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Title: Histories of two hundred and fifty-one divisions of the German army which participated in the war (1914-1918)

Author: United States. War Department. General Staff

Release date: September 24, 2017 [eBook #55620]

Language: English

Credits: Produced by Richard Tonsing and the Online Distributed
Proofreading Team at http://www.pgdp.net (This file was
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*** START OF THE PROJECT GUTENBERG EBOOK HISTORIES OF TWO HUNDRED AND FIFTY-ONE DIVISIONS OF THE GERMAN ARMY WHICH PARTICIPATED IN THE WAR (1914-1918) ***

Transcriber's Note:

The cover image was created by the transcriber and is placed in the public domain.

HISTORIES
OF
TWO HUNDRED AND FIFTY-ONE DIVISIONS OF THE GERMAN ARMY WHICH PARTICIPATED IN THE WAR (1914-1918)
COMPILED FROM RECORDS OF INTELLIGENCE SECTION OF THE GENERAL STAFF, AMERICAN EXPEDITIONARY FORCES, AT GENERAL HEADQUARTERS : : CHAUMONT, FRANCE : : 1919

UNITED STATES OF AMERICA WAR OFFICE
WASHINGTON
GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE
1920
War Department
Document No. 905
Office of The Adjutant General
ADDITIONAL COPIES
OF THIS PUBLICATION MAY BE PROCURED FROM THE SUPERINTENDENT OF DOCUMENTS GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE WASHINGTON, D. C.
AT
60 CENTS PER COPY

3

CONTENTS.

  Page.
Introduction 7
Alpine Corps 8
Bavarian Cavalry Division 12
Bavarian Ersatz Division 13
Jaeger Division 16
1st Guard Division 18
1st Guard Reserve Division 22
Guard Ersatz Division 26
Guard Cavalry Division 29
1st Division 30
1st Reserve Division 33
1st Landwehr Division 36
1st Bavarian Division 39
1st Bavarian Reserve Division 42
1st Bavarian Landwehr Division 45
1st Cavalry Division 47
1st Naval Division 48
2d Guard Division 50
2d Guard Reserve Division 55
2d Division 59
2d Landwehr Division 62
2d Bavarian Division 64
2d Bavarian Landwehr Division 68
2d Cavalry Division 69
2d Naval Division 70
3d Guard Division 72
3d Division 76
3d Landwehr Division 78
3d Bavarian Division 80
3d Reserve Division 83
3d Naval Division 86
4th Guard Division 88
4th Division 92
4th Ersatz Division 96
4th Landwehr Division 99
4th Bavarian Division 101
4th Cavalry Division 104
5th Guard Division 105
5th Division 108
5th Reserve Division 112
5th Ersatz Division 115
5th Landwehr Division 117
5th Bavarian Division 120
5th Bavarian Reserve Division 123
5th Cavalry Division 126
6th Division 127
6th Reserve Division 131
6th Bavarian Division 134
6th Bavarian Reserve Division 138
6th Bavarian Landwehr Division 142
6th Cavalry Division 144
7th Division 145
7th Reserve Division 149
7th Landwehr Division 153
7th Cavalry Division 156
8th Division 157
8th Landwehr Division 160
8th Bavarian Reserve Division 162
8th Cavalry Division 166
9th Division 167
9th Reserve Division 171
9th Landwehr Division 174
9th Bavarian Reserve Division 176
9th Cavalry Division 179
10th Division 180
10th Reserve Division 184
10th Ersatz Division 188
10th Landwehr Division 191
10th Bavarian Division 194
11th Division 197
11th Reserve Division 201
11th Landwehr Division 204
11th Bavarian Division 206
12th Division 211
12th Reserve Division 215
12th Landwehr Division 219
12th Bavarian Division 222
13th Division 225
13th Reserve Division 229
13th Landwehr Division 233
14th Division 236
14th Reserve Division 240
14th Landwehr Division 244
14th Bavarian Division 246
15th Division 249
15th Reserve Division 254
15th Landwehr Division 258
15th Bavarian Division 260
16th Division 262
16th Reserve Division 266
16th Landwehr Division 271
16th Bavarian Division 273
17th Division 275
17th Reserve Division 279
17th Landwehr Division 283
18th Division 285
18th Reserve Division 289
18th Landwehr Division 293
19th Division 295
19th Reserve Division 299
19th Ersatz Division 303
19th Landwehr Division 306
20th Division 308
20th Landwehr Division 312
21st Division 314
21st Reserve Division 318
21st Landwehr Division 322
22d Division 324
22d Reserve Division 327
22d Landwehr Division 332
23d Division 333
23d Reserve Division 337
23d Landwehr Division 341
24th Division 343
24th Reserve Division 347
24th Landwehr Division 350
25th Division 351
25th Reserve Division 355
25th Landwehr Division 359
26th Division 361
26th Reserve Division 365
26th Landwehr Division 369
27th Division 370
28th Division 374
28th Reserve Division 378
29th Division 382
29th Landwehr Division 386
30th Division 388
30th Bavarian Reserve Division 392
31st Division 395
32d Division 399
33d Division 402
33d Reserve Division 405
34th Division 409
35th Division 413
35th Reserve Division 416
36th Division 418
36th Reserve Division 422
37th Division 425
38th Division 429
38th Landwehr Division 433
39th Division 436
39th Bavarian Reserve Division 440
40th Division 442
41st Division 446
42d Division 451
43d Reserve Division 454
44th Reserve Division 458
44th Landwehr Division 462
45th Reserve Division 464
45th Landwehr Division 468
46th Reserve Division 469
46th Landwehr Division 473
47th Reserve Division 474
47th Landwehr Division 477
48th Reserve Division 479
48th Landwehr Division 483
49th Reserve Division 485
50th Division 489
50th Reserve Division 493
51st Reserve Division 497
52d Division 500
52d Reserve Division 504
53d Reserve Division 507
54th Division 511
54th Reserve Division 514
56th Division 517
58th Division 521
75th Reserve Division 525
76th Reserve Division 528
77th Reserve Division 531
78th Reserve Division 534
79th Reserve Division 537
80th Reserve Division 541
81st Reserve Division 544
82d Reserve Division 547
83d Division 550
84th Division 554
85th Landwehr Division 558
86th Division 560
87th Division 563
88th Division 566
89th Division 569
91st Division 571
92d Division 573
93d Division 575
94th Division 577
95th Division 579
96th Division 580
101st Division 582
103d Division 584
105th Division 589
107th Division 592
108th Division 595
109th Division 598
111th Division 600
113th Division 603
115th Division 606
117th Division 609
119th Division 612
121st Division 616
123d Division 620
183d Division 623
185th Division 627
187th Division 630
192d Division 633
195th Division 636
197th Division 639
199th Division 642
200th Division 645
201st Division 648
202d Division 651
203d Division 654
204th Division 657
205th Division 660
206th Division 662
207th Division 665
208th Division 668
211th Division 671
212th Division 674
213th Division 676
214th Division 679
215th Division 682
216th Division 684
217th Division 687
218th Division 689
219th Division 691
220th Division 693
221st Division 696
222d Division 699
223d Division 702
224th Division 705
225th Division 707
226th Division 710
227th Division 712
228th Division 715
231st Division 717
232d Division 719
233d Division 721
234th Division 723
235th Division 725
236th Division 727
237th Division 729
238th Division 731
239th Division 733
240th Division 735
241st Division 737
242d Division 739
243d Division 741
255th Division 744
301st Division 746
302d Division 748
7

INTRODUCTION.

The following pages contain the record of the organization and service of the 251 divisions of the German Army during the years 1914, 1915, 1916, 1917, and 1918, or during as many of these years as they existed—for a number of them were created after the war had started. The record of each has been known as a “divisional history.”

The history of an enemy division is a summary of all the information obtained from all sources. It includes the latest composition—that is, the regiments and other units that make up the division; a record of its past engagements; its recruitment and racial features; commanders; present strength; and morale. On a basis of these factors the division’s fighting quality is rated on a standard of classes adopted by General Headquarters and noted in the history. The data is collected and filed daily at various troop headquarters and eventually in the Enemy Order of Battle subsection of the General Staff, Intelligence Section at the General Headquarters. The information comes chiefly from the front-line troops, resulting from their observation, reconnaissance, and the interrogation of the prisoners they take. This evidence is often fragmentary and inconclusive, being gathered as more or less disassociated items, here and there along the whole front. But when it is consolidated and collated it becomes of great value and warrants deductions which may be depended upon.

Prisoners’ statements and captured documents are the source of almost all the information contained in a divisional history. The outline of the past engagements of a division is known from the Battle-Order records. Prisoners add to this specific account of successes, citations, failures, internal disturbance, etc. The divisional composition is established by prisoners, and in the case of the smaller divisional units from addresses on captured letters. The effective strength is deduced from prisoners’ stories of recent losses incurred and drafts of new men arriving. In estimating the quality of a division the Intelligence Section considers principally the conditions under which the enemy command has used it in previous military operations.

All this information is kept posted up to date so that a history of present value can be written without delay and dispatched to our front-line troops opposite whom a new or additional enemy unit has appeared or is about to appear.

The use to our troops of these histories is obvious. Much of the information contained is of direct value to our commanders. The strength, morale, and fighting qualities of the opposing divisions are, of course, an important factor in our plans and operations. Other items, such as the names of the enemy commanders, assist the examining officer in checking the veracity and accuracy of prisoners’ statements. It has been often observed that the more the intelligence officer knows or appears to know of the prisoner’s organization the better results he obtains from his questions. The uses to which information of the enemy may be put have proved so various and unexpected that the principle is established that no fact about the enemy is too unimportant to be recorded.

In preparing this set of Histories of German Divisions the histories published by French General Headquarters have been used for the years prior to 1918. For the last year of the war the histories were written by the Second Section of the General Staff, General Headquarters, A. E. F., from the American records. These included all information from American sources and also that which was received from Allied armies.

8

Alpine Corps.

COMPOSITION.

1915 1916 1917 1918
Brigade. Regiment. Brigade. Regiment. Brigade. Regiment. Brigade. Regiment.
Infantry. 1 Bav. Jag. 1 Bav. Jag. 1 Bav. Jag. Body Inf. 1 Bav. Jag. Body Inf. 1 Bav. Jag. Body Inf.
    Body Inf.   1 Bav. Jag.   1 Bav. Jag.   1 Bav. Jag.
  2 Jag. 2 Jag. 2 Jag. 2 Jag.   2 Jag.   2 Jag.
    3 Jag.   3 Jag.        
Cavalry.       3 Sqn. 4 Bav. Light Cav. Rgt.
Artillery. 203 F. A. Rgt. 2 Mountain F. A. Abt. Detch. of the 187, 203, and 204 F. A. Rgts. Art. Command: 7 Art Command:
       203 F. A. Rgt. (1 Abt.)  204 F. A. Rgt.
       6 Mountain A. Abt.  1 Abt. 1 Bav. Res. Ft. A. Rgt.
         6th Mountain Art. Abt. (Staff and 1, 2, and 17 Btries.).
         1401 Light Am. Col.
         1402 Light Am. Col.
         1403 Light Am. Col.
Engineers and   102 Pion. Co. Pion. Btn.: 9 Bav. Pion. Btn.:
    105 Pion. Co.  102 Pion. Co.  102 Pion. Co.
    106 Pion. Co.  283 Pion. Co.  283 Pion. Co.
    175 Mountain T. M. Co.  175 T. M. Co.  175 Mountain T. M. Co.
       204 Bav. T. M. Co.  102 Searchlight Section.
       102 Bav. Searchlight Section. 622 Signal Command:
       622 Tel. Detch.  622 Tel. Detch.
       88 Div. Wireless Detch.  133 Bav. Wireless Detch.
Medical and Veterinary.     201 Ambulance Co. 201 Ambulance Co.
      239 Ambulance Co. 239 Ambulance Co.
      202 Field Hospital. 201 Field Hospital.
      203 Field Hospital. 44 Bav. Field Hospital.
      18 Bav. Field Hospital. 18 Bav. Field Hospital.
      Vet. Hospital.  
Transport.     444 M. T. Col. 695 Bav. M. T. Col.
      695 M. T. Col.  
      790 M. T. Col.  
Odd units. 201 Mountain M. G. Detch. 201 Mountain M. G. Detch.    
  202 Mountain M. G. Detch. 202 Mountain M. G. Detch.    
  205 Mountain M. G. Detch. 205 Mountain M. G. Detch.    
  209 Mountain M. G. Detch. 209 Mountain M. G. Detch.    
Attached.   Cyclist Btn. (dissolved in June).    
10

HISTORY.

1915.

The Alpine Corps was formed in May, 1915.

Italy.

1. At the end of May, 1915, it was sent by way of Innsbruck to the Trentino, where it remained until October 16 (vicinity of Campitello). It took part in several smaller actions (particularly on Sept. 24).

France.

2. On October 17 it left Bozen and went to France by way of Innsbruck, Neu-Ulm, Stuttgart, Deux-Ponts, and detrained at Laonnois on the Mezieres-Rethel line on October 19.

3. It remained in this area until October 25. At that time it was transferred to Serbia by way of Mezieres, Germershein, Augsburg, Munich, Vienna, Budapest, Temesvar. It detrained at Weisskirchen on October 29.

Serbia.

4. The Alpine Corps advanced in Serbia by way of Kragujevac and Kraljevo as far as Novipasar (near the Montenegrin frontier); from that place to Mitrovica. Elements of the Alpine Corps remained south of Uskub until the end of March, 1916.

1916.

France.

1. On March 21, 1916, the Alpine Corps was taken to Hungary by way of Belgrade, and then to France. Itinerary: Budapest, Breslau, Dresden, Leipzig, Cologne, Aix-la-Chapelle, Liege, Charleville.

2. It went into line on the front east of Rheims (the Leib Regiment at Cernay) on April 1.

Verdun.

3. Relieved at the beginning of May, it went to rest in the vicinity of Charleville. About May 30 it went to the Spincourt area by way of Sedan. At the beginning of June it went into action at Verdun north of the Vaux Fort, northeast of Fleury, and took part in the attacks launched in this sector during the month of June (attack of June 23 upon Thiaumont).

4. After reorganization, at the end of June or the beginning of July, the Alpine Corps came back into line near Fleury on July 11.

Argonne.

5. After having lost 71 per cent of its Infantry in the various attacks at Verdun, the Alpine Corps was withdrawn on August 12 and took over the sector Fontaine-aux-Charmes-Vauquois, in the Argonne. The 3d Jaeger Regiment was taken from it and entered into the composition of the 200th Division (Carpathian Corps).

6. In the first half of September the Alpine Corps left the Argonne and entrained for Roumania.

Roumania.

7. At the end of September it went into action in the vicinity of Hermannstadt, then in the vicinity of Brasso. On December 10 it reached Ploesci; it was at Rimnicu-Sarat on the 24th. Upon the stabilization of the Roumanian front it occupied the front of Panciu-Focsani. During the active period in Roumania the Leib Regiment lost heavily.

1917.

1. Relieved northwest of Focsani on April 6, 1917, the Alpine Corps was sent to Hungary, in the vicinity of Karlsburg. After a rest of three weeks it was transferred to the western front. Itinerary: Karlsburg (May 10), Szegdin, Budapest, Vienna, Salzburg, Rosenheim, Munich, Strassburg, Colmar, Neu-Breisach.

Upper Alsace.

2. On June 15 it went into line on the Alsatian front (Rhone-Rhine Canal, Aspach).

3. On July 20 it was withdrawn from the front and sent to rest.

11
Roumania.

4. At the beginning of August it was again sent to Roumania. It took over its old sector near Focsani and received the Russo-Roumanian attacks launched between Briala and Panciu.

Italy.

5. In September it was sent to the Italian front.

Izonzo.

6. On October 24 it attacked on both sides of the Tolmino and took possession of Mont Cucco on the 25th. It rested in November.

Monte Tomba.

7. On November 25 it was engaged at Monte Tomba, and on December 12 on the slopes of Monfenera, with the exception of the 1st Jaeger Regiment, which was in reserve.

8. Relieved between December 15 and December 20, it remained behind the lines until the middle of January, 1918.

RECRUITING.

The Leib Regiment and the 1st Regiment of Jaegers are Bavarian, recruited principally from upper Bavaria. The 2d Regiment of Jaegers is purely Prussian.

VALUE—1917 ESTIMATE.

The discipline and firmness of the commanding officers make the Alpine Corps an elite body, of a genuine combat value.

1918.

Lorraine.

1. In January the Alpine Corps entrained for Alsace (itinerary Salzburg, Munich, Ulm, Friburg, Saverne); then went to rest in the region of Sarreburg.

2. It remained here undergoing training until the 10th of April.

3. It was sent to Flanders, via Metz, Sedan, Namur, and detrained near Lille on the 12th.

Battle of the Lys.

4. The division was engaged northeast of Bailleul from the 14th to the 18th. It then rested east of Lille until the 23d. It reentered the line on the Kemmel-Locre front, where it remained until about the 10th of May, when it was withdrawn, after having suffered heavy losses.

5. It moved then to the Ghent region, where it rested until the end of July. It then rested near Tourcoing until the 8th of August. It entrained at Tourcoing and Tournai on the 8th and went to St. Quentin via Ham.

Battle of Picardy.

6. The division entered line in the Hallu-Fransart-Hattencourt sector north of Roye on the 11th. On the 27th it fell back along the Somme Canal near Bethencourt. It was withdrawn from line the beginning of September.

7. It came back to line almost immediately north of Peronne in the Moislain sector; on the 7th it was thrown back upon Longavesnes-Epehy-Villers-Guislain, where it was withdrawn on the 23d, after losing heavily (861 prisoners).

8. Elements of the Alpine Corps were identified at Walincourt in rear of the front on October 10.

Balkans.

9. Sent to the eastern front, the Alpine Corps reinforced the troops in the Balkans near Nish in October.

VALUE—1918 ESTIMATE.

The Alpine Corps was considered one of the best German units. It showed its worth by retaking the village of Hallu on the 11th of August, and while counterattacking at Moislains on the 2d of September. Nevertheless, the morale was lowered. The Alpine Corps comprised about 3,500 Infantry combatants early in August. It lost about 700 prisoners in August and September.

12

Bavarian Cavalry Division.

COMPOSITION.

1918
Brigade. Regiment.
Cavalry. 1 Bav. Cav. 1 Heavy Reiter.
  4 Bav. Cav. 1 Bav. Ulan.
    2 Bav. Ulan.
  5 Bav. Cav. 1 Bav. Light Cav.
    6 Bav. Light Cav.
Artillery. 5 Bav. Horse Art. Abt.
Engineers and Liaisons. Pion. Detch.
  1 Bav. M. G. Btry.
  300 Bav. T. M. Co.
Attached. Glatz Landst. Inf. Btn. (VI/9).

HISTORY.

1918.

1. The units of this division were used on police duty in the Ukraine and in Roumania in the spring of 1918. A part of the division was serving in the Crimea in the early summer. It continued in that general area through the year.

VALUE.

The division was rated as fourth class.

13

Bavarian Ersatz Division.

COMPOSITION.

1914 1915 1916 1917 1918[1]
Brigade. Regiment. Brigade. Regiment. Brigade. Regiment. Brigade. Regiment. Brigade. Regiment.
Infantry. 3 Bav. Res. 4 Bav. Res. 3 Bav. Res. 4 Bav. Res. 3 Bav. Res. 4 Bav. Res. 3 Bav. Res. 4 Bav. Res. 3 Bav. Res. 18 Bav. Res.
    15 Bav. Res.   15 Bav. Res.   15 Bav. Res.   15 Bav. Res.   4 Bav. Res.
  59 Ldw. 28 Ers. 59 Ldw. 28 Ers. 59 Ldw. 28 Ers.   28 Ers.   15 Bav. Res.
    120 Ldw.   120 Ldw.   81 Ldw.        
Cavalry.     Ers. Cav. Detch. (1 Bav. C. Dist.). 1 Sqn. 6 Bav. Res. Schutz. Cav. Rgt. 1 Sqn. 6 Bav. Res. Cav. Schutzen Rgt.
        1 Bav. C. Dist. Ers. Cav. Abt.  
Artillery.   1 Ers. Abt. F. A. (1 Bav. C. D.).   Art. Command: 19 Bav. Art. Command:
    2 Ers. Btry. 8 Bav. F. A. Rgt.    Bav. Ers. F. A. Rgt.  Bav. Ers. F. A. Rgt.
Engineers and Liaisons.     2 Ldw. Pion. Co. (2 Bav. C. D.). Pion. Btn.: 13 Bav. Pion. Btn.
      3 Ldw. Pion. Co. (3 Bav. C. D.).  4 Bav. Ldw. Pion. Co. 4 Bav. Ldw. Pion. Co.
      1 Bav. Mining Co.  6 Bav. Ldw. Pion. Co. 6 Bav. Ldw. Pion. Co.
      1 Bav. Heavy T. M. Detch.  1 Bav. Mining Co. 5 Bav. Res. Searchlight Section.
         100 Bav. T. M. Co. 100 Bav. T. M. Co.
         5 Bav. Res. Searchlight Section. 551 Bav. Tel. Detch.
         551 Tel. Detch.  
Medical and Veterinary.       9 Bav. Ambulance Co. 9 Bav. Ambulance Co.
        40 Bav. Field Hospital. 40 Bav. Field Hospital.
        41 Bav. Field Hospital. 41 Bav. Field Hospital.
        33 Bav. Vet. Hospital. 33 Bav. Vet. Hospital.
Transport       767 M. T. Col. 767 M. T. Col.

1.  Composition at the time of dissolution.

14

HISTORY.

(Bavaria.)

1914.

The Bavarian Ersatz Division consisted, at the outbreak of the war, of the three mixed Bavarian Ersatz brigades, Nos. 1, 5, 9 (12 battalions), which detrained on August 17 and 18 in the region of Schelestadt. But afterwards this designation indicated a composite division (Benzino Division) formed from the 3d Bavarian Reserve Brigade and the 59th Landwehr Brigade (28th Ersatz, Baden) and the 120th Landwehr Regiment (Wurttemberg).

Vosges.

1. The Benzino Division was first engaged in the Vosges (St. Marie Ridge, St. Die, Laveline) until September.

Haye.

2. After a rest in the Valley of the Bruche, it entrained at the end of September for Mars-la-Tour and reinforced the 3d Bavarian Corps in the St. Mihiel area.

1915.

Woevre.

1. The Benzino Division occupied the area east of St. Mihiel (Spada to Apremont) during the entire year 1915. In November it took the name of Bavarian Ersatz Division.

2. The division rested in Lorraine from December, 1915, to the end of February, 1916.

1916.

At the beginning of February, 1916, the 120th Landwehr Regiment was replaced by a Prussian Regiment, the 81st Landwehr.

Woevre.

1. On February 28, 1916, the Bavarian Ersatz Division took over the sector of Fresnes-en-Woëvre-Ronvaux. It remained there until the end of October, 1916. On October 17, the 4th Bavarian Reserve Regiment left the division temporarily to go to Galicia, to the 199th Division, and came back in November.

