and the poor Husband had not Interest enough to get another.

I was so gorg'd at this charming Repast, that for fear of a second Invitation I set out next Day for Hanover, where I arriv'd the very Day before the new King set out for England. The Electoress, his Mother, to whom the Crown first belong'd of Right, died suddenly, as she was walking in Herrenhausen Garden, not long252 before Queen Anne died. The Elector her Son was recogniz'd King by the English, as the next Protestant Heir; for if the Catholics could have had any Right to the Crown, this Elector would have been but the 23d or 24th in the direct Line. The Nobleman who acquainted the Elector of his Advancement to the Crown was my Lord Clarendon, Envoy from the Queen of England at the Court of Hanover. Perhaps it was with some Regret that he executed this Commission, being related to the Stuart Family; and as it was generally thought, not very much inclin'd to the Family which now governs England. Be this as it will, he discharg'd the Commission with a good Grace. My Lord receiv'd the News that the English had proclaim'd the Elector for their King, one Evening as he had been at Supper with that Prince at a House called The Whim, belonging to Madame de K——, now my Lady L——. As his Lordship came home he found a Courier just arriv'd with the Privy Council's Orders to him, to recognize the Elector for King of England. He immediately got into his Coach, and went to Herrenhausen, where he found the Elector a-bed. His Lordship thinking 'twas worth while to awake the Elector, for the sake of telling him the News that so great a Diadem was fallen to him, enter'd his Bed-Chamber, and kneeling on the Floor, was the first that recogniz'd the Elector for King. This Prince immediately summon'd his Council. Many People were pleas'd to say, that the Elector hesitated for a good while, whether or no he should accept of the August Dignity that was offer'd to him; but for my part, I fancy, that the Voyage to England was more the Subject of the Council's Deliberation, than253 the Question, whether its Crown should be accepted.

After the Council was over, the new King was complimented upon his Accession to the Throne; and that very Instant he gave Orders to get every thing ready for his Departure, which was fix'd for the 11th of September. The Time between the Elector's assuming the Royal Stile and his Departure, was spent in sending and receiving Couriers to and from the principal Courts of Europe. All the Nobility and Gentry, Subjects to the new Monarch, flock'd from all Parts to see him before he went away. This Prince was so well belov'd, that his Subjects were very sorry that he was going to leave them; but for his part, tho' his People were not a little dear to him, he preserv'd that Tranquillity of Mind, and that Discretion, which govern'd all his Actions; and he seem'd no more concerned at parting with them, than he was elated with his new Dignity: but it was otherwise with the Prince his Son, who was so impress'd with the Fortune added to his Family, that I heard him say to an English Gentleman, the Day before he went, That he had not one Drop of Blood in his Veins but what was English, and at the Service of his new Subjects.

On the 11th of September, early in the Morning, the King and the Prince of Wales set out from Herrenhausen, amidst the Acclamations of the Court and the People, with which the Road was lin'd. They wish'd his Majesty all manner of Happiness, and accompanied him with their good wishes a good distance from Herrenhausen, before they took Leave of his Majesty. The last Farewels were attended with so many Tears, that the King could not help being a254 little mov'd; and he assur'd them, That it should not be long before he would make a Tour to Hanover.

The King's Retinue was not very numerous; for he only took with him such Persons as were absolutely necessary for his Service; and of these too, he sent some back, when he went on board the Yatcht that came for him to Holland, to carry him over to England. The Princess of Wales follow'd the King some time after, with the Princesses her Daughters; but Prince Frederic her Son remain'd at Hanover for his Education.

When the King came to London, he found Subjects as much attach'd to his Person, as those he had left at Hanover; and not long after his Arrival he was, according to Custom, crown'd at Westminster. There was so great a Concourse of People at the Ceremony, that it seem'd as if all the Nation had flock'd thither to receive their new Sovereign. I was told there was only one Person, and that was a Woman, who refus'd to own him for King; and that this happen'd upon the very Day of the Coronation, when a Champion, arm'd from Head to Foot, entring into the Banquetting-Hall, and according to Custom challenging any Person whatsoever, who did not acknowledge the Elector of Hanover as lawful King of England, that Lady threw down her Glove, and with a very ill-tim'd Effrontery made Answer aloud, That James the Third was the only lawful Heir of the Crown, and that the Elector of Hanoverwas an Usurper.

Not many days after the King of England's Departure, I set out from Hanover for Aix-la-Chapelle, where I made use of the Baths, as my255 Physicians had order'd me, to strengthen my Leg. From Aix I proceeded in the Paris Road to Mastricht[48], which is a strong Place belonging to Dutch Brabant, tho' situate in the middle of the Country of Liege, on which it was for a long time dependent. It was also subject to the Spaniards till 1633, when it was taken by the Dutch, who were acknowledg'd lawful Possessors thereof by the Peace of Munster, and were thereupon at great Expence to fortify it, so that it was reckon'd one of the strongest Places in Europe, when Lewis XIV. took it in 1673, in 13 Days time. The King himself then commanded his Army; and he had with him Monsieur his Brother. Three Years after this, the Allies besieg'd it also, but their Arms being not so successful as those of France, they were forc'd to abandon their Enterprize. At last, by the Peace of Nimeguen it was restor'd to the Dutch, who keep a strong Garrison in it.

Mastricht is very well built, in a flat Country, surrounded with Hills. The Maese runs thro' the City, over which there is a very high Stone Bridge. They say that the late Count d'Auverquerque, who died Velt-Marshal of the Dutch, out of pure Gallantry, to convince a Lady how much he lov'd her, leap'd his Horse off the Bridge into the Maese. This young Lady so much belov'd was Mademoiselle de Feltbruck. As she was passing over the Bridge, Count d'Auverquerque, who rode by the side of her Coach, entertain'd her very much about his256 Passion for her; but Miss so little heeded what he said, that she scarce vouchsaf'd to lend him an Ear. At length being fatigu'd with hearing the same String always harp'd upon, she told him, that Lovers were never sparing of their Promises; but when any Testimonials were demanded of their Love, they then discover'd how little it was to be depended on. For instance, Sir, said she, I would venture a good Wager now, that if I were to ask you to leap from this Bridge into the River, you would not do it. The furious Lover made no other Answer to this Defiance, but clapping Spurs to his Horse, leap'd him off of the Bridge into the Maese. The young Lady thought her generous Lover would most certainly be drown'd; but luckily for him he kept his Seat, and his Horse, which was as mettlesome as the best, had Strength enough after such a Leap, to swim with his Rider to an Island, whither a Boat was sent to fetch him. After such a Trial as this, the young Lady might boast, either that she was lov'd to Distraction, or that she had a distracted Lover.

From Mastricht I went to Louvain[49], which is surnamed the Wise, probably by reason of its University, which was founded in 1426, by John IV. Duke of Brabant, and has been in its time one of the most celebrated Universities in Europe; but it has not that Reputation now. And as to the City, 'tis much more famous for its Antiquity, than upon any other account; for they say it was founded by Julius Cæsar. 'Tis indeed, at present, a very large City, but ill built, the only remarkable Edifices that I saw there, are the Collegiate Church dedicated to St. Peter, and the Church of the Jesuits.257 Louvain is not a Place of great Trade as yet, but a very fine Causey which is made from thence to Brussels, and another to Tongres, which is to be carried on to Liege, will very much increase its Commerce, especially with the Austrian Netherlands.

I went from Louvain to Brussels, and from thence to Ghent[50], which is the Capital of Spanish Flanders, and one of the biggest Cities in Europe. It stands four Leagues from the Sea, is water'd with three Rivers, the Scheld, the Lys, and the Lise, and adorn'd with fine Squares and noble Buildings. The great Clock is worth seeing; it weighs 11000 Pounds, and is erected upon a Dragon, which Count Baldwin brought from Constantinople. A Canal has been dug from this City to the Sea, which is of very great Service to its Trade.

'Twas at Ghent that Charles V. was born, who granted this City extraordinary Privileges; yet the Inhabitants were so ungrateful as to rebel against this Emperor, who resolv'd to punish them for it; and that he might go the nearer way to work with 'em, ventur'd upon the Parole of Francis I. to pass thro' France, in order to come at them. He chastis'd those Rebels with such Severity, that they had no reason to boast that this Emperor was their Countryman. He caus'd twenty-five of their principal Citizens to be executed by the common Hangman, banish'd a greater number of them, confiscated their Estates, and took away all their Privileges. In fine, Ghent which was one of the most considerable Cities in Europe, soon became a Desert; and Charles V. to leave a Monument258 of his Wrath to Posterity, caus'd a Fortress to be built, which is still the Citadel of this Place, and is of great Consequence to the Emperor, when he happens to be at War with France; for when the French are Masters of Ghent, the Navigation of the Scheld is interrupted; and in case of a War, 'tis better to see them Masters of Brussels than of Ghent: For I remember, that in 1708, while the Allies besieg'd Lisle, the French being then Masters of Ghent, incommoded their Army very much. This City is finely recover'd since Charles the Vth's Time. The States of Flanders have their Assemblies here, and the Emperor commonly signifies his Will and Pleasure to them, by the Governor-General of the Netherlands residing at Brussels.

From Ghent I went thro' Courtray and Menin to Lisle[51], which is the Capital of French Flanders, and one of the best and most beautiful Towns of that Government. It belong'd formerly to the King of Spain, till 1667, when Lewis XIV. took it in Person. The Garison then consisting of but 6000 Men, was not strong enough to check the Progress of the French Arms, so that after nine Days open Trenches the Place was taken. Lisle was left in the Possession of France by the Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle, in 1668; but in 1708, the Allies after a tedious and toilsome Siege, made themselves Masters of it. At last, however, this City reverted to France by the Treaty of Utrecht. The Inhabitants were so overjoy'd at their not being left in subjection to the Dutch, which they were afraid of, that on the Day the Place was evacuated, they made Bonfires in all parts of259 the Town; and not without Cause, for after they fell under the Dominion of the Dutch, their Trade stood still, those new Guests chusing rather to send for what they wanted from Holland, than to make use of the Manufactures of this City. But with the French the Case was otherwise, for they bought their Necessaries in the City, and liv'd with the Inhabitants on perfect good Terms.

Lewis XIV. made Lisle one of the finest Places in Europe. Its Streets are magnificent, and particularly the Street Royale, built in the Reign of that Monarch. 'Tis very strait, and adorn'd on both sides with very fine Houses built alike. In this City resides the Governor of Flanders. The Marshal de Boufflers was succeeded in this Government by the Duke his Son. When I was here, the Prince de Tingry, Governor of Valenciennes, officiated in this Government for the said Duke, who was then under Age.

I was so impatient to be at Paris, that I made no stay in any Place upon the Road, till I arriv'd there. I alighted at a Bagnio, and the first Sally I made abroad was to pay my Devoirs to Mademoiselle de S——. Absence had not damp'd my Flame, and I was only glad to see Paris again, in hopes of finding out her whom I ador'd. But how was I surpriz'd when the Mother of that lovely Damsel came to welcome me with a Flood of Tears, and told me, that I must think no more of her Daughter, for that she died about a Month ago in the Province of Perigord, whither she went to accompany a Lady of her Acquaintance! I was so thunder-struck at this News, that I was not able to speak. I fainted away, was carried back to my Lodgings, and was that Moment let blood;260 but 'twas some time after it before I came to my self, and then I did nothing but give my self up to Sorrow. Mine was no longer an inward Grief, but vented it self in such continual Exclamations interrupted with Sighs, that every one who saw me believ'd I was going the way of all Flesh; or that, at least, I should be out of my Senses: And truly they were not much mistaken, for I was so in a great measure. In this unhappy Situation did I remain five whole Days, at the end of which the Mother of S—— came to make me a Visit; and at her entring into my Room, she told me, that her Daughter was not dead; and that she had just receiv'd a Letter from her, by which she acquainted her, that she should soon be at Paris. This sort of Resurrection was as reviving News to me, as the former was mortifying. I felt a surprizing Revolution in my Spirits; and am of Opinion, that if 'tis possible to die with an Excess of Joy or of Grief, I had share enough of both those Passions within a short Space of Time not to survive them. But I was reserv'd by Fate for other Adventures.

In Fact, I was hardly recover'd from the several Shocks which I had lately undergone, but was forc'd to bear the Brunt of another. The Occasion of this was, meeting at the House of a Lady of my Acquaintance with a Friend of S——, whose Name was Madame de R——; and who had been married for some time, by the Advice of her Parents, to a Man far advanc'd in Years. The young Lady hated her Husband more heartily than is common for Girls of sixteen that marry to Men of above sixty. I had seen her formerly, but she was then so young, that I did not much mind her: And happy261 wou'd it have been for me, if I had always view'd her with the same Indifference! But when I came to see her after her Marriage, her Beauty, her fine Presence and her noble Deportment made a very sensible Impression on me. I was pitch'd upon to play at Cards with her and another Lady, and all the time she did nothing but rally me upon my Amour with S——, and hinted several times to me, that the Lady was not deserving of the Heart I had set upon her. As I could not guess to what all this Discourse tended, when the Game was over I went with the Lady to a distant Window, and there begged her for God's sake to explain her self. She stood out a long while, on pretence that she should be oblig'd to tell me what would only make me uneasy: But all these Delays rendering me still the more impatient to know what it could be, I press'd her to such a degree that at last she consented to let me into the Secret. You won't take a Denial, I see, said she: Well then, if you must know, you shall. But you must thank your self for it, if I tell you what will heartily vex you; for I know your Temper, and to what a Degree you are smitten. You think, continu'd she, that S—— is in the Country, but you are mistaken; for she is at Paris, and has never been out of it all the time. She is as much in love with the Marquis de V——, as he is with her. She keeps no Company now but him. Two Months ago she remov'd from her House in the Suburb of St. Antoine, where she then liv'd, because she heard you was coming to Town. The truth is, she did not care you should reproach her to her Face; and being in Hopes that you might forget her, she sent to let you know, that she was dead; but hearing that you was so inconsolably melancholy, it mov'd her to pity you, and she has now262 sent you word that she is still living. Indeed it won't be long before you see her; but it will only be to receive your Dismission, and to give you to understand from her own Lips, that she prefers V——'s Addresses to yours. I have heard all this from one of my Waiting-Women, whose Sister is a Servant to Madame S——. For as to my part, since I am married to M. R——, 'tis not convenient for me to keep her Company. You will do well to renounce her, and need not fear but you may find better than her. As she express'd these Words her Eyes darted in my Face, and at the same instant she blush'd. I was going to make her an Answer, but she left me abruptly, and all the rest of the Evening made it her Business to avoid me, I thought, however, to have an Opportunity of speaking to her when she was going out; but she went away with another Lady, so that 'twas impossible for me to say a Word to her.

I return'd home miserably disturb'd in my Mind. Hatred, Love, Revenge, Contempt; in short, all the Passions of a Lover, slighted on the one hand, and flatter'd on the other, play'd their part to rack my Brain. Guess, Madame, in what a Condition I was, when I had such violent Attacks to struggle with. In fine, Contempt triumph'd over the Passion I had conceiv'd for S——. The charming Eyes of Madame de R—— made me forget the false-hearted Creature on whom I had doated. But in the sequel I was quickly convinc'd that I was no sooner cur'd of one foolish Amour, but I was plung'd into another of the same Nature. The last Words of R—— seem'd to be very engaging; I explain'd them in my own favor, and thought sincerely that she had taken a Fancy to me. I flatter'd263 my self again and again with these agreeable Notions, and found an infinite Pleasure in making my own Chain. Nevertheless you will soon see that I was bubbled as much in this Amour as I was in the former. Madame de R—— was one of the finest Women, and without dispute one of the greatest Coquettes in Paris; being whimsical withal, and more self-conceited than Women of that Cast generally are; she did not understand what it was to settle her Heart upon any Man, and yet expected to be doated on herself. I push'd head-long into this new Engagement, and thought my self at one time the happiest Man in the World. My Friends too were as much deceiv'd as I was, and thought me for a long while the only Favorite. I will tell ye hereafter what became of this Amour, and shall for the present break off the Detail of these ridiculous Amusements, to tell you how it far'd with me in the Affair which most demanded my Application.

Soon after my Return to Paris, I went to Versailles, where I had the Honor to pay my Duty to the King and the Princes. Madame receiv'd me so kindly that I thought my self sure of her Protection, and therefore acquainted her of my Intention to beg an Employment of his Majesty, and desir'd her that she would be so good as to recommend me. Madame promis'd me that she would, and was true to her Word; for she not only spoke her self but also made the Duke of Orleans speak for me to M. Voisin, who was at that time Chancellor and Secretary of War. This Gentleman promis'd their Royal Highnesses that he would think of a Place for me; but when I waited upon him, with one of Madame's Officers, who, by her Order introduc'd264 me, that Minister receiv'd me with a Countenance as crabbed as ever I saw. His Head was invelop'd in a monstrous large Peruke, that hindered both his Sight and Hearing, which at other times were natural enough to him. However, in Respect to Madame he heard me, and then said, that the King had already made one considerable Reduction in his Troops, and was going to make another; and that therefore he did not see what Hopes I could have of being employ'd. I was very much dissatisfied with this Answer, which was so different from the Promise he had made to Madame and the Duke of Orleans. I made a Report to their Royal Highnesses of what the Minister said to me; upon which the Duke of Orleans told me, This signifies nothing, I will speak to him again, and I hope you will find your Account in it. He spoke accordingly, but Voisin did nothing the more nor the less for it. However, as I had a grateful Heart for the Advances which Madame and the Duke her Son had been so good as to make in my favor, I continu'd to pay my Duty to them; and they both gave me Demonstration that they were not Insensible of my constant Attendance. I was almost every Night at the Duke of Orleans's Couchée. His Court was then but small, and excepting his Domestics I was sometimes all alone with him. I was the more amaz'd at the Carriage of the Courtiers to this Prince, because 'twas natural to think that the Government of the Kingdom would soon fall into his hands. The Duke of Berry was just dead. The King was too old to expect he could live much longer, and the Dauphin too young to take the Management of Affairs upon him for a good while. In short, every thing promis'd this Prince the265 Regency of the Kingdom infallibly, yet scarce any body regarded him as the rising Sun. The Courtiers Respect for the King made them all stick to his Majesty, and a Reign so glorious and so long, seem'd to them as if it was never to have End.

I stay'd at Paris the rest of the year 1714, and some Months of the year 1715. This Winter there was one of the noblest Sights in Paris that could be, viz. The Entry of the Persian Ambassador, and especially the Audience he had of his Majesty some days after it. But the Ambassador did not contribute so much to the Lustre of this Shew, as to give us any great Idea of the Persian Magnificence; and indeed, in my whole Life I never saw any thing so pitiful; for all his Equipage being out of Order, his Domestics having scarce Cloaths to their Backs, and almost all of them ill-looking Fellows, formed a very melancholy Scene. Besides, the Presents he brought were really not worthy of the Prince that sent them, or of him that received them. Before this Ambassador made his Entry, he lodg'd at Charenton, to which Place every body went to stare at him as a Prodigy. The Torrent carried me thither among the rest, and a numerous Company there was of us. The Interpreter told us, before we went in, that a Compliment must be made to the Ambassador, and we drew Cuts to determine who should be the Speaker. The Lot fell upon me. I made but a very short Speech to him, wherein after having congratulated him upon his Arrival, I told him, that I hop'd his Stay in Europe, and especially in France, would not be disagreeable to him. He thank'd me by his Interpreter, and bid him tell me, that as he was come to see the greatest King266 in the World, next to the Sophy his Master, he should be always satisfy'd, happen what would to him, when once he had appeared before his Majesty. He made us sit down, and we ask'd him several Questions concerning his Voyage, the Court of Persia, and the Sophy; but he told us, that he had never been at Ispahan, and never seen the Sophy. During this Conversation he gave us Coffee and Sweet-meats, and was mighty civil to us.

But upon all Occasions when his Character was to be supported, he was not near so tractable; for he then took upon him too much State, so that when the Marshal de Matignon, who was to come from the King to carry him to the Ambassadors House, was to enter his Chamber, he pretended that he was not obliged to stand up. The Baron de Breteuil, the Introductor of the Ambassadors, represented to him that he could do no less than pay that Deference to M. de Matignon who came from the King; but he might as well have reason'd with a Post; and all that he could get from him, was a Promise, that when the Marshal entered his Chamber he wou'd that Moment rise and go out all at once. There was another Scene to manage when he came down Stairs. They proposed to him to ride in the King's Coach; but he said, he would do no such thing; that it was a Cage; and that he would make his Entry on horseback. The Baron de Breteuil, therefore, in order to make him get into the Coach, was under a Necessity of talking smartly to him; and even to threaten him, that he should make no Entry, nor have any Audience, if he did not subject himself to the Customs establish'd in France. At length the Ambassador capitulated, they split the Difference,267 and he consented to ride one half of the way in the Coach, and the other on horseback. I never saw such a Multitude of People as I did at this Entry; the Concourse was really astonishing; for from the first Bar in the Suburb of St. Antoine to the Ambassadors House, there were Scaffolds all along on both sides of the way, full of People. The same Croud of Spectators follow'd him for several days, so that when he went abroad, either to the Bagnio, or to take the Air, he could scarce go along, there were such Throngs of People to gaze at him.

The Audience which the King gave him was a very magnificent Scene. Lewis XIV. appeared at it in all the Majesty of a great King; and be the Audiences of the Great Mogul, describ'd to us by Tavernier, ever so brilliant, I can scarce think they are to compare with the Ceremony I am now speaking of, and whereof I was an Eye-witness, which was performed in the Great Gallery at Versailles. The King's Throne, which was at one end, and rais'd very high, was of a Gold Ground, with Flowers and the Arms of France embroider'd on it. The King was dress'd in a Suit of Coffee-color'd Velvet, adorn'd with Jewels, to the Value of several Millions. The young Dauphin was at his Majesty's Right Hand in a Robe of Gold Brocade, adorn'd with Diamonds and Pearls. The Duke of Orleans was on his Left, dress'd in a Suit of blue Velvet, adorn'd with a Gold Spanish Point, seeded with very beautiful Diamonds and Pearls. The Princes of the Blood, the legitimated Princes, the Prince of Dombes and the Count d'Eu, both Sons to the Duke of Maine, sat in the same Row, on the Right and Left of the King, all observing the Rank due to their Birth. All along the Gallery268 on the Right-Side of the Throne, there were several Rows of Steps, on which stood the Ladies richly dress'd. The Duchess of Berry and Madame were next to the Throne, and next to them stood the Electoral Prince of Saxony, who was then at the Court of France with the Title of the Count of Lusatia. That Side of the Gallery which fronts the Garden was taken up by Noblemen richly apparell'd, and the Space which serv'd for the Passage, from the Entrance of the Gallery to the Throne, was cover'd with a magnificent Tapestry, as were the rest of the Apartments from the Stair-Case of Marble to the Gallery. In the Courts below, the Regiments of the French and Swiss Guards, newly cloath'd, were rang'd in Order of Battle: And the Life-Guards, the Musketeers, and all the King's Houshold Troops were also drawn up in the same Order. But the Splendor of the Soldiery was very much lessen'd by a great Quantity of Rain which pour'd down almost all day long.