Somme.

2. From October 25 to November 15 the Bavarian Ersatz Division took part in the battle of the Somme east of Gueudecourt, with the exception of the 81st Landwehr, which was definitely detached from the division.

3. Transferred to the Aisne, it went into line in the vicinity of Craonne at the end of November.

1917.

Aisne.

1. On the Aisne front, east of Craonne, the Bavarian Ersatz Division received the French offensive of April, and its conduct gained the order “Pour le Mérite” for its general.

2. Relieved at the end of April, it occupied a sector in the Apremont Wood from the middle of May to the end of August.

Ypres.

3. On September 1 it was in Belgium, where it was engaged on both sides of the Ypres-Menin road until September 25. The 3d Battalion of the 4th Bavarian Reserve Regiment was almost destroyed on September 20.

Galicia.

4. At the beginning of October the division was transferred to the eastern front and sent into line southeast of Tarnopol in December.

5. At the end of autumn 1917, the 28th Ersatz Regiment (Baden) was withdrawn from the division and replaced by the 18th Bavarian Reserve. The division was then entirely Bavarian.

15

RECRUITING.

The Bavarian Ersatz Division is recruited from the 1st and 2d Bavarian Corps districts.

VALUE—1917 ESTIMATE.

The Bavarian Ersatz Division is a very mediocre division.

1918.

Verdun.

1. The division held the quiet Verdun sector until July 12, when it was relieved by the 231st Division.

Vesle.

2. It was moved to the Vesle front and on July 25 relieved the 40th Division near Oulchy-le-Chateau. It remained in this sector until August 12, when it was withdrawn and sent to rest in the vicinity of Maubeuge.

Champagne.

3. On September 1 it proceeded to Mauchault and during the first days of September relieved the 88th Division in line near Perthes. It was in the fighting between September 23 and October 3 in Champagne, losing about 2,000 men in that engagement.

4. The division was so reduced in strength that it was dissolved shortly after its retirement from line in October. The 18th Bavarian Reserve Regiment was dissolved and the men drafted to the 15th Bavarian Division. The 15th Bavarian Reserve Regiment was also dissolved.

VALUE—1918 ESTIMATE.

The division was rated as third class. It was used only in defensive sectors during 1918.

16

Jaeger Division.

COMPOSITION.

1917 1918 1919
Brigade. Regiment. Brigade. Regiment. Brigade. Regiment.
Infantry.   11 Jag.     5 Ers. 11 Jag.
    12 Jag.       12 Jag.
    13 Jag.       13 Jag.
Cavalry.     1 Sqn. 10 Drag. Rgt.
      Staff, 2 Ulan Rgt.
      Staff, 8 Bav. Light Cav. Rgt.
Artillery. 203 F. A. Rgt. (Wurtt.) 24 F. A. Rgt. 224 Art. Command:
       24 F. A. Rgt.
       3 Abt. 24 Res. Ft. A. Rgt.
       780 Light Am. Col.
       793 Light Am. Col.
       1,050 Light Am. Col.
Engineers and Liaisons.     422 Pion. Btn.:
       Gd. Pion. Detch. (Casuals).
       5 Pion. Detch. (Casuals).
       9 Pion. Detch. (Casuals).
       174 T. M. Co.
       215 Searchlight Section.
      901 Signal Command:
       805 Tel. Detch.
       901 Tel. Detch.
       48 Wireless Detch.
Medical and Veterinary. 524 Ambulance Co.   241 Ambulance Co.
      34 Field Hospital.
      16 Res. Field Hospital.
      143 Vet. Hospital.
Transport.     670 M. T. Col.
17

HISTORY.

1917.

The Jaeger Division appears to have been formed about November, 1917.

In November and December the Division was engaged on the Italian front at Monte-Tomba. Relieved at the beginning of January, 1918, it was sent to rest.

VALUE—1917 ESTIMATE.

The Jaeger Division is a very good Division.

1918.

1. The division again entrained March 20 and was transported to the area northeast of St. Quentin by way of Strasbourg, Treves, Cologne, Liege, Namur, Charleroi, Maubeuge, Bohain. From there it marched to the region south of Chaulnes and rested three weeks.

Somme.

2. It was in line in the Villers-Bretonneux sector from April 27 to May 19–20. After its withdrawal from line it rested southwest of Guise (Bernot, Hauteville) from 25th to 30th. The division marched toward the front by Ham (May 30) and arrived in the neighborhood of Lassigny on June 7–8.

Oise.

3. The division was engaged near Lassigny (Le Plessier) on June 9 and advanced as far as Elincourt. It was relieved about mid-June.

4. It rested between St. Quentin and Guise for a time, and was then railed to Alsace (near Mulhausen), where it rested during four weeks. It entrained at Mulhausen about July 24–27 and was moved to Liesse (northeast of Laon) on July 30. From there it marched toward the front north of Soissons.

Second Battle of the Marne.

5. The division was engaged at Soissons and Pommiers, then at Bieuxy-Juvigny, from August 2 to 28. It rested for two weeks and returned to line at Gouzaucourt on September 12. Between September 27–30 it was forced to fall back on La Vacquerie and Gonnelieu. It was relieved at the end of the month after suffering very heavy losses.

Cambresis.

6. On October 6–7 the division was reengaged south of Cambrai (Walincourt). It fell back on Briastre by Caudry and on the 15th retired from the front. It rested from October 15 to 22. On the 12th the division is known to have received a reinforcement of 600 men.

7. It was engaged southwest of Le Quesnoy from October 22 to November 1, losing numerous prisoners on the 24th. After a short rest it was again in line at Etreux and south of Le Quesnoy on November 4–5. It retreated by Pont-sur-Sambre on November 6.

VALUE—1918 ESTIMATE.

The division was rated as second class. It was used as an attack division in the Matz offensive, but in general the division was used to replace assault divisions and hold an important sector.

18

1st Guard Division.

COMPOSITION.

1914 1915 1916 1917 1918
Brigade. Regiment. Brigade. Regiment. Brigade. Regiment. Brigade. Regiment. Brigade. Regiment.
Infantry. 1 Gd. 1 Ft. Gd. 1 Gd. 1 Ft. Gd. 1 Gd. 1 Ft. Gd. 1 Gd. 1 Ft. Gd. 1 Gd. 1 Ft.
    3 Ft. Gd.   3 Ft. Gd. (2 Gd.) 2 Ft. Gd.   2 Ft. Gd.   2 Ft.
  2 Gd. 2 Ft. Gd. 2 Gd. 2 Ft. Gd.   4 Ft. Gd.   4 Ft. Gd.   4 Ft.
    4 Ft. Gd.   4 Ft. Gd.            
Cavalry.     Gd. Regt. (Massow): 1st Sqn. Body Gd. Hussar Regt. 3 Sqn. Body Gd. Hus. Rgt.
      1st, 2d, 3d, 4th Sqns. 3d Sqn. Body Gd. Hussar Rgt.  
      Body Gd. Hus. Regt. 2d Sqn. 6th Dragoon Regt.  
      2d Sqn. 6th Drag. Regt.    
Artillery. 1st Gd. Brig.: 1st Gd. Brig.: 1st Gd. Brig.: 1st Gd. Art. Command: 1st Gd. Art. Command:
   1st Gd. Rgt.  1st Gd. Rgt.  1st Gd. Rgt.  1st Gd. Rgt.  1 Gd. F. A. Rgt. (less 4 and 5 Abt.).
   3d Gd. Rgt.  3d Gd. Rgt.  3d Gd. Rgt.    1 Abt. L. Gd. Ft. A. Rgt.
           870 Light Am. Col.
           1099 Light Am. Col.
           1128 Light Am. Col.
Engineers and   1st Gd. Eng. Btn.: 1st Gd. Eng. Btn.: 1st Gd. Eng. Btn.: Gd. Pion. Btn.:
     Field Co. Gd. Pions.  1st Gd. Pion. Co.  5th Gd. Pion. Co.  1 Co. Gd. Pions.
     1st Gd. Pontoon Engs.  1st Gd. T. M. Co.  1st Gd. T. M. Co.  5 Co. Gd. Pions.
     4th Gd. Tel. Detch.  1st Gd. Pontoon Engs.  1st Gd. Pontoon Ens.  23 Searchlight Section.
       1st Gd. Tel. Detch.  1st Gd. Tel. Detch. 1 Gd. Signal Command:
           1 Gd. Tel. Detch.
           45 Wireless Detch.
Medical and Veterinary.       Field Hospital. 1 Ambulance Co.
        1st Ambulance Co. 4 Field Hospital.
        Vet. Hospital. 6 Field Hospital.
          1 Gd. Vet. Hospital.
Transport.       M. T. Col.  
Attached.       35 M. G. Btn.  
        Sharpshooter Co.  
19

HISTORY.

1914.

Belgium.

1. Detrained on the 11th and 12th of August in “Prussian Wallonia,” at Weismes and neighboring stations. Entered Belgium August 13, via Stavelot; crossed the Meuse at Huy on the 18th. The 23d it fought at Fosse and St. Gerard, after having crossed the Sambre at Jemmapes. Fought at Fournaux on the 24th. Was engaged, August 29, between Guise and Vervins (le Sourd, Leme).

Marne.

2. It fought next on the Marne (St. Gond marsh).

3. It was in Artois near Hebuterne the end of September.

Flanders.

4. In November the 1st Bde. was in Flanders (Gheluvelt); the 2d Bde. remained at Hebuterne. From the beginning of the campaign until January 19, 1915, the 3d Ft. Gd. Regt. suffered casualties of 49 officers and 2,707 men.

1915.

Champagne.

1. The beginning of January the 1st Bde. went from Gheluvelt to Champagne.

2. The beginning of February the 2d Bde. rejoined the 1st.

3. In March the division went to Alsace, where the whole Guard Corps was brought together again.

Russia.

4. In April the division went to Russia (Galicia), detraining at Bochnia the 22d.

5. It fought at Tarnow and Krasnoslaw, skirted Brest-Litowsk, and pushed on to Krobin. The losses of the 3d Ft. Gd. Regt. in Russia (May 15-Aug. 31) were 17 officers and 2,116 men. The 1st Ft. Gd. Regt. lost 53 officers and 3,005 men.

France.

6. Brought back by stages to Warsaw; entrained about the 15th of September for the western front. Itinerary: Thorn, Posen, Frankfort-on-the-Oder, Berlin, Cassel, Giessen, Coblentz, Treves, Luxemburg, Namur, Charleroi.

Artois.

7. Reassembled at Charleroi, the division was alerted September 25, and engaged on the Artois front (Folie). Losses of the 1st Ft. Gd. Regt. in the fighting of the end of September amounted to 1,522.

8. Relieved October 20, it took over the Lassigny-Beuvraignes sector.

1916.

1. The division remained in the calm Lassigny sector until July 20, 1916.

2. After some days rest in the neighborhood of Nesles, the division went by stages to the Peronne region, where it was put in reserve.

Somme.

3. August 15 it relieved, in the course of the battle of the Somme, what was left of the 1st Bavarian Reserve Division.

4. The division lost heavily (5,000 men, only 300 of whom were prisoners) during the attacks of the 19th and 20th of August and at the time of the costly defense of Clery (Sept. 3), and therefore it was relieved.

5. Reassembled in the Catelet region, and having received reenforcements, it went back into line south of the Somme, in the Biaches-Barleux sector. Its losses there were considerably less.

20

1917.

1. The division was withdrawn from the Biaches-Barleux sector the end of January.

2. It reformed, went through a course of training, and then proceeded to the Guiscard region. During February, 1917, it received 500 reenforcements (1917 class, recuperated men). In March its depot was empty (all the men having been sent to the division).

3. The beginning of April the division reassembled in the Sissonne region.

Chemin des Dames.

4. As early as April 12, before the French attack on the Aisne front, it was alerted. April 17 it was engaged in the Ailles-Hurtebise sector. There it went through the attack of May 5. (Losses, 2,500 to 3,000 men for the whole division, only 141 prisoners.)

5. Relieved a few days later, it took over a sector in the Argonne (Grand Courte-Chaussee), where it remained the month of June.

Russia.

6. On July 4 it left for Russia. (Itinerary: Namur, Liège, Aix-la-Chapelle, Duesseldorf, Minden, Hanover, Berlin, Frankfort-on-the-Oder, Posen, Lodz, Brest-Litowsk, Kovel, Lemberg, Ozidow; it detrained July 9.)

7. The division participated in the counterattack against the Russians, and later in the attack of Riga.

France.

8. It was brought back to France in the middle of October. (Entrained at Riga Oct. 16. Itinerary: Koenigsberg, Posen, Halle, Cassel, Coblentz, Sedan, Novion-Porcien; detrained near Rethel, Oct. 21.)

9. The division took over the Marquise sector in Champagne the end of October.

VALUE—1917 ESTIMATE.

The 1st Guard Division may be considered one of the very best German divisions. Excellent conduct under fire.

It displayed on the Aisne as well as on the Somme energy and determination while on the defensive.

Among its heavy losses there was an exceedingly small number of prisoners.

Again on the Aisne (April-May, 1917), it displayed remarkable military qualities.

It received important reenforcements of the younger classes (15–16–17), 30 per cent from the class of 1917.

Its normal value was reduced temporarily on account of the arrival of elements which had never been under fire (June, 1917).

Prisoners taken in the Argonne (June, 1917) seemed less keen for fighting.

1918.

France.

1. The division remained in line until the 21st of January.

2. It was withdrawn at that date and put through a course of training in open warfare until March 1, when it entered line east of Reims (relieving 203d Division), remaining in until the 15th in order to become familiar with the terrain.

Somme.

3. It remained in close support north of Montdidier, and finally entered line March 28 near Hangest-en-Santerre, fighting until April 5, and giving a good account of itself.

Chimay.

4. The division went through another course of training in the Chimay area until May 27.

21
Aisne.

5. The division entered line in the Grivesnes sector. It fought very well in this the Aisne offensive, immediately after which its commander, Prince Eitel Friedrich, was promoted from colonel to major general, but suffered exceedingly heavy losses. It was withdrawn June 7, going to rest in the Charleroi region, where it remained until July 16.

Marne.

6. It entered line on that date east of Dormans, and despite stubborn resistance by the French succeeded in making some headway. July 22–23 it moved slightly to the west, relieving the 6th Bavarian Reserve Division near Passy-sur-Marne. It moved back, giving ground to the Allied counter offensive, and was finally withdrawn from line north of Fere-en-Tardenois August 5.

Crecy-au-Mont.

7. The division rested then until August 25 in the vicinity of Rethel, and then came into line near Crecy-au-Mont and fought until September 6.

Argonne.

8. September 20 the division moved eastward and relieved the 53d Reserve Division in the Varennes sector, where it was when (Sept. 26) it was swamped by the opening of the American Meuse-Argonne offensive. It did not resist as strongly as it might have, and so the 5th Guard Division moved to its support. Withdrawn on the 29th, it, in turn, returned October 3 to support the 5th Guard. It was finally withdrawn on the 8th after it had most of its battalions reduced to one company. It left 1,788 prisoners in our hands; its total losses probably being about 4,000.

Champagne.

The division was identified in line farther to the west October 14 at Olizy, and near Chestres on the 21st. It remained in line in this region contesting the French advance until the Armistice.

VALUE—1918 ESTIMATE.

Throughout the war the division was rated as one of the very best German shock divisions. During the last year it fought a great deal and, until the last stages, very well. It suffered severe losses, and finally, due to the lack of effectives, it was found impossible to refill its depleted ranks; its morale deteriorated and it did not fight well.

22

1st Guard Reserve Division.

COMPOSITION.

1914 1915 1916 1917 1918
Brigade. Regiment. Brigade. Regiment. Brigade. Regiment. Brigade. Regiment. Brigade. Regiment.
Infantry. 1 Gd. Res. 1 Gd. Res. 1 Gd. Res. 1 Gd. Res. 1 Gd. Res. 1 Gd. Res. 1 Gd. Res. 1 Gd. Res. 1 Gd. Res. 1 Gd. Res.
    2 Gd. Res.   2 Gd. Res.   2 Gd. Res.   2 Gd. Res.   2 Gd. Res.
  15 Res. 64 Res. 15 Res. 64 Res.   64 Res.   64 Res.   64 Res.
    93 Res.   93 Res.            
  Gd. Res. Snipers Btn. Gd. Res. Snipers Btn.         1 Sqn. Gd. Res. Drag. Rgt.
Cavalry. Gd. Res. Dragoons (3 Sqns.). Gd. Res. Drag. Rgt. Gd. Res. Dragoon Rgt. (z Sqns.). Gd. Res. Drag. Rgt. (1st Sqn.). 1 Sqn. Gd. Res. Drag. Rgt.
Artillery. 1 Gd. Res. F. A. Rgt. 1 Gd. Res. F. A. Rgt. 1 Gd. Res. F. A. Rgt. 7 Gd. Art. Command. 8 Gd. Art. Command:
  3 Gd. Res. F. A. Rgt. 3 Gd. Res. F. A. Rgt. 3 Gd. Res. F. A. Rgt. 1 Gd. Res. F. A. Rgt. (9 Batteries).  1 Gd. Res. F. A. Rgt.
           2 Abt. 1 Ft. A. Rgt. (Staff, 7, 8, and 13 Btries.).
           701 Light Am. Col.
           1269 Light Am. Col.
           1328 Light Am. Col.
Engineers and Liaisions.   2d and 3d Field Cos. (1 Eng. Btn. 28). 2d and 3d Field Cos. (1 Eng. Btn. 28). (z) Eng. Btn. 28 Pion. Btn.:
    1 Gd. Res. Pontoon Engs. 1 Gd. Res. Pontoon Engs.  2d and  3d Cos. 28 Pion.  2 Co. 28 Pions.
    1 Gd. Res. Tel. Detch. 1 Gd. Res. Tel. Detch.  5 Gd. T. M. Co.  3 Co. 28 Pions.
      5 Gd. T. M. Co.  401 (Gd.) Tel. Detch.  61 Searchlight Section.
          401 Gd. Signals Command:
           401 (Gd.) Tel. Detch.
           17 Wireless Detch.
Medical and Veterinary.       266 Ambulance Co. 266 Ambulance Co.
        395 Field Hospital. 389 Field Hospital.
        Vet. Hospital. 395 Field Hospital.
          401 Vet. Hospital.
Transport.       M. T. Col. 701 M. T. Col.
23

HISTORY.

1914.

Belgium.

1. At the beginning of the war the 1st Guard Reserve Division forming, together with the 3d Guard Division, the Guard Reserve Corps swept into Belgium—as part of the 2d Army under von Buelow—the 16th of August, crossed the Meuse at Ardenne (massacres) the 20th, and pushed on as far as Namur. On the 29th the two divisions (Guard Reserve Corps) were brought back to Aix-la-Chapelle, and left for east Prussia September 1.

Poland.

2. The beginning of October the Guard Reserve Corps, attached to the Southern Army Group, took part in the invasion of the southern part of Poland, fought at Opatow (Oct. 4), and suffered severe losses at Lodz while retreating from the Russian armies.

3. During the winter of 1914–15 it fought on the Bzura.

1915.

Poland.

1. In February, 1915, the Guard Reserve Corps was split up. The 1st Guard Reserve Division was sent to the north of the Vistula, in the Mlawa-Prasnysz region. By the 6th of March the 1st Guard Reserve Infantry Regiment had already had its thirty-ninth engagement there (letter).

2. In March the 93d Reserve Regiment was attached to the 4th Guard Division (new). During the summer of 1915 the 1st Guard Reserve Division was engaged in the operations to the north of the Vistula (von Gallwitz’s army).

Smorgoni.

3. The pursuit of the Russians brought the division as far as the neighborhood of Smogorni-Vishnev, where it took part in violent fighting and where it was relieved the middle of September.

France.

4. During the early days of October it entrained at Grodno for the western front. (Itinerary: Warsaw, Posen, Berlin, Hanover, Aix-la-Chapelle, Liège, Cambrai.)

Cambrai.

5. It went into rest cantonments on the banks of the Scheldt between Marcoing and Bouchain (November-December).

1916.

1. The 1st Guard Reserve Division and the 4th Guard Division then formed the reconstituted Guard Reserve Corps.

2. During January and February, 1916, the division was employed on defensive works in the Wytschaete-Messines sector; it also held a sector in that region. At the same time it underwent a course of training in the neighborhood of Cambrai.

Artois.

3. The beginning of May the division took over the sector south of Neuville-St. Vaast.

Somme.

4. At the end of July it was engaged on the Somme (Belloy-Barleux).

5. After August 19 it spent some days at rest near Cambrai, and came back into line until September 8 between the Mouquet Farm and Martinpuich. It suffered local attacks, in which it was constantly pushed back with heavy losses.

Flanders.

6. After a rest in the neighborhood of Cambrai it was sent to a calm sector to the north of Ypres, near the Ypres-Pilkem road.

24
Somme.

7. November 5 the division returned to the Somme (Warlencourt) where it spent the winter of 1916–17.

1917.

Somme.

1. In March, 1917, the 1st Guard Reserve Division commenced the withdrawal movement on the Hindenburg Line, leaving prisoners in rear-guard actions (PysGrevillers region). It was withdrawn from the front about March 20 to go to rest near Tournai.

2. The 1st Guard Reserve Division and the 4th Guard Division then became independent divisions.

Artois.

3. April 25 the division took over the Oppy-Gavrelle sector and fought off the British attacks.

4. Relieved the beginning of May, it was sent to rest at Templeuve, and was later employed in the construction of defensive works near Cambrai (May).

Flanders.

5. The 1st of June it was carried to Tourcoing, and from there to Warneton, June 8 it went into line to the east of Messines, where it relieved the 3d Bavarian Division, very much worn out the day before. It was itself withdrawn as early as the 12th.

Artois.

6. The division then went back to Artois and held the Moeuvres-Pronville front (June 21–22 to Aug. 16) taking part in no important action.

Lens.

7. After some days rest at Douai, it became reengaged August 21, on the Lens front, in a series of very heavy conflicts following the attack of August 15. The 64th Reserve Infantry Regiment was particularly exhausted. Gas attacks caused it to suffer equally heavy losses in September and December.

8. The division remained in this sector until the end of 1917. In November it sent some elements to reinforce the Cambrai front against the British attack.

VALUE—1917 ESTIMATE.

The division was recruited in all provinces of Prussia, like the rest of the Guard. Despite their numbers, the 64th and 93d Reserve Infantry Regiments do not come (to any considerable extent) from the 3d and 4th Corps Districts. The 93d Reserve Infantry Regiments came from what was, before its dissolution, a “guard landwehr battalion (Magdeburg)” (seal of pay book).

The 1st Guard Reserve Division is not above the average German division in value. The Alsatians in its ranks were withdrawn and sent to Russia in 1916, but there are still numerous Poles, who do not constitute an element of strength. It seems much less to be feared than most of the Prussian organizations that do not have the “Litze” (braiding), less, too, than the Wurttemburgers of the 13th Corps District and the better Bavarian troops. (British document, February, 1918.)