The Ambassador with all his Attendance pass'd thro' all those Troops to the Gallery; and when he was advanc'd near to the Throne, he there deliver'd his Credentials to M. de Torcy, Minister and Secretary of State, by whom they were given to the Interpreter, who read them. He afterwards gave his Majesty the Presents that the Sophy sent him, which were so inconsiderable, that at first sight one could hardly imagine they were sent from one of the most powerful Monarchs of Asia. The Whole consisted of Turquoise Stones, a Scymitar garnish'd with precious Stones, a Box of Balm to which he ascribed wonderful Virtues, and some other things of no great Value. After the Audience was over,269 the Ambassador was regal'd, and then reconducted to the House of the Ambassadors, where he was defray'd at the Expence of the Court, all the time that he staid at Paris. He was furnish'd at first with the King's Horses for himself and his Retinue; but as his Stay was long, and as besides he spoil'd all the King's Horses, he was accommodated afterwards with Horses that were hir'd.

Some time after this Audience, the Ambassador went to the Opera, where the Benches in the Amphitheatre were taken away, to make it more commodious to hold him and his Retinue. Tho' there was an incredible number of People of the first Quality, he seem'd to be under no manner of Constraint, and smoak'd his Pipe there a good while, with as much Freedom, as if he had been in his Chamber. The Eagerness of the People to run after him was soon abated; they began in a short time after his Arrival, to be indifferent whether they saw him or not; and at length, they were so weary of him, that every body wish'd publickly that he was gone.

I have had the Honor to acquaint you, that the Electoral Prince of Saxony was at the Persian's Audience. This Prince had been for some time in France; and tho' he was incog. by the Name or Title of the Count of Lusatia, he had the Retinue of a King's Son. The Count de Coste, who died Bishop of Warmia, was his Governor, and the Baron de Hagen his Sub-Governor. He had also several Gentlemen with him, besides Pages, and a number of Officers. His Equipage was magnificent, and his Table as elegant as could be desir'd. He was presented to the King by Madame,270 who gave him out to be a German Gentleman of a good Family.

This Prince gave a sumptuous Ball at the Hotel de Soissons, in the Apartment where Dumont the Envoy of Holstein liv'd. There was an amazing Croud of Masqueraders, and among the rest your humble Servant, who had good Diversion there with a Lady who trusted me with a Secret, by mistake, for another Person. As she is a Lady of some Distinction, you'll excuse me from telling her Name. All that I shall do my self the Honor to acquaint you of at present is, that she was a Duchess who was fond of R—— to Distraction; but he had abandon'd her for Mademoiselle de S——. The Duchess saw him enter the Ball-Room with V——, who was formerly a Confident of their Amours, and an intimate Friend of R——. The Duchess, as disguis'd as she was, was presently known by her faithless Lover; so that when she went to lay hold of him, he slily stole away with his Friend, and secreted himself in the Croud. Being afraid of Reproaches from the Duchess, he thought fit also to change his Domino. V—— likewise exchang'd his for mine. R—— shew'd me the Place where he had seen the Duchess, and desir'd me to pass by her, but not to speak to her, in case that she offered to talk with me. I promis'd every thing he ask'd, yet was resolv'd to have a Parley with her, if I found a proper Opportunity, which soon presented. You must know, that I so much resembled M. de V—— in Stature, that the Duchess readily took me for him, and beckoning me aside, at the Instant that she was in high Wrath with R——, for refusing to speak to her, she made a general Confession to me of all her Intrigue. While she was going on thus,271 without Reserve, to make a Variety of Confessions to me, of which I thought she might repent when she knew that she had been speaking to the wrong Person; I interrupted her by saying, She was mistaken in her Man, and that I was not V——. She reply'd hastily, What need all these Grimaces? Hear me out to the End of my Tale. This is not a Place to play the fool in. You know, continu'd she, that I have granted the ungrateful Man but every thing. I broke in upon her again, and said to her, By my Troth, Madame, I did not know one word of the Matter till now. She jeer'd me for pretending to be ignorant of what she had been telling me, and continu'd her Discourse to me with all the Plainness and True-heartedness that is seldom found in Narratives of this nature. After she had run on a good while, she said, Alas! Sir, What say you, Speak, now is your Time to speak, and justify your Friend, if you can. I really think, replied I, that R—— is a Scoundrel to set so little a Value upon the Kindness you have for him; and instead of justifying him, when I see him, I shall certainly rattle him for it. I shall tell him every Tittle that you have now done me the Honor to divulge to me; and tho' I am not V——, nor very intimate with R——, I am persuaded that he will give Attention to what I shall say to him. Ah, Sir! replied the Duchess, Why do ye go to alter the natural Tone of your Voice? How can you deny your self? What have I done to be thus treated? Upon my Honor, Madam I said, I don't impose on you; let your own Eyes be Witness. At the same Moment I pull'd off my Mask. The Lady was so astonish'd that I can't express it. She cou'd not speak; and I perceiv'd, by her Confusion for having made such an open Confession to me, that she did not know, whether she272 had best say on, or retire? I really pitied her, and did all I could to hearten her. I begg'd her to be assur'd that I would keep every thing she had said to me inviolably secret; and that I was as sensible as she could be, of the Consequence of revealing Things of that nature. The good Lady began to pluck up her Spirits; and after some farther Discourse she desir'd me to hand her out, and to help her to find her Coach. It was impossible to discover her Coach or mine either in the Croud; and therefore she chose to take a Hack. I went with her to her House, where she desir'd me to go back to the Ball, and tell the Ladies whom I had seen in her Company that she was taken very ill. I obey'd her Orders punctually, and did not fail next Day to pay her a Visit, and this Visit pav'd the way for others, which gave me an Opportunity to contract a most intimate Acquaintance with her. I had the Honor, in short, of being her most esteemed Friend, and found her possess'd of a thousand good Qualities, which render'd her the best Companion in the World.

The most comical part of this Adventure was, to find R—— quarrelling bitterly with the Duchess for holding a long Parley with a Gentleman in Masquerade at the Ball. He pretended to be jealous, and wrote a thundering Letter to her next day, wherein he told her, that he would have nothing more to do with her. On the other hand Madam de R——, with whom I went to the Ball, and whom I was still passionately fond of, took advantage of the Conference I had with the Duchess, and also pretended Jealousy, (for to be serious, I knew afterwards that 'twas only a Copy of her Countenance.) She expatiated a good deal upon her Uneasiness at the273 long Conversation that pass'd betwixt us. I was silly enough to believe that she was sincere in what she said, and more Fool still to be transported with the Thought that I had made her jealous. I did all in my power, however, to remove her Suspicions; in a word, I said every thing that a Lover can say, who loves sincerely, and would convince that he does so. She seem'd to be satisfy'd with my Protestations; but yet instead of making a suitable Return to the Respect I had for her, she continu'd to teaze me all the rest of the Winter. Her Behavior was so extremely coquetish, that it gave me a deal of Vexation; and besides, I did not like to see the Marquis de V—— so often at her House.

I had been pester'd with this Marquis for a long time. 'Twas he that took away S—— from me; and no sooner was I got into the Favor of Madame de R——, but he found a way to insinuate himself there too. I was so provok'd to see him always at my Heels, that I quarrel'd with him one day at C——, where we happen'd to meet at the House of the President de N——. We were actually at Daggers-drawing, when M. de C—— came and parted us. V—— assur'd me that he had no manner of Pretence to Madame de R——, and actually promis'd me, that if I did not like his Visits to her, he would not renew them. And he was as good as his Word, so that I was perfectly reconcil'd to him; but I was not at all pleas'd with Madam de R——. I saw plainly that I was betray'd. I had fresh Cause to suspect her every day, and yet I hugged the Chains wherewith she had bound me; in which I sufficiently confuted the vulgar Error of those who assert,274 that People never love heartily but once. I ought, however, to reflect a little upon this last Amour, which was extremely hurtful to me. Madam de R—— was so extravagant that a Man could not be upon good Terms with her, without being, at an excessive Expence. To support my self I borrow'd Money every where, till e'er long I knew not where to find Lenders. On the other hand my Creditors began to make me frequent Visits, till they were tir'd with my continually putting them off from one time to another, and then truly they resolv'd to proceed against me by Law; and at length took out a Writ to attach my Person. I was very much stunn'd at the News, but because I had put them in an ill Humor, I was willing to avoid the Effects of it, by keeping my Chamber for some days, till M. de N—— had procur'd me an Order to stay Prosecution. This Respite put me upon ways and means to find Money, all my Desire being to satisfy my Creditors. I was aware how difficult it was to get a sufficient Sum to pay them remitted from home; for all my Estate was entail'd upon my Brother and Mademoiselle de Pollnitz; and she never intended to give her Consent to the mortgaging of any part of it. Yet having no other way to bring my self out of Trouble, I got my Friends to intercede with her; which they did so powerfully, that at length they really prevail'd on her to agree to the borrowing of some Money upon the Estate, which was lent accordingly; and by this Means I got happily out of this Scrape. The Difficulties I had been plung'd in made me wiser, and I lessen'd my Expences, which I perceiv'd, indeed, was not the way to preserve the Favor of Madam de R——. But what should I do?275 To dip my self again over head and ears in Debt, and to run the risque of having another scurvy Action enter'd against me, was what I could not resolve on. At this same time I obtain'd a Pension of 2000 Livres; but as to an Employment, none could I get of the Secretary at War.

This put me so much out of Temper, that notwithstanding my Passion for Madam de R——, and my being so much attach'd to France, I determin'd to try once more for an Establishment elsewhere. For this purpose I wrote to the Prince of H——, a General Officer in the Emperor's Service, and a Colonel of a Regiment of Foot, who return'd me a very obliging Answer, how glad he should be to admit me into his Regiment; but that there was no Company vacant in it, nor none like to be, unless I could strike a Bargain with a certain old Captain who had a Design to retire, and would gladly part with his Company for 2000 Crowns. To find such a round Sum as 2000 Crowns, in the Situation which I was in then, and to find the Philosopher's Stone, was as easy for me one as the other. I resolv'd, however, to treat with the Captain.

I therefore set out for Bruges, where the Prince of H—— was in Garison with his Regiment. I met with a Captain, but he was pretty stiff, and would absolutely hear of no Terms but the Money down, or old Plate for Security. The Prince, who really wish'd me well, and perfectly knew the State of my Affairs, wrote to my Cousin to persuade her to consent to my taking up some more Money upon the Estate. I also indited the most moving Letter I could, to melt her; but 'twas all to no purpose: The Answers276 she return'd were very sarcastical. She set me off to the Life, and she had the Art to persuade the Prince who had wrote to her, that to give me Leave to borrow more Money, was to put a Sword into the Hands of a Mad-man. For my own part I was in a manner convinc'd that she had Reason on her side. I therefore quitted all Thoughts of the Company which I propos'd to buy, and set out for Paris.

I was not sorry to leave Bruges[52], it being one of the saddest Places in the Netherlands for a Man to live in, who is not a Merchant; yet 'tis a very considerable City. 'Tis said to be very ancient, and that it was encompass'd with Walls in the Year 865. It was formerly dependant on the Bishopric of Tournay; but since the Reign of Philip II. it has been erected into a Bishop's See, which is now Suffragan to the Archbishopric of Mechlin. Its Cathedral, which is dedicated to St. Donat, is a very old and a very fine Structure. The other Churches are also of an elegant Model, especially the Jesuits Church and our Lady's. In the latter there's the Tomb of Charles the Bold the last Duke of Burgundy who was kill'd before Nancy, from whence his Corpse was translated hither, by order of Mary of Austria, his Grandaughter, the Widow of a King of Hungary and Sister to the Emperor Charles V. The Situation of Bruges is very advantagious, it being but three Leagues from the Sea; and for the Ease of its Trade there are several Canals cut in it, on which Vessels pass to and fro as they do in Holland; with this Conveniency moreover, that People dine there as elegantly as in the best Tavern. Tho' all these277 Canals have a Communication with the Sea, yet their Waters are not fast, by reason of the Sluices and other Machines, which they make use of to prevent it. 'Tis natural to suppose, that Fields in which so many Canals are cut, must be fertile; yet the Trade of Bruges is very much dwindled since the flourishing of that of Amsterdam, which has engross'd it all to it self.

I forgot to tell you, that 'twas at Burges the Order of the Golden Fleece was instituted by Philip the Good, Duke of Burgundy on the very Day that he consummated his Marriage with Isabel the Daughter of John King of Portugal. 'Twas to this City also that Charles II. King of England came for Refuge, when his Subjects rebell'd against him; and so well was he receiv'd here, that when he was in peaceable Possession of his Throne he shew'd his Gratitude, by permitting the Citizens to send fifty Vessels every year to the Coasts of England, to catch Herrings. So much, Madame, for Bruges.

Just as I was setting out, I heard that the Prince of H—— was going for Newport[53], where there was a Battalion of his Regiment in Garison; and thither I went with him. This, which is a very ancient Town, was heretofore intirely destroy'd by the English, and afterwards rebuilt by Philip the Bold, Duke of Burgundy. The Rebels of Ghent burnt it in 1383, because it continued faithful to its Sovereign. It held out a very sharp Siege by the French, in which the Women display'd a very great share of Valour. During the Revolt of the Netherlands it submitted to the Prince of Parma. In that same War, the Dutch who were besieging it,278 under Prince Maurice of Orange, gain'd a great Victory over the Spaniards, at the Gates of the Town; and yet they thought fit to raise the Siege. They say, that with some Expence Newport might be made one of the best Harbors in the Ocean; and a Plan for this purpose was given to the Marquis de Priè, Commandant in the Netherlands; but hitherto it has not been approv'd of. Tho' 'tis a Town not very much fortify'd, yet 'tis a strong Place considering the Advantage it has of laying all the Country round it under Water. 'Tis quite encompass'd with Downs and Marshes, the former of which abound with Rabbets. The Prince of H—— gave me the Pleasure of Hunting there, which is the only Diversion that can be taken by Officers who are condemn'd to be in Garison in such a Hole as Newport. We staid there two Days, after which the Prince and Princess of H—— return'd to Bruges. For my own part I accompanied the Prince of Holstein to Ypres, of which he is Governor for the Dutch.

This is one of the best Cities in Europe, and is notable for having suffer'd several Sieges. The Rebels made themselves Masters of it in the Reign of Philip II. when they plundered the Churches and Convents, and drove out the Fryars. The Archduke Leopold retook it from those Furiosos, and it remained in Possession of Spain till 1658, when 'twas taken by the Marshal de Turenne; but by the Pyrenean Treaty it reverted to its lawful Sovereign. In 1678, Lewis XIV. besieg'd it in Person and took it; and by the Treaty of Nimeguen, which was concluded the same year, 'twas yielded to him by Spain. The French caus'd it to be considerably fortify'd; after which they remain'd peaceable Possessors279 of it till the Peace of Utrecht, when they yielded it to the Allies, in exchange for Lisle which had been taken from the French. Ypres is now a Barrier for the Dutch, who keep a good Garison in it. Nevertheless, Justice is administer'd, and the Taxes raised here, in the Name of the Emperor, as Sovereign of Spanish Flanders.

From Ypres I went to Lisle, of which I have already had the Honor to give you some Account; and from Lisle in a very short time I proceeded to Paris. Who should I see there, but the famous Countess of Wartemberg? The Chevalier de B——, who being at Utrecht during the Congress, had there sign'd a Contract to marry her, returning to France as soon as the Peace was concluded, the Countess follow'd him and came to Versailles, where she had the Honor of waiting on the King. She wore the Pictures of three Kings as a Bracelet on her Arm, which she shew'd to the King, telling him at the same time, That after she had seen three Monarchs at her Feet, she was now come from the Heart of Germany to throw her self at the Feet of his Majesty. The King, who was surpriz'd at the Compliment, star'd at her, but said not a Word. Some days after this she appear'd at the Play-house, stuck all over with Diamonds; and those so large, that she was call'd, The Lady of precious Stones. All the young Fellows combin'd to have a Pluck at her, and every younger Brother of a Family thought those Diamonds would look as well upon him as they did upon the Countess. When they had pilfer'd some from her, she was more cautious how she paraded with 'em for the future. Yet notwithstanding all her Care, the Chevalier de B—— dextrously stripp'd her of all she had in one day. He had been for280 some time wishing that he could revoke the Marriage-Contract which he had sign'd with the Countess; his Family also press'd him to break off his Engagement with her; and in fine, not knowing what Course to take to recover the Contract, which the Lady refus'd to restore, he made use of this very singular Expedient. One day when he was at Versailles, he set out Post from thence to find out the Countess of Wartemberg, and told her that the King had just receiv'd an Express from Berlin, by which the King of Prussia desir'd him to put her under an Arrest, and to seize her Diamonds, and other Effects, as having been stole from the King his Father. I just had the News, said the Chevalier to her, from M. de T——, who knowing the Respect I have for you, was willing to give me an Opportunity of doing you Service, by guarding you from the Misfortune that threatens you. The Countess being thunder-struck at this News, said to the Chevalier in a Fright, O my God! What shall we do? Your only way, said he, is to give me Charge of all your Diamonds; your Interests and mine are the same; I don't believe you suspect me; I will carry them all to my Father's House, where they will be safe: And as for your Person, you may be very easy; for M. de T—— has assur'd me, that 'tis your Effects they want, and not your Person. Madame de Wartemberg believ'd every Tittle of what he said, and esteeming the Chevalier as her Guardian Angel, she deliver'd up all her Diamonds to him, with every thing besides of most Value. B—— having all this Booty, took his Leave of her. The Countess thought she had play'd a very cunning Part in thus securing her Effects; but 'twas not long before she was sensible that she had play'd281 a foolish one. B—— was not to be seen for four or five days. The Countess, startled at his absenting himself, wrote Letter after Letter to him, but could not obtain so much as one Answer. At last, on the fifth day, B—— made his Appearance, and gave the good Lady some Encouragement. He told her that her Jewels were all safe; and that she might have them whenever she pleas'd, upon this trifling Condition only; namely, that she would restore him the Contract he had sign'd to marry her. The Countess extremely surpriz'd at this Compliment, made Answer to the Chevalier, That Princesses of the Empire were not to be thus treated; that she was come to Paris upon his Engagement to marry her; and that she knew how to oblige him to it. B——, who was resolv'd to break with her at any rate, told her, that she was at her full Liberty to chuse either of these two Proposals that he made to her, viz. To go to Law, and thereby to be certain of losing her Effects; or else, to recover them, by restoring that Paper to him which he demanded. He made her sensible, that by going to Law, he might naturally hope to get the better of her, not only from the Justice of his Cause, but from the Interest of his Relations; and that as to her Effects, since there was no Witness that saw her deliver them into his Hands, he should take a Course which she would think pretty hard, viz. Deny that he had ever receiv'd them, and in the mean time sell one part of the Jewels to enable him to find Law to keep the rest. The Countess perceiving that the Chevalier was resolv'd to be as good as his Word, and that she had no Chance to get any thing, determin'd to give up the Contract; and B—— thereupon brought back her Diamonds;282 which was such an honest Action on his part, that it engag'd Madam de Wartemberg to make him a Present of a noble Ring, valu'd at 20,000 Livres. And thus ended her Correspondence with B——.

The Countess, to make her self easy for the Loss of her Lover, resolv'd to look out for others; but she was not happy in the Variety of her Choice. They were all, said she, insincere; and for the most part knavishly inclin'd. In short, she renounc'd all manner of Society with Frenchmen; she thought them too volatile and nimble for her, and upon this Occasion she extol'd the Germans for the honestest Souls in the World; yet she soon found the contrary, to her Cost: For having made an Acquaintance with a clever handsome young German, they both promis'd each other Marriage, as soon as they came to a Protestant Country, and a Contract was actually sign'd between them for that purpose; but the Spark thought that after they had sign'd and seal'd, the Nuptial Benediction was only an insignificant Ceremony to admit them into a Partnership in their worldly Goods; and that his Right ought to commence from the very day that the Articles were agreed to. Upon this Principle he thought fit to march off with all the precious Stones of his Spouse that was to be, and set out with them from Paris, designing to elope to Lorrain. The Countess, who was soon inform'd of his Departure, was mortally uneasy at the Treachery of her Lover, tho' the Danger she was in of losing her Diamonds stuck most to her Heart. By good Luck she had Intelligence what Road her dear Thief went, and sent a Messenger after him, who found him at Meaux, where he was so unwise as to make a Halt for some days. He was283 brought back to Paris, where the Countess, who denied that she had ever made the least Proposal of Marriage to the Stripling, was preparing to swinge him; but the Electoral Prince of Saxony, by whom he was protected, put a stop to all further Prosecution, and caus'd the Jewels to be restor'd to Madam de Wartemberg, who did not insist upon his Promise of Marriage; for being of a Temper that did not permit her to be idle, she had already contracted a clandestine Marriage with F——. These various Intrigues happening so soon one after another, were so much talk'd of, that the Countess did not think fit to stay any longer in France, but set out for Holland, where she remains to this day[54].

Towards the Close of the Year, viz. on the 1st of September 1715, France lost Lewis XIV. He died a Death truly Christian, for which he had been some time before preparing himself; so that when Notice was given him, that he must make ready to go out of this World, he was not at all surpriz'd. He took his last Farewel of his Family with a Courage worthy of Admiration. He gave his Blessing to the young Dauphin, the Heir of his Crown; which he accompanied with several important Advices and Exhortations, especially not to go to War without a just Cause, and not to be so fond of it as he had been. Then he ordered what Mourning the young Monarch should wear, adding, that what he prescrib'd to him was the same that he wore at the Death of the King his Father. This Monarch express'd a vast Affection for the Princes of his Family, and strongly recommended his Successor to the Duke of Orleans. They say284 that he stretch'd forth his Hand to the Marshal de Villeroy, and said to him, Adieu, my Friend, we must part. Madame de Maintenon staid with the King all the Time of his Illness, because he desir'd it, except one Day, when the King being so ill that they thought he could not recover it, she return'd to St. Cyr; but as soon as the Monarch came to himself, and found Madame de Maintenon gone, he sent for her, and begg'd her not to forsake him. Accordingly she continu'd with him till his Death, upon which she went back to St. Cyr, where she liv'd mightily retir'd till 1719, when she died.

'Tis astonishing to think what a Change there was at Court upon the Death of Lewis XIV. The Courtiers stuck fast to him, to the very last Moment of his Life, not at all minding the Princes; no, not even the Duke of Orleans: but the very Moment that the King died, the Face of every thing was alter'd; and all the Court was made to the Duke of Orleans, as the sole Dispenser of Favors, who went, accompanied by all the Princes and Courtiers, to the young Monarch, and paid him the due Homage.

Lewis XIV. had appointed the Duke of Orleans Regent of the Kingdom by his last Will; but at the same time he nominated several Noblemen for Associates in the Government, without whom he could conclude nothing. He also depriv'd him of the Guardianship of the young King, and gave it to the Duke de Maine; in a word, he bound his Hands in such a manner, that this Prince had nothing but the Shadow of the Regency. The Duke, however, artfully procur'd that Honor to be paid to him, which he claim'd as his due. He conducted the young King to Parliament with a great Train. The285 French and Swiss Guards being drawn up in a Line in the Streets, to the very Gates of the Palais or Parliament-House, the Gens d'Arms, Musketeers, Light-Horse and Life-Guards attended his Majesty to the Palais, where he was receiv'd with the usual Ceremonies, and conducted to the Court, which they call his Bed of Justice. When every body had taken their Seats, the Duke of Orleans broke silence and said, That tho' the Regency belonged to him by Birth-right, yet he was very glad he could produce the Codicil of the late King to them in proof of it; which having caus'd to be read, together with the Will, he shew'd the Inconveniencies that might arise from the little Authority which was given to him; and that his Rank and Birth had always intitled him to hope for more. And having said this, he demanded of the Parliament, Whether they did not own him for the Sovereign Administrator of the Kingdom. He added, That whatever Authority should be given him, he should be glad to follow the Advice of the Parliament; that he would share his Authority with the Grandees of the Kingdom; and that if there should happen to be a Failure of Justice in his Administration, it would then be a Pleasure to him to bear their Remonstrances. He clos'd all with saying, That he should like well enough to have his Hands restrained from doing wrong, but that he wish'd they might be at entire Liberty to do good. The Votes ran in his Favor; the late King's Will was annull'd, the Duke of Orleans declared Regent of the Kingdom, and Guardian of the King; and the Superintendancy of his Majesty's Education was given to the Duke of Maine. The Regent return'd his Thanks to the Parliament; and at the same286 time told them, that he was for pursuing a Plan of Government that was found among the Papers of the Duke of Burgundy, Father to the present King; according to which Plan it appeared that the said Prince had a Design to establish Councils for every Province, whether of the Finances, War, Admiralty, &c. and to be governed entirely by what the Majority of the Voices therein should determine.

The Duke du Maine had no reason to be satisfy'd with this Assembly; for besides being depriv'd of the Guardianship of the King, he had much ado to preserve the Prerogatives which the late King had annex'd to the Quality of a legitimated Prince of the Blood. The Dukes and Peers declared immediately against the Precedency that had been granted to those Princes, and carried their Complaints to the Bed of Justice, where they demanded that they might only be considered as a Part of their Body; and that they might be allow'd no other Rank than what they deriv'd from their Peerages. Hereafter we shall also find the Princes of the Blood declaring against those Princes that had been legitimated.

This Demand of the Dukes did not take place at that time, no more than another which they also made upon the same Day, viz. that the first President, when he ask'd their Opinion in Parliament, should veil the Bonnet to them, in the same manner as to the Princes of the Blood. The Duke of Orleans desir'd them to permit the Usages of Parliament to be observ'd on that Day, and assured them that he would decide that Affair very shortly. The President de Novion, afterwards the first President, then spoke, and answered the Regent, that his Royal Highness had no Right to make a Decision in an Affair which287 related directly to the Person of the King, whom the Parliament had the Honor of representing in his Majesty's Absence; and that consequently nothing could be alter'd in the Usage of Parliament, but by the King himself when he came of Age.

After the Court of Justice broke up, the King return'd to Vincennes, where he resided after the Death of the late King, till the Palace of the Thuilleries was made fit for his Reception. The Regent and the Princes accompanied the King, and they afterwards went back to Paris, each Man to his own House. They say that the Duke of Maine was no sooner return'd home, but the Duchess his Wife, impatient to know what had pass'd in the Bed of Justice, came that very instant to ask him what News he brought; and when he told her, that the Regent was the sole Master of the King and Kingdom, she reproach'd him bitterly.

As soon as the Louvre was in a readiness the King set out thither from Vincennes, where Lodgings were laid out for the Princes and Princesses of the Blood. The Palace of Luxemburg was given to the Duchess of Berry, who made great Alterations in the Apartments. This Princess had a mighty Ascendant over her Father the Duke of Orleans, and she made such a use of it that there was not a day but she obtain'd new Favors. As she was the first Princess in the Kingdom, there being at that time no Queen, she desir'd to have a Captain of the Guards to attend her; a Privilege which none had ever enjoy'd before but the Queens. The Duke of Orleans could not deny her, and the Person invested with this Character was the Marquis de la Rochefoucault. Madame no sooner288 heard of this Augmentation of Officers in the Houshold of the Duchess her Daughter, but she presently appointed M. de Harling to be Captain of her Guards, who was a German Gentleman that had been her Page. The Duchess of Berry wanted also to be stil'd Madame as well as the Princess her Mother; yet to prevent Confusion she signify'd, that when they made mention of her they should not call her Madame la Duchesse de Berry, but Madame, Duchesse de Berry. Moreover, she pretended to the Right of having Kettle-Drums and Trumpets sounded before her when she went abroad in Ceremony, tho' this was never observ'd to any body but the Queen. In short, this Princess enter'd once into Paris with all this Attendance, as she return'd from la Muette. When she pass'd before the Palace of the Thuilleries, the Officers of the Guards were very much astonish'd to hear the Trumpets, and represented that no body but the King and Queen ought to march with such Pomp; upon which Madame de Berry wav'd her Privilege for the future, tho' with regard only to Paris.

Some will imagine, perhaps, that this Princess, who was so fond of Grandeur, must naturally be difficult of Access and of very stiff Behavior to Persons that had the Honor of approaching her. Yet she was quite the Reverse. I was acquainted with several Ladies that had the Honor of some Familiarity with her; and they all assur'd me, that she was the best-natur'd Princess in the World. She never stood upon Formalities in point of Ceremonial with the Generality of the Ladies, but freely permitted them to come and visit her in a Scarf. 'Tis true indeed that she did not affect Dress herself,289 and consequently it would not have been good Manners for the Princesses and Court-Ladies to appear in a formal Dress, which she was scarce ever seen in her self. Madame, as I have already had the Honor to tell you, was much more precise. She was always in the Court-Dress, and never suffer'd any but Ladies that were advanc'd in years, or such as were not in Health, to appear before her in any other.

The Duke Regent, according to the Promise he had made to the Parliament, when he held the Bed of Justice, establish'd several Councils. There was one which was call'd The Council of the Regency, others for War, the Finances, the Marine, and for Affairs Foreign. All the Ministers of the late King were dismiss'd, except the Chancellor Voisin, who kept his Post. M. Desmaretz and M. de Pontchartrain, one the Minister of the Finances, the other of Affairs Marine, were both destitute of Employment. M. Desmaretz was put to some trouble in a Chamber which the Regent establish'd at the Grand Augustins, for calling to account those who had had the Management of the public Money. 'Twas called the Chamber of Justice; and the President Portail, who is now the first President, was at the Head of it. Great Advantages were expected from this Establishment, which would, they said, not only pay off the King's Debts, but also bring considerable Sums into his Coffers; nevertheless it all came to nothing. There was a Fine laid indeed, and 'twas a general one; but as most of the Financiers had married their Daughters to the Great Men of the Kingdom, they came off for a Trifle; the Unfortunate paid for all: Some were condemn'd to the Galleys, and others to perpetual Imprisonment, after having been290 set in the Pillory, where the People had the Pleasure of insulting them; and that was all they got by it. As for the King, he was not a Penny the richer for it; and no body got more by it than the Ladies who sollicited for the lowering of the Fines, and ran away with almost all the Profit. The Public, in general, was very much perplex'd by it: Most People, afraid of being fin'd, hid their Silver, which Metal so necessary, became so scarce in but six Months time, that it look'd as if Lewis XIV. had carried it all out of the Kingdom with him to the other World. They began to lament the Loss of that Prince, and the Love of the Public for the Regent vanish'd very fast, 'Twas not long before, that every one thought they had reason to curse the late King; and the Frenchman, who is naturally fickle, imagin'd without knowing why or wherefore, that the Death of Lewis XIV. would be the beginning of a more happy Century. The Prince who was at the Head of the Administration was loaded with Blessings, tho' he had not yet done any thing to win their Hearts; and in a very short time this same Prince, who was so much ador'd, found himself the Subject of the most stinging Satire. He soon took care to be inform'd how the Public stood affected to him. I happen'd to be one day at Madame's, when this Prince declared aloud, Six Months ago, said he, I was perfectly ador'd in Paris, tho' I had done nothing to deserve it; and I am now as much hated, but for what reason I should be glad to know. He knew perhaps, or at least he ought to have known it. The Scarcity of Silver was the only Cause of it; and it appeared by the Regent's Conduct, that the King's Coffers were so far from being full, that291 Payments were made, not in Silver, but in Paper; a Money always fluctuating, and with which the French began to be tir'd. They had so often seen Bills, with various Denominations; and the Fare of the last sort call'd Mint-Bills, in particular, was so fresh in their Memory, that it was almost impossible they should entertain a better Opinion of those that were created at the beginning of the Regency, by the Name of Government-Bills: Yet these were admitted notwithstanding the great Clamor against them; and by and by we shall find that the French, who are always doom'd to be bubbled, gave into a new Paper-Scheme, more specious perhaps to view, but more ruinous in the Event, than those which had appear'd before it.

Another thing which put the People out of conceit with the Government, was the Fluctuation of Measures at the Royal Palace, where nothing was fix'd; and what was done one day, was cancell'd the next. The Regent, who was really a good-natur'd and very affable Prince, seem'd to put himself into the hands of too many People: No body that had a Favor to ask was turn'd away; it often happen'd that the same Thing was promis'd to two Persons, and a third obtain'd it. Pensions, Gratuities and Employments were promis'd, but the Promise seldom kept: So far from it, that several Pensions were suppress'd, and mine, which cost me so much Pains in the Sollicitation, was of that number. I made some Bustle to be put upon the List again; yet all that I could obtain was a Promise that my Pension should be renew'd very soon: But the Performance is still to come.

All this striking off of Pensions, together with a considerable Reduction of the Army, reduc'd292 a great many People to Beggary. I saw several Knights of St. Lewis at that very time, waiting with Impatience for the Dusk of the Evening, that they might go out, and beg Alms in the public Places. This extreme Misery was attended, as may be easily imagin'd, by Robberies and Murders; so that all this while Paris had a great Resemblance to a Wood. My Apprehension that I should be a Sharer in the common Desolation, engag'd me to pay my Court to Madame with more Assiduity than ever, and I earnestly intreated her to honor me with her Recommendation to the Regent. The Princess return'd me for Answer, That she was resolv'd not to meddle or make; that however I had no reason to be uneasy; that there was no Necessity for her speaking in my Behalf to the Prince her Son, since he was naturally inclined to serve me; but that for the present he was so over-burdened with Affairs and Sollicitations, that I must have patience for a while longer. I made her Answer, That I was very willing to wait as long as her Royal Highness pleas'd; but that I was sadly afraid I was not in a Situation to stay long. Madame reply'd to me, There is a Remedy for all Things: Be you to-morrow at my Closet as soon as I have din'd. I was there punctually according to her Orders, and found her all alone. As soon as she saw me she said, I am a poor Widow that can't do great Matters for you, but I have a mind to oblige you. She then gave me the Key of her Bureau, and bid me open it, and take a Bag out of one Corner of it, in which there was Gold to the Tune of three thousand Livres. I receiv'd it with all the Gratitude possible; and this fresh Token of her Royal Highness's Goodness attach'd me to her more than ever.293

The Dukes and Peers at this very time renew'd a Demand which they had already made in the Parliament, touching the Obeisance they expected to be made to them by the first President when he call'd for their Opinion: They also claim'd several Prerogatives over the[55] Nobility, and wanted to establish themselves as a Middle State between the Princes of the Blood and those call'd Gentlemen. The Regent made them Answer, That for his part he had never acknowledg'd more than three Orders, the Clergy, the Nobility, and the third Estate; and that 'twas their Business to choose which Class they would be of, without aiming at a chimerical Establishment which was intirely unprecedented. The Dukes demanded moreover, to be excus'd from drawing their Swords in any Quarrel with a private Gentleman; but the Duke de la Feuillade refus'd to sign this Petition, because he said, He would not be expos'd to an Affront from any Gentleman, and he restrain'd from resenting it.

The Parliament did not vouchsafe to answer the Memorial of the Dukes, and only confirm'd294 what the President de Novion had advanc'd, that it was the King's sole Right to determine Claims of that sort, and that therefore they must wait till his Majesty was of Age. The Nobility did not treat the Demand of the Dukes with the same Indifference as the Parliament, and met to consider how they should behave; but there came an Order forbidding them to continue their Assemblies. Yet for all this Prohibition they drew up a Memorial between themselves, which was presented to the King. This Conduct of theirs so disgusted the Court, that several of the Nobles who were known to have the greatest Hand in the Memorial were taken up and committed to the Bastile. The Dukes met at the same time at the House of the Archbishop of Rheims, who was afterwards the Cardinal de Mailly. In fine, the Result of all these Motions on both sides, was a Declaration issued by his Majesty, requiring that every thing should remain in the same State as in the late King's Life-time, without prejudice to the Rights of either Party. A zealous Parliamentarian, who, 'tis like, could not brook that Pretensions so frivolous as that of the Dukes should remain unanswer'd, publish'd a very long Tract to prove, that several of the Dukes were not Gentlemen; and that the Generality of the Members of Parliament were indisputably of better Extraction than those who were grac'd with the Title of Dukes. I question if Henry IV. who very often did the Nobility the Honor to call himself a Gentleman, would have left the Claim of the Dukes undetermin'd.

At this very time the Princes of the Blood presented a Petition to his Majesty against the Legitimated Princes. The former were uneasy to295 see the latter in possession of Rank equal to theirs, and pretending to an equal Share with them in the Right of Succession to the Crown; and therefore demanded that the Legitimated Princes, viz. the Duke du Maine and the Count de Toulouse, and their Descendants, should be declar'd to have forfeited the Rank of Princes of the Blood; and that the Act by which the late King declared those Princes capable of succeeding to the Crown, should be struck out of the Registers of the Parliament.

The Legitimated Princes presented a Memorial to the King on their part, whereby they represented to his Majesty, that the Demand of the Princes of the Blood was contrary to his Authority; that the Sovereigns had always the Liberty of granting such Honors as they thought fit, either to the Court or the Parliament; and that moreover, the late King, when he declar'd them Princes of the Blood, did it in the most authentic Manner, the Declaration which gave them that Dignity, being register'd in Parliament, in the Presence, and even with the Advice of the Princes of the Blood, and of the Dukes and Peers.

Several Writings were publish'd at that time on both sides of the Question, to prove the Justice of the Cause which each maintain'd. The Amount of what the Legitimated Princes pleaded was, That Kings were the absolute Dispensers of Favors; and that the Kings who were Lewis XIVth's Predecessors, formerly granted those very Privileges, which they now aim'd to deprive them of, without Opposition. They quoted for Example the Longueville Family, whose Descendants had always the Rank of Princes of the Blood. They also instanc'd in296 several Bastards who had succeeded to the Crown, in the first and second Race of the Kings of France; and observ'd, that the Case would have been the same in the third Race, if the same Fact had happen'd.

The Princes of the Blood gave an ample and solid Reply to the Memorial of the Legitimated Princes. They advanc'd, that the King as great as his Authority was, could not grant Prerogatives that were peculiar only to Birth-right; that a Bastard was one without Father, without Mother, without Kindred, &c. and by consequence incapable of holding any Rank which Blood alone can give; that moreover, the Claim of the Legitimated Princes would deprive the Nation of its Right of calling such Family to the Crown as they thought fit, in case the Royal Family should happen to be extinct.

This Memorial was confuted by another, and to the latter there was a Reply. In fine, both sides grew so warm, that to put an end to the Quarrel, the King was oblig'd to speak. He declared solemnly, That the Legitimated Princes should enjoy the Rank of Princes of the Blood during their Lives, but that they could not succeed to the Crown. This Declaration was very well receiv'd, in appearance, by both Parties; but perhaps too it was the Cause of some Events, which in the Consequence gave the Regent no little Uneasiness, whereof I shall soon have occasion to make mention.

During these Transactions in France, there were Commotions of much greater Consequence in England, where a Revolution was expected in favor of the Chevalier de St. George, who having spent some time at the Prince de Vaudemont's House at Commercy in Lorrain, was just set out297 for Scotland. He embark'd between Ostend and Dunkirk, and had a happy Passage. As soon as he arriv'd he found a considerable Party which declar'd for him. Every thing seem'd at first to favor him: A great many Persons came to own him for King, and he was serv'd in that Quality. But his Happiness was of no long Duration, and he was oblig'd to retire with Precipitancy from a Country where he was in danger of being ill us'd.

'Twas the Opinion of many People that this Undertaking would have succeeded, if the Prince had not discover'd so much Zeal for the Catholic Religion; for 'twas only desired of him to promise to preserve the Privileges of Scotland in Religious Matters, but he would not hear of it. Moreover, he rose one day from Table without eating a Morsel, because a Clergyman of the Church of England had said the Grace; and upon this Occasion he protested, that he would never eat a Bit of what a Heretic pretended to give a Blessing to. This great Zeal for Religion, a Zeal perhaps too flaming in Circumstances where he might, without any Crime, have smother'd it, was the reason that all the Protestants in Scotland, many of whom had already declared in his Favor, turn'd their backs on him. I happen'd to be present when all this was told to the Duke of Orleans. He made Answer, If all this be true, 'tis no wonder that he has not succeeded; and I look upon him as an undone Prince. At the same time I observ'd such an Air of Satisfaction in his and Madame's Countenances, as convinc'd me that they were not ill pleas'd to see the Elector of Hanover establish'd on the Throne of England.298

The Chevalier de St. George return'd to France, and having pass'd thro' the whole Kingdom incog. he went for Refuge to Avignon. The English did all they could with the Regent to engage him to arrest the Chevalier, and demanded likewise that he would cashier all the English and Irish Officers in the Service of France, that were the Pretender's Adherents. The Regent satisfy'd them but in part, for he only cashier'd the Officers. The Chevalier de St. George was hotly pursu'd, and 'tis even said that a certain Lord was a good while in chace of him, with a Design to have killed him; but the Chevalier escap'd the Danger by the Haste that he made to Avignon. When he quitted Scotland he was oblig'd to leave several Lords that had follow'd him in the Lurch, particularly the Duke of Lirie, Son to the Marshal de Berwic, Natural Son of James II. who had so much Difficulty to get to France again, that 'twas even reported for a long while that he had been taken Prisoner and beheaded, as Lord Derwentwater was at London.

The French were sorry to see that Fortune always cross'd the Chevalier de St. George, and could not help pitying the Queen his Mother, whose Sorrows were by this Disaster increas'd; for she had, by the Miscarriage of this Expedition, ruin'd several of her Friends, who had made their utmost Efforts to support the Charges of it.

Tho' the Orleans Family was not very much afflicted at the Misfortune of the Chevalier de St. George, yet it did not hinder Madame from going to Chaillot to condole with the Queen upon her late Misfortunes. I was at the Royal Palace when Madame return'd from the Visit;299 and she did me the Honor to tell me, That she had been almost crying her Eyes out. I pretended to be ignorant of the Cause of her Tears, and took the Freedom to ask her, What was the matter? The poor Queen of England! said she, I pity her heartily. I have been weeping with her. I could not help letting Madame know how much I was surpriz'd at this Grief of her's, because I imagin'd she was more in the Interest of the Family that govern'd England, than of a Prince who was a Stranger to her; and one, moreover, that was always out of Fortune's Favor. You are in the right, said Madame, all the Relations of my late Aunt are dear to me, and I with 'em well. But this poor Queen takes it as much to heart as if it was but to-day that she left the Crown. But what can she do? The only way for her is to make her self easy. 'Tis not her Doom to be happy; and since one of 'em must be unfortunate, I had rather she was so than the King of England. But, added she, this must not be told. Madam de D—— coming in just after these Words, Madame told her, That she had been to see the Queen of England, but that she thought she had been with the Nymph Arethusa all the while. Madam de D—— made Answer to her, That it was not surprizing to see Tears shed by Persons so much afflicted as the Queen was. What then, said Madame, are not thirty Tears Misfortunes enough to inure her to them? Thus did this Princess wipe away the Tears which lately fell from her in such a Torrent.

The fine Season being come, Madame went to St. Cloud, and took with her Mademoiselle de Chartres now the Abbess of Chelles, and Mademoiselle de Valois now Princess of Modena. Madame spent all the Summer at St. Cloud, so that I300 made several Trips thither. I told her my Case, and desir'd that she would please to intercede for me with the Duke her Son. She always promis'd me she would, but never did; and yet she said to every body who talk'd of me to her, That she wish'd me well; while, on the other hand, tho' this Princess mortally hated S—— a Prussian Gentleman, she earnestly importun'd the Duke her Son to serve him; and I was present one day when she sollicited for him. After the Duke of Orleans retir'd, she call'd me to her, and said, You heard how I espous'd the Interests of S——, yet I can assure you he does not deserve it. Then Madame told me strange Stories to the disadvantage of S——, upon which I took the Freedom to defend his Cause, and to assure her Royal Highness that he had been misrepresented to her. What! said Madame, will you offer to deny that he had his Hand cut off for counterfeiting the Sign-Manual of the King of Denmark? As I knew the Adventure of S—— at the Danish Court, and that his was not a Crime of such a nature; and as, moreover, I knew that the Loss of his Right Arm was owing to a Fall that he had receiv'd, I represented to Madame, that I should have thought the cutting off of his Hand Punishment enough in all reason for the Crime of which she suspected S——; but that nevertheless, his Arm was cut off near the Shoulder. Alas! said the Princess, that's because it was cut a second time. But, Madame, I instantly reply'd, How could your Royal Highness favor a Man that was capable of such a Fraud? I have my Reasons for it, said she. I did not venture to indulge my Curiosity further. But in fine, this M. de S—— who was to the last degree abhorr'd, obtain'd what he desir'd; whereas, for my part, as well as I301 was wish'd, I could not possibly obtain so much as a positive Denial, which would at least have serv'd to undeceive me, and to make me look out for Preferment from another Quarter.