1918.

Lens.

1. The 1st Guard Reserve Division was relieved in the Lens sector by the 220th Division the first of the year and was withdrawn, remaining at rest in this region until it relieved the 220th Division, February 4.

Carvin.

2. The division was relieved by the 220th Division February 20 and went to the Carvin area, where it went through a course of training in open warfare so as to become the assault division of the Souchez Group.

25
Somme.

3. The opening day of the March 21 offensive the division was identified at Lagnicourt (northeast of Bapaume). It was very probably “leap-frogged” by some other division the next day, but it reappeared the 27th near Bucquoy, in a straight line with the advance taken as a whole. It suffered exceedingly heavy losses, finally having to utilize its pioneers as Infantry.

La Bassée.

4. April 20 the division was withdrawn from the Somme front and marched to Givenchy (just north of the La Bassée Canal) the next day, where it relieved the 4th Ersatz Division. It fought there until about May 21, giving a good account of itself, considering its weakened condition, and as a result its brigade commander was promoted a lieutenant general, and the division commander received Pour le Mérite.

Grammont.

5. The division moved to the Grammont area, where it underwent a course of training with artillery and aeroplanes in preparation for a coming offensive.

La Bassée.

6. It relieved the 38th Division at Festubert, north of the La Bassée Canal July 5; it was relieved July 14 by the 18th Reserve Division.

7. The division rested in the Fauquissart area, and then relieved the 12th Reserve Division north of Hinges the night of August 2–3. It was relieved about August 26 by extension of front of the neighboring divisions.

Cambrai.

8. The 2d of September the division reinforced the front north of the Arras-Cambrai Road. About the 10th it side-slipped south, for it was identified southwest of Moeuvres. It remained here, suffering heavy casualties (450 prisoners), and was relieved by the 7th Cavalry Division during the night of September 22–23.

9. It remained in this region, however, and was thrown back into line in attempt to stem the British advance, being identified at Bourlon September 28; withdrawn about October 5.

10. The division returned October 16–17, relieving the 30th Division east of Neuvilly, and was withdrawn about the 20th.

11. November 4 it was identified north of Landrecies. It took part in the general retirement, being identified south of Berlaimont November 5, and east of Maubeuge on the 9th.

VALUE—1918 ESTIMATE.

The 1st Guard Reserve Division was rated as in the first of four classes. During 1918 it did not fight brilliantly, but it was always to be depended upon. It was called upon to fight much in heavy engagements, and suffered very severe losses.

26

Guard Ersatz Division.

COMPOSITION.

1914–15 1916 1917 1918
Brigade. Regiment. Brigade. Regiment. Brigade. Regiment. Brigade. Regiment.
Infantry. 1 Gd. Mixed Ers. 1 Gd. Ers.(1, 2, and 6 Gd. Bde. Ers. Btns.). 1 Gd. Mixed Ers. 6 Gd. (former 1 Gd. Ers.). Gd. Ers. 6 Gd.
7 Gd.
399.
Gd. Ers. 6 Gd.
7 Gd.
399.
    2 Gd. Ers. (3,4 and 5 Gd. Bde. Ers. Btns.).   7 Gd. (former 2 Gd. Ers.).        
  5 Gd. Mixed Ers. 357 (5 Ers. Btn. 2d C. Dist. and 5 Ers. Btn. 1 C. Dist.). 5 Gd. Mixed Ers. 357.
358.
       
    358 (6, 7, and 8 Ers. Btns. 2d C. Dist.).            
Cavalry. Gd. Ers. Cav. Detach. 1st Sqn. Gd. Cav. Rgt. 5th Sqn. 2d Gd. Uhlan Regt. 5 Sqn. 2 Gd. Uhlan Rgt.
Artillery. 1st Ers. Abt. (1st and 2d Gd. F. A. Rgt.). 7th Gd. F. A. Rgt. 6th Gd. Art. Command: 6 Gd. Art. Command:
  38th F. A. Rgt.    7 Gd. F. A. Rgt.  7 Gd. F. A. Rgt.
         89 Ft. A. Btn.
         759 Light Am. Col.
         814 Light Am. Col.
         886 Light Am. Col.
Engineers and Liaisons. 1 Co. Gd. Ers. Pion. Btn. 301 (Gd.) Pion. Co. Eng. Btn.: 501 Pion. Btn.:
  1 Ers. Co. 2 Pion. Btn. 302 Pion. Co.  301 (Gd.) Pion. Co.  301 Gd. Pion. Co.
    7 Gd. T. M. Co.  302 Pion. Co.  302 Pion. Co.
       7 Gd. T. M. Co.  49 Searchlight Section.
       292 Searchlight Section. 551 Signals Command:
       551 Gd. Tel. Detch.  551 Gd. Tel. Detch.
         36 Wireless Detch.
Medical and Veterinary.     62 Ambulance Co. 63 Ambulance Co.
      133 Field Hospital. 133 Field Hospital.
      134 Field Hospital. 134 Field Hospital.
      209 Vet. Hospital. 209 Vet. Hospital.
Transport.     M. T. Col. 761 M. T. Col.
Attached. 32 Ldw. Btn. 2d C. Dist. (1915). 81 Labor Btn.    
27

HISTORY.

1914–15.

Formed in August, 1914, by grouping the Guard Ersatz Battalions and the Ersatz Battalions of the 2d Corps District, the division detrained at Saverne August 19. In reserve during the battle on the 20th, it crossed the frontier on the 23d with the 6th Army, fought southeast of Lunéville the first days of September, and toward the end of the same month it went to Haye (Woevre).

Haye.

1. There it formed part of the Ersatz Corps and held various sectors of the region until March, 1916 (St. Baussant, Flirey, Bois de Mort-Mare, etc.).

1916.

1. In March, 1916, the 1st Guard Ersatz Mixed Bde. (6th and 7th Guard Regiments) left the Apremont region to go to the north of Combres and to the south of Fresnes-en-Woevre.

Verdun.

2. After a rest of 10 days at St. Marie aux Chênes (Apr. 24-May 3) it went to the front north of Verdun. May 11–12 it entered line in the Bois-Nawé (west of Douaumont), where it took part in several attacks (notably that of May 25). It rested in June, and fought again, beginning July 1, to the southeast of the Thiaumont works.

3. The 5th Guard Ersatz Mixed Bde. which had remained in the Montsec region, entrained at Vigneulles-St. Benoît (July 23–26), detrained at Spincourt, and during the night of August 3–4 entered line to the east of Fleury. Together with the 1st Bde., it took part in the attack of August 5, and both suffered heavy losses.

4. The Guard Ersatz Division was withdrawn from line the end of August, after having lost 50 per cent of its infantry before Verdun.

Flirey-en-Haye.

5. After a rest in the region west of Spincourt it went back into line to the north of Flirey-en-Haye; it remained there until about the 5th of November.

In September the 357th and the 358th Infantry Regiments were attached to the Bavarian Ersatz Division and the 214th Division, respectively. The Guard Ersatz Division received in exchange a regiment newly formed from companies taken from the 6th and 7th Guard and the 357th Infantry Regiments.

Cote du Poivre.

6. The division rested in November, leaving December 18 to go to the region north of Côte du Poivre, following the French attack of December 15.

1917.

1. About January 15, 1917, the Guard Ersatz Division was withdrawn from the Verdun front and sent to Champagne (St. Hilaire sector).

2. Relieved toward the end of March, the division was sent to reserve in the Chateau-Porcien region, which it quitted April 12.

Aisne.

3. April 16 and the days following elements of the division counterattacked toward Bermericourt; then relieving (Apr. 18) the remnants of the 21st Division, the Guard Ersatz Division went through the French attack of May 4. It left this front soon after.

4. May; rest in rear of the Champagne front.

Russia.

5. After a stay in a sector in Haye to the north of Flirey (from the beginning of June to the middle of July), the division was carried to the eastern front (July 23–27). (Itinerary: Sarrebrucken, Kreuznach, Frankfort, Leipsic, Cottbus, Glogau, Warsaw, Grodno, Vilna.)

6. The Kaiser reviewed the division July 29. From the 1st to the 17th of August it was trained in open warfare near Vilna.

28
Riga.

7. Taken to Chavli (Aug. 28), then to the Gross-Ekkau region, the division entered line in the Uxkuell region and participated in the Riga offensive, entering Riga September 3–4.

France.

8. September 8 the division entrained for the western front. (Itinerary: Chavli, Kovno, Eydtkuhnen, Insterberg, Posen, Cottbus, Leipsic, Frankfort, Thionville, Briey.) It encamped near Spincourt, and then, about October 10, entered line to the north of Bezonvaux.

VALUE—1917 ESTIMATE.

The Guard Ersatz Division was recruited all over Prussia just as all the other Guard divisions.

Good division. The 6th and 7th Guard Regiments are not to be considered as tried troops. The 399th Infantry Regiment seems to have but a slight combative value.

The men are said to have shown dissatisfaction when they left Russia for the western front. Desertions are said to have taken place en route. (Inter. pris. Dec. 15–17.)

1918.

Verdun.

1. The division remained north of Verdun until February 20, when it was relieved and went to Damvillers, entrained, and went to the Arlon area and was trained until March 15.

Somme.

2. It entrained at Arlon on that date and traveled via Charleroi to Mons, where it arrived the following day. By night marches the division passed through Maubeuge-Bavai-Englefontaine-Fontaine au Bois-Bazuel-Le Cateau-Busigny-Bohain-Fresnoy-Péronne, without taking part in any fighting. It came into line March 25–26, and was heavily engaged at Proyart the 27th.

Hangard.

3. The division was withdrawn about April 6, after having large casualties, and reinforced the front near Hangard the night of April 9–10, not being relieved until about May 4. Flanking divisions extended their fronts.

Mons.

4. It rested northwest of Mons until the end of June.

Champagne.

5. It then went to reserve in Champagne, and entered line west of Auberive July 15. It was withdrawn on the 21st.

Oulchy le Chateau.

6. The division was identified in line north of Oulchy le Chateau July 29, where it fought until withdrawn, about August 9.

Alsace.

7. It went into rest cantonments at Helfrantzkirch (northeast of Basle), and remained there until September 25.

Ypres.

8. Prisoners of the division were captured southwest of Roulers, and they stated that it entered line October 5–6. The division remained in line fighting stubbornly, but to no purpose, until withdrawn, November 7.

VALUE—1918 ESTIMATE.

Reliable information is to the effect that the Guard Ersatz, the Guard Cavalry, and the Jaeger Divisions bore the title “Oberste Heeresleitungs Angriffsdivisionen,” and that they were held under the direct control of the Supreme Command. Nevertheless, the Guard Ersatz has always been considered as being in the second of four classes.

29

Guard Cavalry Division.

COMPOSITION.

1918
Brigade. Regiment.
Infantry. 5 Ldw. Inf.  
Cavalry. 11 Cav. 1 Cuirassier.
    8 Drag.
  14 Cav. 5 Uhlan.
    8 Hus.
    11 Hus.
  38 Cav. 2 Mounted Jag.
    6 Mounted Jag.
    4 Cuirassier.
    Gd. Cuirassier (1 Sqn. of 4 Mounted Jag.).
Artillery. 132 Art. Command:
   3 Gd. F. A. Rgt.
   226 F. A. Rgt.
Engineers and Liaisons. 412 Pion. Btn.:
   307 Pion. Co.
   2 Ers. Pion. Co.
   183 Wireless Detch.
   286 and 385 T. M. Cos.
Medical and Veterinary. 257 Ambulance Co.
  302 Field Hospital.
  315 Field Hospital.
  286 Vet. Hospital.
Attached. Balloon Sqn. No. 33.
  290 Reconnaissance Flight.

HISTORY.

1918.

1. The division left the eastern theater in the middle of March. It was reconstituted in the camp at Zossen (south of Berlin), and was then moved to the Maubeuge area, where it underwent six weeks’ training for open warfare. It now consisted of 9 dismounted regiments, grouped in 3 brigades, 2 companies of pioneers, and a trench mortar company.

Champagne.

2. About May 28 the division relieved the 23d Division east of the Suippe. It was relieved about July 2, and on the 15th returned to strengthen the battle front near Souain. It was relieved about July 20.

Soissons.

3. The division was moved to the Soissons area, and on August 22 relieved the Jaeger Division east of Soissons. It retired from the front about September 5.

Champagne.

4. On September 23–24 it relieved the 15th Bavarian Division north of Prosnes, and was thereafter constantly in line in Champagne. The direction of its final retreat lay through Herpy (Nov. 1), St. Ferguex (5th), Rethel (6th), and Rocquigny (7th).

VALUE.

The division was rated as second class. It was reported to be one of the General Headquarters attack divisions held under direct control of the Supreme Command. After the failure of the July offensive east of Reims the division was constantly on the defensive.

30

1st Division.

COMPOSITION.

1914 1915 1916 1917 1918
Brigade. Regiment. Brigade. Regiment. Brigade. Regiment. Brigade. Regiment. Brigade. Regiment.
Infantry. 1. 1 Gren. 1. 1 Gren. 1. 1 Gren. 1. 1 Gren. 1. 1 Gren.
    41.   41.   41.   3 Gren.   3 Gren.
  2. 3 Gren. 2. 3 Gren. 2. 3 Gren.   43.   43.
    43.   43.   43.        
Cavalry. 8 Uhlan. Regt. (?) (?) 3d Sqn. 8 Uhlan. Regt. 3 Sqn. 8 Uhlan. Regt.
Artillery. 1 Brig.: 1 Brig.: 1 Brig.: (z) Art. Commandt: 1 Art. Command:
  16 F. A. Rgt. 16 F. A. Rgt. 16 F. A. Rgt. 16 F. A. Rgt.  16 F. A. Rgt.
  52 F. A. Rgt. 52 F. A. Rgt. 52 F. A. Rgt. 52 F. A. Rgt.  1 Abt. 10 Ft. A. Rgt. (Staff. 1, 3, and 4 Btries.)
           1083 Light Am. Col.
           1095 Light Am. Col.
           1096 Light Am. Col.
Engineers and Liaisons.   1 Eng. Btn. (1 C. Dist.): 1 Eng. Btn. (1 C. Dist.): 112 Eng. Btn.: 110 Pion. Btn.:
     Field Co. 1 Pion.  271 Pion. Co. (Oct., 1917).  3d Co. 1 Pions. (z).  3 Co. 1 Pions.
     1 Pontoon Engs.  1 Pontoon Engs.  271 Pion. Co.  271 Pion. Co.
     1 Tel. Detch.  1 Tel. Detch.  1 T. M. Co.  1 T. M. Co.
       1 T. M. Co.  1 Tel. Detch.  108 Searchlight Section.
       3d Co. 1 Pions.  305, 311, 312, and 392 Searchlight Sections. 1 Signal Command:
           1 Tel. Detch.
           43 Wireless Detch.
Medical and Veterinary.       4 Ambulance Co. 4 Ambulance Co.
        Field Hospital. 13 Field Hospital.
        1 Vet. Hospital. 16 Field Hospital.
          1 Vet. Hospital.
Transport.       M. T. Col. 534 M. T. Col.
Attached.     100 Labor Btn. 66 M. G. S. S. Detch.  
        54, 55, 56, and 57 Light M. G. Sections.  
31

HISTORY.

1914–15.

Along with the 2d Division, the 1st Division forms the 1st Army Corps (Koenigsberg).

Russia.

1. The 1st Army Corps was engaged on the Russian front at the very beginning of the war.

2. Up until November the 1st Division participated in the operations of East Prussia, and notably in the battle of Tannenberg (Aug. 27–29).

3. In December the two divisions of the 1st Corps separated. The 2d Division remained in the north; the 1st Division went to the 9th Army, from December, 1914, to January, 1915 (Bzura-Rawka), then to the Army of the South, operating in the Carpathians and on the Dniester, from February, 1915, to February, 1916.

1916.

France.

1. The division went to France in March, 1916. The 41st Infantry Regiment detrained March 13 near Metz; the 48th Infantry Regiment at Hagondange March 5.

Verdun.

2. The division was put in line near Vaux April 20, fought in the bois de la Caillette in May, in the bois de Vaux Chapitre, and the bois Fumin in June and July. It suffered enormous losses there. In the 1st Company of the 41st Infantry Regiment, the numbers on the pay books passed from 1,359 (Apr. 10) to 1,674 (July 19), indicating the arrival of at least 316 reinforcements. From the beginning of the war until July, 1916, the regiment had received an average of 1,360 men per company.

Russia.

3. At the end of July, 1916, the 1st Division, leaving behind the 41st Infantry Regiment, which fought before Verdun in August, was once more taken to the eastern front, where it formed part of the Carpathian Corps.

1917.

Bukovina.

1. In July, 1917, the division was in the Kirlibaba-Dorna-Vatra region. Beginning July 27, it followed up the retreating Russians, halting, early in August, in the Sereth region.

France.

2. The division entrained, the beginning of December, near Czernowitz, and was carried to the French front. (Itinerary: Kolomea, Stanislau, Lemberg, Tarnow, Oppeln, Breslau, Dresden, Leipsic, Halle, Cassel, Coblentz, Treves.) Ordered to Lorraine, it was sent to the region east of Etain, relieving the 13th Reserve Division and occupying the sector in front of Moulainville (Dec. 27; still there Jan. 23, 1918).

VALUE—1917 ESTIMATE.

Theoretically, the regiments of the 1st Division are recruited in East Prussia, but since the 1st Corps District, sparsely populated and of restricted size, could not keep it up alone, the elements coming from outside this district are numerous. During the stay on the eastern front Alsace-Lorrainers were used in considerable number. While in France the division’s ranks were filled up with the aid of the abundant resources of Brandenburg and Silesia (3rd and 4th Corps Districts); consequently, the division does not display to any degree the local character like the majority of the German divisions.

The 1st Division was on the Russian front from August, 1914, until December, 1917, with the exception of the period April-July, 1916, during which it was engaged before Verdun.

32The troops of the division fraternized with the Russians for about three weeks in April, but this came to an end early in May with the arrival opposite them of new Russian troops, who received their advances with bullets. (Inter. pris., Jan. 24, 1918.)

1918.

Woevre.

1. The division remained in line in the Verdun sector until relieved by the 11th Bavarian division about February 15.

2. It moved to the Conflans area, where it went through a course of training in open warfare in order to fit itself to become an assault division. At this time, too, it exchanged its Alsatians for Prussians of the 78th Reserve Division.

Somme.

3. March 27 the division reinforced the front at Bray, north of the Somme. It fought until the 30th, and lost to such an extent that its companies, which had been filled up while in the Conflans area, were reduced to an average strength of 40 men.

4. It was withdrawn March 30, and rested immediately in rear of the position it had held in line until about April 19.

5. The following day the division went back into line just south of the Somme, and immediately suffered heavily. It was relieved May 2 by the 24th Reserve Division.

6. The division went to rest in the Peruwelz area, and then had some more training in the same region.

Champagne.

7. Early in July the division was identified in reserve near Hirson.

8. July 16 it entered line near St. Hilaire, and was withdrawn the 20th.

Rheims.

9. It was immediately thrown into line in the Bois de Vrigny, where it fought in an attempt to prevent the Allies from annihilating the German troops in the Soissons-Chateau Thierry-Rheims pocket.

Laon.

10. About August 10 the division was withdrawn and went to rest in the region of Laon.

Laffaux.

11. September 3 it relieved the 27th Division near Laffaux, and, being surprised by a French attack, lost heavily (2,300 prisoners).

12. September 16 it was relieved by the 29th Division.

Rheims.

13. The division came back into line near Betheny (northeast of Rheims) on October 2 and was withdrawn about the 8th.

St. Fergeux.

14. It reentered line in the St. Fergeux region October 14, and was again withdrawn the 29th.

Liart.

15. November 7 the division was identified near Liart (south of Rocroi), and remained in line until the armistice.

VALUE—1918 ESTIMATE.

The division was rated as third class.

33

1st Reserve Division.

COMPOSITION.

1914 1915 1916 1917 1918
Brigade. Regiment. Brigade. Regiment. Brigade. Regiment. Brigade. Regiment. Brigade. Regiment.
Infantry. 1 Res. 1 Res. 1 Res. 1 Res. 1 Res. 1 Res. 1 Res. 1 Res. 1 Res. 1 Res.
    3 Res.   3 Res.   3 Res.   3 Res.   3 Res.
  72 Res. 18 Res. 72 Res. 18 Res. 72 Res. 18 Res.   59 Res.    
    59 Res.   59 Res.   59 Res. 1 Res. Jag. Btn.   59 Res.
  1 Res. Jag. Btn. 1 Res. Jag. Btn. 1 Res. Jag. Btn.        
Cavalry. 1 Res. Uhl. Rgt. (3 Sqns.). 1 Res. Uhl. Rgt. 1 Res. Uhl. Rgt. 1 Res. Uhl. Rgt. (. Sqns.). 4 Sqn. 2 Gd. Ulan Rgt.
  1 Res. Ers. Cav. Rgt. (3 Sqns.). 1 Res. Ers. Cav. Regt.      
Artillery. 1 Res. F. A. Rgt. (6 Btries.). 1 Res. F. A. Rgt. 1 Res. F. A. Rgt. 1 Res. F. A. Rgt. (9 Btries.). 1 Res. F. A. Rgt.
          2 Abt. 1 Res. Ft. A. Rgt.
          1363 Light Am. Col.
          1390 Light Am. Col.
          1393 Light Am. Col.
Engineers and Liaisons.   2 Eng. Btn. No. 1: 4 Field Co. 2d Pion. Btn. 301 Eng. Btn. (.): 301 Pion. Btn.:
     Res. Co. 1 Pion. Btn. 201 T. M. Co.  4 Co. Pion. Btn.  4 Co. 2 Pions.
     1 Res. Pontoon Engs. 1 Res. Pontoon Engs.  1 Co. Pion. Btn.  1 Co. 34 Res. Pions.
     1 Res. Tel. Detch. 1 Res. Tel. Detch.  201 T. M. Co.  201 T. M. Co.
         348 Searchlight Section.  31 Searchlight Section.
         Tel. Detch. 401 Signals Command:
           401 Tel. Detch.
           158 Wireless Detch.
Medical and Veterinary.       501 Ambulance Co. 501 Ambulance Co.
        399 Field Hospital. 399 Field Hospital.
        9 Res. Field Hospital. 9 Res. Field Hospital.
        Vet. Hospital. 137 Vet. Hospital.
Transport.       M. T. Col.  
34

HISTORY.

1914–15.

Russia.

1. The 1st Reserve Division was on the Russian front from August, 1914, until November 1, 1917, at which time it entrained for France.

East Prussia-Poland.

2. In 1914 it and the 36th Reserve Division formed the 1st Reserve Corps (Gen. Otto von Buelow). It took part in the operations of East Prussia (Hindenburg’s Army), in the Lodz maneuver (Von Mackensen’s Army), and in the combats on the Bzura.