While Madame was at St. Cloud, the Duchess of Berry resided at Meudon, tho' sometimes she came to Paris. I had the Honor of paying my Compliments to this Princess very often. She was good-natur'd and generous, and very free to ask Favors of the Regent her Father, who seldom deny'd her; so that whoever had her Protection, was in a sure way to be advanc'd. The Count de R——, a young Man of Quality, and who was just enter'd as a Lieutenant in that Princess's Guards, knew better than any body how to gain his Mistress's Favor. I knew him some time before this Preferment of his, when he was a Lieutenant in the King's Regiment, very much out at heels, and by consequence not in a Condition to keep a certain Sett of Company; at least, in the manner that he would have desir'd: But by meer Chance he was quarter'd upon the Duchess of Berry, who wanted a Man of a good Family to be Lieutenant of her Guards; for till then those who officiated in that Post were only Persons of a common Extraction, for which reason few there were that strove to get it. R—— thought very prudently, that in his present Circumstances he was not oblig'd to mind such Scruples; and he spoke to his Sister, who was a Lady of the Bed-Chamber to the Duchess, of the Design he had to offer his Service. He actually did so, and was admitted. He perform'd the Duty of it a good while, and the Princess took no more Notice of him than she did of any of her other Officers. What began to make him known was this. One302 day as the Princess was going out she observ'd that R—— was not on horseback by the side of her Coach, as his Duty demanded of him; and she complain'd of it to the Duke de la Rochefoucault the Captain of her Guards. This Officer, who was fond of R——, and was, moreover, naturally inclin'd to do him Service, said to the Princess that R—— was not well; but setting his Indisposition aside, as he had the Honor to be a Gentleman, he thought it hard to ride like a Stable-Boy by the side of her Coach, while several Officers of the Houshold, who were not equal to him, rode in the Coach that follow'd. The Duchess of Berry, who was a kind Mistress, immediately gave Orders, that the Lieutenant of her Guards should ride in the Waiting-Coach. R—— return'd her Thanks, and was more assiduous than ever in his Attendance on her. Madame de M—— spoke afterwards so much in Commendation of R——, that the Princess her self talk'd with him several times, and was convinc'd that Madame de M—— had told her the Truth, and that R—— deserv'd her Favor. He was quickly Master of a splendid Fortune, gay Furniture, Clothes and Equipage; and she also preferr'd him to several Regiments, which he always dispos'd of to his advantage. To the Honor of R—— be it said, that his Prosperity did not make him a jot the vainer; he was still as good-natur'd and civil as ever, his old Friends always found him the same, and very often he did them important Services. He had afterwards a Quarrel with the Regent, who caus'd him to be banish'd from his Regiment; and during his Exile the Duchess of Berry died at la Muette, the 20th of July, 1719, aged only 24.303

Mean time the King who had been at Paris ever since his Return from Vincennes, was removed out of the hands of the Women into those of the Men, and the Person appointed for his Governor was the Marshal de Villeroy. The Choice of him was the more applauded, because he was one of the old experienced Courtiers, and a Man whose Zeal and Attachment to the King's Person no body question'd. The Constitution of this young Prince was so tender, that they could not be too careful of it. The Marshal, as old as he was, fully answer'd what was expected of him: He gave extraordinary Application to the discharge of his Duty, and was never out of his Majesty's sight. This Nobleman's Post being the most honorable that can be desir'd in France, there quickly arose envious Persons, who strove, tho' in vain, to depreciate him in the Esteem of the Public. They confess'd that he was a very proper Person to teach the young Monarch to walk and make his Salute like a King, to put his Hat on with a Grace, to accost a Lady in the politest manner, and other things of that nature; but that he was by no means fit to inspire him with Ideas suitable to his Rank, and that he could never make him think like a King. But the consequence shew'd what the Marshal was capable of, and the young Prince quickly gave Proofs that he had learnt of the Marshal not only to walk, but to think like a King. I remember one Passage, which is a very plain Indication of his being fully persuaded that he was the sole Master in his Kingdom, and that there was no Person above him. When Madame came to the Thuilleries, she made but a very short Visit at Court, because she went to hear Mass; and she said to the King as she retired,304 That she was going to wait on a greater Lord than he. The young Prince seem'd a little surpriz'd at first, but after a Moment's Reflexion he made her Answer, Undoubtedly, Madame, you are going to pray to God. Another day the French Comedians having play'd the Tragedy of Athalia before his Majesty, 'tis said the Prince could not bear with any Patience to see young Joas seated on the Throne, for he had a Fancy that he was a second King; nor would he so much as applaud the Lad who so perfectly well play'd the Part of Joas. These Passages are a sufficient Demonstration, that he had been inspir'd with Sentiments suitable to his Dignity; and that in time, perhaps, he will not be inferior in any respect to his August Great-Grandfather.

As to my own Affairs, I had the Mortification to find them still in the same Situation. 'Tis certain that no Sollicitation was wanting on my part, nor Promises on the part of the Regent; but after all, nothing was concluded, and I was then not a whit forwarder than when I arriv'd in France, tho' I had not near so much Money. Mean time I was too earnest for entring into the Service to be disheartened, and shutting my Eyes against the Improbability of Success, I renew'd my Sollicitation. My Residence at Paris being extremely ruinous to me, my particular Acquaintance could not conceive how I was able to support my self. Mademoiselle de Pollnitz soon heard that I had not yet obtain'd any thing in France, and that nevertheless I was obstinately bent on staying there: She could not bear the Thoughts of the Expence, which she was sensible I was oblig'd to be at; and as my Estate was entail'd upon her, she imagin'd that the Money I spent in305 France was so much taken out of her Pocket. She resolv'd therefore to make me quit Paris, knowing very well that 'twas cheaper to live elsewhere. For this end she desir'd the Princess de G——, who corresponded by Letters with Madame, to write to her Royal Highness, and to intreat her to protect me no longer, because I did not deserve her Favors. The Letter was accordingly written and sent to Madame, who told me the whole Contents of it. 'Twas so well cook'd up, that my Cousin might boast of having a good Secretary. But her Royal Highness assur'd me, that this Letter should make no Impression upon her, and that she would always be my Friend. I most humbly thank'd the Princess, withdrew in a terrible Pet with my Cousin; and in the first transport of my Passion I wrote her a Letter, in which I did not spare her. As she was really a Woman of very good Sense, she answer'd me in the same Style. I replied; she did the same; and thus we carried on a Literary Correspondence, in which there were very pretty Sayings on both sides.

To compleat my Happiness I was afflicted with a Redundancy of Choler, which was follow'd with the Jaundice, a Distemper that brought me to the very Brink of the Grave. My Friends did not forsake me; and among others I may say, that I had more than ordinary Obligation to the Abbé d'Asfeldt, who desir'd me to reflect on my State; and as he knew that I was not a Roman Catholic, and that the Prejudices in which I had been bred up, gave me great Prejudice to the contrary Party, he conjur'd me to permit him to discourse me about Religion, only one Hour in a Day; to which I consented with pleasure. Every body knows with what306 an Energy he speaks, and with what a winning Grace. He continued his Visits all the time of my Sickness, which by degrees went quite off. I was so affected with what he said to me, that I promised him I would receive Instruction when I was recover'd; and as soon as I got abroad, I was as good as my Word. He brought me acquainted with Father Denis, a barefooted Carmelite, who in some Conferences with me finish'd what the Abbé d'Asfeldt had begun; so that in a little time after, I made public Profession of my Faith to Father Denis[56], in presence of an infinite number of Persons of Quality. The Marquis d'Asfeldt and the Abbé his Brother were my Witnesses, and sign'd my Confession of Faith along with me. When the Ceremony was ended, I was accosted on all sides with Embraces from abundance of People, of whom three parts in four were quite unknown to me; yet their Zeal for Religion made them fond of expressing how glad they were to see me admitted into the Bosom of the Church. I receiv'd the Communion the same Week, upon the Festival of All-Saints: And at length I waited on the Cardinal de Noailles, who made a very fine Speech to me, exhorting me to continue stedfast in the Religion that I had embrac'd.

The News of my Conversion was soon spread in Germany, and Luther and Calvin themselves could not have exclaim'd against it more than my good Cousin did. The same Princess who had formerly recommended me so heartily to Madame, wrote307 to her again to tell her, That she ought not to be surprised at my changing my Religion, and that 'twas nothing but a Ceremony which I had perform'd two or three times before. But tho' she gave it this Turn, it made little or no Impression upon Madame. And for my own part I did not give much heed to what my Enemies said; and that I might not be in the way of hearing it, I left off going to the Royal Palace, where Madame resided after she quitted St. Cloud.

I spent the Winter of 1717 very disagreeably, that is to say, I wanted Money; and without that current Metal, a Man may live as well in the remotest Desert as in Paris. I was quickly oblig'd to by down my Equipage, and at last to sell some of my Clothes to satisfy my clamorous Debtors: Yet for all this I could not stave off an Affront from one of them, who to be sure was more hungry than the rest; for tho' he had promis'd to give me a Month longer, he caus'd me to be arrested in the little Market of the Suburb of St. Germain, and all at once was I hurried to the Abbey. This might have prov'd a very fatal Misfortune to me, if I had not been assisted that very day by M. de N—— a Counsellor of Parliament, to whom I sent word of it the very Moment I was in Hold; upon which he came immediately, and offer'd his Bond for the Debt: But my Creditor would hear of no Terms except the Money down, and refus'd to take his Security. M. de N—— was so exasperated at this Denial, that he wrote a Line to the First President desiring him to set me at liberty, which I obtain'd accordingly upon the Spot, without Money, or so much as giving the Creditor any manner of Security. M. de N—— too, in order to oblige me to all Intents and Purposes,308 was so good as to get a Writ of Protection for me, after which my Creditors could not touch me: And indeed, considering the Situation I was then in, that was the greatest piece of Service that could be done for me.

I was no sooner got out of this Scrape but I fell into another, not altogether so vexatious indeed, yet very perplexing. In my Visits to the President de P——'s Lady, I became acquainted at her House with a Widow, who tho' old, ugly, covetous and silly, and to crown all, terribly fond of Law, was so rich, that all those amiable Qualities were over-look'd by a number of pleasant Companions, who strove to make Love to her, in hopes of contracting a Marriage which seem'd so likely to make their Fortunes. The Widow could not tell how to fix her Choice; not that she was averse to Matrimony, but the Conditions she requir'd were so extraordinary, that the very mention of them made her Gallants take their Leave of her. The President de P——'s Wife, who knew the Lady very well, and my Circumstances even better, advis'd me to try my Luck; and for my Encouragement she promis'd to serve me: and serve me she did so effectually, that the Lady was not displeas'd with the Pains which she perceiv'd I took to make my self acceptable to her. She offer'd me an Apartment in her House; in short, she made me to understand that I need not despair of any thing. I had some Reluctance to accept of that Offer, altho' it was so advantagious; and for this Reason chiefly, the Want of Money, because I did not care to be at her House without being better equip'd. By good Luck my Landlady, who was one of those intriguing Dames with which Paris swarms, help'd me out309 of this Difficulty. She discover'd all in an Instant what was the matter, and in concert with an Italian Valet de Chambre, who had liv'd with me for some time, she help'd me without any Difficulty to every thing that was necessary for my Appearance with Splendor. I then hir'd more Servants, bought very fine Liveries; in short, all my Equipage was in a few days more gay than ever. 'Tis true it was all upon Tick; but our old Lady, as covetous as she was, would not let me suffer upon that score. In the mean time I had a very difficult Game to play; for I was oblig'd to counterfeit being over head and ears in Love with the most disagreeable Woman upon the Face of the Earth; and at the very time too when I was still courting Madame de R——, who without dispute was as handsome a Woman as any whatsoever. Nor was this all; for the old Lady, to be like the fine Women forsooth, affected to be jealous; and whenever I ventur'd to leave her, which was but very seldom, she was sure to set on a Spy to watch me. We generally went abroad together. By eight o'clock in the Morning we us'd to be at the Palais importuning the Judges, or else provoking the Attorneys and Sollicitors to scold like Madmen. When we had done there, the good Lady return'd home and sat down to her Toilet, and I us'd to sit by her in an Arm-chair till I was quite tir'd. At first indeed I had some Pleasure in being so near a Spectator of the Art by which a very disagreeable Face may be sometimes made tolerable. My old Lady's was all artificial from the Forehead to the Chin; and I question whether a Picture takes up more Colours than she made use of to dawb her Features with? Her Apparel was rich, but as much dy'd and daub'd as all the310 rest. A Correspondence so tiresome as this was, gave me a horrid Disgust; but yet when I reflected what a Pass I had reduc'd my self to by my Extravagance, I thought it was not my Interest to break it off. I continu'd therefore to play the Part of an amorous Suitor. And at last, fearing that I should sink under the Fatigue, I began to talk strenuously of Marriage; but the good Lady still said it was yet too soon, and that she was willing to have further Tryal of me. She resolv'd at length to consent to it; but 'twas upon such extraordinary Terms, that really I should have renounc'd any other Match upon that score, if it had been twenty times more advantagious. I resolv'd therefore to have no more to say to the silly Woman, and to retire. I thought of making another Tour to Berlin to settle my Affairs, and to sell my Land if Mademoiselle de Pollnitz would give her Consent; but I put off my Departure for a little time in hopes of seeing the Czar of Muscovy, who was shortly expected at Paris.

This Monarch, from no other Motive but Curiosity, came from one of the Extremities of Europe to see the Court of France. They would have had him make a public Entry; but he desir'd to be receiv'd without Ceremony. Verton the King's Chief Steward met him on the Frontier, and conducted him to Amiens, where the Marquis de Nesle complimented him in the Name of the King, and then went with him half way to Paris. The Marshal de Tesse, who was charged to accompany the Prince all the time he was to stay in France, went also to meet him. The Czar arriv'd at the Louvre by ten o'clock at Night, and was conducted to the Queen Mother's Apartment, which had been sumptuously311 furnish'd for his Reception. Some Moments after his Arrival the Marshal de Villeroy came from the King to make his Excuses that he was not at the Louvre to receive him, by reason his Majesty's tender Years and Constitution did not permit him to sit up so late. They laid that the Czar was not satisfy'd with this Excuse, nor with the Regent for not coming to meet him. 'Tis certain that he appeared to be very much out of Temper all the Evening, would eat no Supper, and took but one Glass of Beer: Nor would he stay at the Louvre, saying, That the Furniture of his Apartment was too rich; and that his Attendants, who were not the most cleanly, might happen to spoil it. 'Twas one o'clock in the Morning when the Czar was pleas'd to shift his Lodging, and the Marshal de Tesse would have been sadly put to it, had he not caus'd the Palace of Lesdiguieres to be furnish'd by way of Precaution. The Czar thought this House also too richly furnish'd, and notwithstanding all they could say he would not lie in a magnificent Bed which was put up in the Apartment that was to be his, but caus'd a little Bed to be set up for himself in the Wardrobe. Next day the Regent came and paid him a Visit, when the Prince de Kourakin the Czar's Ambassador to Holland serv'd for their Interpreter. The Visit lasted near an Hour, and there all the Ceremonial was settled that was to be observ'd to the Russian Monarch.

After this the King went to see him first, being accompanied from the Palace of the Thuilleries, with the chief Lords and Officers of the Crown. The Czar receiv'd his Majesty as he alighted from the Coach, and took him in his Arms with a Transport of Fondness; at which the young312 Monarch seem'd a little surpriz'd. He said to the Czar, That he was very glad to see him safe arrived at Paris; that he wish'd him Pleasure as long as he staid in his Dominions; that he should have the same Respect paid to him as to himself, and that he had given Orders for the Court-Service always to give way to his. Then the two Monarchs went hand in hand into a Chamber where two Chairs of State were plac'd. The Czar being the Stranger sate on the Right Hand. The Duke du Maine and the Marshal de Villeroy stood behind the King's Chair of State, and answer'd the Questions which the Czar ask'd his Majesty. After a short Visit the King rose first, and was accompanied to his Coach by the Czar, who at taking Leave of his Majesty caught him up again in his Arms, and hoisting him higher than his Head, said, He wish'd that his Grandeur and Power might surpass that of the late King Lewis XIV. He help'd the King into his Coach, and did not return till it mov'd off.

Next day the Czar went to the Thuilleries with the same Train as the King has when he goes abroad, and rode in the King's Coach attended by the chief Lords of his Court, who sat over-against him, and at the Coach-Doors. As soon as he enter'd the Court, the King went to the Gate of the Castle, receiv'd him at his landing, and then conducted him to his Apartment, always giving the Czar the Right Hand. I never saw more People at the Thuilleries than there were on that day, insomuch that the two Monarchs had scarce room to pass. The Czar shew'd a prodigious Care of the King, kept him up by one Hand, and wav'd the other to keep off such as were apt to croud too near him. After a Visit no longer than that which313 the King made to the Prince, his Majesty reconducted him to the Coach, and the Czar return'd to his House with the same Train that had accompanied him. When that Prince return'd to his Apartment, he told the Marshal, That he was very much surpriz'd at the infinite Croud of People in the way. To which the Marshal made Answer, That the French had so great a Veneration for his Person, and so high an Idea of his illustrious Qualities, that no wonder they were so eager to see a Prince, who they knew beforehand was deserving of their Admiration. The Czar seem'd very well pleas'd with this Answer, yet he desir'd, That for the future, when he went abroad, the People might be oblig'd to keep out of his way. He paid a Visit next day to the Regent and to Madame. The latter talk'd to him for two Hours in High-Dutch, and the Czar answer'd the Princess in Low-Dutch. When he was withdrawn he said to M. de S——, That Madame was extremely inquisitive; that she wanted to knew every thing; and that she had ask'd him too many Questions; but that after all, he told her no more than what he was willing she should know.

The Czar was very curious to see every thing that was worth seeing in and about Paris. He inform'd himself of every thing, and took care to write every thing in his Pocket-book that he thought remarkable. He rose at Day-break, and rambled about from one Place to another till Night. To prevent all manner of Incumbrance he chose to make use of none but the Marshal de Tesse's Coaches, tho' that Nobleman would have been well enough contented without such Preference, because he kill'd several of his Horses; and the poor Marshal himself must have sunk314 under the Fatigue of the perpetual Motion that he was oblig'd to, if the Czar had staid much longer; but this Monarch lost no time, and examin'd every thing with equal Nicety and Dispatch, because he intended to be gone as soon as he had satisfy'd his Curiosity.

The Court spar'd nothing to pay this Prince all due Honors. The Regent for this purpose order'd a general Review of all the King's Houshold Troops, and of the French and Swiss Guards in the Walks of Roule and in the Elysian Fields. The Czar repair'd thither on horseback, and 'twas expected he would have staid out the whole Review; but he only rode briskly in the Front of the first Line, without casting his Eyes on the Troops, and then clapping Spurs to his Horse, without paying any Compliment to the Regent, he return'd full Gallop to Paris. From thence he went directly to St. Ouen, where the Duke de Tresmes, First Gentleman of the Bed-Chamber, and Governor of Paris, gave him an Entertainment, with which he seem'd better pleas'd than with the Review. He was loth to consent to the Admission of the Ladies into the Orangery where the Table was spread, and only spoke to Madame de Bethune, Daughter of the Duke de Tresmes, for which Distinction she was oblig'd to M. de Bethune, who having been a good while in Poland, talk'd the Polish Language very well, which procur'd him the Honor of being able to converse with his Czarish Majesty. The chief Noblemen, after the Example of the Duke de Tresmes, made Entertainments for the Russian Monarch. The Duke Regent also prepar'd a Grand Feast for him at St. Cloud; but just as the Czar was setting out from Paris, he was seiz'd with a violent Fit of the Cholic,315 which hinder'd his going abroad; nor do I know that he had a Sight of the Castle of St. Cloud at all. He seem'd to be more delighted with Versailles than any other Place, insomuch that he caus'd a Plan of it to be taken, and said, He would have a Building something like to it erected in his own Country. With this View he engag'd Workmen of all sorts, and promis'd them great Advantages to encourage them to go to Muscovy. A great number suffer'd themselves to be taken in, and the Regent consented to let them go out of the Kingdom; but we are assur'd that the Promises made to them were not perform'd, and the Generality thought themselves very happy when they were return'd to France. This Prince was not liberal; and what Presents he made were only valuable as they came from so great a Prince. I saw a poor Soldier of the Invalids make him a Present of a Plan of that Hospital, which had cost him ten Years Labor; but tho' the Prince seem'd to think it a fine Piece, yet the Soldier had a very small Reward. The King of France, however, made him a noble Present, and thereby convinc'd him how different the Temper of the French was from that of the Muscovites. The Czar, in short, return'd towards his Dominions very well satisfy'd with France, and went first to Holland where the Czarina staid for him; and from thence he proceeded by Land to Petersbourg.

The Czar's Residence in France had brought such a vast Number of Foreigners to Paris, that the City being more populous than ever, new Pleasures were thought of to divert them. A private Gentleman made a Proposal to me, which if I could have succeeded in, would have been of very great Service to me at that Juncture;316 for it was to put a considerable Sum of Money in my Pocket, if I could obtain a Patent for licensing Balls and Plays in the Elysian Fields, where the Projector wou'd have erected Booths for that purpose. I spoke of this to the Regent, who, according to his Custom, promis'd me the Grant at the first Word; but M. d'Argenson, who was then only Lieutenant of the Police, made him soon alter his Mind; for he represented to his Royal Highness, that such Balls would infallibly be attended with great Disorders. The Objection was specious, and like enough to be true; but after all, such a Licence would not have increas'd the Disorder very much, especially at a Place where 'twas for a long time the Fashion to take the Air in the Night, so that there were often more Coaches in the Course or Ring after Midnight, than in the Day-time. Besides, a way might be found to avoid all the Disorders that could possibly be foreseen. But M. d'Argenson was a Man that neither lov'd Novelties, nor Opportunities of obliging. I was the better pleas'd with this Project, because if it had taken, I saw that I should be in a Condition to stay some time longer at Paris, and to live in a genteel manner. But at last, when I saw it defeated, I thought of nothing but returning to Berlin. While I was putting every thing in order for my Journey, I saw the Count de Rothenbourg at Paris, who was come from Berlin, and to return thither shortly with a Commission on some Affairs of France. This Gentleman, who encourag'd me in my Design to go thither, assur'd me that it would be the easiest matter in the World for me to sell my Lands; that the King had just erected Fiefs; and that he gave every Man leave to dispose of his Estate; nay more, he offer'd to carry me along317 with him, and to advance me what Money I wanted. I thought all these to be very advantagious Proposals; but they were Words without Deeds. 'Tis true he lent me Money, that is to say, Government-Bills; but taking an advantage of the Necessity he found me in, oblig'd me to conclude one of the most fatal Bargains I ever made in my Life. I discounted my Bills, that is to say, I lost considerably by them, and with the residue of the Money I set out from Paris to Strasbourg, where M. de Rothenbourg had appointed to meet me: But for his part he went by the way of Burgundy, where he had an Estate; so that I staid for him near a Month, which surely I should not have done if I had been in Cash. When he came he told me, That 'twas impossible for him to carry me with him to Berlin, because he had no room in his Coach. 'Tis true that it was full, but there were some People in it, whom it would have better become to have got up behind. I was by this means under an indispensable Necessity to stay at Strasbourg, till I had a sufficient Remittance from Berlin, to enable me to continue my Journey, without being beholden to any body.

I did not repent my Stay at Strasbourg; for tho' I had been at it before, yet I never was there long enough to make any Observation upon the Remarkables of the Place. Strasbourg[57] is one of the best Cities in Europe. 'Tis the Capital of Alsace, and was conquer'd by Lewis XIV. in 1682, without any Expence but of Menaces and Money. That Monarch fortify'd it considerably, and caus'd a Citadel and Arsenal to be built there, which are Monuments worthy318 of a Great King. The Cathedral Church has not its equal for its Bulk and Grandeur. The Doors are of Brass, and very well wrought. There's a Pyramidal Spire 574 Foot high, which is a very noble Piece of Work. The Great Clock is also worth seeing. I was surpriz'd to see the great number of Wheels and Machines that give Motion to all the Constellations, and turn the Needles, which upon Dials of several sorts mark the Hours of the Day and Night, with the Course of the Moon and the other Planets. In the Vestry of this Church, which is very rich, are most sumptuous Altar-Ornaments and Copes. The Episcopal Palace which joins to the Church is indeed a very commodious, but not a magnificent Building, tho' it stands upon a considerable Spot of Ground, whereon a fine Structure might be erected; but there's no Appearance that such a thing will be undertaken yet a while, because the Cardinal de Rohan now Bishop of Strasbourg, who would be the properest Person for it in the whole World, resides but little at Strasbourg, and justly prefers Saverne to it, where he has a most stately Palace.

Strasbourg was formerly an Imperial City, the Magistrates whereof were Lutherans, but now the Catholics are the Masters, and have excluded the Lutherans from all manner of Employment. The King of France keeps a strong Garison in it, and the Commandant here for the King is the Marshal de Bourg. This Nobleman lives more retir'd than is usual for People that are in Power. The Officers go to him very often in the Morning, when the Marshal makes them sit down in a Circle, where I have seen such a Silence observ'd, that if Foreigners were Witnesses of it, they would not twit the French319 with having too much Clack. This Levee us'd to hold about half an Hour, after which every one went to dinner where he pleas'd, the Marshal only keeping a Table for Grand Festivals, or when any Person of Distinction arriv'd from the Court of France, which is very rare, except when the Cardinal de Rohan is at Strasbourg. When his Eminency is there, a great deal of Company follows him, and he lives with an Air of Grandeur suitable to his Birth and Dignity. Add to this, that there is not any Nobleman, perhaps, that is of a more courteous and polite Deportment. When this Prelate is not at Strasbourg the Place is very melancholy, especially for such as don't run into the common Debaucheries of Youth; for the latter indeed always find wherewith to amuse themselves: and indeed I have observ'd with my own Eyes that the young Fellows of Strasbourg are very debauch'd, and the Ladies very gentle.

After I had staid a while at Strasbourg, I receiv'd News at last from Berlin, together with Money to proceed in my Journey. I made haste thro' the Cities of Heidelberg[58], Darmstad and Francfort, and stopt at Hanau, where I had the Honor of paying my Compliments to the Count of that Name, who commonly resides there. He married a Princess of Brandenbourg-Anspach, Sister to the Princess of Wales, by whom he has had but one Daughter, married to the Hereditary Prince of Hesse-Darmstad, so that the Family of Hanau is like to be extinct in the Person of this Count. A part of his Territories, viz. those which are Fiefs of the Empire, will revert to the Landgrave of Hesse-Cassel,320 according to Conventions which this Prince has made with the King of Poland, who was Heir to a good Part of the County of Hanau as Elector of Saxony; but the latter sold all his Pretensions to the Landgrave.

The City of Hanau[59] stands near the Maine, and is distinguish'd into the Old and New Towns. The new Town owes its Foundation to the Walloon Protestants, who came to settle in this County during the Religious Wars in the Netherlands. The Streets of this Quarter, which is the finest of the two, are broad, and as strait as a Line, and the Architecture of the Houses on both sides is almost the same. A very exact Police is observ'd in it, as well for the Neatness of the Streets, as for the Security of the Inhabitants. This Count's Predecessors establish'd several Manufactures at Hanau; and here is a considerable Trade in Snuff and Woollen Stuffs. The French Refugees have contributed not a little to render this City much more considerable than it was before.

The Castle or Palace of the Count is in the Old Town; and he has another House at the Gates of the Town call'd Philip's-Ruhe[60], the Apartments of which are very fine and nobly furnish'd, and the Gardens are of a grand Taste, and a very advantagious Situation.

From Hanau I went to Fulde, an Abbat's Town of the Empire, in which stands the famous Abbey of Fulde of the Order of St. Benedict. The Fryars are all Gentlemen by sixteen Descents. The Abbat is elected by his Fryars, and has the Title of Primat of the Abbats, Prince of the Empire, and Hereditary Chancellor321 of the Empress. The Person who is now vested with that Dignity is of the Family of Butler. He maintains a great Court and several Regiments; so that he lives absolutely like a Temporal Prince. I should have lik'd his Reception of me very well, if he had not made me drink so hard, that if I had staid there longer, my next Journey might probably have been a vast way beyond Berlin. 'Tis my Opinion, Things duly consider'd, that there's no need of any extraordinary Vocation to be a Fryar at Fulde; for those Gentlemen enjoy every thing that a Man would wish for in a genteel Life. The House they dwell in is more like the Palace of a great King than a Convent; and the Abbey-Church, and another lately built without the Town, may be reckon'd among the noblest Buildings in Germany.

From Fulde I went to Eisenach[61], thro' the most detestable Roads that I ever travell'd. Eisenach stands upon the River Nese, at the feet of horrible Mountains. 'Tis the Seat of the Duke of Saxe-Eisenach of the Weimar-Branch, who being absent at that time, I had not the Honor to see him.

I proceeded from Eisenach to Gotha[62], the Residence of the Duke of Saxe-Gotha, who is the most powerful Prince of Saxony, next to the Elector. He is descended from the unfortunate John-Frederic Elector of Saxony, who was put under the Ban of the Empire, and depriv'd of his Electorate by Charles V. The Town is well built, and the Duke's Palace, which is separate from it, is surrounded with Ramparts.322

From Gotha I went to Erfurt[63], a City which formerly was dependent on the Family of Saxony, who by a solemn Treaty yielded it to the Elector of Mentz in 1665; and it now belongs to the present Elector of that Name. The Inhabitants have made several Attempts to shake off their Dependency upon that Elector, who on his part has not been wanting in Measures to make them easy; and has made considerable Fortifications to the Castle, in which he maintains a good Garison. The Town is large, and contains fine Churches, of which the Cathedral is remarkable for its Bulk: This Church had formerly a most magnificent Steeple; but some years ago the Spire was entirely consumed by Lightning.

From Erfurt I went to Leipsic[64] one of the most considerable Cities in the Electorate of Saxony, and of special Note for its University and its Fairs. The former, which was founded in 1408, by Frederic the Warrior, has always supported it self with Reputation, notwithstanding the Neighbourhood of the University of Hall. The Situation of Leipsic is charming, and which way soever one enters it, there are beautiful Houses and Gardens kept in excellent Order. The Boses and Appel, Merchants of Leipsic have Gardens at the Gates of the Town, in which they have laid out surprizing Sums of Money: Appel especially has a Garden which a Prince need not be asham'd of. Besides these Gardens here are Walks, which are not the less agreeable for being natural. Here is a remarkable Wood, which is called in the Language of323 the Country Rosendahl, i. e. the Vale of Roses. It consists of fourteen Walks, with a great Meadow in the Middle. Each Walk has a noble Point of View, and they are all agreeably diversify'd. The Inside of Leipsic is perfectly answerable to the Out-parts: The Streets are very even, and the Houses large and well built. The only fault I found with them is, that they are too much charg'd with Sculpture, and not duly proportion'd: They are all very lofty, and for the Generality five or six Stories high. The Rents of them are very dear, and at the time of the Fairs there's such a Resort of Merchants hither from all parts, that 'tis very difficult to get a Lodging. When I came thither 'twas Michaelmas Fair; at which time the King of Poland was there. This Prince when he comes to Leipsic does not lodge in the Castle, tho' it has very commodious Apartments, but resides in the House of Appel, the Merchant whom I just now mention'd, who is Proprietor of one of the finest Gardens thereabouts. That King gives the Preference to his House, because 'tis near the Place where the Fair is kept. So much, Madame, for what is chiefly remarkable at Leipsic.

I made no long stay there, because I was impatient to return to Berlin. At my first Arrival there I liv'd very retir'd. I foresaw the little Satisfaction I had to expect at that Court, which made me resolve not to be seen there. Nevertheless I could not conceal my self long; for the Favors with which the Margravine-Dowager had always honor'd me, obliged me to pay my Respects to that Princess, who receiv'd me very kindly, and soon after spoke of me to his Majesty in so favorable a Manner, that he324 was desirous to see me; and he sent M. de Grumkau to bid me wait on him at Charlottenbourg, and to send in my Name to him by Ast, one of his Valets de Chambre. I could have been very glad to have been excused from paying Obedience to that Order; but it was too punctual, his Majesty having actually appointed the Hour that I was to appear before him. On the Day fix'd I therefore went to Charlottenbourg, and sent for Ast, who came and conducted me to a Gallery, where he bade me wait a little time; but I had not been there a Quarter of an Hour when the King enter'd it, attended by la Fourcade, Major-General and Commandant of Berlin. His Majesty came up directly to me, and ask'd me, with a good deal of Vivacity, From whence I came, and what was the Cause of my Return to Berlin? I made answer, That I was come last from France, and that my domestic Concerns had brought me back to Berlin. His Majesty, who proceeded to enquire into my Affairs, seem'd well enough pleas'd with the Answers I had the Honor of making to him, and turning towards la Fourcade, said to him, That he should never have known me, if he had not been appriz'd who I was beforehand: And then he said to me, That he should hereafter look on me no other than as a Frenchman. I made answer, That I should think my self very unfortunate if his Majesty should look on me in that Light; and that let me be at ever such a Distance from his Person and his Dominions, I should always be ambitious of calling my self his Subject; and that I should constantly preserve the same Sentiments of Respect and Loyalty to my King and Country, in which I had been educated. The King then ask'd me, Whether I had any Intention to sell325 my Estate? I confess'd to him, That I had no other Remedy left to enable me to satisfy my Creditors; and I actually entreated him to interpose his Authority to procure the Consent of Mademoiselle de Pollnitz to the Sale of it. The King said to me, That he would give his Orders to M. de C——, to engage her to hearken to Reason; and then he very graciously dismiss'd me.

I went back to Berlin, and did not fail to return Thanks to the Margravine for the good Offices she had done me with the King. The Queen returning some few days after this from Charlottenbourg to Berlin, I had the Honor to pay my Respects to her, and was kindly receiv'd. It was quickly blaz'd after what Manner I had been receiv'd by their Majesties, which was Reason enough to engage the Courtiers to shew me that Complaisance, which otherwise I durst not have expected. I took little notice, however, of those Gentlemens Compliments, but prepar'd my self for finishing the Grand Affair for which I was come. I caus'd advantagious Offers to be made to Mademoiselle de Pollnitz, to gain her Consent. The King order'd a Letter to be wrote and sent to her at Hanover, to determine her in my Favor; assuring her at the same time, That he thought my Proposals very reasonable; and that her Acceptance of them would do him a Pleasure. I also went my self to Hanover, to try if I could persuade her: But neither the Visits I made to her upon the Affair, nor those so powerful Recommendations of it, had any Effect; and she continu'd obstinate in her Refusal.

At my Return from Hanover, the King sent me an Order to wait on him. I was introduc'd326 by one of his Favorites into the Closet where his Majesty us'd to smoak. The King was then playing at a Game with Tables call'd Tick-tack, the Prince of Anhalt Velt-Marshal, and several other Generals and Officers being present. The King rose up as soon as the Game was ended, came to me and talk'd with me for a while very graciously. And then sitting down, he order'd all that were in Company to take their Seats. Every one took his Place without observing any Rank. The King smoaked, as did most of the Gentlemen in the Closet; but by good Luck no body offer'd me a Pipe, which I was very glad of, because I could never smoak in all my Life. The King talk'd to me a great deal about my Affairs; and in particular about the Sale of my Estate. 'Twas not long before I perceiv'd that my Cousin had brought the King over to her Interest; for as soon as my Land came to be the Topic of Conversation, he told me in very plain Terms, That it would be very wrong for me to part with it, even tho' my Cousin were to give her Consent to it; that instead of paying my Debts with the Purchase-Money, I would be apt to squander it in my Pleasures; that 'twas high time to think of some Employment to enable me to pay my Debts, without selling my Estate. He added, That if, nevertheless, I persisted in my Resolution to sell it, he would write again to Mademoiselle de Pollnitz to perswade her to consent to it; and that this was the utmost that he could do for me, as Affairs stood; since it would be an Injustice to compel her to give a Consent to any thing that she imagin'd would be to her prejudice. After a little farther Discourse with me about my domestic Affairs, his Majesty talk'd to me of the Report current at Berlin,327 That I had chang'd my Religion; and ask'd me, Whether 'twas really true, that I was turn'd Papist. I told him, That I was of the Religion of my Ancestors. Here I will acknowledge to my shame, that I had not Courage enough to make public Declaration that I was a Catholic. Besides, I hoped in so pressing a Dilemma to get off by a double Entendre; which is a Rule adopted by the Doctors themselves. The double Entendre consisted in that, when I said I was of the Religion of my Ancestors, I meant that which was formerly profess'd by my Grandfather and Great-Grandfather; and indeed all my Ancestors were Catholics. My Grandfather himself was a Catholic once, tho' he embrac'd the new Religion, to swim with the Stream. The King, who concluded from what I said, that I was still a Protestant, did not press me farther upon that Head;, but the Prince of Anhalt was not so easily satisfy'd; for he gave the King to understand that he believ'd the Reports of my having chang'd my Religion, were but too true, and he actually said to his Majesty That the only way to be sure of the Truth of what I had affirm'd, would be to give me the Sacramental Test in the Church of the Dome. The King was also of that Opinion, nevertheless it did not take effect. At our leaving the King, the Prince of Anhalt, who, 'tis like, wanted to get a real Confession from me, that I had chang'd my Religion, charg'd it home upon my Conscience, and blam'd me very much for not having own'd that I was a Catholic. But as I could not be certain what was the Drift of those Remonstrances, I was so far from declaring my Mind to that Nobleman, that I still continu'd in the Negative.328

The Audience which I had of the King gain'd me his Good-will; and he one day spoke so honorably of me in presence of the Courtiers, that my Friends advis'd me to strike in with this Ray of Favor, and petition him for some Employment. I followed their Advice, and wrote accordingly to the King, who was then at Potzdam.

Two Days after I sent my Letter, I receiv'd an Answer, sign'd with his Majesty's own Hand, which was drawn up in these Terms;

I received your Letter of the 9th of January, (1718) and for Answer I assure you, that I grant you the first Pension of Gentleman of the Bed-Chamber that shall happen to be vacant.


I had such a grateful Sense of his Majesty's kind Intentions towards me, that as soon as he was return'd to Berlin, I did not fail to go and thank him. His Majesty was so good as to say, That the Trifle he had now granted me was not worth Thanks. I thought, Madame, that this was a very hopeful Beginning for a Man not us'd to see his Undertakings crown'd with Success. The Courtiers strove who should be most complaisant to me; and I receiv'd Compliments from all hands, which fully persuaded me, that I was in high Favor: But my Stars did not indulge me long with this Calm; and a Storm soon arose, which drove me farther out of Port than I was before. It was owing to the following Accident.

In the beginning of the Year 1718, the King recall'd M. de Kniphausen his Envoy in France, with a design to nominate another in his room.329 Several Persons sollicited for this Post; but I thought my self as well qualify'd for it as the best; and to pave the way for it, I propos'd to save the Government a great deal of Charge, by contenting myself with an Abatement of two hundred Crowns per Month less than the usual Salary. This Proposal was so well relish'd by M. de Grumkau the Minister of State, that he protected me, and undertook to recommend me to the King. I also spoke of it my self to M. d'Ilgen, the Minister for Foreign Affairs, whose Daughter was married to the said M. de Kniphausen. I gave this Minister to understand, that I should never have had a Thought of asking for this Place, if I had not been satisfy'd, that M. de Kniphausen himself had desired to be recalled. M. d'Ilgen received me with the utmost Civility, and promis'd with an Oath to serve me upon this Occasion; adding, that he could not express his Happiness in having such an Opportunity to discover the Respect and Veneration which he had for my Family. Such extraordinary Complaisance in a Courtier made me suspect the Sincerity of his Intentions, and I was quickly convinc'd that my Jealousy was but too well founded. When my Audience was over, this Minister would needs wait on me to the Door: I oppos'd it as much as I could, but when I saw it was to no purpose I gave him his way, and he attended me to the very Door of my Coach. I us'd many words with him upon his own Threshold, and begg'd him not to go a Step farther, especially as it rain'd very hard, which you'll say was Reason enough of it self to have engaged him to retire: Yet it all signify'd nothing, he would not abate an Ace of his Complaisance, but stiffly stood it out by the side of my Coach, till330 it mov'd off. This, however, was all the Service he did me; for instead of serving me with the King, I knew from good Hands, that he acted the Reverse. I was told that he was not pleas'd with me for desiring less Salary than his Son-in-law had, who, when he was at Paris, was continually writing to Berlin, that his Allowance was not sufficient to maintain him.

To compleat my Happiness, the King receiv'd an anonymous Letter, assuring him that I was a true Catholic; and to inforce the Belief of it, there was added to the Letter an authentic Certificate from Father Denis, before whom I had made the Confession of my Faith. The King express'd his Resentment against me, and complain'd that I had impos'd upon him. Several People alarm'd me with more Danger than there was in reality; however, I was not frighten'd at first, for I suspected that the only Aim of the general Talk was to hinder me from going to Court, and did not think that the King was so angry as they gave out, till at last I was appriz'd that his Majesty had some Thoughts of putting me under an Arrest. The Person who came to bring me this Intelligence was H——, who was very well with M—— the King's Favorite; and I gave the more Credit to it, because I did not think that he could be so dishonorable as to attempt to do me an ill Office. This H—— was a poor Wretch, who after having spent a handsome Fortune, had a very small Pension, which the King gave him, for having executed a Commission at Stralsund with the King of Sweden, which few but himself would have accepted. As his Pension was too pitiful to subsist him, several Persons reliev'd him; and I will venture to say, That tho' I was not in very331 easy Circumstances my self, yet I was some Support to him. Nevertheless, I can with Truth declare it, that he requited me with Ingratitude. He came to me with an Aggravation of that piece of Intelligence, which when all was said and done, was not of such a Nature as to drive me from the Court; but his manner of divulging it, made me believe I was ruin'd past Recovery, if I persisted in staying at Berlin. He came one day into my Chamber with a most dejected Air, and told me, That he had been just inform'd by M. de M——, that as soon as the King was return'd, I should infallibly be arrested; and at the same time he put on such an external Appearance of Concern to see me oblig'd to fly, that I took all he said for Gospel. I resolv'd therefore to be gone; but the Difficulty was to raise Money, which I had no means of doing but by making a great many disadvantagious Contracts, whereby I was a very great Sufferer in the Sequel.

After I had made Money of every thing I set out in the Night from Berlin, leaving word at home that I was bound to Hanover; but as soon as I was got out of Town I steer'd my Course for Leipsic, where I staid a few days, and then went to Mentz, where I had a Cousin in the Elector's Service, who entertain'd me as a good Kinsman would do, and introduc'd me to his Master, who gave me a most gracious Reception. I have already had the Honor to tell you of the Prerogatives of the Elector of Mentz at the Coronation of an Emperor. It only remains for me to speak to you of his Person. He was Francis-Lotharius of Schonborn, of the Illustrious Family of the Counts of Schonborn. Besides the Archbishopric of Mentz, he had also the Bishopric of332 Bamberg. He had then two Coadjutors, the Elector of Triers Count Palatine of the Rhine for Mentz; and the Count de Schonborn, Vice-Chancellor of the Empire, for Bamberg. He might then be about seventy Years of Age. He was a Prince of a noble Aspect, affable, ador'd by both his Domestics and his Subjects, and very hearty for every thing that might contribute to the Tranquillity and Honor of the Empire. The City of Mentz is obliged to him for the noble Works with which he has caus'd it to be fortify'd; for it may be said he has spar'd no Cost to put his Capital in such a State as to have nothing to fear from Foreigners.

Mentz[65] stands upon a rising Ground along the Rhine, in one of the finest Parts of Germany. 'Twas formerly no more than a Bishopric Suffragan to Triers, but Pope Zachary, or as some say Gregory III. erected it into an Archbishopric, and granted him at the same time the Primacy of the Churches of Germany. 'Tis said that the first Bishop of Mentz, who was honor'd with the Dignity of Elector, was nam'd Willigise, and that he was the Son of a Cartwright, or, as others say, a Carman of the Village of Schoningen in the Country of Brunswic. He advanc'd himself purely by his own Merit to the Dignity of Chancellor to the Emperors Otho III. and Henry II. and finally to that of Archbishop of Mentz. But in all the height of his Fortune this Prelate continued in such an humble Frame of Mind that he caus'd Wheels to be painted every where about his Palace, that he might have the Badges of the Meanness of his Extraction always in his Eyes: And we are assur'd this is the Reason why the333 Electors of Mentz always bear in their Arms a Wheel Argent in a Field Gules.

The Chapter of Mentz consists of forty two Canons, of whom the Dean and the twenty three first are call'd Capitulars, and the other Domicellaires. The former only are those that elect the Archbishop, who from the Moment that he is chose, becomes an Elector of the Empire. The Pope confirms his Election in Spirituals, and the Emperor does the same in Temporals. The Elector becomes at the same time Great Chancellor of the Empire of Germany, which gives him the Title of perpetual Dean of the Electors, and an Inspection into the Aulic Council and the Imperial Chamber of Wetzlar.

Mentz has a very flourishing Trade, especially in Wines. The best Vineyards for Rhenish Wines are in the Dominions of the Elector, and especially in the Neighbourhood of Mentz. And that which also contributes very much to the Briskness of its Commerce is, that all the Merchandize that passes up and down the Rhine, stops in its Harbor, to be put on board fresh Bottoms.

I did not stay long at Mentz, but set out for Stutgard[66], the Capital of the Duchy of Wirtemberg. This City stands in a very fine Country, and is divided into two parts by a small River call'd the Neckar. The Houses at Stutgard are generally ill built, yet as the Streets are broad and lightsome, the Town is very gay. The Ducal Palace is very old but very commodious, by reason of the Extent and Number of the Apartments. Here is a very fine Garden with an Orangery, which is not to be parallel'd.334 The Trees are kept in full Mould, secur'd by a Roof and a sliding Partition, which they take care to warm in the Winter by several Stoves that make it one continu'd Summer. The Duke of Wirtemberg is seldom in this Palace, except at the time of the Carnival; but as for his Duchess, she is there almost always, and has a separate House from the Duke's, where she lives very retir'd. I wish'd for an Opportunity to pay my Respects to her, but was deprived of that Honor, because I had not been introduc'd to the Duke. This Prince's usual Residence is at Ludwigsbourg a Pleasure-House which he caus'd to be built some Leagues from Stutgard; but while I was at Wirtemberg he was with the whole Court at Wildstadt, whither I went to have the Honor of paying my Duty to him. Wildstadt is one of the vilest Places in Germany, yet 'tis very much frequented by reason of its Baths of Mineral Waters, which are said to be a sovereign Remedy for many Diseases, especially Sciaticas, and for bracing the Nerves. The Duke commonly spends a Month or six Weeks here with his whole Court, which being very numerous and splendid, Wildstadt is then a Place agreeable enough. The Duke had with him the Hereditary Prince, his Son, who is married to Henrietta of Prussia, the late Margrave Philip's Daughter. The Person of this Prince was very amiable, and like the Duke his Father, his Behavior is the most courteous that can be, especially to Foreigners, to whom they are both very kind. While the Court was at Wildstadt, their Amusement in the Morning was the use of the Baths, where the Duke and the Prince his Son gave Gentlemen the Liberty of bathing with them; for it must be observ'd that each Bath335 will hold twenty Persons very commodiously. When the Bathing was over, they took their Rest. Towards Noon there was an Assembly in the Apartment of the Duke, who went from thence to the Apartment of the Hereditary Princess, who lodg'd with the Prince her Husband in a House over-against the Duke's. There was a Table for sixteen Guests very well serv'd, where the Gentlemen eat with the Duke and his Children, and none but Pages waited. After Dinner the Duke either rode, or caus'd others to ride some manag'd Horses, than which I have no where seen any that were more beautiful or better train'd than his were. In the Evening there was another Assembly at the Princess's, where there was play till Supper-time. I was told that when the Court was at Ludwigsbourg there was a greater Variety of Diversions, and that besides Gaming there was some Theatrical Entertainments, of which the Duke was very fond, and actually kept a Company of French Comedians in Pay, who perform'd very well. In a word, this Prince may be said to have neglected nothing that he thought suitable to his Dignity, or that might render his Court more splendid. And that every thing might look with a certain Air of Grandeur, he was resolv'd, like other Sovereigns, to establish an Order, of which he himself is the Head. They call it the Order of St. Hubert. 'Tis a broad red Ribband, to which hangs a Cross enamell'd white. None are admitted into it, but Persons of distinguish'd Families. Besides this Order, the Duke also wears those of Prussia and Denmark alternatively. The Hereditary Prince wears the Prussian Order at large, and that of the Duke his Father at his Button-Hole, just as they wear the Cross of336 St. Lewis in France, except nevertheless on the Festival Days of St. Hubert, when he wears the red Ribband at full length.