3. In February, 1915, the division was in the Prasnysz region, northeast of the Bohr-Narew line.

Courland.

4. In May, as part of Eichhorn’s Army, it took part in the raid on Courland.

1916.

Galicia.

1. It was on the Dvina in the Friedrichstadt region until July.

2. In August it was identified in Galicia, in Bothmer’s Army, opposed to the Broussiloff offensive. Here it had heavy losses. (The 11th Company of the 3d Infantry Regiment, in particular, was reduced to 30 men.) During September the division was reinforced. The depot at Friedrichstadt, near Warsaw, was completely emptied to make good its losses.

Courland.

3. Toward the end of September elements of the division were in line near Friedrichstadt, along the Dvina, in a calm sector. The 18th Reserve Infantry Regiment was attached to the newly formed 225th Division.

1917.

1. January 5, 1917, the division was taken to the Mitau region, where it helped stop the Russian attack. Losses in this sector were light, but there was considerable discontent due to the cold.

2. The division was relieved about the 15th of March and sent to the neighborhood of Gross-Eckau, near Mitau, where it rested two months.

Riga.

3. The middle of May it was put back into line before Riga. It took part in the offensive against that city in September, stayed there from the 3d to the 7th of September, and then took up again its march toward the east. It organized its positions about 70 kilometers from Riga, near Hintzenberg (or Hildersberg?) (near Wenden) and established itself there.

France.

4. Relieved the end of October, it entrained near Wenden for the western front (Itinerary: Riga, Mitau, Kovno, Eidtkuhnen, Insterburg, Thorn, Posen, Lissa, Breslau, Cottbus, Leipsic, Erfuhrt, Frankfort-on-the-Main, Sarrebruecken, Thionville, Sedan, Vouziers.) It detrained November 6 at Semide (southeast of Vouziers).

Champagne.

5. After a rest of two days, the division went into line in the St. Hilaire sector (east of Vaudesincourt-Auberive).

VALUE—1917 ESTIMATE.

The division was recruited in East Prussia and, as a result of insufficient local resources, from divers other localities—a great many Alsace-Lorrainers during the sojourn on the Russian front.

35The 1st Reserve Division has taken part in all the important attacks which have taken place on the eastern front since the beginning of the war. It seems, however, from interrogation of deserters (in Champagne, November, 1917), that the cadres and men were little prepared for war as it was waged on the western front.

1918.

Champagne.

1. The division remained in line east of Auberive until relieved by the 23d Division April 30.

Montdidier.

2. May 13–14 it relieved the 76th Reserve Division in the Givesnes sector.

3. It was relieved August 4, but came back into line on the 10th a little farther to the north, in the region of Hangest-en-Santerre. It was withdrawn a few days later and rested several days in the neighborhood.

4. August 19 it relieved the 75th Reserve Division near Beuvraignes. It fought until relieved September 2.

St. Quentin.

5. After 10 days’ rest it relieved the 21st Division near Le Verguier, northwest of St. Quentin. It was withdrawn on the 20th.

Ribemont.

6. October 1 the division relieved the 208th Division near Ribemont. Withdrawn October 31.

Dompierre.

7. It came back into line November 7 and remained until the armistice.

VALUE—1918 ESTIMATE.

The division has suffered very heavily, notwithstanding the fact that, until about the 10th of August, it had taken no part in any really important actions this year. On the 18th of September the 1st Reserve Regiment was almost wiped out, its three battalion officers being captured with their staffs. It had also suffered a great many casualties the 9th and 10th of August. It is difficult to estimate the strength of its companies, owing to the fact that it is still in an active sector, but it is probably not over 50 rifles.

In the main the recruitment is East Prussian. There have been many Alsace-Lorrainers in its ranks, but since many of these have deserted there are probably not a great many of them left. For the most part the men are between 25 and 35 years old, but there are many older men and something less than 10 per cent of the division is made up by recruits of the 1919 class. It is again to be noted that the division was not employed in any of the German offensives this year.

Its conduct was remarkable in no way during the division’s participation in the heavy fighting around Hangest, Beuvraignes, and to the north of St. Quentin. During the early part of the year, when the division was in line in Champagne, there were a great many desertions, especially among the Alsace-Lorraine element. There have also been many cases of mutiny, especially in the 59th Reserve, the worst of the three regiments. About the middle of August a batch of some 500 recruits started out from the interior for the division. To sustain the morale of the men, these recruits were told they were going to simply support the artillery. Notwithstanding this, less than 250 men remained when the draft reached its true destination—the front lines. The men are very tired of the war, but on the whole seem resigned to the necessity of doing their duty.

The 1st Reserve is rated as a third-class division.

36

1st Landwehr Division.

COMPOSITION.

1914 1915 1916 1917 1918
Brigade. Regiment. Brigade. Regiment. Brigade. Regiment. Brigade. Regiment. Brigade. Regiment.
Infantry. 6 Mixed Ldw. 34 Ldw. 6 Ldw. 34 Ldw. 34 Ldw. 31 Ldw. 34 Ldw. 31 Ldw. 34 Ldw. 31 Ldw.
    49 Ldw.   49 Ldw.   37 Ldw.   33 Ldw.   33 Ldw.
            84 Ldw.   84 Ldw.   84 Ldw.
  34 Mixed Ldw. 31 Ldw. 34 Mixed Ldw. 31 Ldw.            
    84 Ldw.   33 Ldw.            
        84 Ldw.            
Cavalry.   90 Ldw. Cav. Rgt. 2d Sqn. 10 Drag. Rgt. 2d Sqn. 12 Horse Jag. 3 Sqn. 12 Horse Jag. Rgt.
    2d Sqn. 10 Drag. Rgt.      
Artillery.   96 F. A. Rgt. 128 Art. Command:   96 F. A. Rgt.
    219 F. A. Rgt.  96 F. A. Rgt.   782 Light Am. Col.
          1036 Light Am. Col.
          1047 Light Am. Col.
Engineers and Liaisons.   1 Co. 23 Pion. Btn. (401) Eng. Btn.:   401 Pion. Btn.:
    2 Co. 23 Ers. Pion. Btn.  1 Co. 1 Ers. Pion. Btn.    1 Ers. Co. 1 Pions.
       3 Co. 26 Ers. Pion. Btn.    2 Ldw. Co. 2 C. Dist. Pions.
       301 T. M. Co.    301 T. M. Co.
       279 Searchlight Section.    142 Searchlight Section.
       501 Tel. Detch.   501 Signal Command:
           501 Tel. Detch.
           190 Wireless Detch.
Medical and Veterinary.     215 Ambulance Co.   215 Ambulance Co.
      2 Ldw. Field Hospital.   146 Field Hospital.
      9 Ldw. Field Hospital.   279 Field Hospital.
      201 Vet. Hospital.   201 Vet. Hospital.
Transport.     M. T. Col.    
Odd Units.          
37

HISTORY.

1914–15.

Called Jacobi’s Division at the beginning of the war, and a part of the 1st Landwehr Corps, the 1st Landwehr Division fought under this corps on the eastern front. It was first called the 10th Landwehr Division, taking the name of 1st Landwehr Division in July, 1915. It comprised the 6th Mixed Landwehr Brigade (34th and 49th Landwehr Regiments) and the 34th Mixed Landwehr Brigade (31st and 84th Landwehr Regiments).

East Prussia-Poland.

1. First engaged in East Prussia (Angerburg, Gumbinnen, August, 1914, to January, 1915), Jacobi’s Division took part in the operations between Mariampol and Suwalki. Early in March, 1915, it was before Lomza; then in the Ossowiec region on the Bobr. It was at this time that the division became known as the 1st Landwehr Division, and the 33d Landwehr Regiment was attached to it.

2. At the beginning of August the division was in the Kalvariia region, Suwalki. It took part in the summer offensive, but remained in support, never doing any actual fighting.

Courland.

3. After a rest on the Little Berezina, it went to Courland, going into line in the Uxkuell region (October).

1916.

1. The division remained to the south of Riga until the end of July, 1916.

Volhynia.

2. In August it went to Volhynia, where it took over the Borovno sector (on the Stokhod) and held it for more than a year, until about November, 1917. The 6th Landwehr Brigade was taken away and remained in the Mitau region (April, 1916). Since then the division has been composed of only three regiments.

1917.

Volhynia.

1. Relieved in the Borovno sector toward the end of 1917, went to rest in the vicinity of Kovel. In January, 1918, the division received reinforcements from the 9th Landwehr Regiment (dissolved) and also from the 20th Landsturm Regiment. It had already had men of the 1919 class since November, 1917. Still more arrived in February, 1918, when the division was on the point of departing for Belgium.

VALUE—1917 ESTIMATE.

In theory, the 31st and 84th Landwehr Regiments were recruited in the 9th Corps District; the 33d Landwehr Regiment in the 1st Corps District. Latterly, however, widely diversified elements have been introduced—men of the 20th Landsturm Regiment (18th Corps District); from the 9th Landsturm Regiment (2d Corps District); also men from the 3d, 7th, and 17th Districts (class 1919). There is, too, a considerable number of Alsace-Lorrainers (33d Landwehr Regiment).

The 1st Landwehr is a mediocre division, composed of old men and of others that have little military value. (March, 1918.)

1918.

Belgium.

1. The division was then taken to the western front, and after some time spent in reserve (it was probably trained in the methods of warfare employed on the western front, although there is no evidence to establish it) it relieved the 35th Division 38near Merckem, March 20. It was relieved about April 19 by elements of the 83d Division.

2. April 26 it was identified in the St. Julien-Hooge sector, replacing part of the 236th Division, which side slipped to the south. In an unsuccessful attack during this time it suffered exceedingly heavy losses.

Alsace.

3. The division was relieved by the 6th Cavalry Division during the night of July 27–28 and went to rest in the Vosges.

4. About October 3 the division relieved the 30th Bavarian Reserve Division near Aspach le Bas.

Woevre.

5. It was withdrawn from this sector soon afterwards to be thrown in to meet the American advance east of the Meuse, being identified west of Flabas October 16. They lost heavily, staying in until the armistice.

VALUE—1918 ESTIMATE.

The 1st Landwehr is rated as a third-class division. Still, although many of its younger men were sent to other divisions just before it came to the western front, it did rather well, its commanding officer having been promoted after its participation in the battle of the Lys, and the division as a whole having been lauded several times in the official communiques.

39

1st Bavarian Division.

COMPOSITION.

1914 1915 1916 1917 1918
Brigade. Regiment. Brigade. Regiment. Brigade. Regiment. Brigade. Regiment. Brigade. Regiment.
Infantry. 1 Bav. Body Inf. 1 Bav. 1 Bav. 2 Bav. 2 Bav. 1 Bav. 2 Bav. 1 Bav. 1 Bav.
    1 Bav. 2 Bav. 2 Bav.   1 Bav.   1 Bav.   2 Bav.
  2 Bav. 2 Bav.   24 Bav.   24 Bav.   24 Bav.   24 Bav.
    16 Bav.                
Cavalry. 8 Bav. Light Cav.   8 Bav. Light Cav. (3 Sqns). 8 Bav. Light Cav. (2d and 3d Sqns). 2 Sqn. 8 Bav. Light Cav. Rgt.
Artillery. 1 Bav. Brig.: 1 Bav. Brig.: 1 Bav. Brig.: 1 Bav. Art. Command: 1 Bav. Art. Command:
   1 Bav. F. A. Rgt.  1 Bav. F. A. Rgt.  1 Bav. F. A. Rgt.  1 Bav. F. A. Rgt.  1 Bav. F. A. Rgt.
   7 Bav. F. A. Rgt.  7 Bav. F. A. Rgt.  7 Bav. F. A. Rgt.    9 Bav. Ft. A. Btn.
           123 Bav. Light Am. Col.
           146 Bav. Light Am. Col.
           158 Bav. Light Am. Col.
Engineers and Liaisons. 1 Bav. Eng. Btn. (1st and 3d Field Cos.). 1 Bav. Eng. Btn. (1 and 3 Field Cos.): 1 Bav. Eng. Btn. (1 and 3 Field Cos.): 1 and 3 Bav. Pion. Cos. 1 Bav. Pion. Btn.:
     1 Bav. Pontoon Engs.  1 Bav. T. M. Co. 1 Bav. T. M. Co.  1 Bav. Pion. Co.
     1 Bav. Tel. Detch.  1 Bav. Pontoon Engs. 1 Bav. Searchlight Section.  3 Bav. Pion. Co.
       1 Bav. Tel. Detch. 1 Bav. Tel. Detch.  1 Bav. T. M. Co.
        1 Bav. Pontoon Engs.  1 Bav. Searchlight Section.
          1 Bav. Signal Command:
           1 Bav. Tel. Detch.
           40 Wireless Detch.
Medical and Veterinary.       1 Bav. Ambulance Co. 1 Bav. Ambulance Co.
        Field Hospital. 3 Bav. Field Hospital.
        Vet. Hospital. 4 Bav. Field Hospital.
Transport.       M. T. Col.  
40

HISTORY.

1914.

Lorraine.

1. At the beginning of the war the 1st Bavarian Division, forming, with the 2d Bavarian Division, the 1st Bavarian Corps, was part of the 6th Army (Bavarian Crown Prince). It detrained at Sarrebruecken (Aug. 8–9), crossed the frontier, sacked Badonviller the 12th, and withdrew to the north of Sarrebruecken the 17th. It fought at Sarrebruecken the 20th. In liaison on the left with the Badeners of the 14th Corps, it crossed the frontier and advanced to Nossoncourt and Xaffévillers (Sept. 6) via Baccarat. September 12 the division, having been withdrawn, was reassembled at Peltre (near Metz). It then entrained at Metz the 14th and 15th, and detrained near Namur, reaching Péronne the 24th.

Somme.

2. In the last days of September, 1914, at the time of the “race to the sea,” the two divisions of the 1st Bavarian Corps were in the 2d Army (Von Buelow), which operated on the Somme in the Péronne region. They became heavily engaged notably at Combles (Oct. 24) and at Maricourt (Dec. 17). By November 4 the 1st Bavarian Regiment had had casualties of 63 officers and 2,090 men since the beginning of the war. (Casualty list.)

1915.

Artois.

1. The 1st Bavarian Division was kept in line on the Somme (Dompierre-Maricourt) until October, 1915. Its composition was changed—the Body Infantry Regiment went to the Alpine Corps, the 16th Infantry to the 10th Bavarian Division. In return, the 24th Infantry (a new formation) was received.

2. The division was taken to the region north of Arras (Neuville-Souchez sector), where it remained almost seven months (October, 1915-May, 1916).

1916.

Verdun.

1. About May, 1916, the division was relieved to the west of Vimy and sent to the Verdun front, where it took part in the battles near Douaumont (May 23), and in those of June 1 and 8.

2. Re-formed in the Romagne-sous-les-Côtes area, it reentered line about June 22 for new attacks. During this offensive the division suffered severely. It was relieved at the beginning of July.

3. After a short rest behind the Verdun front the division reoccupied the Apremont-St. Mihiel sector, remaining there until October 11, when it was reconstituted, receiving large reinforcements (recuperates and men of the 1916 class).

Somme.

4. Taken to the Caudry sector (near Cambrai), it was engaged on the Somme (Sailly-Saillisel, Morval) October 13 to end of November, where its losses were once again exceedingly heavy.

5. The division reappeared in the region of St. Mihiel (Bois d’Ailly-Forêt d’Apremont sector) the beginning of December, and remained there until the early days of May, 1917.

1917.

Plateau de Californie.

1. Entrained about May 7 at Vigneulles, it proceeded to the Laon region, where it was in reserve (May 8–12). The following day it took over the sector west of Hurtebise, where it participated in several attacks (May 20-June 17), losing heavily therein.

2. The division was relieved June 21 and went to rest south of Mezieres (La Francheville, etc.), where it was reconstituted.

41
Champagne.

3. July 25 it went back into line on the Champagne front (sector south of Ste. Marie-a-Py); it did not take part in any important engagements there.

4. The division was withdrawn December 27.

VALUE—1917 ESTIMATE.

The division was recruited in the southern part of Bavaria. The presence of contingents from the Bavarian Alps was responsible for the withdrawal of the Body Regiment to form the Alpine Corps.

Despite the losses it suffered during May and June in the Hurtebise sector, the 1st Bavarian Division may still be considered a good division. It has had time to reconstitute itself during the long calm period spent in Champagne (July 25-Dec. 27, 1917).

1918.

Argonne.

1. Withdrawn from line, the division was put through a course of training. It relieved the 80th Reserve Division north of Vauquois February 17.

2. It was relieved by the 80th Reserve Division about the 1st of March.

St. Quentin.

3. The opening day of the March offensive the division reinforced the front south of St. Quentin. It was withdrawn the next day.

4. March 23 it came back into line north of Chauny. It was withdrawn about the 30th.

Lassigny.

5. April 6 it relieved the 3d Bavarian Division west of Lassigny. It was in turn relieved by the 3d Bavarian Division on the 12th.

Champagne.

6. Having suffered a great deal in the fighting on the Somme, the division was taken to a quiet sector in Champagne, relieving the 52d Reserve Division May 1 north of Souain. About June 30 it was relieved by the 30th Division.

7. It reinforced the front near Souain July 15. It was withdrawn about the 31st.

Soissons.

8. The division entered line northeast of Soissons August 11.

Noyon.

9. It was relieved by the Jaeger Division about August 19, and moved to the west, taking over the Cuts sector, southeast of Noyon, August 20, and was withdrawn the 22d.

Coucy-le-Chateau.

10. August 31 the division was identified at Folembray, northwest of Coucy-le-Chateau; withdrawn about September 12.

Champagne.

11. About September 27 it took over the Manre sector, southeast of Vouziers, where it remained, fighting, until the signing of the armistice.

VALUE—1918 ESTIMATE.

The 1st Bavarian is rated as a first-class assault division; it was utilized as such throughout 1918. It fought well; its losses were severe.

42

1st Bavarian Reserve Division.

COMPOSITION.

1914 1915 1916 1917 1918
Brigade. Regiment. Brigade. Regiment. Brigade. Regiment. Brigade. Regiment. Brigade. Regiment.
Infantry. 1 Bav. Res. 1 Bav. Res. 1 Bav. Res. 1 Bav. Res. 1 Bav. Res. 1 Bav. Res. 1 Bav. Res. 1 Bav. Res. 1 Bav. Res. 1 Bav. Res.
    2 Bav. Res.   2 Bav. Res.   2 Bav. Res.   2 Bav. Res.   2 Bav. Res.
  2 Bav. Res. 3 Bav. Res. 2 Bav. Res. 3 Bav. Res.   3 Bav. Res.   3 Bav. Res.   3 Bav. Res.
    12 Bav. Res.   12 Bav. Res.            
Cavalry. 1 Bav. Res. Cav. Rgt. 1 Bav. Res. Cav. Rgt. 1 Bav. Res. Cav. Rgt. 3 Bav. Light Cav. Rgt. (3d Sqn.). 3 Sqn. 3 Bav. Light Cav. Rgt.
Artillery. 1 Bav. Res. F. A. Rgt. 1 Bav. Res. F. A. Rgt. 1 Bav. Res. F. A. Rgt. 13 Bav. Art. Command: 13 Bav. Art. Command:
         1 Bav. Res. F. A. Rgt.  1 Bav. Res. F. A. Rgt.
           1 Abt. 1 Bav. Ft. A. Rgt.
            (Staff, 1, 2, and 4 Btries.)
           101 Bav. Light Am. Col.
           145 Bav. Light Am. Col.
           147 Bav. Light Am. Col.
Engineers and Liaisons.   1 Bav. Res. Eng. Btn. 2d and 4th Bav. Res. Pion. Cos. 17 Bav. Eng. Btn.: 17 Bav. Pion. Btn.:
    1 Bav. Res. Pont. Eng. 201 Bav. T. M. Co.  1 Bav. Res. Pion. Co.  1 Bav. Res. Pion. Co.
    1 Bav. Res. Tel. Detch. 1 Bav. Res. Pont. Engs.  3 Bav. Res. Pion. Co.  17 Bav. Res. Pion Co.
      1 Bav. Res. Tel. Detch.  17 Bav. Res. Pion. Co.  201 Bav. T. M. Co.
         201 T. M. Co.  18 Bav. Searchlight Section.
        1 Bav. Res. Searchlight Section. 401 Bav. Signals Command:
        401 Bav. Tel. Detch.  401 Bav. Tel. Detch.
           106 Bav. Wireless Detch.
Medical and Veterinary.       15 Bav. Ambulance Co. 15 Bav. Ambulance Co.
        45 Bav. Field Hospital. 45 Bav. Field Hospital.
        48 Bav. Field Hospital. 48 Bav. Field Hospital.
        49 Bav. Field Hospital.  
        Vet. Hospital.  
Transport.       750 M. T. Col. 750 M. T. Col.
43

HISTORY.

1914.

Lorraine.

1. The Bavarian Reserve Division (1st Bavarian Reserve Corps, with the 5th Bavarian Reserve Division) was at the beginning of the war part of the 6th Army (Prince Rupprecht of Bavaria), and detrained in Lorraine August 13–14. After having helped to check the French offensive in Lorraine, participated in the battle of August 20, entered Luneville, and after having fought at Einville, early in September, it went to rest in the vicinity of the Paris-Avricourt railroad, and later march to Metz by stages.

Arras.

2. September 27–28 the division entrained at Metz and was carried to Cambrai. Entering line between Douai and Arras, it fought at Izel, Gavrelle, Rouvroy (Oct. 2–3). On the 5th its right wing was at Souchez, the whole 1st Bavarian Reserve Corps being then in line north of Arras. October 23 the two divisions of the corps attacked violently along the Carency-Roclincourt front; they remained in line until June, 1915, the 1st Bavarian Division being between Roclincourt and Écurie.

1915.

Neuville-St. Vaast.

1. In May, 1915, the 1st Bavarian Reserve Division was engaged at Neuville-St. Vaast, when it was reinforced by two battalions of the 99th Reserve Infantry Regiment. The 2d Bavarian Reserve Regiment suffered casualties of 14 officers and 1,413 men (casualty list).

Le Labyrinthe.

2. In June the division fought at the Labyrinth.

3. It continued to hold the sector north of the Scarpe, but moved toward the south in December, the front of the 1st Bavarian Reserve Corps extending as far as Blaireville.

1916.

1. The division remained in line east of Arras, straddling the Scarpe until August, 1916. From May to August, it comprised the 12th Bavarian Reserve Regiment, instead of the 3d Bavarian Reserve Regiment, loaned temporarily by the 5th Bavarian Reserve Division.

Somme.

2. Withdrawn August 8, it went to the Somme. It was engaged the 12th in the Clery sector, and was relieved as early as the 15th by the 1st Guard Division after having suffered heavily.

3. The second fortnight in August the division was at rest near Cambrai. The end of that month and early in September, some elements of the division were engaged near Clery and Martinpuich in order to facilitate reliefs.