Among the Persons of Distinction that accompanied the Duke to Wildstadt, those of most Note were the Count de Gravenitz and S——, which two Gentlemen had the sole Disposition of Affairs. The first was Grand Marshal of the Court and Prime Minister, and he wore the Order of Prussia, the King having therewith honor'd him at the Marriage of the Hereditary Prince with the Princess of Prussia. This Minister, who had the Duke of Wirtemberg's intire Confidence, had been nominated to accompany the Hereditary Prince to Berlin. He certainly deserv'd the Favor with which the Duke honor'd him; and I have not known many Noblemen more civil and obliging. But S—— wanted a great deal of being so affable; tho' his Origin was very different. He was a meer Creature of Fortune, who to be sure thought himself at the height of Felicity when he was Secretary to the late M. B——, Minister of State to the late King at Berlin. Nevertheless, after the Death of his Master his Star guided him to the Court of Wirtemberg, where he has amass'd immense Riches, and is entered into the greatest Employments. He wears the Order of Dannebrog, the King of Prussia having desir'd it for him of the King of Denmark, upon the Recommendation of the Duke of Wirtemberg, who being very willing to give his Minister some Badge of Honor, and not caring at the same time to debase his own Order of St. Hubert, caus'd the Order of Dannebrog to be demanded for him, which is given to all Persons indifferently without regard to Quality.337

The Duke of Wirtemberg's Court is altogether Lutheran, as well as the rest of his Dominions. Mean time he permitted the Princess, who is a Calvinist, to have a particular Chapel for her self and her Domestics. The Countess de Gravenitz, Wife to the Grand Marshal, who is a Catholic, was also allow'd a Chapel for the Exercise of her Religion.

I forgot to tell you what Title is assum'd by the Dukes of Wirtemberg. They call themselves Banner-Bearers of the Empire, which Title they distinguish in the third Quartering of their Shield, which is Azure with the Banner of the Empire, Or charg'd with a Spread-Eagle Sable, plac'd Bend-wise. The Dukes of Wirtemberg have another Dignity more solid than the former, viz. to be joint Directors of the Circle of Swabia, with the Bishop of Constance.

The Duchy of Wirtemberg was formerly confiscated to the use of Ferdinand I. Brother to the Emperor Charles V. but 'twas afterwards restor'd to the Princes of this Name, on condition of their holding it dependent on the House of Austria. This Feudal Subjection was annull'd in 1631, in the time of Frederic Duke of Wirtemberg, on condition that upon the Failure of Issue Male, the Duchy should devolve to the House of Austria. In pursuance of these Treaties the Princes of that Family bear the Title and Arms of the Family of Wirtemberg.

While I staid at this Court that Disorder which I had been teaz'd with for several Years became at last so serious an Affair, that instead of proceeding to Vienna, to which I at first purpos'd to go, I set out for Strasbourg, in hopes of finding skilful Surgeons there to make the necessary Operation upon me. Several offer'd to338 take me in hand, but the King's Lieutenant assur'd me, that my best way wou'd be to employ the Person that was Surgeon to the Great Hospital. I did so, but can't say I had much reason to like him. He may, for aught I know, be an able Surgeon, but sure I am that he is a very dangerous Physician. He thought fit to give me Drugs (to prepare me, he said, to support the Operation) which had like to have sent me into the other World: But by good Luck I perceiv'd his Ignorance before he had time to kill me. I took no more of his Remedies; and when I found my self well enough recover'd to bear the Fatigues of a Journey, I resolv'd to go to Paris, which I take to be the Nursery of the most experienc'd Surgeons. I stop'd a few days at Saverne, where there was a very great Company at the House of the Cardinal de Rohan, to whom I had the Honor of paying my Compliments; and he receiv'd me with that Air of Politeness and Grandeur, for which we know this Prince is distinguish'd.

From Saverne I went to Luneville, and in all the Way found no considerable Place but Phaltzbourg, which was formerly a Part of Lorrain, and had the Title of a Principality. 'Tis now a Place very regularly fortify'd, and serves to guard the Road into Lorrain, which France secur'd to her self by the Treaty of Ryswic.

The Court of Lorrain commonly resides at Luneville, since the Beginning of the late War, when the French put a Garison into Nancy, of which they continu'd Masters till the Treaty of Baden. This City, which heretofore was inconsiderable, is now worth seeing. The Duke of Lorrain has added a great many Buildings to it, which are a great Ornament to it; and therefore339 the Duke and Duchess chuse to reside here, preferably to any other Place. As to the Duchess, she has a particular Reason for being so fond of Luneville, it being the City assign'd her for her Jointure.

The Castle, which is very fine, has nothing noble without, but the Inside is most magnificent. The Entrance and Front very much resemble those of Versailles towards Paris. As to the Front towards the Garden I can say nothing of it, because that side of the Palace was not finish'd when I went thither. The Apartments of their Royal Highnesses are spacious, and richly furnish'd. The first Anti-chamber is a very large Saloon of curious Structure. 'Tis wainscotted and adorn'd with the Pictures of the Lorrain Family. In one, the Duke's Father is represented making a triumphant Entry in a Chariot drawn by four white Horses, with Fame flying before it, Peace and Victory offering him Crowns of Laurel, and the additional Trophy of Turks in Chains trampled under his Horses Feet. The Whole together forms a magnificent Painting; and I was told there are Tapestries in the Duke's Wardrobe, which are a Copy of it, but I did not see them.

This Saloon separates their Royal Highnesses Apartments from the Chapel, which for the Contrivance of it very much resembles that of Versailles. It stands on the Right of the Entry into the Saloon, and the Apartments are on the Left. The Prince's Apartment looks over Luneville, and over the Courts belonging to the Kitchen, and the Princess's is situate on the Garden-side. The Princess's is much larger than the Duke's; and when I saw it, 'twas richly furnish'd, adorn'd with noble Gilding, Glasses340 and Paintings by the best Masters; but this Part of the Palace has since been intirely consum'd by Fire, tho' I am assur'd the Whole is re-built as well as before, and that the Apartments are every whit as well furnish'd. So much for the Palace: I will now give you a short Account of their Royal Highnesses, and their August Family, as it stood in 1718, when I had the Honor to see it.

Leopold Duke of Lorrain and Bar was the Head of the Family, and the Sovereign of the Country. He married Mademoiselle of France, Elizabeth-Charlotte of Orleans, Daughter of Philip of France, Duke of Orleans, Brother of Lewis XIV. By which Marriage they had three Princes and three Princesses. The eldest Prince, who was stil'd Duke of Bar, died in 1723, at a Time when he was in Expectation of great Fortune. His Brother, who is Heir to that Expectancy, is actually bred up at Vienna, where the Emperor takes particular Care of his Education.

The Duke of Lorrain's Houshold is considerable, and every thing is establish'd there on a good Footing. His Hunting-Equipages are magnificent, and so well furnish'd, that Foreigners who accompany the Prince into the Field, are equipp'd with Horses out of his Stables. The Prince's Attendance is almost the same as that of the Princes of France, and all his Houshold on the same Footing. The Marquis de Craon was then the Great Chamberlain and Prime Minister. He was a very courteous Nobleman, and treated all that had Business with him with extraordinary Civility. He had great Credit at Court, and the Prince was mighty bountiful to him; insomuch that after having heap'd Wealth341 upon this Favorite, he had a mind to see him promoted to the eminent Dignity of Prince, which upon the Duke's Desire the Emperor conferr'd upon him accordingly. Not long after, one of the Prince of Craon's Daughters was married to a Prince of the Lorrain Family, viz. the Prince de Lixin, formerly known by the Name of the Chevalier de Lorrain, who is now the Duke of Lorrain's Steward of the Houshold. His Father-in-law has given him his fine House at Craon, not far from Luneville. Madame de Craon, who is a Partner in her Husband's Fortune and Credit, is Lady of Honor to the Duchess, and very much esteem'd by the Duke. I had the Honor to see this Prince spend the Afternoons at her House, and the Courtiers, after the Example of their Master, did justice to the Lady's Merit.

From Luneville I went to Nancy, which is the Capital City of Lorrain, and was formerly the Residence of the Sovereigns of the Country. It stands but a little distance from the River Meurte, in the midst of a beautiful Plain; and is divided into two Parts, viz. the Old and New Towns. I had the Honor to tell you, that the French made a Conquest of it in 1631. It had good Reason to remember, that it was once under a Foreign Dominion; for its Fortifications were so demolish'd in 1668, that there was but one Rampart remaining without a Parapet; and in this Condition it was restor'd to its Sovereign at the Peace of Ryswic. Not many years after, when Lewis XIV. enter'd into the War for maintaining his Grandson upon the Spanish Throne, he oblig'd the Duke of Lorrain to receive a Garison at Nancy. The Duke was so disgusted at this Proceeding, that tho' the King342 had given Orders to his Officers, to pay his Royal Highness all the due Honors and Respect, he would not stay in a Town, of which he might be said to be Sovereign, but not the Master; and retir'd to Luneville, where he continu'd ever after, tho' Nancy was evacuated at the Treaty of Baden.

A little way from Nancy, in the Road to Paris, there's a Chapel and a Cross, said to have been erected upon the very Spot where Charles the last Duke of Burgundy was kill'd in 1476, when he was besieging the Town, then in possession of René Duke of Lorrain. There's a Copper-plate affix'd to the Cross upon the High-way, on which may be read the Particulars.

Between Nancy and Toul, which is in the Paris Road, one passes thro' the forest of Haye, wherein Lewis XIV. caus'd a Way to be cut, which will be a lasting Monument to Posterity, of the Magnificence of that Great Prince. Those who are bound to Toul cross the Moselle in a Ferry-boat about a League on this side that Town, to which they arrive over a pretty large Plain. The Learned give a very ancient Original to the City of Toul; for they pretend it was first founded by Tullus Hostilius King of the Romans: But you may believe as much of this as you please. All that I can say of the Town, after having view'd it well, is, that 'tis very ill built, and not worthy of the Attention of the Curious. 'Tis a Bishopric Suffragan of Triers, and one of the three Bishoprics of Lorrain that were yielded to France.

From Toul I traveled to Bar-le-Duc, the Capital of the Duchy of Bar. This Duchy is dependant on the Crown of France, tho' 'tis343 part of the Dominions of Lorrain, and is under the Jurisdiction of a Parliament. The Dukes of Lorrain were formerly oblig'd, either in their own Person, or by an Envoy, to perform Homage to the King of France, upon the Death either of a King, or of a Duke; which Obligation was chang'd, or rather limited, during the Regency of the Duke of Orleans, in a Journey which the Duke and Duchess of Lorrain made to Paris in 1718, when it was regulated, That a Duke of Bar should be oblig'd to pay Homage but once in his Life to a King of France; but that he should pay it in Person. This Convention was register'd in the Parliament of Paris. But this was not the only Advantage which the Duke reap'd from his Journey; for the Regent, at the Request of his Sister, restor'd a great number of Villages to him that ought to have been restor'd to the Duke of Lorrain at the Peace of Ryswic, and which the Ministry of France had thought fit to keep.

From Bar-le-Duc to Chalons, 'tis a wild desert Country, yet very fruitful in Corn. The Roads are detestable if it rains ever so little; which added to the length of the Post-Stages, renders it a very disagreeable Journey. They say 'twas in these Fields that the King Meroveus, Aëtius General of the Romans, and Theodoric King of the Visigoths, fought so bloody a Battle in 451, with Attila King of the Huns, that they kill'd two hundred thousand of his Men. But this is a Fact which I will not warrant. The Situation of Chalons is very advantageous. The River Marne which runs into the Seine almost at the Entrance of Paris, is a great Convenience for the Merchants of that City. This City is in Champaigne, and its Bishop has the Title of Count344 and Peer of France. The ancient Counts of Champaigne resided here, and the Palace they liv'd in is still to be seen. The Parliament of Paris was transferr'd hither in 1592; and there that illustrious Assembly pass'd that famous Arrêt against the Pope's Legate, and the League, which under the Pretence of Religion tended to deprive Henry III's lawful Successor, Henry IV. of the Crown of France.

Several most illustrious Marriages have been celebrated in the City of Chalons. 1. That of Philip of Orleans, Brother to Lewis XIV. 2. That of Lewis Dauphin of France Son of Lewis XIV. with Anne-Christina-Victoria of Bavaria, on the 7th of March 1680: And finally, the Marriage of Lewis Duke of Orleans, Son of the Duke Regent, to Augusta-Maria-Johanna of Baden, on the 13th of July 1724.

There's not one considerable Place all the way from Chalons to Paris. I pass'd thro' Chateau-Thierry, which is a Duchy that was given to M. de Bouillon in Exchange for the Principality of Sedan; with this Clause nevertheless, that the King shall keep the Sovereignty of it. The Marne runs at the Foot of this Town.

Ten Leagues from hence there's the City of Meaux, which is the Capital of Brie, with the Title of a Bishopric. But neither in the Church nor Town did I see any thing remarkable. The Suburbs are very fruitful, and the Neighbourhood of Paris gives the Inhabitants an Opportunity of putting off their Commodities to Advantage.

'Tis but a few Hours Journey from Meaux to Paris in the direct Road. But I went some Leagues out of the way to see M. de N——, at his Seat at C——, near Fontainbleau, and after345 having spent some days there very pleasantly, we travell'd together to Paris. When we had pass'd the Time that was necessary to discharge the Obligations of Friendship and Decency, I reflected on what was the real Motive of my Journey; which, as I have had the Honor to tell you, was to put my self into the Hands of some able Surgeon. The Man to whose Care I committed my self was the famous La Peronie, who perform'd the Operation upon me with the utmost Skill, yet I suffer'd extreme Pain. During my Illness, which was of some Continuance, my Friends, who were my faithful Companions, were so good as to inform me of every thing that pass'd; and if it had been lawful to have betray'd them, or if I had been in any Post under the Government, I might perhaps have made some Discoveries to the Duke Regent, which would have been to his advantage, and enabled him to stifle that Flame at its first breaking out, which indeed he extinguish'd afterwards, tho' it was perhaps owing as much, if not more, to his good Fortune, than to his Prudence.

Paris was at that time in a Crisis, when it dreaded a Minority as troublesome as that of Lewis XIV. Every body was dissatisfy'd. There was a loud Clamor against the Royal Bank. And the Government-Bills were a fresh Subject of Complaint; for tho' they were establish'd at the Beginning of the Regency, with a Promise to keep up their Credit, yet there was a very great Loss by discounting them; and as the Public was overcharg'd with them, and as there is nothing which sits so uneasy on People as their Loss, every one gave public Vent to his ill Humor. At this same Juncture the Duke Regent was346 afflicted with sore Eyes, which indanger'd his Sight. I was assur'd that the Chancellor said to some People in Confidence, That 'twas absolutely necessary to think of proper Measures for transferring the Regency to another Person, in case that Prince should happen to be blind: And they say that 'twas for this Expression that he lost the Seals, which were taken from him the 28th of January 1718. When M. de la Vrilliere Secretary of State went to him to demand them, the Chancellor resign'd them immediately, saying, That he restor'd them to his Royal Highness with more Pleasure than he took them. At the time that they were brought to the Regent the Duke de Noailles was with him, who being more than ordinary surpriz'd to see the Seals, because he knew nothing of the Chancellor's Disgrace, could not help asking the Regent, What he was going to do with the Seals? To which that Prince made Answer, That he design'd them for M. d'Argenson Lieutenant of the Police. The Duke being dissatisfy'd with this Change, desir'd the Regent's Leave to retire, which was granted him with more Readiness than he desir'd.

The Seals were given upon the same day to M. d'Argenson. The Regent himself sign'd the Patent, and the Grant of the Great and Little Commissions; and in the Afternoon the new Minister took the usual Oath to the King; and at the same time the Duke Regent declar'd him Chief of the Council of the Finances. The Disgrace of the Chancellor made the Parliament uneasy, and occasion'd fresh Murmuring among the People; the rather because 'twas reported, that his Royal Highness ow'd him a Grudge for his347 Refusal to sign certain Edicts which were not lik'd by the Parliament.

While Paris was in such a Ferment, there was some Commotion in Bretagne. The Payment of the Free Gift being demanded of the States then assembled, they made answer, That they could not grant it till they had first examin'd their Funds. They intended, they said, to regulate their Finances, which were very much disorder'd. This Delay was look'd upon as an open Rebellion, and at the fourth Assembly they receiv'd Orders to separate. This put them quite out of Temper, and the Nobility deputed four of their Body to Court to present his Royal Highness a long Memorial, in which they demonstrated how impossible it was for their Province to pay the Free Gift at that instant. They complain'd of the Invasion of the Privileges of a Province which had only submitted to France upon condition that they should be sacredly preserv'd. They concluded with praying his Royal Highness to grant them, at least, some time longer. We flatter our selves, Sir, said they, in the close of their Memorial, that a Delay of a few days, contrary indeed to an ill Custom, but agreeable to ancient Possession, will not give your Royal Highness the worse Opinion of a Nobility which is so much devoted to you, and to which you have declar'd your Good-will.

The Regent made answer to the Deputies, That they must obey and pay, and that then they would see what could be done. This Answer did not satisfy the uneasy Bretons, and the Parliament of the Province sent their Deputies to Paris. When they were admitted to the King's Audience, M. de Blossac, who was their Spokesman, made much the same Representation as the Deputies of348 the Nobility had done before. All the Answer they had was a Declaration from the King, by the Keeper of the Seals, who was present, That the Privileges of their Province should not be infring'd. The same Deputies presented a long Petition to his Majesty, wherein they discover'd not less Love and Respect to the King than Zeal for their Privileges, but still insisted on the Impossibility of paying the Free Gift so soon. These Remonstrances, however, were as ineffectual as those of the States; and the Regent, who was resolv'd to be obey'd, made use of his Authority, by banishing the most mutinous of the Gentry from the Province, and others of 'em he caus'd to be summon'd to Paris, as well as several of their Members of Parliament, in order to give an Account of their Conduct.

Such, Madame, was the State of Affairs when I arriv'd at Paris. There was no Talk of any thing but Disturbances, and every thing seem'd to tend to a Revolt. The Duke Regent, in order to obviate any Enterprize of that sort, thought fit to secure the Soldiery in his Interest; and for this end he caus'd them to be paid punctually, gave Gratuities to the Officers, and to put Feathers in their Caps he made a numerous Promotion of the Knights of St. Lewis. There was a Creation of about four hundred in a few days, so that go where one would, there was nothing to be seen but the Crosses of St. Lewis. It were to be wish'd that the Species had been as common, but of this there was less Probability than ever. The Regent had just undertaken a general Recoinage of the Money, which seem'd to be a Thing of great Consequence to private People. His Royal Highness caus'd the Edict for this purpose to be register'd, and foreseeing that the Parliament would not come349 into his Measures, he caus'd the same to be publish'd by the Officers of the Mint. The Parliament was stung to the quick by the Publication of this Edict, and pretended that, in order to its being register'd, it ought to have been first communicated to them. The Chambers met upon this Occasion, and 'twas agreed that all the Sovereign Courts mould be invited to join with the Parliament in an Affair of such Importance.

M. L. C. P. P. D. L. C. D. A. when the Invitation was sent to his Company, took the advantage of it to make his court to the Regent, and went and inquir'd at the Royal Palace how he had best act. The Regent took this well at his hands, and his Royal Highness sent an immediate Prohibition to the Court of Aids, the Chamber of Accounts, and the Officers of the Mint to take any notice of the Parliament's Invitation.

Nevertheless the Parliament still continu'd its Assemblies, and sent a Deputation to the Royal Palace, confiding of the First President, the President d'Aligre, and several Counsellors, to engage the Regent to revoke the aforesaid Edict; and they represented in a very long Discourse, That the Rise of the Species could not but be prejudicial to the French and profitable to Foreigners, who would get sixty Livres by a Mark of Silver, which intrinsically would not be worth twenty five Livres; and that this would circulate an infinite number of counterfeit Species in the Kingdom, considering the immense Profit that Foreigners would make by it. They then complain'd of the Edict's being register'd at the Court of the Mint, and not in the Parliament, to whom it ought, at least, to have been communicated. The Duke Regent made answer to the Deputies,350 That he did not think he ought to send the last Edict to the Parliament, because the Court of the Mint was establish'd a superior and competent Court in Matters of that kind; that there had been no Edict sent to Parliament concerning the Mints, since the Year 1659, except one which was sent thither in 1715, out of pure Respect to that Company; that as to the Inconveniencies, he had maturely weighed them, but that he could not excuse himself from issuing the Edict, and that as to the Suspension of the Edict, 'twas not to be thought of, the Work being so far advanc'd, and a great Quantity of Species already given out, besides Debts that must necessarily be paid off.

The Parliament not being satisfy'd with this Answer, there was another Assembly, to the Number of 165 Members, next day, viz. the 20th of June, from 8 o'clock in the Morning till 2 in the Afternoon, when they pass'd an Arrêt, by which it was agreed to make most humble Remonstrances to the King to obtain Letters Patent for censuring the last Edict of the Mint, not register'd in Parliament, as prejudicial to the King, to Trade, to the Government, and to the Fortunes of private People; that in consequence thereof all Persons should be prohibited to receive the new-coin'd Species, and to make Payments in any other Species than those which had their Currency, by virtue of the Edict of 1715, and all Notarys should likewise be prohibited to pass any Act for Payments or Reimbursements made with the new Species. This Arrêt was set up in Writing within the Palais or Parliament-House, and the Parliament took care to have several written Copies of it dispers'd, because of the Prohibition which their351 own Printer was laid under, not to commit it to the Press.

The Regent, who was sensible how prejudicial this Arrêt was to his Authority, assembled the Council, when they pass'd an Arrêt declaring that of the Parliament to be an Incroachment upon the Regal Authority, and that his Majesty revok'd and annull'd it, as well as all the Resolutions taken in that Body. All Mankind was alarm'd, and they fear'd, not without Reason, what would be the Consequences of so violent a Proceeding. The Parliament on their part did not abate one jot of their State; and when the King's Council laid upon the Table a Letter de Cachet, with the Arrêt of the Council of State, they agreed to send the Whole back again without reading one Word of it; and that the Arrêt pass'd the day before should be put in execution according to its Form and Tenor. Hereupon the Council of State pass'd another Arrêt, by which the King claim'd to himself and his Council the Cognizance of all the Differences which might arise with regard to the Coin. This done, the Regent sent two Companies of French Guards to the Mint, and another Detachment to the Bank: And after having, by this means, made every thing secure, he gave the Parliament leave to come and make their Remonstrances to the King. The Person who spoke in the Name of the rest was M. de Mesmes the First President, at the Head of seven Presidents a Mortier, thirty-two Counsellors, and the King's Council. His Speech was long and well study'd. He began with extolling the Qualities observable in the young King. Then he said, That tho' the Parliament only wish'd for the Opportunity of coming into his Presence352 to admire them, they were under a Necessity of acquainting him with the just Alarms of all the Orders of the Kingdom, upon account of an Edict for a general Recoinage of the Species, which impoverish'd those that had any Fortunes left in France, without being any Relief to the numerous Poor. This Speech was divided into two Parts. The first related to the manner in which the said Edict had been publish'd. The second enter'd into the particular Inconveniencies with which the various Clauses of the Edict would be attended, if his Majesty was not so far mov'd by those Reasons, as to order its Repeal. M. de Mesmes supported those two Articles by a Speech as nervous as it was eloquent; and at the Close he said, that in the Arrêts which had been pass'd by his Company, they had only followed the Precedents that had been found in the Registers.