Aisne.

4. About the middle of September the 1st Bavarian Reserve Corps was withdrawn from the region of the Somme and sent to the Aisne, where the 1st Bavarian Reserve Division occupied a sector to the west of Craonne until the beginning of December.

5. Brought back north of the Somme, it sent some elements into line in the Beaumont-Hamel sector (north of the Ancre, December-January).

1917.

Artois.

1. After sometime at rest, the division went back into line February 27 to the north of Arras (Roclincourt-Neuville-St. Vaast). April 9 it received the full shock of the British attack—lost the villages of Thelus and Bailleul and 1,500 prisoners.

44
La Bassée.

2. Relieved about the 15th of April, the division rested, and then entered line north of the La Bassée Canal (east of Festubert). It remained here five months, taking no part in any important engagements but suffering losses as a result of gas attacks.

Flanders.

3. It left for Belgium October 6–7, and took over the Zandvoorde sector (southeast of Ypres) on the 8th.

VALUE—1917 ESTIMATE.

The 1st Bavarian Reserve Division is a good division, but its combatant value can not be compared to that of the active Bavarian divisions.

1918.

1. Here it remained in line until February 11, when it was relieved by the 239th Division and withdrawn to rest in the Menin area, before it had suffered many casualties.

Dixmude.

2. March 9 it relieved the 54th Reserve Division in the Dixmude sector. It was relieved on the 22d by the extension of the fronts of the neighboring divisions.

3. It marched to Zedelghem the same day, and reached Seclin on the 23d. The 28th it came into reserve near Douai. It was undoubtedly intended to reinforce the German attack on the Arras front on the 28th, but as this was a complete failure, it returned to the Carvin area.

Lys.

4. April 9 the division reinforced the front near Richebourg-St. Vaast, and took part in the initial attack on the Lys battle front the same day. It advanced through Lacouture, Vieille-Chapelle, and had reached Zelobes April 10. After the first day’s fighting it met with a strong resistance and suffered heavily. It was relieved near Robecq by the 239th Division, April 18.

Loos.

5. April 27 the division relieved elements of the 207th Division east of Loos (south of the La Bassee Canal).

Ypres.

6. It was relieved by the 16th Division about September 27, marched to Carvin, which it left September 29, and entrained at Seclin for Heule, whence it marched into line via Moorseele. It was identified near Roulers October 4. It was relieved by the 6th Cavalry Division October 16.

7. After a rest of only a few days the division came back into line on the 23d to the south of Deynze, whence it was withdrawn about October 31. It did not return to line.

VALUE—1918 ESTIMATE.

The 1st Bavarian Reserve Division took part in no real fighting with the exception of the Lys offensive, in which it did nothing to distinguish itself. It would seem that the division does not deserve to be rated higher than third in a scale of four classes.

45

1st Bavarian Landwehr Division.

COMPOSITION.

1914 1915 1916 1917 1918
Brigade. Regiment. Brigade. Regiment. Brigade. Regiment. Brigade. Regiment. Brigade. Regiment.
Infantry. 13 Bav. Ldw. 8 Bav. Ldw. 5 Bav. Ldw. 4 Bav. Ldw. 5 Bav. Ldw. 4 Bav. Ldw. 9 Bav. Ers. 4 Bav. Ldw. 5 Bav. Ldw. 4 Bav. Ldw.
    10 Bav. Ldw.   5 Bav. Ldw.   5 Bav. Ldw.   6 Bav. Ldw.   6 Bav. Ldw.
                7 Bav. Ldw.   7 Bav. Ldw.
  14 Bav. Ldw. 15 Bav. Ldw. 14 Bav. Ldw. 15 Bav. Ldw. 9 Bav. Mixed Ldw. 6 Bav. Ldw.        
    122 Ldw.   122 Ldw.   7 Bav. Ldw.        
  60 Mixed Ldw. 60 Ldw. 13 Bav. Ldw. 8 Bav. Ldw. 13 Bav. Ldw. 8 Bav. Ldw.        
    71 Ldw.   10 Bav. Ldw.   10 Bav. Ldw.        
            60 Res.        
Cavalry.   1st Sqn. 2d Bav. Corps Dist. Ldw. Rgt. 1st Sqn. 2d Bav. Corps Dist. Ldw. Rgt. 1st Sqn. 8 Bav. Light Cav. Rgt. 1 sq. 8 Bav. Light Cav. Rgt.
Artillery. 2 Ldst. F. A. Abtl. 2 Ldst. F. A. Abtl. 1 Bav. Ldw. F. A. Rgt. Art. Command: 1 Bav. Ldw. F. A. Rgt.
        1 Bav. Ldw. F. A. Rgt.  
Engineers and Liaisons.   1 Ldw. Pion. Co. 18 Bav. Res. Pion. Co. (24 Bav.) Eng. Btn. 24 Bav. Pion. Btn.:
    (2d Bav. Corps Dist.). 3 Bav. Ldw. Pion. Co. 18 Bav. Res. Pion. Co.  18 Bav. Res. Pion. Co.
      301 Bav. T. M. Co. 1 Bav. Ldw. Pion. Co.  1 Bav. Ldw. Pion. Co.
        301 Bav. T. M. Co.  24 Bav. Searchlight Section.
        501 Bav. Tel. Detch.  4 Bav. Res. Searchlight Section.
          501 Bav. Signals Command:
           501 Bav. Tel. Detch.
           191 Bav. Wireless Detch.
Medical and Veterinary.       21 Bav. Ambulance Co. 21 Bav. Ambulance Co.
        62 Bav. Field Hospital. 61 Bav. Field Hospital.
        Vet. Hospital. 62 Bav. Field Hospital.
Transport.       325 M. T. Col.  
Attached.     38 Railway Const. Co. 154 Labor Btn.  
      Ldst. Inf. Btn., Rosenheim (3d Btn. 1 Bav. Corps Dist.). 168 Labor Btn.  
      Ldst. Inf. Btn., 2d Augsburg (10th Btn. 1 Bav. Corps Dist.).    
46

HISTORY.

1914.

Lorraine.

1. The origin of the 1st Bavarian Landwehr Division dates from the stabilization of the Lorraine front after the check of the Germans before Grand-Couronne in September, 1914.

2. At the beginning of the war the different elements which were to enter into the composition of the division were employed in Lorraine in rear of the combatant troops. The 71st Landwehr Regiment came from the war garrison of Strasburg.

3. These elements grouped in three brigades forming the 1st Bavarian Landwehr Division, were brought up to the front early in September and put into line in the Château-Salins sector (from Jallaucourt to the Rhine-Marne Canal).

1915.

Lorraine.

1. From that time on the division occupied the same front in Lorraine, on each side of the Rhine-Marne Canal, broadening or narrowing its front according to the number of troops in line in the region.

2. During the summer of 1915 its limit was carried to the southeast gradually as far as the Luneville-Avricourt railway, next to the region south of Leintrey; to the northeast as far as the western ledge of the Foret de Bezange.

3. In May, 1915, the 60th Landwehr Bde. was detached from the division, and replaced by the 5th Bavarian Landwehr Bde. (4th and 5th Bavarian Landwehr Regiments) coming from the 10th Ersatz Division.

1916.

Lorraine.

1. South of Leintrey—western edge of the Foret de Bezange. In January, 1916, the 14th Bavarian Landwehr Bde. was detached from the 1st Bavarian Landwehr Division; the 122d Landwehr Regiment (Wurttemburg) passed to the 2d Landwehr Division; the 15th Bavarian Landwehr Regiment to the 39th Bavarian Landwehr Division. The brigade was replaced by the 9th Bavarian Landwehr Bde. (6th and 7th Bavarian Landwehr Regiments). The division thus became entirely Bavarian; it was increased, shortly after, by the addition of the 60th Reserve Regiment, which was later (September) attached to the 221st Division.

2. In July, 1916, the 13th Bavarian Landwehr Bde. was withdrawn from the division and replaced by battalions of Landsturm.

1917.

Lorraine.

1. In January, 1917, the division’s sector was shortened—it was limited on the southeast by the western edge of the Foret de Paroy. In March it ended northwest of Juvrecourt. In June it extended itself once more to the southeast, fixing itself finally in July between Juvrecourt and the eastern edge of the Foret de Paroy; the limits have not varied since then.

2. About the first of the year the 5th Bavarian Landwehr Regiment passed to the 2d Bavarian Landwehr Division (new formation—Russian front).

VALUE—1917 ESTIMATE.

The 1st Bavarian Landwehr Division established itself on the Lorraine front in September, 1914, after the hard fighting in that region had ceased. It executed some important raids with its assault company, notably in June, 1917 (Foret de Paroy), and November (Arracourt region). In general, however, it remained exclusively on the defensive. It is made up of men whose physical value is often diminished; who have, consequently, waged only position warfare, and that upon a defensive front.

1918.

Lorraine.

1. The division remained in the Parroy sector in Lorraine throughout 1918, and, with the exception of a very few raids executed by the divisional Stosstrupp, did nothing.

VALUE—1918 ESTIMATE.

Losses and reinforcements have been few. The strength of the companies appears to be about 80 men, of an average age of 35–40 years. The 1st Bavarian Landwehr is rated as a fourth-class division.

47

1st Cavalry Division.

COMPOSITION.

1918
Brigade. Regiment.
Cavalry. 1 Cav. (1 C. Dist.). 3 Cuirassier.
    1 Drag.
  2 Cav. (1 C. Dist.). 12 Uhlan.
    9 Horse Jag.
  43 Cav. (1 C. Dist.). 8 Uhlan (3 and 5 Sqns. detached).
    10 Horse Jag. (2 and 3 Sqns. detached).
Artillery. 35 Horse Art. Abt.
Engineers and Liaisons. (?) Pion. Detchs.
  347 Searchlight Section.
Medical and Veterinary. 65 Vet. Hospital.
  142 Vet. Hospital.
  70 Ambulance Co.
Odd units. 152 Cyclist Co.
  153 Cyclist Co.
  159 Cyclist Co.
Attached. 3 Hus. Rgt. (1, 3, 4, and 6 Sqn.).

HISTORY.

1918.

1. Throughout 1918 the separate elements of this division were used in police duty in the Ukraine, in Lithuania, and along the Danube.

VALUE—1918 ESTIMATE.

As the division did not operate as a division in 1918, no estimate can be given of its fighting value.

48

1st Naval Division.

COMPOSITION.

1914 1915 1916 1917 1918
Brigade. Regiment. Brigade. Regiment. Brigade. Regiment. Brigade. Regiment. Brigade. Regiment.
Infantry. 1 Nav.   1 Nav.   1 Nav.   1 Nav.   1 Mar. 1 Mat.
  2 Nav.   2 Nav.   2 Nav.         2 Mat.
                    6 Mat.
  The 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6th Marine Fus. Rgts. and the 4th Marine Inf. Rgt. alternated between the 1st and 2d Naval Division.    
Cavalry. 1 Ldw. Sqn. (10 C. Dist.).     4 Sqn. 6 Cuirassier Rgt.  
Artillery. 1 and 2 Ldw. F. A. Detch. (10 C. Dist.). Nav. Brig.: 1 Nav. F. A. Rgt. 258 Ldw. F. A. Rgt. Mar. F. A. Rgt.
     1 Nav. F. A. Rgt. 2 Nav. F. A. Rgt. Torpedo-Matrosen Art. Rgt. 1 Mat. A. Rgt.
     2 Nav. F. A. Rgt. 3 Nav. F. A. Rgt.   Marine Corps 1st Ft. A. M. Col.
     Torpedo-Matrosen Art. Rgt. Torpedo-Matrosen Art. Rgt.   2 Light A. Col. of the Mar. F. A. Rgt.
Engineers and Liaisons.     1 Nav. Pion. Co. 1 Nav. Pion. Btn.: 1 Mar. Pion. Btn.:
      2 Nav. Pion. Co.  1 Nav. Pion. Co.  1 Mar. Pion. Co.
      165 T. M. Co.  2 Nav. Pion. Co.  4 Mar. Pion. Co.
         337 Pion. Co.  1 Entrenching Co.
         165 Nav. T. M. Co.  2 Entrenching Co.
         Tel. Detch. 291 Mar. Signal Command:
           291 Mar. Tel. Detch.
           291 Wireless Detch.
Medical and Veterinary.       Ambulance Co. 1 Mar. Ambulance Co.
        1 Nav. Field Hospital. 1 Mar. Field Hospital.
        Vet. Hospital. Vet. Hospital (Ostend).
Transports.       M. T. Col.  
Odd units.         1 Sect. Flanders Reconnaissance Flight.
          2 Sec. Flanders Reconnaissance Flight.
Attached.     124 Labor Btn. 41 Cyclist Co.  
49

HISTORY.

1914–1917.

Belgium.

1. At the beginning of the war the Field Army contained only one naval division. This division entered Belgium on September 4, 1914, detrained at Brussels, and on September 6 took up its position to the left of the corps which was besieging Antwerp. After the taking of the city on October 10 the division marched along the coast, arrived at a point between Ostend and Bruges on October 23, and on November 2 relieved the 4th Ersatz Division on the front of Nieuport-St. Georges.

2. On November 24, 1914, the Naval Corps was formed by adding a 2d Naval Division to the 1st.

3. After this time the Naval Corps occupied the sea front and the sector of the coast in occupied Flanders. The staffs of the 1st and 2d Naval Divisions were permanently in command of this sector—the sea front (from Raversyde to the frontier of Zeeland as far as Maldegem was assigned to the 1st Naval Division; the front on land from the North Sea to Schoorbakke, 4 kilometers southeast Nieuport, to the 2d Naval Division). The six regiments of Marine Fusileers alternated between the two sectors, and consequently changed from one division to the other.

4. In April, 1917, the three naval infantry regiments were withdrawn from the 1st and 2d Naval Divisions to organize a new Division, the 3d Naval Division. These regiments had already formed a provisional division, from the end of September, 1916, to January, 1917, when they were engaged on the Somme. After fighting east of Ypres (August to November, 1917), the 3d Naval Division came into line at Nieuport (Lombartzyde) to the right of the 2d Naval Division in December.

VALUE—1917 ESTIMATE.

The Marine or Sailor Fusileers, recruited at the beginning of the war from among the seamen or the population of the ports, had only a mediocre combat value at the time.

Since 1917, in consequence of reinforcements taken from the land army, and also in consequence of reducing the age of the effectives, the regiments of Naval Fusileers seem to be of better quality.

From a recruiting standpoint, they may be compared with the active divisions of the German Army.

1918.

1. The division was out of line in 1918 until May 1. From that date until November 4 it held the extreme right of the German line.

VALUE—1918 ESTIMATE.

The division was rated as fourth class. Until the last month of the war its front was quiet.

50

2d Guard Division.

COMPOSITION.

1914 1915 1916 1917 1918
Brigade. Regiment. Brigade. Regiment. Brigade. Regiment. Brigade. Regiment. Brigade. Regiment.
Infantry. 3 Gd. 1 Gren. 3 Gd. 1 Gren. 3 Gd. 1 Gren. 3 Gd. 1 Gren. 3 Gd. 1 Gren.
    3 Gren.   3 Gren.   3 Gren.   2 Gren.   2 Gren.
  4 Gd. 2 Gren. 4 Gd. 2 Gren. 4 Gd. 2 Gren.   4 Gren.   4 Gren.
    4 Gren.   4 Gren.   4 Gren.        
  5 Gd. 5 Gren.                
    5 Ft.                
Cavalry.   4 Gd. Brig.: Cav. Rgt., Schlotheim. 1 Sqn. 6 Drag. Rgt. 1 Sqn. Body Gd. Hus. Rgt.
     Body Guard Hus. Rgt. 2 and 5 Sqns. 2 Gd. Uhlan Rgt.    
     2 Gd. Uhlan Rgt. 1 Sqn. 6 Drag. Rgt.    
      Ers. Sqn. 2 Uhlan Rgt.    
      Ers. Sqn. 1 Horse Jag. Rgt.    
Artillery. 2 Gd. Brig.: 2 Gd. Brig.: 2 Gd. Brig.: 2 Gd. Art. Command: 2 Gd. F. A. Rgt.
   2 Gd. F. A. Rgt.  2 Gd. F. A. Rgt.  2 Gd. F. A. Rgt.  2 Gd. F. A. Rgt. 3 Abt. 3 Ft. A. Rgt.
   4 Gd. F. A. Rgt.  4 Gd. F. A. Rgt.  4 Gd. F. A. Rgt.   (Staff, 10, 11, and 12 Btries.).
          535 Ft. A. Btry.
          965 Light Am. Col.
          1385 Light Am. Col.
          1386 Light Am. Col.
Engineers and Liaisons.   1 Gd. Eng. Btn.: 1 Gd. Eng. Btn.: 102 Eng. Btn.: 102 Pion. Btn.:
     Field Co. Gd. Pion. Btn.  2 Co. Gd. Pion. Btn.  2 Co. Gd. Pion. Btn.  2 Co. Gd. Pions.
     2 Gd. Pont. Engs.  1 Co. 28 Pion. Btn.  3 Co. Gd. Pion. Btn.  3 Co. Gd. Pions.
     2 Gd. Tel. Detch.  281 Pion. Co.  2 Gd. T. M. Co.  211 Searchlight Section.
       2 Gd. Pont. Engs.  278, 281, and 298 Searchlight Sections. 2 Gd. Signals Command:
       2 Gd. Tel. Detch.  2 Gd. Tel. Detch.  2 Gd. Tel. Detch.
       2 Gd. T. M. Co.    73 Wireless Detch.
Medical and Veterinary.       2 Ambulance Co. 2 Ambulance Co.
        2 Field Hospital. 2 Field Hospital.
        3 Field Hospital. 3 Field Hospital.
        2 Gd. Vet. Hospital. 2 Gd. Vet. Hospital.
Attached.       2 M. G. S. S. Detch.  
        1 Abtl. 43 Res. F. A. Rgt.  
        3 Abtl. 43 Res. F. A. Rgt.  
        1 Abtl. 16 Ft. A. Rgt.  
        2 Abtl. 11 Res. Ft. A. Rgt. with transport.  
        10 Btry. 13 Res. Ft. A. Rgt.  
        190 Ft. Batry.  
        9 Btry. 12 Res. Ft. A. Rgt. with transport.  
        1 Btry. 57 Ldw. Ft. A. Rgt.  
        3 Co. 87 Labor Btn.  
        1 Co. 8 Ammunition Train.  
        1133 Wireless Detch. (from 27 Div.).  
        289 Pigeon Loft.  
        3 Balloon Section.  
        327 Ammunition Train.  
        191 M. T. Col.  
        216 M. T. Col.  
        853 M. T. Col.  
        865 M. T. Col.  
        188 Depot Supply Train.  
52

HISTORY.

1914.

France.

1. Entrained August 9 to 11 (notebooks). Detrained at Beutgenbach (12 kilos east of Malmedy). Entered Belgium August 14. Crossed the Meuse at Huy August 18. Crossed the Sambre at Auvelais (Aug. 22) on the right of the 1st Guard Division. Fought at Falisolle and Aisemont the 23d; at Mettet the 24th. Fought on the 29th at Haution and Vallee-aux-Bleds; on the 30th at St. Pierre (west of Vervins), on the left of the 1st Guard Division.

2. From there via Lugny, Boncourt, La Malmaison, Ville-aux-Bois, Sarcy, Epernay, Avize, Vertus; fought after September 6 at Ecury-le-Repos and Normee.

3. Retreated on the 9th at Vertus; 10th at Tauxieres; 11th at Thuizy. Was before Reims until September 30.

4. In Artois in October (Bucquoy, Monchy-aux-Bois, Adinfer), near the 1st Guard Division. Split up in November like the latter; sent one of its brigades, the 4th, in the region of Ypres (Gheluvelt), and remained there until the end of December.

1915.

Russia.

1. In January the division was again assembled. At rest at Douai from the end of January till the middle of February. On the Monchy-aux-Bois-Puisieux front till the end of March. Entrained March 30 at Cambrai for Schelestadt (Alsace), where it was placed at rest.

2. In April transferred to Galicia (Neu-Samdek, Apr. 26–30).

3. Beginning on May 2 it took part in Mackensen’s offensive—Battle of Gorlitz, May 2–3; at Jaroslav, May 16; battle of Krasnostav, July 17; crossed the Bug August 24. At Zegrje, on the Narew, September 14.

4. On September 16 it returned to Novo-Georgievsk and entrained for the western front. Detrained at Nivelles September 20.

France-Lorette.

5. The division was at rest for one month in Belgium.

6. On October 25 entrained for Orchies and reached Henin-Lietard by stages and fought at Lorette on November 5 for 6 days. It suffered casualties again there.

7. The division went into line in the region between Noyon and Roye.

1916.

France-Somme.

1. The 2d Guard Division remained in the sector of the region Noyon-Roye until August, 1916.

2. On August 15 it was sent to the Somme region (Chilly), where it suffered heavy losses both to the north and to the south of Peronne.

3. From October 1 to the end of December, 1916, it fought for a second time south of Peronne.

1917.

1. At the end of January the division was sent to rest near Guise. To the east of Clery-sur-Somme, end of February.

2. Then it held the Siegfried line, near Roisel and St. Quentin, for five or six days (beginning of March).

3. Entrained for Vervins and sent back to rest (Mar. 16 to Apr. 12).

Chemin des Dames.

4. About April 12 the division was sent to Sissonne. Went into line between Hurtebise and Craonne (Apr. 20 to 22), supporting or relieving the units of the 5th Guard Division. It remained for three weeks in the region of Craonne and Amifontaine. It suffered new losses and still heavier ones on Californie Plateau.

535. On May 11 the division went to the Argonne by road (La Harazee, May 17) and was reorganized, receiving replacements from the 613th, 614th, and 615th Regiments, which were dissolved.

Russia.

6. Withdrawn from the line at the beginning of July and entrained for the eastern front (from July 4 to 10), via Charleville, Givet, Namur, Liege, Herbestal, Hanover, Berlin, Posen, Skalmiercyze, Ozidof.

7. Took part in the attack on the Sereth (July 19); relieved August 1 and sent to rest.

Riga.

8. On August 9 entrained at Horlodylow and took part in the attack on Uxkull (Sept. 1). On the 4th it entered Riga.

France.

9. From September 7 to 9 the division entrained for France, via Zanke, Mitaul Vilna, Kovno, Posen, Berlin, Hanover, Dusseldorf, Aix-la-Chapelle, Liege, Namur, Givet, Charleville.

La Malmaison.

10. Beginning September 21 it was sent to Laon. About the 28th it went into line in the Malmaison sector. On October 23 the French attack commenced and caused them very heavy losses (1,800 prisoners, of whom 50 officers, and many wounded). Relieved on the 25th and its regiments, much reduced in strength, were sent to the Region of Vervins.

11. In the middle of November it held the sector of St. Mihiel, Forests of Apremont. The regiment received replacements from the interior and from the Russian front taken from the 226th Division.

VALUE—1917 ESTIMATE.

The 2d Guard Division had the reputation of being a good division. It suffered heavy losses in the Aisne sector in May, 1917. However, even after this attack the morale of the men on the whole seemed quite high. At the Malmaison attack, October 23, the troops of the division, after three days, were completely defeated.

During the last battles the division showed only moderate fighting value.

1918.

1. The 2d Guard Division was relieved by the 201st Division January 11 and went to rest at Metz.

2. Here the division underwent a 10 weeks’ course of training. March 18 it entrained at Metz and traveled via Thionville to St. Amand, where it detrained on the evening of March 19. It went then via Marchiennes (Mar. 20–21), Montigny (Mar. 21–22), to Lambres, where it arrived the evening of March 22. After 5 days’ rest here the division moved up to the line at Vitry-en-Artois (Mar. 27) to reinforce the front for the attack north of the Scarpe on the 28th. Except for one battalion of the 1st Guard Grenadier Regiment, the division took part in the fighting, as the attack was unsuccessful.

Moreuil.

3. The following day it marched via Arleux-Morchies-Beaumetz-Haplincourt-Le Fansloy-Les Boeufs-Maricourt, crossing the Somme at Suzanne-Proyart-Framerville-Caix-Mézières. It went into reserve east of Mailly-Raineval, where it remained until April 5, when it came into line north of Rouvrel. It was relieved by the 6th Reserve Division May 2.

Aisne.

4. The division reinforced the Aisne battle front about May 26 to the west of Vailly. It was relieved, June 17, by the 40th Division.

54
Marne.

5. After a rest in the Marle region the division reinforced the front near Chatillon-sur-Marne July 15. It was withdrawn on the 22d.

Somme.

6. August 27 the division reinforced the front south of the Somme near Dompierre. It was relieved, September 3, by the Alpine Corps, after suffering heavy losses, and losing 1,450 prisoners.

Le Catelet.

7. During the night of September 11–12 it reinforced the front near Ronssoy (west of Le Catelet). It was withdrawn October 9.

Ypres.

8. After resting a fortnight the division relieved the 52d Reserve Division at Machelen, October 24. It was relieved by the 6th Cavalry Division November 4, and did not return to line.

VALUE—1918 ESTIMATE.

The 2d Guard Division is rated as a first-class assault division. It participated in a great deal of heavy fighting during 1918 and always acquitted itself very well. It was mentioned in the official communiqués on several occasions. Between the end of August and October 9 it had lost 2,800 in prisoners alone. Indeed, its losses must have been very heavy, since there is positive evidence at hand to show that it received 4,000 replacements between August 10 and October 10.

55

2d Guard Reserve Division.

COMPOSITION.

1914 1915 1916 1917 1918
Brigade. Regiment. Brigade. Regiment. Brigade. Regiment. Brigade. Regiment. Brigade. Regiment.
Infantry. 26 Res. 15 Res. 26 Res. 15 Res. 26 Res. 15 Res. 38 Res. 15 Res. 38 Res. 15 Res.
    55 Res.   55 Res.   55 Res.   77 Res.   77 Res.
  38 Res. 77 Res. 38 Res. 77 Res. 38 Res. 77 Res.   91 Res.   91 Res.
    91 Res.   91 Res.   91 Res.        
  10 Res. Jag. Btn. 10 Res. Jag. Btn.            
Cavalry. 2 Res. Uhlan Rgt. (3 Sqns.).     2d Sqn. 2 Res. Uhlan Regt. 4 Cav. Sqn.
Artillery. 20 Res. F. A. Rgt. (6 Btries.).   20 Res. F. A. Rgt. 8 Gd. Art. Command: 116 Art. Command:
         20 Res. F. A. Rgt. (9 Btries.).  20 Res. F. A. Rgt.
           2 Abt. 23 Ft. A. Rgt. (4 and 6 Btries.).
           714 Light Am. Col.
           911 Light Am. Col.
           1237 Light Am. Col.
Engineers and Liaisons. 4 Field Co. 2d Pion. Btn. No. 10. 4 Field Co. 2d Pion. Btn. No. 10. 4 and 6 Field Cos. 2 Pion. Btn. No. 10. 4 and 6 Field Cos. Pion. Btn. No. 10. 302 Pion. Btn.:
      2 Gd. Res. Pontoon Engs. 6 Gd. T. M. Co.  6 Co. 10 Pions.
      2 Gd. Res. Tel. Detch. 260 Searchlight Section.  6 Gd. T. M. Co.
        402 Tel. Detch. (Gd.).  212 Searchlight section.
          402 Gd. Signals Commands:
           402 Tel. Detch.
           21 Wireless Detch.
Medical and Veterinary.       268 Ambulance Co. 268 Ambulance Co.
        389, 390, 17, and 45 Res. Field Hospitals. 45 Res. Field Hospital.
        Vet. Hospital. 17 Res. Field Hospital.
          204 Vet. Hospital.
Transport.       M. T. Col. 702 M. T. Col.
56

HISTORY.

(15th Reserve: Eighth District—Westphalia. 77th and 91st Reserve: Tenth District—Hanover.)

1914.

Belgium.

1. At the beginning of the war the 2d Reserve Guard Division was grouped with the 19th Reserve Division in the 10th Reserve Corps. This corps formed a part of the Second German Army (Von Bülow).

The division entrained at Zulpich August 10, entered Belgium the 14th, passed the Meuse near Liege the 17th, surrounded Namur on the north, crossed the Sambre to the west of Charleroi on the 22d, fought at Marbaix the 23d, and the 29th and 30th at Ribemont and St. Quentin.

Marne-Champagne.

2. The 2d Reserve Guard Division was engaged in the battle of the Marne between Sezanne and Montmirail (Sept. 6–7). It retreated through Epernay and fought on the Rheims front. It held its position on this front (Courcy sector) up to the month of February, 1915.

1915.

Artois.

1. Toward the middle of February, 1915, the two brigades of the 2d Reserve Guard Division were separated. The 26th Brigade went into the line between Thiescourt and the Oise and the 38th Brigade went to the forest of the Argonne.

2. Regrouped in Alsace in the vicinity of Schlestadt toward the end of April, the 2d Reserve Guard Division was transported about May 20 to the district of La Bassee. It was engaged in the Cuinchy-Givenchy sector (June-July).

3. About the 1st of August the division was sent to rest east of Cambrai.

4. In September it occupied the sector of Vingles-Hulluch to the south of the La Bassee Canal. September 25–26 it took part in the third battle of the Artois and suffered great losses. Portions of the 2d Reserve Guard Division participated in the attack near Loos October 8.

5. The division remained in the district of La Bassee up to April, 1916.

1916.

Somme.

1. The 2d Reserve Guard Division was relieved about April 7 of the Cuinchy-Canal sector of La Bassee. After a rest in Belgium in the vicinity of Tournai, the division was placed in the Gommecourt sector (Somme), end of May.

2. The Franco-British offensive found it in this sector July 1. It was severely engaged from July to November, 1916, sometimes in the vicinity of Pozieres, Thiepval, Bazentin-le-Petit (from July to September), sometimes farther north, and suffered serious losses (51 per cent of its personnel).

3. The 2d Reserve Guard Division was maintained in the Gommecourt-Hebuterne sector during the entire winter of 1916–17. At the end of 1916 it ceded the 55th Reserve Infantry to the 220th Division (organization).

1917.

Hindenburg Line.

1. The middle of March, 1917, the 2d Reserve Guard Division participated in the retreat of the German Army; it went back through Bucquoy, Lagnicourt, Beaumetz-les-Cambrai toward the Hindenburg line. It established itself on this line between Queant and Boursies until the end of May.

57
Flanders.

2. At the beginning of June the division remained at rest several days in the vicinity of Cambrai, and was then transported to the Thielt, (Pitthem-Eeghem) district (end of June). At the beginning of July it approached the front toward Staden.

3. On July 31, certain elements of the division, being surprised and later reassembled on the western border of the Houthulst forest, counter attacked in the direction of Bixschoote and suffered rather heavy losses.

4. The 2d Reserve Guard Division remained in this sector eight days. It was relieved August 8–9 and sent to rest in the district of Gand (Lakeren-Ostnieuwekerke) till the beginning of September.

5. About the 10th of September it was sent into the line on the front west of Passchendaele (southeast of St. Julien). It was withdrawn from this position toward the end of the month in order to go in again, almost immediately, to the southeast of Armentieres.

6. It remained there until the end of November, after which it reappeared on the front west and north of Passchendaele in December.

7. It was relieved February 1, 1918, and went into the district of Roulers.

VALUE—1917 ESTIMATE.

The 2d Reserve Guard Division was always considered as being an excellent division because it had always fought well, though it showed only mediocre fighting qualities to the north of Ypres in 1917.

The 31st of July it counterattacked without energy and without success in the direction of Bixschoote. During the approach, a great number of men remained in the rear.

Following this, its attitude was passive.

1918.

Flanders.

1. The division remained in the Passchendaele sector until withdrawn about January 9.

2. It came back into line, relieving the 199th Division, during the night of January 23–24, north of Passchendaele. It was relieved by the 239th Division February 1.

3. February 7 it relieved the 239th Division; relieved by 41st Division March 3. It then was trained for a fortnight.

Cambrai.

4. March 21 the division reinforced the Cambrai front near St. Leger, fighting, with heavy losses, until the 26th.

Arras.

5. It came back into line west of Neuville-Vitasse about April 3, relieving the 236th Division. April 29 the division was relieved by the extension of the fronts of the neighboring divisions.

6. It went to the Douai area and rested there until coming into line in the Gavrelle sector during the night of June 7–8; it relieved the 187th Division. It was relieved by the 187th Division June 20 and went to be reconstituted in the Tournai area, receiving a draft from the 427th Infantry Regiment and another of over 500 men from Germany.

7. The division relieved the 5th Bavarian Reserve Division, near Bucquoy, August 7. During the heavy fighting that followed it lost 2,400 in prisoners alone. It was withdrawn August 25.

8. September 2 it reinforced the front near the Arras-Cambrai road, whence it was withdrawn about the middle of the month.

La Bassée.

9. It then relieved the 9th Reserve Division near Neuve-Chapelle September 26.

58
Flanders.

10. October 5 prisoners belonging to the division were identified near Ledeghem. It remained there, being identified by prisoners November 11.

VALUE—1918 ESTIMATE.

The general commanding the 2d Guard Reserve Division was decorated in February and again in May. The last decoration was Pour le Mérite, and was accompanied by promotion. August 15 Gen. Petersdorff reprimanded the division because, as he said, “within 14 days, 1 noncommissioned officer and 10 other ranks have been missing from the division * * *.” It is considered as a second-class division.

59

2d Division.

COMPOSITION.

1914 1915 1916 1917 1918
Brigade. Regiment. Brigade. Regiment. Brigade. Regiment. Brigade. Regiment. Brigade. Regiment.
Infantry. 3. 4 Gren. 3. 4 Gren. 3. 4 Gren. 3. 4 Gren. 3. 4 Gren.
    44.   44.   33 Fus.   33 Fus.   33 Fus.
  4. 33 Fus. 4. 33 Fus.   44.   44.   44.
    45.   45.   3 Landst.        
Cavalry. 10 Horse Jag. Rgt.     10 Horse Jag. Rgt. (2d Sqn.). 10 Horse Jag. Rgt. (2 Sqn.).
Artillery. 2 Brig.: 2 Brig.: 2 Brig.: 2 Art. Command: 2 Art. Command:
   1 F. A. Rgt.  1 F. A. Rgt.  1 F. A. Rgt.  1 F. A. Rgt.  1 F. A. Rgt.
   37 F. A. Rgt.  37 F. A. Rgt.  37 F. A. Rgt.    4 Abt. 6 Res. Ft. A. Rgt.
           872 Light Am. Col.
           1,364 Light Am. Col.
           1,392 Light Am. Col.
Engineers and Liaisons.   1 Pion. Btn. No. 1: 1 Pion. Btn. No. 1: 1 Pion. Btn. No. 1: 1 Pion. Btn.:
     Field Co. 1 Pion. Btn.  2 Co. 1 Pion. Btn.  2 Co. 1 Pion.  2 Co. 1 Pion.
     2 Pontoon, Engrs.  2 T. M. Co.  4 Co. 1 Pion.  4 Co. 1 Pion.
     2 Tel. Detch.  2 Pontoon, Engrs.  2 T. M. Co.  4 Searchlight Section.
       2 Tel. Detch.  2 Searchlight Section.  2 Signals Command.
         2 Tel. Detch.  2 Tel. Detch.
           159 Wireless Detch.
Medical and Veterinary.       Ambulance Co. 5 Ambulance Co.
        11 Field Hospital. 11 Field Hospital.
        12 Field Hospital. 12 Field Hospital.
        195 Vet. Hospital. 195 Vet. Hospital.
Transport.       535 M. T. Col. 535 M. T. Col.
Attached.       150 Bav. Anti-Aircraft Section.  
        Cyclist Detch. 2 Landst. Btn.  
60

HISTORY.

(First District—Oriental Prussia.)

1914.

The first and second divisions formed the 1st Army Corps.

Russia.

1. At the beginning of the war the 2d Division was sent to the Russian front. Up to the month of November it participated in the operations in Oriental Prussia (Tannenberg, Aug. 27–29).

2. In November, 1914, the 2d Division, minus one brigade, which continued to hold its old sector, was withdrawn and included in the group which attacked in the direction of Lodz and operated between the Vistula and the Warta; continuing its activities, it attempted to cross the Bzura-Rawka opposite Warsaw in the district of Lowicz.

1915.

1. At the beginning of February, 1915, it reappeared in Oriental Prussia and participated in the offensive which ejected the Russians from this Province. It was engaged in its entirety in the district of Lyck and marched upon Augustowo and Grodno.

2. The Russian counter attack launched in the vicinity of Prasnysz toward the end of March drew the 2d Division to this sector.

3. In July during the development of the Hindenburg offensive, it emerged from the Ostrolenka-Pultusk line and proceeded in a northerly direction.

4. Upon the stabilization of the front the 2d Division held a sector between Illukst and Lake Drisviaty (Dwinsk District).

1916.

1. At the end of July, 1916, portions of the 2d Division were assigned to duty in Galicia to oppose the Russian advance.

1917.

1. The reconstituted 2d Division was engaged in the Mitau sector up to the end of January, 1917; all its units were identified in the vicinity of Kalnzen.

2. On February 8 it entrained at Mitau for the western front. (Itinerary: Chavli, Kovno, Insterburg, Konigsberg, Stettin, Hamburg, Munster, Aix-la-Chapelle, Liège, Louvain, Bruxelles, Audenarde.)

Belgium.

3. Detrained February 13 and remained at rest up to the end of March. It received reinforcements of various classes of men (wounded, convalescents, class 1917 reservists).

4. The division occupied the Wytschaete sector from the 25th of March to the beginning of June. (On April 15 and May 10 and 15 it received the first reinforcements from the class of 1918, the last having had only three months’ instruction; in all, 4,460 men between January 1 and June 1.) On June 7 it left 2,825 men in the hands of British troops.

5. On June 10 the 2d Division retired from the Belgian front. It was placed at rest in the district of Audenarde in June and then entrained for the eastern front (end of June).

Russia.

6. It arrived in Russia at the beginning of July and was put at rest in the district of Vilna. On July 14 it was identified in the Illukst District.

61
France.

7. It returned to France on the 25th of November. It entrained on this date at Kovno and was transported over the following itinerary: Insterburg, Thorn, Posen, Frankfort-sur-Oder, Berlin, Paderborn, Crefeld, Aix-la-Chapelle, Liège, Namur, Vouziers (Nov. 30).

8. On December 27 it relieved the 1st Bavarian Division in the Souain-Somme-Py sector.

VALUE—1917 ESTIMATE.

Except during the period March-June, 1917, when the 2d Division was fighting in Belgium, it continuously occupied the Russian front from the beginning of the war till December, 1917.

1918.

Champagne.

1. The 2d Division remained in line in the Souaine-Somme-Py region until relieved by the 87th Division about April 2. It went back to the Army depot at Semide, where it stayed about a week drilling and maneuvering. April 10 it entrained at Machault, and went via Rethel, Liart, Marle, and detrained at La Ferté-Chevresis, encamping in the vicinity. It traveled by St. Simon (Apr. 11), Ham, Solente (5 km. east of Roye), and Laboissiére, where it stayed until April 30.

Montdidier.

2. May 1 the division relieved the 51st Reserve Division at Monchel, south of Montdidier; relieved August 31.

St. Quentin.

3. The division was identified in line near Essigny-le-Grand, south of St. Quentin, September 5; it was relieved about the 15th by the extension of the fronts of the neighboring divisions.

4. During the night of September 20–21 it went back into line north of St. Quentin, in the Bellenglise sector. It was withdrawn about the 10th.

5. The division rested for a fortnight in the Avesnes area, then came into line October 24, relieving the 19th Reserve Division east of Ribemont (southeast of St. Quentin). It was withdrawn from line early in November and did not return.

VALUE—1918 ESTIMATE.

The 2d is rated as a third-class division. It was used in a great deal of heavy fighting and suffered severe losses (July 23 it lost 54 officers and 1,800 men in prisoners alone west of the Avre; the 9th and 10th of August it lost 443 prisoners; in its engagements between August 8 and October 1 it lost over 1,500 prisoners). Nevertheless, it was never used as an attacking division, but confined itself to holding the sectors allotted it; on account of its weakened condition and lowered morale (there are several cases of insubordination on record), it did not acquit itself any too well.

62

2d Landwehr Division.

COMPOSITION.

1914 1915 1916 1917 1918
Brigade. Regiment. Brigade. Regiment. Brigade. Regiment. Brigade. Regiment. Brigade. Regiment.
Infantry. 53 Mixed Ldw. 124 Ldw. 53 Mixed Ldw. 124 Ldw. 53 Mixed Ldw. 124 Ldw. 54 Ldw. 120 Ldw. 54 Ldw. 120 Ldw.
    125 Ldw.   125 Ldw.   125 Ldw.   122 Ldw.   122 Ldw.
  9 Bav. Mixed 6 Bav. Ldw. 9 Bav. Mixed 6 Bav. Ldw. (.) 120 Ldw.   125 Ldw.   125 Ldw.
  Ldw. 7 Bav. Ldw. Ldw. 7 Bav. Ldw.   122 Ldw.        
          6 Res. Jag. Btn.        
Cavalry. 3 Ldw. Sqn. (13 C. Dist.). 3 Ldw. Sqn. (13 C. Dist.). 3 Ldw. Sqn. (13 C. Dist.). 3 Ldw. Sqn. (13 C. Dist.). 4 Sqn. 20 Uhlan Rgt.
      3 Landst. Sqn. (13 C. Dist.). 4 Sqn. 20 Uhlan Rgt.  
Artillery. 1 Ldw. Btry. Landst. Btn. (13 C. Dist.). 1 Ldw. Btry. Landst. Btn. (13 C. Dist.). 2 Ldw. Rgt. 142 Art. Command: 2 Ldw. F. A. Rgt.
         2 Ldw. Rgt.  
Engineers and Liaisons.     6 Co. 13 Pion. (402) Eng. Btn.: 402 Pion. Btn.:
      3 Co. 18 Pion.  1 Ldw. Co. 13 Pion.  1 Ldw. Co. 13 C. Dist. Pions.
      302 T. M. Co.  5 Ldw. Co. 13 Pion.  5 Ldw. Co. 13 C. Dist. Pions.
         302 T. M. Co.  302 T. M. Co.
         299 Searchlight Section.  224 Searchlight Section.
         502 Tel. Detach. 502 Signals Command.
           502 Tel. Detach.
           176 Wireless Detach.
Medical and Veterinary.       572 Ambulance Co. 572 Ambulance Co.
        Ldw. Field Hosp. Vet. Hospital. 254 Field Hospital.
          25 Ldw. Field Hospital.
          502 Vet. Hospital.
Transport.       722 M. T. Col. 772 M. T. Col.
63

HISTORY.

(Thirteenth District—Wurttemberg.)

1914.

Argonne.

1. The 2d Landsturm Division (Franke Division) forms a part of the Argonne group and has continuously occupied sectors of this district since September, 1914. At the beginning of the campaign it comprised a Wurttemberg and a Bavarian brigade. Engaged at Etain August 24, 1914, it crossed the Meuse at Stenay on the 31st.

2. Beginning with September it occupied the line in the woods of Cheppy and Malancourt.

1915.

Argonne.

1. Vauquois-bois de Malancourt sector.

2. At the end of September, 1915, portions of the division (one battalion of the 6th and one of the 7th Bavarian Landsturm) were assigned to service in the district of Massiges; they rejoined the Vauquois sector at the end of October.

1916.

Argonne.

1. Vauquois-bois d’Avocourt and Malancourt sector.

2. At the beginning of 1916 the 2d Landsturm Division was reconstituted with exclusively Wurttemberg elements, including the 120th Landsturm, withdrawn from the Bavarian Ersatz Division, and the 122d Landsturm, proceeding from the 1st Bavarian Landsturm Division. The 9th Bavarian brigade went over to the 1st Bavarian Landsturm Division.

1917.

Argonne.

1. In the Cheppy-bois d’Avocourt wood sector.

2. At the end of August, 1917, the 2d Landsturm Division changed places with the 2d Bavarian Division and took the Nord Four sector of Paris-Bolante-Courte-Chausse.

VALUE—1917 ESTIMATE.

Sector division. Did not leave Argonne from the beginning of the war. On several occasions it furnished young men to active and reserve Wurttemberg regiments, replacing them by older Landsturm men.

1918.

Argonne.

The division remained in line in the Apremont sector, engaging in but little activity until the American attack of September 26. From that time on until it was withdrawn, October 25, it fought a great deal.

VALUE—1918 ESTIMATE.

Most of the young men of the division were taken from it to be sent to other organizations early in the year. October 12 the corps commander telegraphed the King of Wurttemberg (the 2d Landwehr Division comes from Wurttemberg): “The 2d Landwehr Division * * * has particularly distinguished itself by its bravery and intrepidity during the last combats in the Argonne and has thus contributed toward the failure of the enemy’s attempt to break through.” It was badly used on the opening day of the American attack, but it fought hard. It loaned companies to various other divisions, including the 1st and 5th Guard Divisions, and for days at a time these Landwehr troops were making the greatest resistance in the Aire Valley. While the division lost only 795 prisoners during the offensive, its total losses undoubtedly are above 5,000, there being evidence to show that many companies did not have more than 25 men, there being only three companies per battalion, and—in at least one case—only two battalions in the regiment. It is rated as a fourth-class division.

64

2d Bavarian Division.

COMPOSITION.