The First President left his Speech in Writing, that the King might be able to answer it; and it was not long before the said Answer was return'd. The Deputies of the Parliament being sent for to the Tuilleries, on the 2d of July 1718, the Keeper of the Seals said to them in his Majesty's Presence, The King has caus'd the Remonstrances of his Parliament to be examin'd in Council, and his Majesty will always be dispos'd to give them a favorable Hearing, when they have not a Tendency to the splitting or the cramping of his Authority. He added, That the Edict in question had been maturely examin'd; and that 'twas the best Remedy for paying off the Debts of the State; that the said Edict was not such a Burden upon the Public; and that it was only so to those who should make advantageous Contracts by obligatory Deeds. He concluded with saying, That353 the King prohibited every Assembly tending to the neglect of Submission; and that he had given Orders for registring the Letters Patent in pursuance of the Arrêt of Council whereby his Majesty claims the Cognizance of the Disputes already risen or that may arise relating to the Edict. This Answer being reported to the Parliament, Commissioners were appointed to examine it; and at the same time to search the Registers if there was any Precedent for Letters Patent of that sort, in order to conform to it. The Commissioners having made their Report, the Company came to a Resolution to represent to the Duke Regent, That nothing had been determin'd on that Subject, because the Company desired that they might first of all make new Remonstrances to the King; and that they intreated his Royal Highness to procure them an Audience. The Regent was nettled at the Parliament's Importunity, and he made answer to the King's Council, who were sent to him with the Message, That he should have thought that the Parliament would have rested satisfy'd with the Answer which the King had before given; but that since he saw they were not, he would venture, notwithstanding the Dislike that his Majesty expressed to Remonstrances, to give them the Liberty of presenting them, but no otherwise than in Writing.

The Parliament was not discouraged, but still continu'd to demand an Audience, which was at length granted for the 26th of July; when all the People of Distinction in Paris flock'd to Court to hear the Remonstrances. The first President spoke for nearly three quarters of an Hour, tho' his Discourse was nothing more than a Recapitulation of what he had said before. His Majesty made answer, My Keeper of the Seals will explain354 my Intentions to you. But the Keeper of the Seals said no more than this, The King has already explained his Intentions to you, and he will explain them to you farther hereafter.

The Parliament dissatisfy'd with this Answer, which they thought too Laconic, as Affairs then stood, fell in a Rage with the Man whom they had good reason to look upon as the Primum Mobile of the Confusion of Affairs; I mean John Law, whose rapid Fortune furnish'd a large Field of Discourse. They were very sensible that a Director of the Bank could not easily acquire so much Wealth, but a great many People must be considerable Losers. The Parliament therefore cited this Financier to appear before them in Person, but he never went near them; and when, in a few days after, they chang'd the Summons to a Warrant for arresting him, the Duke Regent protected him by an Arrêt of Council. This Prince wisely judging of what Importance it was to him to make the Parliament easy, and to secure Respect to the Regal Authority of which he was the Depositary, appointed a Bed of Justice to be held at the Palace of the Thuilleries for the 26th of August. He order'd the King's Houshold Troops to keep to their Arms, and to be every Man at his Post. The same day he sent circular Letters of Invitation to all the Dukes and Peers, to the Marshals of France, to the Knights of the Orders, to the Governors and Lieutenant-Generals of the Provinces, to the Secretaries, and to some of the Counsellors of State who were nominated by the Keeper of the Seals. The Princes were also invited to this Tribunal. The Parliament walk'd thither on foot, about 11 o'clock in their red Robes. The President de Novion was at the Head of their355 Body, because the first President was at that time very much afflicted with the Gout; however, he went to the Thuilleries in a Coach.

After the Council of the Regency broke up, the King went from his little Apartment upon the Terrass to his Gallery, to which he was accompanied by the Duke Regent and the Princes of the Blood. Four Presidents au Mortier and six Counsellors came thither to receive him, and conducted him to his Bed of Justice. The King being seated on his Throne, and all the Company having taken their Places, they began with reading the Letters Patent establishing M. d'Argenson Keeper of the Seals, which were order'd to be register'd. After this an Arrêt of Council was read, forbidding the Parliament to take Cognizance of the Affairs of State. Upon the reading of this Arrêt, the first President broke Silence and said, The Subject seem'd to him of so great Importance, that with the due Respect and Submission which the Company had for his Majesty's Orders, he desired his Majesty's Permission to withdraw, to take it into Consideration. As little Attention was paid to this Remonstrance, as to the preceding ones. The Regent drew near to the King and whisper'd him; and the Keeper of the Seals, after approaching his Majesty for a Minute, made answer to the Company, The King will be obey'd, and obey'd too upon the Spot.

Then a Declaration was read, importing, that the Dukes and Peers should have Seats in Parliament immediately after the Princes of the Blood. A second, which derogated from the Declaration of the King, dated the 5th of May 1694, and restrain'd the Legitimated Princes to the meer Honors and Prerogatives of their Peerages: And a third, which re-established the Count356 de Tholouse in all his Rights, Ranks and Prerogatives for his own Person only.

After the reading of these Declarations the Duke spoke and represented to his Majesty, That the late King having seem'd desirous that the Duke of Maine should have the Care of his Majesty's Education, tho' the Place belong'd to him by Birth-right, he did not then oppose it, because he was at that time a Minor; but as this was not the Case now, he desir'd that the Honor might be conferr'd upon him: which Demand was granted to him, as well as that of the Dukes and Peers, who demanded to have Precedence of the Presidents au Mortier in Parliament.

Thus ended the Bed of Justice, which will no doubt be famous to the latest Posterity. The Parliament was very much mortify'd at the Conduct observ'd to them, and declared next day in their Assembly, by an Arrêt which was register'd, That they neither could, nor ought, nor intended to have any Share in what pass'd the Day preceding in the Bed of Justice; and that Posterity might be inform'd of it, Commissioners were nominated, to draw up a verbal Account of all the Proceedings. The Regent being inform'd of what the Parliament was doing, sent Detachments of the Gray and Black Musketeers, commanded by a Brigadier, who on the 28th at Night, took up those that had been the most zealous for this Opinion. Such were Messieurs de Blamont, President of the 4th of the Inquests, Feydeau Counsellor of the same Court, and St. Martin a Counsellor of the Grand Chamber. They were clapp'd into three Coaches, each guarded by eight Musketeers and an Officer, and carried to Places which the Court had appointed;357 and at the same time the Papers of the two former were seiz'd.

As soon as the Parliament was acquainted of this Arrest, they met and made a Deputation to the King, to intreat him to permit them to enjoy the Privilege they always had of trying those of their own Body for any Crimes they may be accus'd of. The Keeper of the Seals made them answer, The Affairs which bring this Deputation to the King are Affairs of State, which demand Silence and Secrecy: The King is oblig'd to see due Respect paid to his Authority. The future Behavior of his Parliament will determine his Majesty's Sentiments of, and Dispositions towards them. The Deputies went next day to the Royal Palace to make fresh Intercession with the Regent for the Liberty of their Brethren; but his Royal Highness returned much the same Answer to them as they had the day before, whereupon the Parliament shut up their Tribunals, and left off decreeing Justice. Mean time the King's Council were always in Motion at the Louvre, and at the Royal Palace, but could not obtain a satisfactory Answer; and on the 5th of September the Marquis d'Essiat, Master of the Horse to the Duke Regent, gave the Company notice on the part of his Royal Highness, to open the Courts again, and to continue the Sessions, assuring them, that an Answer should shortly be returned to their late Instances.

Mean time the Rumor of the Violence us'd to the President and the Counsellors that had been apprehended, put a great many People out of Temper: These Exiles were consider'd as Martyrs to the public Liberty, and every Man made their Case his own. Several Parliaments seem'd inclinable to support that of Paris. The358 Parliament of Bretagne discover'd more Zeal than any other, and wrote a fine Letter to the Parliament of Paris, offering to join with them in the Demand of the Exiles Liberty; they also wrote another on the same Subject to his Majesty, which they addressed to M. de la Vrilliere Secretary of State.

At the same time a very important Event happened, which took off the Attention of the French, in a great measure, from their own Affairs, and rais'd the Speculation of all Europe. This was the Spanish Expedition to Sicily. To let you fully into the Secret of this Affair, I must go farther back, and give you a general Account of the State of Affairs of Europe in the preceding Year. The Emperor, in pursuance of his Alliances with the Republic of Venice, from whom the Turks had taken a Part of the Morea, was sollicited to declare War against those Infidels. The Pope, on his part, dreading that the Turks should land in Italy, caus'd Instances to be made to his Imperial Majesty to persuade him to the War. The Emperor could not determine with himself for a good while to break with the Turks, for fear lest Spain should take an Advantage of such Rupture, and fall upon his Provinces in Italy. The Pope encourag'd the Emperor, by acquainting him, That the King of Spain had given him his solemn Promise that he would undertake nothing in Italy. He also gave him to understand, That instead of having any reason to be afraid of Spain, he might expect all manner of Assistance from that Crown in the present War; since it had engag'd to send him a powerful Squadron; and that the better to enable him to do this, he (the Pope) had given him leave to raise the Tenths upon the Clergy of Spain.359 These Representations made an Impression upon the Emperor; but the Thing which absolutely determin'd him, was the Treaty of Guaranty, that he had concluded with England, by which that Crown engaged to assist him with its Navy, in case that his Dominions were invaded. He therefore declared War against the Turks, and sent a numerous Army against them, under Command of Prince Eugene of Savoy. The Campaign prov'd very glorious for this Prince. He began it with a Victory near Temeswaer, after which he laid Siege to that Place, and in a very little time reduc'd it. Mean while Spain prepar'd a Naval Armament, under Pretence of sending Succours to the Venetians. But how was all Europe surpriz'd, when it was known that the Prime Minister of Spain, the Cardinal Alberoni, heretofore Chaplain to the Duke de Vendôme, afterwards Agent of Parma at the Court of Madrid, and finally, by the Queen's Favour, promoted to the Summit of Grandeur and Prosperity, had prevail'd on the King of Spain to employ the Sums that were levied upon the Estates of the Clergy, and appropriated for the Support of the Honor of the Christian Name, in the Conquest of Sardinia! The Reduction of it was attended with no great Difficulty, because the Island, in reliance upon the Faith of Treaties, was at that time but indifferently furnish'd with Troops. The Emperor made his Complaints to the Pope, and to France and England as Guaranties of the Neutrality of Italy. These Powers did their utmost to engage the King of Spain to desist from his Pretensions. The Duke Regent order'd the Duke of St. Aignan, Ambassador of France at the Spanish Court, to represent to the King all the360 Inconveniencies into which this War might plunge him; but the Spanish Minister, who rely'd upon the secret Correspondence he had in France, refused all Proposals of an Accommodation, tho' they were so very advantageous to the King of Spain: For it was propos'd to him, that the Emperor should recognize him the lawful Possessor of Spain and the Indies; and moreover, that he should consent to the securing of the Successions of Parma and Placentia to the Queen of Spain's Children; Terms infinitely more advantagious than those that had been granted to him by the Peace of Utrecht, and of which the King, of Spain so earnestly desir'd to see the Confirmation the Year that Lewis XIV. died.

The End of the Third Volume.