1914 1915 1916 1917 1918
Brigade. Regiment. Brigade. Regiment. Brigade. Regiment. Brigade. Regiment. Brigade. Regiment.
Infantry. 3 Bav. 3 Bav. 3 Bav. 3 Bav. 4 Bav. 12 Bav. 4 Bav. 12 Bav. 4 Bav. 12 Bav.
    20 Bav.   20 Bav.   15 Bav.   15 Bav.   15 Bav.
  4 Bav. 12 Bav. 4 Bav. 12 Bav.   20 Bav.   20 Bav.   20 Bav.
    15 Bav.   15 Bav.            
Cavalry. 4 Bav. Light Cav. Rgt.   3 Sqns. 4 Bav. Light Cav. Rgt. 2 and 3 Sqns. 8 Bav. Light Cav. Rgt. 3 Sqns. 8 Bav. Light Cav. Rgt.
Artillery. 2 Bav. Brig.: 2 Bav. Brig.: 2 Bav. Brig.: 2 Bav. Art. Command: 2 Bav. Art. Command:
   4 Bav. F. A. Rgt.  4 Bav. F. A. Rgt.  2 Bav. F. A. Rgt.  9 Bav. F. A. Rgt.  9 Nav. F. A. Rgt.
   9 Bav. F. A. Rgt.  9 Bav. F. A. Rgt.  9 Bav. F. A. Rgt.    1 Abt. 3 Bav. Res. Ft. A. Rgt.
           151 Bav. Light Am. Col.
           153 Bav. Light Am. Col.
           160 Bav. Light Am. Col.
Engineers and Liaisons. 2 Field Co. 1 Bav. Pion. Btn. 2 Field Co. 1 Bav. Pion. Btn. 2 and 4 Field Cos. 2 and 4 Bav. Pion. Cos. 7 Bav. Pion. Btn.:
    2 Bav. Pont. Engs. 1 Bav. Pion. Btn. 2 Bav. T. M. Co.  2 Bav. Pion. Co.
    2 Bav. Tel. Detch. 2 Res. Co. 19 Pions. 2 Bav. Tel. Detch.  4 Bav. Pion. Co.
      2 Bav. T. M. Co.    2 Bav. T. M. Co.
      2 Bav. Pont. Engs.   2 Bav. Signals Command:
      2 Bav. Tel. Detch.    2 Bav. Tel. Detch.
           107 Wireless Detch.
Medical and Veterinary.       2 Bav. Ambulance Co. 2 Bav. Ambulance Co.
        Field Hospital. 6 Bav. Field Hospital.
        Vet. Hospital. 8 Bav. Field Hospital.
Transport.       M. T. Col. 682 M. T. Col.
65

HISTORY.

(First Bavarian District—Southwest of Bavaria, Bavarian Swabia.)

1914.

Lorraine.

1. At the beginning of August the 2d Bavarian Division which, with the 1st Bavarian Division, formed the 1st Bavarian Corps, was a part of the army of the Crown Prince of Bavaria (6th Army). The 3d Brigade, covering troops, detrained at Reding near Saarburg, the 3d of August. On the 9th the division was at its full strength. It proceeded to the frontier, reached Badonviller, and retired as far as Gosselming (west of Saarburg) the 17th of August, gave battle there on the 20th, and recrossed the frontier. It advanced as far as Xaffévillers (Sept. 7), whence it retired to Morhange (Sept. 10). On September 15 the division entrained at Metz. It detrained near Namur, gained Peronne by stages, and was engaged at Foucaucourt the 24th.

Somme.

2. Together with the 1st Bavarian Corps it was attached to the 2d Army (Von Bülow), operating on the Somme in the district of Peronne. It took part in the fiercely contested battles which took place there but a short time after the stabilization of the front and suffered serious losses. At the beginning of the campaign, October 30, the 12th Infantry had 50 officers and 1,910 men who were unable to take part in action (lists of losses).

3. The division was maintained in this district up to the month of October, 1915, first to the south of the Somme, later, at the beginning of November, 1914, between Dompierre and Maricourt.

1915.

Artois.

1. In April, 1915, the division was reduced to three regiments through the cession of the 3d Infantry to the 11th Bavarian Division. Between the 10th and 15th of October, 1915, the 2d Bavarian Division was placed on the Artois front in the Neuville-Souchez sector.

2. About the 20th of December it was in the line at Bailleul-Sire-Berthoult between the western part of the Lille road and the Arras road.

3. It remained there until the beginning of May, 1916.

1916.

Verdun.

1. At this date it was relieved and transported to Verdun. It participated in the violent battles which took place there in May and June in the vicinity of Douaumont and suffered serious losses (50 per cent of its personnel). It was reconstituted in June in the district of Merke-Romagne-sur-les-Cotes (reinforcement of from 50 to 100 men per company), and went back to the line near Thiaumont. It suffered serious losses in the attack of June 23 (the companies of the 12th Bavarian Regiment were reduced to about 40 men).

Lorraine.

2. The 2d Bavarian Division was withdrawn from this zone of combat about the 15th of July and was sent to the Apremont-St. Mihiel sector, where it was reconstituted. It received numerous reinforcements (convalescents and class 16 men). During this period, which extends up to October 15, it did not take part in any serious operation.

Somme.

3. At the end of October it was transported to the Somme (Sailly-Saillisel sector), where it was again put to a severe test.

4. After staying a month in the Somme district it reoccupied the lines in the St. Mihiel sector at the beginning of December.

66

1917.

Californie Plateau.

1. The 2d Bavarian Division was withdrawn from the St. Mihiel sector between the 2d and 5th of May, 1917, and entrained at Mars-la-Tour on the 6th, whence it was transported via Conflans to Montcornet, where, during the night of the 8th, it gained the sector situated to the east of Hurtebise.

2. From the 9th on the 2d Bavarian Division engaged some of its elements on the salient northeast of Californie Plateau (May 9 and 10).

3. The division occupied this sector up to the end of May and participated in serious engagements notably those of the 13th and 22d of May to the northwest of the plateau. It was put to a very severe test. (The 9th Company of the 20th Battalion was reduced to 45 men.)

Argonne.

4. The 2d Bavarian Division was relieved at the beginning of June and sent to rest for 15 days at Camp Sissonne; later it was transported to the Argonne, where it occupied the Grande Courte-Chausse sector. During this rest it received two reinforcements—700 to 800 men June 28 and 300 men in July.

5. At the end of August it changed sectors and went into the line toward Bois d’Avocourt (Bois de Cheppy).

Meuse.

6. The division was withdrawn from this sector at the end of October and remained in repose in the vicinity of Stenay up to the middle of November, whence it was directed to the sector west of the Bois-le-Chaume. The 12th Bavarian Regiment, which had been sent in reserve to the southeast of Altkirch about the 10th of November to ward off an expected French attack in Alsace, rejoined the division December 6.

7. The 2d Bavarian Division remained in this sector (southeast of Beaumont) up to January, 1918, and then went to rest in the district of Longwy.

VALUE—1917 ESTIMATE.

The 2d Bavarian Division participated on the 9th and 10th of May, 1917, in violent but unsuccessful counterattacks on the salient northeast of the Californie Plateau. It appears that the Bavarians were always placed in the most dangerous positions and that they were sacrificed by the Prussians.

In spite of this condition the 2d Bavarian Division still showed itself as a good division (July, 1917).

1918.

Meuse.

1. The division remained in line north of the Bois des Fosses until relieved by the 19th Reserve Division, January 14. It went then to the Longwy region, where it was put through a stiff course of training in open warfare.

Amiens.

2. March 23 it entrained at Audun-le-Roman, and traveled via Longwy-Sedan-Charleville-Hirson-Anor-Avesnes-Le Cateau-Bertry-Caudry to Cambrai, where it detrained March 24–25. At first the division marched in the direction of Bapaumes, but was diverted in a southerly direction on the way and passed through Le Transloy-Sailly-Saillisel-Péronne-Villers-Carbonnel-Estrees-Foucaucourt and billeted at Beaucourt-en-Santerre on the night of March 30–31. April 2 it attacked at Morisel, and two days later to the southwest of Morisel. It fought then until the 15th, when it side-slipped to the north, relieving the 54th Division, its place being taken by the 15th Division. It was relieved about May 4 by the 21st Division.

3. It moved to the area southeast of Ghent, and there was reconstituted and trained. June 2, it relieved the 14th Bavarian Division in the Morisel sector. It was relieved the middle of the month by the extension of fronts of the neighboring divisions.

67
Champagne.

4. It rested in rear of the front in Champagne for about a month and then entered line in the Navarin sector (north of Souain), being identified by prisoners, July 15. It was withdrawn on the 20th.

Vesle.

5. August 4 the division relieved the 22d Division at Jonchery (on the Vesle, east of Fismes). It remained in line, taking part in the general retirement, until the armistice.

VALUE—1918 ESTIMATE.

The 2d Bavarian is one of the very best German shock divisions. It was called upon to do a great deal of heavy fighting, and always acquitted itself well. It suffered severe losses in consequence, but these were made good as long as the German High Command had replacements at its disposal.

68

2d Bavarian Landwehr Division.

COMPOSITION.

1917 1918
Brigade. Regiment. Brigade. Regiment.
Infantry. 9 Bav. Ldw. 2 Bav. Ldw. 9 Bav. Ldw. 2 Bav. Ldw.
    5 Bav. Ldw.   5 Bav. Ldw.
    10 Bav. Ldw.   10 Bav. Ldw.
Cavalry. 5th Sqn. 4th Bav. Light Cav. 3 Sqn. 1 Bav. Res. Cav. Rgt.
Artillery. Art. Command: 2 Bav. Ldw. F. A. Rgt.
   2 Bav. Ldw. F. A. Rgt.  
   811 and 905 F. A. Btries.  
Engineers and Liaisons. (25 Bav.) Eng. Btn.: 25 Bav. Pion. Btn.:
   2 Bav. Ldw. Pion. Co.  2 Bav. Ldw. Pion. Co.
   3 Bav. Ldw. Pion. Co.  3 Bav. Ldw. Pion. Co.
   302 Bav. T. M. Co.  12 Bav. Searchlight Section.
   502 Tel. Detch. 502 Signals Command:
     502 Tel. Detch.
Medical and Veterinary. 24 Bav. Ambulance Co. 24 Bav. Ambulance Co.
  17 Bav. Field Hospital. 63 Bav. Field Hospital.
  63 Bav. Field Hospital. 17 Bav. Field Hospital.
  32 Vet. Hospital.  
Transports. M. T. Col.  
Attached. 156 Labor Btn.  

HISTORY.

(Bavaria.)

1917.

The 2d Bavarian Landwehr Division was formed in Lorraine at the end of December, 1916, and the beginning of January, 1917. Two of its regiments, the 5th Bavarian Landwehr and the 10th Bavarian Landwehr, were assigned respectively to the 1st Bavarian Landwehr Division and the 33d Reserve Division, at that time on the Lorraine front. The 2d Bavarian Landwehr was ceded by the 6th Bavarian Landwehr Division, which held a Vosges sector.

Russia.

1. As soon as it was constituted the 2d Bavarian Landwehr Division was transported to the Eastern front via Frankfort and Leipzig.

Courland.

2. Directed to Courlande and attached to the 8th Army it entered the line in the vicinity of Friedrichstadt (middle of January, 1917) and remained in this district up till February, 1918. In September it participated in the operations against Riga. In December a number of men were detached in order to reinforce the 10th Bavarian Division.

VALUE—1917 ESTIMATE.

It remained on the Russian front from the time of its formation (January, 1917). It held the calm sector of Courlande in 1917; it occupied Livonia in 1918 (May). Men under 35 years of age were withdrawn from the 5th Bavarian Landwehr in December, 1917 (letter). It is rated as a 4th class division.

69

2d Cavalry Division.

COMPOSITION.

1918
Brigade. Regiment.
Cavalry. 22 Cav. (11 C. D.). 5 Drag. Rgt.
    14 Hus. Rgt.
  25 Cav. (18 C. Dist.). 23 Gd. Drag. Rgt. (1 Sqn. Detch.).
  7 Bav. Cav. (Siebenburgische). 24 Gd. Drag. Rgt. (3 Sqn. detached).
    4 Bav. Light Cav. Rgt. (3 Sqn. detached).
    5 Bav. Light Cav. Rgt. (3 Sqn. detached).
Artillery. 15 Horse Art. Abt.
Engineers and Liaisons. 2 Cav. Pion. Detch.
  7 Cav. Pion. Detch.
  200 Bav. T. M. Co.
Medical and Veterinary. 21 Ambulance Co.
Odd units. 2 M. G. Btry.
  3 M. G. Btry.
Attached. 4 Jag. Btn.
  1 Cyclist Co. 3 Jag. Btn.
  2 Cyclist Co. 3 Jag. Btn.

HISTORY.

1918.

1. The division was in the Stochod sector until February 28, when it advanced through Kiev and Kharhov to Rostov, where it was on August 4. At this date the division occupied the area between Kharkov and Rostov. The troops were frequently attacked by armed bands or by mobs. In this way they suffered some heavy losses. The German cruiser Goeben, which had been supporting them, was damaged by fire and had to put into Constantinople.

Nothing was known of the division’s movements after August, 1918.

VALUE—1918 ESTIMATE.

The division was considered as 4th class.

70

2d Naval Division.

COMPOSITION.

1915 1916 1917 1918
Brigade. Regiment. Brigade. Regiment. Brigade. Regiment. Brigade. Regiment.
Infantry. 3 Nav.   3 Nav.   3 Nav.   3 Mar. 3 Mat.
  4 Nav.   4 Nav.   4 Nav.     4 Mat.
                5 Mat.
  The 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6th Marine Fus. Rgts. and the 4 Marine Inf. Rgt. alternated between the 1st and 2d Naval Divisions.    
Cavalry.       4 Sqn. 10 Hus. Rgt.
Artillery.   Marine E. A. Abt. 1 Mar. F. A. Rgt. 3 Mar. Art. Rgt.
      2 Mar. F. A. Rgt.  
      3 Mar. F. A. Rgt.  
Engineers and Liaisons.   3 Nav. Pion. Co. 2 Nav. Pion. Btn.: 2 Mar. Pion. Btn.:
       3 Nav. Pion. Co.  2 Mar. Pion. Co.
       4 Nav. Pion. Co.  3 Mar. Pion. Co.
       377 Pion. Co.  3 Entrenching Co.
       Tel. Detch.  4 Entrenching Co.
        292 Signal Command:
         292 Tel. Detch.
Medical and Veterinary.     Ambulance Co. 2 Mar. Ambulance Co.
      Field Hospital. 3 Mar. Field Hospital.
      Vet. Hospital. 4 Mar. Field Hospital.
Transports.     M. T. Col.  
Attached.   27 Labor Btn. Coast Defense Btn.  
71

HISTORY.

1915.

Belgium.

1. The 2d Naval Division, formed November 24, 1914, was a part of the Naval Corps at this time.

Since its formation the 6th Naval Fusileer Regiments of the Corps alternate in Flanders between the coast sector (2d Naval Division) and the sea front (1st Naval Division).

1916.

2. In September, 1916, the 3d Naval Infantry Regiment was transferred to the Naval Division, which later became the 3d Naval Division, engaged on the Somme.

1917.

Flanders.

Sector of the coast and sea front. The staff of the 2d Naval Division remained in charge of the coast sector.

1918.

1. In early March the division was relieved in its sector southeast of Nieuport and took over the coast sector from the 3d Naval Division. Elements of the division reinforced the German attacking forces north of Bixschoote on April 17.

2. After October 15, the division retreated toward Ostend and Maldeghem. It was last identified at Wachtebeke on November 2. On the day of the armistice it was considered to be in reserve of the 4th Army.

VALUE—1918 ESTIMATE.

The division was rated as fourth class.

72

3d Guard Division.[2]

COMPOSITION.

1914 1915 1916 1917 1918
Brigade. Regiment. Brigade. Regiment. Brigade. Regiment. Brigade. Regiment. Brigade. Regiment.
Infantry. 5 Gd. 5 Ft. 5 Gd. 5 Ft. 6 Gd. Gd. Fus. 6 Gd. Gd. Fus. 6 Gd. Lehr Rgt.
    5 Gren.   5 Gren.   Lehr Rgt.   Lehr Rgt.   Fus. Rgt.
  6 Gd. Gd. Fus. 6 Gd. Gd. Fus.   9 Gren.   9 Gren.   9 Gren.
    Lehr Rgt.   Lehr Rgt.            
  (Instruction.)                
Cavalry. Gd. Res. Uhlan Rgt.   Gd. Res. Uhlan Rgt. (?Sqns.). 3d Sqn. Gd. Res. Uhlan Rgt. 1 Sqn. 2 Gd. Drag. Rgt.
        1st Sqn. 2 Gd. Drag. Rgt.  
Artillery. 5 Gd. F. A. Rgt. 3 Brig.: 3 Brig.: (*) Art. Command: 5 Gd. F. A. Rgt.
  6 Gd. F. A. Rgt.  5 Gd. F. A. Rgt.  5 Gd. F. A. Rgt.  5 Gd. F. A. Rgt. 1 Abt. 2 Gd. Ft. A. Rgt.
  (Formed of the Juterbog Instruction Rgt.)  6 Gd. F. A. Rgt.  6 Gd. F. A. Rgt.   (Staff, 1 and 3 Btries.).
          936 Light Am. Col.
          1347 Light Am. Col.
Engineers and Liaisons.   (?) Pion. Co. (?) Pion. Co. (104) Pion. Btn. 104 Pion. Btn.:
    3 Gd. Pont. Engs. 3 Gd. T. M. Co.  1 Co. 28 Pions.  1 Co. 28 Pions.
    3 Gd. Tel. Detch. 3 Gd. Pont. Engs.  274 Pion. Co.  274 Pion. Co.
      3 Gd. Tel. Detch.  3 Gd. T. M. Co.  198 Searchlight Section.
         280 Searchlight Section. 3 Gd. Signals Command:
         3 Gd. Tel. Detch.  3 Gd. Tel. Detch.
         55 Tel. Detch.  90 Wireless Detch.
Medical and Veterinary.       7 Ambulance Co. 265 Ambulance Co.
        265 Ambulance Co. 393 Field Hospital.
        393 Ambulance Co. 35 Field Hospital.
        Field Hospital. 3 Gd. Vet. Hospital.
        Vet. Hospital.  
Transport.       M. T. Col. 532 M. T. Col.
Attached.     75 Anti-Aircraft Section. 75 Anti-Aircraft Section.  

2.  Organized in August, 1914; elements taken from 1st and 2d Guard Divisions.

73

HISTORY.

1914.

France.

1. In August, 1914, the 3d Guard Division was first directed to the Western Front. It fought below Namur.

Russia.

2. The 27th of August the division was transported to Silesia via Oriental Prussia. It took part in the invasion of southern Poland.

3. The group of armies of which it formed a part was turned back and was obliged to retire to Lodz.

4. During the winter of 1914–15 it took part in the severe engagements on the Bzura.

1915.

1. At the beginning of 1915 the 3d Guard Division was dismembered; the 5th Brigade was sent to Oriental Prussia; the 6th Brigade, to the south of the Carpathians, was engaged in the Uzsok defile distinct.

2. In March, 1915, the 6th Brigade alone formed the 3d Guard Division, with the addition of the 9th Grenadier Regiment to its own two regiments. Thus formed, the 3d Guard Division took part in the campaign of the summer of 1915. (Carpathians Oriental Galicia. Linsingen’s army.)

3. The division took up its position before Tarnopol and passed the winter of 1915–16 there. (Bothmer’s army.)

1916.

France.

1. In April, 1916, the 3d Guard Division was transported to the Western Front. It occupied a sector in Champagne and took part in no serious engagements.

2. It was sent to rest at Valenciennes the 1st of June.

Somme.

3. The 1st of July (beginning of the Franco-British offensive) the 3d Guard Division went into the line on the Somme. It was put to a severe test there, particularly in the Thiepval district (57.5 per cent loss).

4. After the Somme it was sent to the Dixmude front.

Galicia.

5. It was transported to Galicia (beginning of September) by the following itinerary: Liège, Cologne, Leipzig, Dresden, Cracow, Przemysl.

6. At Halicz the 3d Guard Division took part in the German counteroffensive, and again suffered great losses.

France.

7. It was sent back to the Western Front on the 24th of November by the following itinerary: Lemberg, Jaroslaw, Gorlitz, Dresden, Chemnitz, Nurnberg, Heilbronn, Strasbourg, Mulhouse, Rheinweiler, and having arrived there the 20th of November, was sent to rest for a month.

1917.

Lorraine.

1. Beginning with January and up to April 6, 1917, the division occupied the sector of the forest of Parroy.

2. The 8th of April it entrained at Metz, and arrived at Cambrai via Montmedy, Sedan, and Charleville.

74
Artois.

3. Engaged in action before Arras in order to repulse the English offensive from April 15 on, it participated in severe battles (May).

4. On the 18th of May the division was relieved and sent into the Cambrai district. After a short period of repose it occupied the Pronville-Inchy-en-Artois sector (June 1–22).

5. It was sent in reserve to the Bruges sector (June 22).

6. It was transported to Thourout the 9th of July and remained there at rest until July 29.

Ypres.

7. On the 31st of July, the date of the great British attack, the 3d Guard Division suffered very heavy losses (1,000 prisoners) in relieving the 23d Reserve Division in the Pilken sector.

Alsace.

8. It was relieved the 5th and 6th of August and transported to Alsace, where it was placed at rest. At the beginning of September it occupied the Altkirch sector.

Flanders.

9. About the 7th of October the division was again sent to Flanders to the northeast of Zonnebecke.

10. The 3d Guard Division left the Ypres front (Zonnebecke) at the beginning of November, 1917.

Cambrai.

11. After remaining in the vicinity of Ghent it went into action before Cambrai near the Bourlon wood (Nov. 22).

12. It was relieved the 10th of December and went to rest in the Vendegies District (south of Valenciennes—division maneuvers).

1918.

Cambrai.

1. The division returned to the line in the sector, southwest of Cambrai on January 10, relieving the 21st Reserve Division. It remained in line until the 119th Division relieved it on February 12.

2. The division retired to Hem-Lenglet (north of Cambrai) where it rested and underwent instruction.

Battle of Picardy.

3. The division entered the line on March 19, between Inchy-en-Artois and Pronville. Engaged in the advance between the 21st and 24th. It suffered heavy losses on the 22d in the fighting north of Beaumetz, passing to the second line on the 24th. The division came back and participated in the fighting about Bucquoy and Hebuterne, March 26-April 3.

4. Returning from the Somme front about April 4, the division was at rest until April 18.

Battle of the Lys.

5. The division was engaged on the Lys, northeast of Estaires, after April 18, then north of Kemmel from April 30 to May 5. Heavy losses featured the fighting.

6. After resting at Halluin for seven days the division was moved by rail to Lorraine by the route Namur, Treves, Saarbruck, Sarreguemines.

Lorraine.

7. On May 18 the division relieved the 202d Division in the Chateau Salins sector. While in this quiet sector the division received reinforcements. When it left the line on June 24, the division was comparatively fresh and an available reinforcement for a battle front.