An Alphabetical INDEX

Adrian VI. (Pope) his Birth and Parentage 220, 221.
St. Aignan (Duke de) 359.
Aix-la-Chapelle, Relics and Town, 233, &c.
Alberoni Cardinal, 359.
Albert of Bavaria Count of Holland, 130, 131.
Albert (Margrave) of Brandenbourg, his Marriage to the Princess of Courland, 54.
Albert, Margrave of Brandenbourg, Grand Master of the Teutonic Order, his Marriage, and War with Poland, 13.
Alcibiades of Germany, who so call'd, 146.
Altena, t. 231.
Alva, Duke of, his Cruelty and Statue, 168. his Son, 138.
Amsterdam, t. its Foundation and Increase, 130, 131.
Its Description, 132, &c.
Remarks on its Inhabitants, 133, 137.
Anabaptists, their Head, 161.
Anhalt-Dessau (Leopold Prince of) his Valor, 55, 56, 68, 83.
Arnheim, (M. de) 88.
Antwerp, t. 166, &c.
Appel, a Merchant, 322.
Argenson, M. de, 86, 346.
Arm-Chair, consequence of its Refusal, 12, 25.
Asbach, Barons de, 11.
Asfeldt (Abbot of) 306.
Attila, King of the Huns, his Defeat, 343.
Audenard (Battle of) 76, 77.
Augsbourg Confession, 146.
Aumont (Duke of) his different Reception at London by the several Parties, and the burning of his House, 206.
Auverquerque (Veldt-Marshal de) 255.
Baden (Lewis Margrave of) 15, 16, 17.
Balderic of Cleves, Bishop of Utrecht, 221.
Ball, extraordinary given by the Author, 209.
Barcelona Siege rais'd 69.
Barfous (Count de) 8. His Banishment from the Prussian Court, 52.
Bargeman's Daughter, her notable Rise, 9 to 12.
Bar-le-duc, t. 342.
Bartholdi, Prussian Minister, 20, 21, 22.
Bassompierre (Brothers) their History, 85.
Bender, t. 67.
Bensberg, t. 142.
Bergerie, (M. de la) 57.
Berlin, 93, &c. 229. Distance from Koningsberg, 28.
Berry (Duke of) his Character, 185.
Duchess, 186.
Her Character and Favour with the Regent, 287, 288.
Her Kindness for the Count de R----, 301.
Her Death, 302.
Biberstein, (Marshal de) 223.
Bilefeld, t. 161.
Bilinsky, Count de, 17.
Bills, French, 291, 345.
Blamont, M. de, President, 356.
Blankenbourg, Duke of, 114, 116.
Blaspiel, M. Minister, 20.
Bolingbroke (Henry St. John, Lord) his Reception in France, 198, 205, 206.
Borst, the Queen of Prussia's Confessor, 91, 92.
Bose, a Merchant, 322.
Bot, the Architect, 124.
Boufflers, Marshal, 259.
Bourbon, Duke of, 185, 186, 236.
Bourg, Marshal de, 318.
Bouvines Battle, 176.
Brandenburg, Princes of, Apparition presaging their Death, 211.
Brandenbourg Bareith, Margrave of, 54, 103.
Brandenburg, t. 228.
Brantz, General, our Author's Uncle, 18.
Breda, t. 218.
Breslau, t. 243.
Breteuil, Baron de, 266.
Britany (Duke of) his Death, 184.
Discontent of that Province, 347.
Bruges, t. 276.
Brunswic (Ducal Family of) 116.
The City, 118.
Brussells, t. 170.
Bulau Countess, 32.
M. de, Steward, 58.
Burgundy (Charles Duke of) kill'd, 343.
Burgundy (Duke of, afterwards Dauphin) his Character and his Death, 182, 183.
Death and Character of the Dauphiness, 182, 183.
Bydgost Treaty, 14.
Cambray, t. 172.
Its Archbishop, 173.
League, 174.
Cassel, t. 155.
Landgrave's Family, 155.
Chair of State refus'd by the Prince of Orange to the Elector of Brandenbourg, and its Consequence, 12, &c.
Chalons Family, 74.
Chalons-sur-Marne, t. 343.
Chamber of Justice, 289.
Chamillard, M. de, 80.
Charles II. King of Spain, his Death, 21, 26.
Charles V. (Emperor) 13, 257.
Charles VI. (Emperor)
See Election and Coronation.
Charles XII. King of Sweden, Origin and Progress of his War with Poland, 61, to 67.
How he was betray'd by one of his Ministers, 61, 66.
Charolois, (Count de) 186.
Chartres, (Duke de) 185.
Chateau-Thierry, t. 344.
----Cambresis Treaty, 175.
Clarendon, Lord, 252.
Clermont, (Count de) 186.
Colbe (see Wartemberg.)
Coligny, Admiral, 174.
Cologne, (Joseph-Clement Elector of) 164. t. 163, &c.
Archbishops of, 164, &c.
Compiegne, t. 175.
Condé (Princess of) 190.
Conty (Princess of) 191.
(Second Dowager) 191.
(Prince of) 17, 53, 72, 186, 236.
Coronation of the Emperors, 157, &c.
Cough, so dreaded by a Soldier, that he chose rather to be kill'd, 219.
Courland (Duke of) 41.
Dispute about his Guardianship, 102.
His Marriage with the Czar's Niece, and his Death, 103, 104.
----Duchess of, 36, 54.
Court what most contributes to its Lustre, 3.
Craon, Marquiss de, 340.
Culmbach, Princess of, 83.
Custrin, t. 44, 45.
Czar of Muscovy in France, 310, to 315.
Danckleman (Baron de) Prime Minister of Frederic I. King of Prussia, 4.
The Rise of his great Favor, 5.
His Disgrace, 6, 7, 8.
Facts relating to it, 9, 12, 14, 15, 16.
Dankelman M. our Author's Tutor, 81.
Dannebrog Order, 336.
Dauphin of France, his Death and Character, 182.
Delft, t. 128.
Denis (Father) 306.
Denmark, King, his Dispute with the Duke of Holstein, 61, 63, &c.
Desalleurs M. Envoy of France, 26.
Devos, Manufacture for Tapistry, 170.
Dohna, Count de, 33, 111, 148, 159.
Don John of Austria, 172.
Dorerbeck M. Cup-bearer of Prussia, 17.
Dort, t. 129.
Dresden, t. 244.
Dress, a remarkable Conversation about it, between two great Duchesses in France, 186, to 189.
Duliz, a wealthy and generous Jew, 127.
Duplanti, his Adventure after the Battle of Audenarde, 76, 77.
Dusseldorff, t. 141.
Eagle-Black (Order of) in Prussia, its Institution, 29, 30.
Eckeren Battle, 170.
Effiat, Marquis de, 357.
Eisenach, t. 321.
Elbing mortgaged and taken, 18, 19.
Election of the Emperors, 147 to 154.
Eltz, see Mentz.
Emmeric, t. 124.
England (George I. King of) his Behaviour at the News of his Proclamation, 251, 252.
His Departure for England, 253.
A singular Circumstance of his Coronation, 254.
Erasmus, his Statue, 129.
Erfurt, t. 322.
Erlach, M. de, 86.
Ernest, Augustus, Duke of Hanover, 57, 58.
Eugene (Prince of) a Plot to poison him, 81.
His Character of the Prince of Anhalt, 55, 56.
His glorious Campaign in Hungary, 359.
Feldtbruck (Mademoiselle de) see Auverquerque.
Fenelon, M. Archbishop of Cambray, 173.
Ferte (Duchess de la) cheats our Author of some Money, 198.
----Marshal de, 172.
Finck, Count, Ambassador, 71.
Fistula, what call'd in France, 248.
Fitzthum, M. de, 245.
Flemming (James Henry Count de) 62.
How he amus'd the Author, 241, 243, 246.
Florence V. Count of Holland, assassinated, 130.
Fontainbleau, Palace and Court, 197.
France (Lewis XIV. King of) his Character, 182.
His remarkable Wish in favour of the Mercers of Paris, 70.
How he liv'd in his latter days, 182, 195.
His Death, 283, 284.
----(Lewis XV. King of) 184, 185.
His Answer to Madame, when she said she was going to wait on a greater Lord than he, 304.
Francfort on the Main, t. 145.
Francke, Dr. 91, 92.
Frederic-Henry, Prince of Orange his Will, 50.
Frederic-William (King of) see Prussia.
Frederic Elector of Saxony, unfortunate, 227.
Frederic-William the Great, Elector of Brandenbourg, his War with Charles-Gustavus King of Sweden, 14.
His Statue, 55.
Frederic-William, Elector of Brandenbourg, his Wives and Issue, 3, 4.
Frederic Son to the Duke of Alva, as cruel as his Father, 138.
Fuldi, t. 320.
Abbat, 321.
George I. (King) see England.
George II. (King) his Valor in Flanders, 75, 76.
Gersdorf, M. de, Colonel, 107.
Ghent, t. 257.
Golden Fleece, Order instituted, 277.
Gotha, t. 321.
Gravenitz, Count de, 336.
Gripilli, a famous Italian Statuary, 142.
Grumkan, M. 329.
Gueldres taken, 53.
Gustavus-Charles King of Sweden, 14.
Hague, t. 126, &c.
Halberstadt, t. 113.
Hall in Saxony, t. 113.
Ham, t. 124.
Hambourg, t. 230, 249.
Hanau, t. 319.
Some Particularities of the Count and his Court, 320.
Hanover, t. 120.
George (late) Elector, his Concern for the Death of the Queen of Prussia his Sister, 58.
Harlem, t. 137.
Harrach, Count de, 22.
Haye Forest, 342.
Heiden, Baron de, General, 124.
Henning, M. de, Prussian Minister, 148.
Hervorden, t. 124.
Hesse, Princess of, 83.
Hohenzollern, Prince, 159.
Holstein, Prince and Princess, 32, 33, 37, 61.
Honslaerdyke Palace, 139.
St. Hubert, Order of Knights, 335.
Jackel, the King of Prussia's Jester, 90.
James II. how his Queen Dowager was condol'd by the French Court, on the Miscarriage of the Pretender's Expedition to Scotland, 299.
Jesuits Church at Antwerp consum'd, 167.
Jews at the Hague, 127.
At Francfort, 145.
Illgen (Baron de) 108.
His Disservice to the Author, 329.
Imhoff, Minister to the D. of Wolfembuttle, 117.
Insurance-Office from Fire erected at Berlin, 108.
John of Leyden the Taylor, 161.
St. John, an Equestrian Order, 54.
Joseph, Emperor of Germany, his Death, 123.
Joseph-Clement, Elector, see Cologne.
Issouin, t. our Author's Birth-place, 2.
Justice, Bed of, erected in France, 354.
Kamcke (Brothers) their History, 104, 105, 110, 111.
Authors of the Disgrace of the Count de Wartemberg, 105, 106, &c.
Kings of Cologn, Three, 165.
Kinski, Count de, 160.
Knights of St. Lewis, their Poverty, 292.
Their Numbers, 348.
Kniphausen, M. de, Ambassador, 328, 329.
Kolbe, see Wartemberg (John Casimir de Kolbe).
Koningsmark, Countess of, 244.
Kraut, M. Aid de Camp, 79.
L----, Envoy of Prussia at Hambourg, Character of his Lady, and an Account of an Entertainment that he gave the Author, 248 to 251.
Lady of Precious Stones, who so call'd, and why, 279.
A Learned Lady, 221.
Law, John, Projector of the Mississippi Scheme, 354.
League of Cambray, 74.
Leap, a desperate one for a young Lady, 255, 256.
Leck, Lord of ----, 218.
Legitimated Princes of France, 294, &c.
Leopold, Emperor, his Death, 60.
Leipsic, t. 322.
Lewis XIV. and XV. See France.
Leyden, t. 125.
Limbourg Duchy mortgag'd, 7, 8.
Lippe, Count de, 124.
Lion tam'd by a Duke of Brunswic, 119.
Lipstadt, t. 124.
Lisle Siege, 73.
Its Surrender, 81.
Description of the Town, 258, 259.
Longueville Family, 295.
Lorrain (Court of) 338, 339, to 341.
Lottum (Count de) 52, 77, 79, 102.
Loven, Mademoiselle de, 244.
Louvain, t. 256.
Lubomirski, Princess of, 243, 244.
Lowendahl, Marshal, 245.
Luneville, t. 338.
Lutherans and Calvinists, 146.
Luxembourg Garden, 200.
Magdeburg, t. and Duchy, 113, 226, 227.
Maine (Duke and Duchess) 191, 284, 286, 287.
Maintenon, Madam, 284.
Malplaquet (Battle of) 89.
Marlborough (Duke of) his Journey to Berlin, 56.
Bribes a Minister of the King of Sweden, 61, 66.
Marly, t. 181, 183.
Marne, r. 343.
Marsin, Marshal de, 69.
Mastricht, t. 255.
Match-maker, Elector of Brandenburg, a great one, 27.
Meaux, t. 344.
Mechlin, t. 170.
Mecklemburg (Princess of) married to Frederic I. King of Prussia, 86.
Her extravagant Devotion, 91.
Her Answer to the King upon it, 92.
Loses her Senses, 211.
She is sent back to Mecklemburg after the King's Death, 213.
Medicis, Mary de, Queen of France, her Distress, 165, 166, 175.
Mentz, t. and Elector, 331, 332.
Mesmes, M. de, President of the Parliament of Paris, 352.
Metternich, Count de, Ambassador of Prussia, 71, 72, 75, 148.
Minden, t. 123.
Mons, t. 171.
Montluc, John de, 173.
Montmorency, Constable, 174, 176.
Motte (M. de la) see Wynendale.
Munster, t. 161.
Treaty, 162.
Bishop, 163.
Muntzer, Head of the Anabaptists, 161.
Muscovites, Success over the Swedes, 65, to 68.
Nancy, t. 341.
Nassau, Princes of, 218.
Nassau-Orange (Princess of) refuses to give her Daughter to the King of Prussia, 82.
---- (Prince of) drown'd in passing the Moerdyke, 139.
Provisional Settlement made by the Sates General, between him and the King of Prussia, touching King William's Succession, 140.
Nassau-Weilbourg (Count de) 154.
Nautre (le) Gardener, 180.
Nemours, Madame de, Princess of Neufchâtel, 72.
Neufchâtel adjudged to the King of Prussia, 71, 72, 73.
Newport, t. 277, 278.
Nimeguen, t. 125.
Novion de, President, 354.
Orange, Maurice, Prince of, his Daughter, our Author's Grandmother, 2.
Frederic-Henry, Prince of, his Will, 50, 51.
Parliament of Orange, 59.
William, Prince of, his Tomb, 128.
Orange, t. seiz'd by Lewis XIV. 53.
Oranjebaum, t. 113.
Orleans (Duke of) Regent of France, 185.
Beginning of his Regency, 284, &c.
History of it, 345, &c.
Orleans (Madame de) Elizabeth-Charlotte of Bavaria, her Character, 186, 187.
Her Censure of the Duchess of Berry, 188, 189.
What she said to the Author on the Misfortunes of the Queen of England, who was Dowager to James II. 299.
Her Promise of Protection to the Author, and her Non-performance, 300, 301.
Orleans, Maid of, 175.
Osnabrug (Duke of York) Bishop of, his pertinent Remark on Poland, 243.
Ossuna, Duke of, 215.
Palatine (Charles Philip of Neubourg, Elector) 143.
Palatine (Family) 143, &c.
Papenheim, Count de, 150, 158.
Paris, t. 177, 199, 345, &c.
How the Author liv'd there, 176, &c. 210.
Parliament of Paris, its Broils with the Regent, 348, 349, &c.
Peers of France, 293.
Persian Ambassador at Paris, Particulars relating to him, 265, &c.
His Entry at Paris 265.
His Audience of the King, 267.
How he smoak'd his Pipe at the Opera, 269.
Phaltzbourg, t. 338.
Philip II. of Spain, his remarkable Vow, 175.
Philip, V. see Spain
Philip, Margrave of Brandenbourg, his Temper, 60.
Character of his Lady, 60.
His Death, 160.
Pinneberg, Conferences there, 61.
Poland (Intrigues in the Election of its King) 15, to 18.
Its Crown pawn'd to the King of Prussia, 19.
Poland, Augustus II. King of, see Charles XII. K. of Sweden.
Poles (their Character); 241, 242.
Pollnitz, Mademoiselle de, 23, 46, 238, 239, 325, &c.
Pollnitz (Charles-Lewis, Baron de) our Author.
His Extraction, Education, and the History of his Family, 1, 2, &c.
Has an Electoress for his God-mother, 2.
His honourable Intercession with the King of Prussia for his Father-in-law, 45, 46.
His Entrance by that King into the Princes Academy, 52.
His Service in Flanders as a Voluntier, 75.
Adventure that he tells after the Battle of Audenarde, 76.
Another at the Siege of Lisle, 79.
His Return to Berlin, 81.
His Advancement to the Post of Gentleman of the Bed-chamber, 88.
His mistaken Conceit, that he was in great Favor, 89.
The King's Reprimand of him and Reconcilement, 90, 91.
His Departure from Berlin, in order to travel abroad upon some harsh Words said to him by the King, 111, 112, 113.
How he lost all his Money by Play at Hanover, and prevail'd on his Mother for more, 122.
His Loss of his Mother, 154.
His Introduction to and Reception by the King of France and the Princes, 192, 193.
His dangerous Illness at Paris, 199.
The Acquaintance he made with an Actress in Luxemburg Garden, and the Consequences of that Amour, 200, 204.
Tempted to turn Catholic, 205.
What Lewis XIV. said of him, 205.
He gives an extraordinary Ball, 209.
He falls in Love with Mademoiselle de S----, 214.
Consequences of it, 215, 235.
His unlucky Tumble into a Heap of Dung, 215.
Oblig'd by his extravagant Charges to go home, 215, 217.
His sudden Return to Paris, 217.
His Amour with the Countess of Wartemberg, 224, 225.
His Journey to and Reception at Berlin, 228, 229.
His return back again to Paris, 235.
He falls in Love with Madame de P----, 235.
He renews his Courtship to Madame de S----, 235-236.
His Return again to Berlin, 237.
Remarks on his Distemper, 238.
His Reception at the Court of Hanover, 238.
And at Berlin, 240.
How he was amus'd by the Count de Flemming, 241, 245, 246.
His ill Success at the Court of Poland, 241, 242, 245.
His Arrest at Dresden, and how he obtain'd his Liberty, 246.
How he broke his Leg, and was troubled with a Fistula, 247.
His merry Description of a House and Family at Hambourg, and of an Entertainment he had there, 249, 250.
His Return once more to Paris, 259.
How he fell in love with Madam de R----, 260, 270, to 275.
The Consequences of it, 262, 270 to 275, &c.
He sollicits Employment in France, 263, &c.
An Adventure that happen'd to him at a Ball, 270, 271.
His Quarrel with the Marquis de V----, 273.
His Extravagance, his Arrest, and how he got out of the Scrape, 274, 275.
His Pension of 2000 Livres, 275.
His Disputes with his Cousin, 276.
His Loss of his Pension and Sollicitation to regain it, 291, 292.
His Present from Madame, 292.
Who made him large Promises, but did nothing for him, 301, 304.
His melancholy Situation, 305.
His embracing the Popish Religion, 306.
His Arrest for Debt, 307.
His Intrigue with an Old Woman, 308, 309.
His unsuccessful Proposal of a Scheme to the Regent, 316.
His Departure from Paris, 316.
His Return to Berlin, and Reception by the King of Prussia, 323, 324, to 327.
His Reversion of the next Gentleman of the Bed-Chamber's Pension that fell, 328.
The Occasion of his Disgrace, 329, 330.
His precipitate Retreat from Berlin, 331.
Oblig'd by his Fistula to go to Paris, 337, 338, 345.
The Operation there perform'd on him, 345.
Potzdam, t. 40.
Pretender's Miscarriage in his Expedition to Scotland, 296, 297.
A flagrant Instance of his Bigotry, 297.
His Return to France, 298.
Princes of the Blood, in France, Contention betwixt them, 294, &c.
Princess (Madame la) 190.
Printz, M. de, 111, 212, 240.
Prussia (Frederic I. King of) his Coronation, 28, to 38.
His Entry to Konigsberg, 38.
His Reception by the Magistrates of Dantzic when he came on their Territories, 39.
His Entry at Berlin, 41.
His Pretensions to the Succession of William III. King of England, 49, 50.
His Measures for justifying them, 51.
His Reception at the Hague, 51.
His Protection to the Refugees from Orange, 53.
His Sovereignty of Neufchâtel recogniz'd, 71, &c.
Negociations for his 2d Marriage, 82, 83.
His Choice of the Princess of Mecklemburg, 84.
The new Queen's Arrival, 86, 87.
Their Marriage 86.
His Care of his Subjects that were afflicted with the Plague, 93.
His Domestic Attendance, 98, &c.
His Tour to the Hague, 138.
The Magnanimity with which he receiv'd the News of the Prince of Orange's Death, 140.
He sickens of a Fright and dies, 210, 211, 212.
Prussia (Frederic-William King of) his Diversion when he was Prince Royal, 41, 42.
His Marriage to the Elector of Hanover's Daughter, and her Character, 70.
What Lewis XIV. said when he saw her Wedding-Apparel, 70.
Her Entry at Berlin, 70, 71.
Her Delivery of a Prince, his Baptism as Prince of Orange, and his Death, 74, 75.
His Accession to the Crown, 212.
The Alteration he made at his Court, 213.
Prussia (Queen of) the first Wife of Frederic I. and Sister to the late Elector of Hanover, her Death, 56.
Honors done to her Corpse, 58, 59.
Her Character, 4, 59, 60.
Prussia (Queen of) second Wife to Frederic I. See Mecklemburg, Princess of.
Prussia, (Court of) 3, to 113.
Prussia, Duchy, 13.
Prussia, particular Reason of its being erected into a Kingdom, 11, 12, 29.
And Negociations for that purpose, 14, &c. 25.
Owing to a Blunder, 21, 22, 25.
Puisieux, M. de, Ambassador of France, 72, 73.
Pultowa, Battle of, 67, 68.
Quedlimbourg Abbey, 18.
St. Quintin, t. 174.
Battle, ibid.
Radziowski, Cardinal, 16.
Ramellies Battle, its Consequences, 68, 169.
Refugees, French, their Reception at Berlin, 53, 93, 94.
Their Gratitude, 94.
Regenstein, Counts of, 114;
Reitwitz, M. de, Polish Envoy, 19.
Religions, a Multiplicity of 'em, where, 232.
Rhinberg taken, 53.
Richlieu, Cardinal, 165, 175.
Rohan, Cardinal de, 319.
Rothenbourg (Count de) amuses the Author, 316, 317.
Rotterdam, t. 129.
Ryswic Treaty, 20.
St. Denys, t. 176.
----Quintin, t. 174.
Saltzdahl, t. 115, &c.
Saverne, t. 338.
Saxony, Frederic-Augustus, Elector of, 17.
Electoral Prince of, 269.
Saxony (Maurice Count of) his Character and Marriage, 244.
The Electorate ruin'd, 66.
Schalifer, Baron de, 82.
Schenk, t. 125.
Schmettau, M. de, the Minister, 16, 20, 51, 75.
Schonborn, Count Lotharius-Francis de, Elector of Mentz, 147.
Schuurman (Ann Mary) 221.
Seaux Castle, 192.
Seckingen, Baron de, 144.
Senlis, t. 176.
Shift, (seamless) said to be the Virgin Mary's, 234.
Shrewsbury (Duke of) sent to Paris, 206.
Characters of the Duke and Duchess, 206, 207.
The King's Complaisance to her, 207, 208.
Sigismund I. King of Poland, his War with the Margrave of Brandenbourg, 13.
Simmeren, Princess de, 8.
Snuff, the Queen of Prussia reprimanded by the King for taking it, 35.
Sobieski (John King of Poland) his Death, 15.
His Son James, 63.
Sobieski, Princess, 145.
Sophia, Princess of Hanover, her Character, 120.
Death, 251.
Spanheim, M. Prussian Ambassador, 26, 50, 74.
Spanish Succession, Quarrel about it, 47, 48, &c. 60.
Stanhope, Mr. 51.
Stanislaus (King) proclaim'd, 61, 64.
Crown'd 65.
Steinbock, Count de, 232
Stoffius (M. de) Treasurer of the Order of the Black Eagle, 107.
Strasbourg, t. 317.
Stutgard, t. 333.
Sultzbach (Hereditary Prince of) 144.
Sweden (see Charles XII. King of) the present King's Marriage, 6, 155.
Synod of Dort, 130.
Tapistry Manufacture, 170.
Teschen (Princess of) 243, 244.
Tesse, Marshal de, 69, 310, 311.
Tilly, Count, 123.
Tobianski, Count de, 38.
Tonningen, t. 63.
Torcy, M. de, 268.
Toul, t. 342.
Tour, M. 50.
Tour Taxis, Prince of, 154.
Treaty of Munster, 162.
Trianon Palace, 180.
Tromp, Martin, the Dutch Admiral, his Tomb, 128.
Troops, Prussian, characteris'd, 55, 56, 68, 83.
Turenne, Marshal, 172, 279.
Turin Siege rais'd, 68.
Valenciennes, t. 172.
Vendosme, Duke of 76, 77.
Versailles, t. 177, &c. to 197.
Vienna Siege, 21.
Villars (Marshal de) 236.
Villeroy, Marshal de, 171, 303.
Vilvorde Canal, 170.
Voisin, M. de, Chancellor, 263, 264.
Vrilliere, M. de, Secretary, 358.
Utrecht, t. 220. Treaty, 223.
Warsaw, t. 241, &c.
Wartemberg (John Casimir de Colbe) Count de, Prime Minister to Frederic I. King of Prussia; his History, 8, 17, 24.
Cabal against him, 42.
His Revenge, 44.
His Disgrace, 104, 109, 111.
His Death at Francfort, and how he was lamented by the King of Prussia, 223.
Wartemberg (Countess de) her mean Extraction, great Fortune, 9, 10, &c.
Some Particulars relating to her Conduct 23, 24, 26, 27.
Her Retirement to Utrecht, 223, &c.
Consequence of her Intrigue with the Chevalier de B----, 224, 225.
Her Behaviour at Paris, 279, &c.
Departure for Holland, ib.
Wartensleben (Marshal de) 53.
Web (General) see Wynendale.
Werf, Vander, a Dutch Painter, 142.
Wesel, t. 124.
Wesen (Count de) his Marriage to our Author's Mother, 26, 27.
His Preferment, 28.
His Engagement in a Cabal against the Count de Wartemberg, 42.
How it prov'd his Ruin, 43, &c.
His Death, 88.
Westphalia Treaty, 162.
Wildstat, t. 334.
William III, King of England, by whom prevail'd on to call the illustrious House of Hanover to the Succession, 23, 24.
Dispute about the Succession to his own Estate as Prince of Orange, 49, 50.
His Will, 51.
Winter, very cold, 88.
Wirtemberg, (Duke of) his Family and Court, 334, &c. 337.
Witgenstein (Count de) his Promotion and Disgrace, 47, 59, 90, 107.
His Release, 111.
Wolfembuttle, t. 114.
Character of the Duke Anthony-Ulric, 115.
Wolfersdorff, 109.
Woman, in white, an Apparition, 211.
Wynendale, M. de la Motte's Defeat there by General Web, 80.
Ximenes, Cardinal, 221.
Ypres, t. 278, 279.
Zeits, Duchess of, 83.
Zell, Dorothy, Duchess-Dowager of, to whom remarried, 3.
Zell, t. 120.
Zinzendorf, Count de, 159.


[1] See Vol. I. of the Letters, pag. 16. a remarkable Passage relating to this Fact, together with this Minister's Character and Death.

[2] See Vol. I. of the Memoirs, p. 29. some Particulars concerning this Order, which are not here.

[3] See Vol. I. p. 34. for the Description of this Town, which is the common Garrison of the first Battalion of the tall Grenadiers, so much talk'd of in Europe.

[4] See the Account of this House Vol. I. p. 49.

[5] See for the present State of this Place, Vol. II. p. 347, 361.

[6] See the Vol. above mention'd, p. 362.

[7] See Vol. I. p. 28.

[8] See the compleat Description of this Monument, and of its Erection, Vol. I. p. 9.

[9] See Vol. I. p. 196, where there are curious Observations upon this City and its Inhabitants.

[10] See Vol. I. p. 35.

[11] See Vol. I. p. 3. &c. where this capital City of the Electorate of Brandenburg is describ'd with wonderful Exactness and Regularity.

[12] See also with regard to this Palace, Vol. I. p. 10.

[13] See also the same Vol. p. 31. for the Nature of the Pleasures of the City and Court.

[14] See Vol. I. p. 18. where there is a more particular Description of this Edifice.

[15] See Vol. I. p. 33, &c. the Temper of the present King, and his Way of Living.

[16] See Vol. I. p. 3.

[17] See Vol. I. p. 3.

[18] See Vol. I. p. 82, 85, 377, 380.

[19] See Vol. I. p. 48, 80.

[20] See Vol. I. p. 75.

[21] See Vol. I. p. 69, 75.

[22] See the Description and State of this Town, Vol. I. p. 61,68. where you will find a pleasant Remark upon the French that swarm'd there in the Time of the last Duchess, who was a French Lady of the Olbreuse Family.

[23] See Vol. I. p. 63, 68, &c.

[24] See Vol. II. p. 365, 370.

[25] See Vol. II. p. 396.

[26] See Vol. II. p. 398.

[27] See Vol. II. p. 400, 425.

[28] See Vol. II. p. 426.

[29] See Vol. II. p. 317, 371.

[30] They who are well acquainted with Holland know that the Author could only draw this Character for the very Dregs of the People.

[31] See Vol. II. p. 394.

[32] See Vol. II. p. 358. where there's a curious Inventory of the Statues and Paintings of the greatest Masters that are all up and down the Castle of Dusseldorff.

[33] See Vol. II. p. 357.

[34] See Vol. I. p. 340.

[35] See Vol. II. p. 332, 336.

[36] See Vol. II. p. 317.

[37] See Vol. II. p. 298, 317.

[38] See Vol. II. p. 296.

[39] See Vol. II. p. 291, 296.

[40] See Vol. II. p. 189, to 290.

[41] See Vol. II. p. 184, 188.

[42] That is a Spectre dress'd in white, which they say appears in the Palace of the Princes of Brandenburg, a little before the Death of any one of the Family.

[43] See Vol. II. p. 367, &c.

[44] See Vol. I. p. 51, &c.

[45] See Vol. I. p. 57, &c.

[46] See Vol. II. p. 327.

[47] See Vol. I. p. 87, 157, &c.

[48] See Vol. II. p. 319, 329. The dangerous Adventure of the Marshal d'Auverquerque, for Mademoiselle de Feltbruck, is related there with Circumstances that are different from the Account given of it by the Author, in this and the following Page.

[49] See Vol. II. p. 319.

[50] See Vol. II. p. 310, 317.

[51] See Vol. II. p. 296, 315.

[52] See Vol. II. p. 312.

[53] See Vol. II. p. 313.

[54] See Vol. II. p. 409, 410.

[55] That our Reader may the better understand this, it must be observ'd that the Custom of France and that of England are, in this respect, very different: For tho' in England a Baron is as much a Peer as a Duke, yet in France none but the Dukes, and not all of them, are honor'd with the Dignity of Peers: But these modern Peers are very different from the ancient Peers of France, who were six Spiritual and six Temporal, viz. three Dukes and three Earls or Counts of each State. The former are still in Being, namely, the Duke Archbishop of Rheims, the Duke and Bishop of Laon, the Duke and Bishop of Langres, the Count Bishop of Beauvais, the Count Bishop of Chalons, and the Count Bishop of Noyon; but the Temporal, who were Sovereign Princes, have been extinct a long time.

[56] The Confession of Faith, as he deliver'd it some time after to the Cardinal —— at Rome, is inserted at the end of Vol. IV. by way of Appendix.

[57] See Vol. I. p. 305, &c.

[58] See Vol. I. p. 360.

[59] See Vol. I. p. 360.

[60] See Vol. I. p. 361.

[61] See Vol. I. p. 183.

[62] See Vol. I. p. 178.

[63] See Vol. I. p. 178.

[64] See Vol. I. p. 83.

[65] See Vol. II. p. 353.

[66] See Vol. I. p. 279.


Transcriber's Amendments

Transcriber's Note: Blank pages have been deleted. On pages that remain, some unnecessary page numbers may have been deleted when they fall in the middle of lists. Footnotes have been moved to the end of the work. We have rendered consistent on a per-word-pair basis the hyphenation or spacing of such pairs when repeated in the same grammatical context. The publisher's inadvertent omissions of important punctuation have been corrected.

The following list indicates any additional changes. The page number represents that of the original publication and applies in this etext except for footnotes since they have been moved.

Page          Change

 13  who, together with his Desendants[Descendents] shou'd perform
 35  could not have aquitted[acquitted] itself better.
 78  twenty-six Battallions[Battalions] and seventy-six Squadrons
 97  Acceptance, gave him this Cabinet and a Yatch[Yatcht]
105  Lethargy of his Temperament not permiting[permitting]
125  but he had not the Fortune to succeeed[succeed].
162  humbled it in in[del 2nd in] 1661, and since
180  kneel'd leaning on the same Ballustrade[Balustrade] that the
182  Honor of being with her in private assurr'd[assur'd] me,
196  kneel'd leaning on the same Ballustrade[Balustrade] that the
197  [41] See Vol. II. [_p._] 184, 188.
220  to one of the seven Provinces, wherof[whereof] it is
228  had not refus'd an advantagious[advantageous] Capitulation,
240  proceeded so far, that she hindred[hinder'd] me
247  having still in View the getting some Establimment[Establishment]
272  therefore she chose to to[del 2nd to] take a Hack
281  a folish[foolish] one. B—— was not to be seen
288  The Duchess of of[del 2nd of] Berry wanted also to be stil'd
304  for entring into the Service to be disheartned[disheartened],
313  and the Czar answer'd the Princeis[Princess] in
339  and richly furnish'd. The first Antichamber[Anti-chamber] is a
342  ever after, tho' Nancy was evacuted[evacuated]
356  Share in what pass'd the Day preceeding[preceding]
Index:  Has an Electoress for his God-mother, {?}[2].
Index:  Brunswik[Brunswic] (Ducal Family of) 116.
Index:  Brussells[Brussels], t. 170.
Index:  Danckelman[Dankelman] M. our Author's Tutor, 81.
Index:  His Entry to Koningsberg[Konigsberg], 38.
Start of text.