75
Champagne.

8. On leaving Lorraine the division moved to Rozay-sur-Lene, July 1, and later southward to Hannogne.

9. In the offensive of July 15, the division fought east of Rheims in the region of des Monts. Between the 15th and 31st heavy losses were suffered. It is known to have received a draft of 300 men in July.

10. While at rest behind the Champagne front further drafts of men from Russia and Rumania were received.

11. The division held the line in Champagne north of St. Hilaire-le-Grand from August 15 to September 18.

12. Upon relief the division was first sent to Laon, but was hastily entrained and hurried to Machault, where it entered the line immediately.

Battle of Argonne.

13. From September 27 to October 5 the division was engaged between Somme-Py and Manre; then it fought near Orfeuil where 900 prisoners were lost. Acting as a rear guard, the division covered the retreat from Machault to Voziers. Extremely heavy losses were reported in this period.

14. Withdrawn on the 8th, the division was moved by truck to Romagne. After two days in reserve it entered the line on the 12th, now opposing the first American Army. In this sector it fought vigorously, making perhaps the stiffest resistance encountered in the offensive.

15. The division went out on October 17 and rested until the 26th.

16. Reengaged northeast of Attigny (Rilly-aux-Dies) on the 26th, the division continued in line until the armistice. The last identification was southeast of Mezieres on November 7. Five hundred prisoners were lost by the division during their last period in line.

VALUE—1918 ESTIMATE.

The 3d Guard Division was rated as one of the best German divisions. It was completely exhausted in the offensive of March and April and suffered from a low morale in July and August. The Argonne Battle losses were very severe for the division. The regiments were reduced to 200 and 300 effectives.

76

3d Division.

COMPOSITION.

1914 1915 1916 1917 1918
Brigade. Regiment. Brigade. Regiment. Brigade. Regiment. Brigade. Regiment. Brigade. Regiment.
Infantry. 5. 2 Gren. 5. 2 Gren. 6. 34 Fus. 6. 426. 6. 381.
    9 Gren.   9 Gren.   42.   428.   (?)
  6. 34 Fus. 6. 34 Fus.   4 Ldw.   4 Ldw.   428.
    42.   42. (1, 2, and 4 Btns.). (1, 2, and 4 Btns.).    
Cavalry. 3 Horse Gren. Rgt.     3 Horse Gren. Rgt. (3d Sqn.). 3 Sqn. 3 Horse Gren. Rgt.
Artillery. 3 Brig.: 3 Brig.: 3 Brig.: 3 Art. Command: (?).
   2 F. A. Rgt.  2 F. A. Rgt.  2 F. A. Rgt.  38 F. A. Rgt.  
   38 F. A. Rgt.  38 F. A. Rgt.  38 F. A. Rgt.    
Engineers and Liaisons.   1 Pion. Btn. No. 2: 1 Pion. Btn. No. 2: 1 Pion. Btn. No. 2: 108 Pion. Btn.:
     Field Co. 2 Pions.  1 Co. 2 Pions.  1 Co. 2 Pions.  1 Co. 6 Ldw. Pions.
     3 Pont. Engs.  3 Pont. Engs.  3 Tel. Detch.  2 Ldw. Co. 4 C. Dist. Pion.
     3 Tel. Detch.  3 Tel. Detch.  3 Co. 32 Pions.  110 Searchlight Section.
       3 T. M. Co.  3 T. M. Co. 3 Signals Command:
         283 and 301 Searchlight Sections.  3 Tel. Detch.
Medical and Veterinary.       7 Ambulance Co. 7 Ambulance Co.
        18 Field Hospital. 23 Field Hospital.
        24 Field Hospital. 24 Field Hospital.
        Vet. Hospital. 189 Vet. Hospital.
Transports.       6 Truck train.  
        7 Truck train.  
        436 M. T. Col.  
77

HISTORY.

(Second District—Pomerania).

1914.

1. The 3d and 4th Division together composed the 2d Army Corps (Stettin).

2. At the beginning of the war it gave up one of its five regiments, the 54th Infantry, for the formation of the 36th Reserve Division, which operated against Russia.

Belgium.

3. In August, 1914, the 3d Division formed a part of the 1st Army (Von Kluck). It invaded Belgium the 13th and 14th of August, passing through Visé (Aug. 14), Hasselt (Aug. 17), Aerschot (Aug. 19), Laeken (Aug. 21) and entered France on the 24th.

Marne.

4. It was at Cambrai on the 26th and on the Somme the 28th. It took part in the Battle of the Marne at Vareddes on the 7th of September (district northeast of Meaux).

5. Was situated to the north of Soissons after the retreat. The 2d of October it was in the district south of Roye; on the 4th it fought near Beauvraignes.

6. At the beginning of November it was transported to Flanders (Wytschaete-Messines District) where it remained till the end of the month.

Russia.

7. It then entrained for Russia (end of November). On its arrival it was divided. The 5th Brigade was attached to the 8th Army in Oriental Prussia, the 6th Brigade to the 10th Army to the east of Lodz.

1915.

1. During the first months of 1915 the two brigades remained separated and changed position with their respective armies. The 5th Brigade went into the government of Souvalki near the frontier of Oriental Prussia; the 6th into Poland near Prasnysz and the Narew.

2. In May, at the time of the formation of new divisions, the 5th Brigade was broken up. The 2d Grenadiers, then in Courland, went over to the Homeyer Brigade which then became the 109th Division; the 9th Grenadiers went as the Third Regiment to the 3d Guard Division which abandoned one of its brigades (the 5th Guard) for the formation of a 4th Guard Division.

3. The 3d Division, reduced to the 6th Brigade, completed itself by the addition of the 4th Landwehr Regiment (1st, 2d, and 4th Battalions). The progress of the Russian offensive conducted it into the Vidzy District, where it firmly established itself.

1916.

1. Its composition varied still more in the course of the year 1916 and it lost the two active regiments which it still had. The 42d Infantry left it in September to go to the Kovel District and from there to Macedonia; in December the 34th Fusiliers left it definitely in order to go to Courland. In exchange it received two regiments formed in the autumn, the 426th and the 428th Infantry.

1917.

1. There was no change of composition or position during 1917.

1918.

The division remained in the east throughout the year. Its movements were obscure.

VALUE—1918 ESTIMATE.

The division was rated fourth class.

78

3d Landwehr Division.

COMPOSITION.

1914 1915 1916 1917 1918
Brigade. Regiment. Brigade. Regiment. Brigade. Regiment. Brigade. Regiment. Brigade. Regiment.
Infantry. 18 Ldw. 6 Ldw. 18 Ldw. 6 Ldw. 18 Ldw. 6 Ldw. 17 Ldw. 6 Ldw. 17 Ldw. 6 Ldw.
    7 Ldw.   7 Ldw.   7 Ldw.   4 Ldw.   7 Ldw.
  19 Ldw. 37 Ldw.   19 Ldw. 37 Ldw. 19 Ldw. 37 Ldw. 46 Ldw.   46 Ldw.
    46 Ldw.   46 Ldw.   46 Ldw.   327 Ldw.    
Cavalry. 1 Ldw. Cav. Rgt. (3 Sqns.). 1 Ldw. Cav. Rgt. 1 Ldw. Cav. Rgt. (?) 3 Sqn. 4 Drag. Rgt.
Artillery. 3 Ldw. F. A. Rgt. (Ers. Abils. of 20, 41, and 56, F. A. Rgts.) 3 Ldw. F. A. Rgt. 3 Ldw. F. A. Rgt. Art. Command: 3 Ldw. F. A. Rgt.
         3 Ldw. F. A. Rgt. (9 Btries.).  
         913 Batry.  
Engineers and Liaisons.     1 Ldw. Survey Sect. (403) Pion. Btn.: 418 Pion. Btn:
      2 Ldw. Survey Sect.  1 Ers. Co. 5 Pions.  1 Ers. Co. 5 Pions.
      1 Ers. Co. 5 Pions.  4 Co. 17 Pions.  139 Searchlight Section.
      303 T. M. Co.  344 Pion. Co. 503 Signal Command:
         303 T. M. Co.  503 Tel. Detch.
         246 Searchlight Section.  
         503 Tel. Detch.  
Medical and Veterinary.       230 Ambulance Co. 230 Ambulance Co.
        21 Ldw. Field Hospital. 322 Field Hospital.
        Vet. Hospital. 22 Ldw. Field Hospital.
          503 Vet. Hospital.
Transports.       537 M. T. Col 773 M. T. Col.
Attached. 17 Mixed Ers. Brig. (17, 18, 19, 20, and 77 Brig. Ers. Btns.).     2 Neuss Landst. Inf. Btn. (8  
        C. Dist. Btn. No. 22.).  
79

HISTORY.

(Fifth District—Posen.)

1914.

Russia.

At the beginning of the war the 3d Landwehr Division formed a part of the 2d Landwehr Corps (old 6th Landwehr Corps) and always occupied the eastern front.

Poland.

1. Up to the German offensive of the summer of 1915 the 3d Landwehr Division, along with the 2d Landwehr Corps, participated in the Polish campaign. At the end of October, 1914, it was identified before Warsaw (Rawa-Vistula); in the middle of November it was in retreat to the south and east of Czenstochow; in December it was to the west of Kielce.

1915.

Poland.

1. In January, 1915, the 2d Landwehr Corps was still in the Kielce District.

2. Toward the middle of February a brigade (19th Landwehr Brigade) was detached to the northeast of Warsaw (Plock-Mlawa). Reassembled to the west of Kielce in April, the 3d Landwehr Division remained between the Vistula and the Pilica until July.

Baranovitchi.

3. The division took part in the offensive against the Russians (July-August); it was before Ivangorod July 20 and arrived in the vicinity of Baranovitchi toward the end of August.

4. In October it was in the line near Goroditche. In November it took the Liakhovitchi sector (south of Baranovitchi).

1916.

1. The 3d Landwehr Division remained to the southeast of Baranovitchi (Liakhovitchi) for more than two years (November, 1915-January, 1918). The 37th Landwehr became independent in July, 1916, and received various successive additions. About the same date the 3d Landwehr Division furnished a part of the elements necessary to the formation of the 420th Infantry. In return the 327th Landwehr was assigned to it, and it kept this regiment until June, 1917, ceding it at that time to the 4th Landwehr Division.

1917.

1. Liakhovitchi sector. In November the 3d Landwehr Division sent an important reinforcement to the 9th Division (particularly to the 7th Grenadiers); two months later a smaller reinforcement was sent to the 43d Reserve Division, which was preparing to leave the eastern front.

1918.

The division remained in the eastern theatre throughout the year.

VALUE—1918 ESTIMATE.

The division remained on the Russian front from the beginning of the war. Fighting value mediocre. It was rated as fourth class.

80

3d Bavarian Division.

COMPOSITION.

1914 1915 1916 1917 1918
Brigade. Regiment. Brigade. Regiment. Brigade. Regiment. Brigade. Regiment. Brigade. Regiment.
Infantry. 5 Bav. 22 Bav. 5 Bav. 22 Bav. 6 Bav. 17 Bav. 6 Bav. 17 Bav. 6 Bav. 17 Bav.
    23 Bav.   23 Bav.   23 Bav.   18 Bav.   18 Bav.
  6 Bav. 17 Bav. 6 Bav. 17 Bav.   18 Bav.   23 Bav.   23 Bav.
    18 Bav.   18 Bav.            
Cavalry. 3 Bav. Light Cav. Rgt.   3 Bav. Light Cav. Rgt. (3 Sqns.). 4th Sqn. 3 Bav. Light Cav. Rgt. 4 Sqn. 3 Bav. Light Cav. Rgt.
Artillery. 3 Bav. Brig.: 3 Bav. Brig.: 3 Bav. Brig.: 3 Bav. Art. Command: 3 Bav. Art. Command:
   5 Bav. F. A. Rgt.  5 Bav. F. A. Rgt.  5 Bav. F. A. Rgt.  12 Bav. F. A. Rgt.?  12 Bav. F. A. Rgt.
   12 Bav. F. A. Rgt.  12 Bav. F. A. Rgt.  12 Bav. F. A. Rgt.    1 Abt. 2 Bav. Ft. A. Rgt.
           149 Bav. Light Am. Col.
           150 Bav. Light Am. Col.
           162 Bav. Light Am. Col.
Engineers and Liaisons. 1 and 3 Field Cos. 2 Bav. Pion. Btn. 1 and 3 Field Cos. 2 Bav. Pion. Btn. 1 and 3 Field Cos. 2 Bav. Pion. Btn. 5 and 7 Bav. Pion. Cos. 2 Bav. Pion. Btn.:
    3 Bav. Pont. Engs. 13 Bav. Res. Pion. Co. 3 Bav. T. M. Co.  5 Bav. Pion. Co.
    3 Bav. Tel. Detch. 3 Bav. T. M. Co. 2 Bav. Searchlight Section.  7 Bav. Pion. Co.
      3 Bav. Pont. Engs. 3 Bav. Tel. Detch.  3 Bav. Searchlight Section.
      3 Bav. Tel. Detch.   3 Bav. Signals Command:
           3 Bav. Tel. Detch.
           77 Wireless Detch.
Medical and Veterinary.       4 Bav. Ambulance Co. 4 Bav. Ambulance Co.
        9 Bav. Field Hospital. 9 Bav. Field Hospital.
        Vet. Hospital. 16 Bav. Field Hospital.
Transports.       683 Bav. M. T. Col. 683 Bav. M. T. Col.
Attached.     Inf. Pion. Co. of the 3 Bav. Div.    
81

HISTORY.

(Second Bavarian District—Bavaria, Bavarian Palatinate.)

1914.

Lorraine.

1. At the time of the declaration of war the 3d Bavarian Division and the 4th Bavarian Division constituted the 2d Bavarian Army Corps. At the beginning of August, 1914, the 2d Bavarian Army Corps formed a part of the 6th Army (Crown Prince of Bavaria). It detrained at Faulquemont (Lorraine) on August 8, and the 3d Bavarian Division was to the north of Château-Salins on the 10th. It took part in the Battle of Morhange on the 20th, passed the frontier, pillaged Gerbeviller on its way, and advanced as far as the left bank of the Mortagne. Forced to turn back, it moved near Metz the 15th of September and entrained the 19th.

Somme-Flanders.

2. Similar to the 1st Bavarian Army Corps, the 2d Bavarian Army Corps was attached to the 2d Army and fought in the Peronne District (end of September); then it was transported to Flanders, where it rejoined the 6th Army.

3. From November, 1914, to October, 1915, the 2d Bavarian Army Corps occupied the front from the Ypres-Comines Canal as far as Douve. During this period it generally remained on the defensive.

1915.

1. In April, 1915, the 3d Bavarian Division ceded the 22d Infantry to the 11th Bavarian Division, formed at this time.

In June, 1915, the 3d Bavarian Division was sent as a reinforcement for a short time to the Arras sector.

Artois.

2. In the month of October the 2d Bavarian Army Corps (3d and 4th Bavarian Divisions) was transported to the Auchy-Loos sector and kept there until August, 1916.

1916.

1. In the Loos sector the 2d Bavarian Army Corps showed itself very active. It undertook mine works and executed them with great rapidity. At the end of April it attempted a gas attack; this latter had no success, however.

Somme.

2. The 3d Bavarian Division left the Loos sector with its Army Corps about August 25 and went into the Somme District. It occupied the Martinpuich-Bazentin-le-Petit sector up to the 15th of September and fought with characteristic stubbornness. Its total losses during this period reached 4,976 men (55 per cent).

3. The Division retired from the Somme September 27 and was sent to the Douve sector (from this river to the Armentières-Lille railroad). It remained there till the end of March, 1917.

1917.

Artois.

1. The 3d Bavarian Division was relieved from Armentieres March 20, 1917. It was transported to the Arras District, situated on the Scarpe front, on April 11. It suffered considerable loss in the two unfortunate counterattacks of Monchy-le-Preux and in the French counterattack of April 23.

2. The division was withdrawn from the front April 25 and sent to rest in the Roubaix zone until the beginning of June.

Flanders.

3. On June 5 the 3d Bavarian Division began to relieve the 40th Division in the Messines sector. The British attack took place on the 7th during this relief. The division lost the village and the summit of Messines. It suffered considerable loss and left 1,531 prisoners in the hands of the enemy. (The 17th Battalion was reduced to 800 men; the 23d suffered about equal losses; the 18th lost fewer men.)

Lorraine.

4. The 3d Bavarian Division was withdrawn from the Messines sector June 8, 1917, and taken to the Conflans area. After a short period of repose, during which it 82was partially reconstituted, it was put into the line in the sector of the Bezange forest (south of Château-Salins) July 18.

5. The 3d Bavarian Division received a reinforcement of 4,500 men—convalescents, exclusively—between June 8 and the end of August. (At the end of August the personnel averaged only 120 men who drew rations (80 combatants) per company in the 17th Battalion.) The losses sustained the 7th of June had not been made good by the 28th of August.

6. The division was sent into Lorraine for rest and reconstitution, remaining on the defensive, and pursuing the instruction of its detachments in the use of light minenwerfers and assault tactics.

Aisne.

7. It left Lorraine in the middle of October. On the 28th it occupied the Aisne front to the north of Braye-en-Laonnois (Trucy sector). The 17th Battalion was the only one to engage in the October battles which preceded the German retreat to the north of the Ailette.

VALUE—1917 ESTIMATE.

The 3d Bavarian Division is one of the best German units.

It always fought well, showing great energy in the offensive and preserving a great tenacity in the defensive.

Nevertheless, the fighting value of this division appears to have diminished during the course of the year 1917.

1918.

1. About January 1 the division was relieved and went into training in the region Fournes-Chimay, where it remained for four weeks.

St. Gobain.

2. The division relieved the 47th Reserve Division near Septvaux about February 1, and occupied the line until March 28.

3. Retired from the front on the 28th; the division was sent toward Chauny-La Fere, where it constituted the reserve division of the 8th Reserve Corps.

Noyon.

4. In April the division alternated between short periods in line and brief rests. North of Plemont it relieved the 7th Reserve Division about April 2, was relieved by the 1st Bavarian Division a few days later, and returned to line about April 11, relieving the 1st Bavarian Division. About this time the division received a draft of 900 men of the 1919 class.

5. The division was withdrawn from the Lassigny front about May 25.

Battle of the Oise.

6. The division participated in the Oise fighting of June, although it did not take a direct part in the opening attack. It supported the effort of the 3d Bavarian Reserve Division, lending some battalions, from which prisoners were taken. About the middle of June the division passed to the second line, rested two weeks, and returned to the Montdidier-Noyon front about June 30.

Lassigny.

7. The division remained in line throughout July and encountered the Allied attack of middle August. About August 21 it was withdrawn.

8. Between August 21 and October 7 the division was not satisfactorily identified. Elements were reported near Terguier in September, near Ypres, and in the region of St. Etienne-Arnes.

Woevre.

9. The division entered the Woevre line on October 7, near Manheulles, where it remained until the armistice.

VALUE—1918 ESTIMATE.

The division was used during 1918 as a sector-holding division. It took no prominent part in the offensives of the year.

83

3d Reserve Division.

COMPOSITION.

1914 1915 1916 1917 1918
Brigade. Regiment. Brigade. Regiment. Brigade. Regiment. Brigade. Regiment. Brigade. Regiment.
Infantry. 5 Res. 2 Res. 5 Res. 2 Res. 5 Res. 2 Res. 5 Res. 2 Res. 5 Res. 2.
    9 Res.   9 Res.   9 Res.   49 Res.   34 Fus.
  6 Res. 34 Res. 6 Res. 34 Res. 6 Res. 20 Landst.   34 Fus.   49 Res.
    49 Res.   49 Res.   49 Res.        
Cavalry. 5 Res. Dragoon Rgt. (3 Sqns.). 5 Res. Dragoon Rgt.     1 Sqn. 22 Drag. Rgt.
Artillery. 3 Res. F. A. Rgt. (6 Btries.). 3 Res. F. A. Rgt. 3 Res. F. A. Rgt. 73 Art. Command: 73 Art. Command:
         3 Res. F. A. Rgt. (9 Btries.).  3 Res. F. A. Rgt.
           4 Abt. 14 Res. Ft. A. Rgt.
           865 Light Am. Col.
           1177 Light Am. Col.
           1195 Light Am. Col.
Engineers and Liaisons.   2d Pion. Btn. No. 2: 2d Pion. Btn. No. 2: 303 Pion. Btn. (?): 303 Pion. Btn.:
     Field Co. 2 Pions.  2 Res. Co. 2 Pions.  2 Res. Co. 2 Pions.  2 Res. Co. 2 Pions.
     3 Res. Pont. Engs.  203 T. M. Co.  2 Co. 34 Res. Pions.  203 T. M. Co.
     3 Res. Tel. Detch.  3 Res. Pont. Engs.  203 M. T. Co.  196 Searchlight Section.
       3 Res. Tel. Detch.  403 Tel. Detch. 403 Signals Command:
         3 Res. Pont. Engs.  403 Tel. Detch.
           33 Wireless Detch.
Medical and Veterinary.       502 Ambulance Co. 502 Ambulance Co.
        14 Field Hospital. 14 Res. Field Hospital.
        15 Field Hospital. 15 Res. Field Hospital.
        16 Field Hospital. 163 Vet. Hospital.
        163 Vet. Hospital.  
Transport.       704 M. T. Col. 704 M. T. Col.
Attached.       154 Cyclist Co.  
84

HISTORY.

(2d District—Pomerania.)

1914.

East Prussia-Russia.

1. At the beginning of the war the 3d Reserve Division, recruited in the 2d District (Pomerania), formed a part of the 8th German Army (Hindenburg). It fought with this army in eastern Prussia; it was engaged in the battle of Tannenberg (Aug. 26–28), in the battles of Biallo, Lyck, Suwalki, and Augustowo (September-October).

1915.

1. In February, 1915, the 3d Reserve Division participated in the battle of the Mazurian Lakes, and in May in the battles on the Polish frontier.

2. During the great offensive of the summer of 1915 the division was engaged in the operations on the Bobr, which resulted in the taking of Ossovietz. In August it fought in the vicinity of Kovno. It participated in the siege of this city (Aug. 13–18) at the battle of Niemen (Aug. 19-Sept. 8). When the front was stabilized it took position to the north of Smorgoni (southeast of Vilna).

1916.

1. The 3d Reserve Division occupied this sector (north of Smorgoni) up to March, 1917. At this time it was placed in reserve in the Vilna sector.

Belgium.

2. At the beginning of May, 1917, it was sent to the western front. It entrained May 13 at Soly (east of Vilna), and was transported via Vilna, Wirballen, Gumbinnen, Berlin, Hanover, Aix-la-Chapelle, Liege, Louvain, and Brussels up to Bruges, where it detrained May 18. It was sent to rest in this district until June 4.

3. On this date the division was transported to the district north of St. Quentin and went into the line on the 8th in the Vendhuille-Bellicourt sector (west of Catelet), where it habituated itself to the western front.

1917.

Ypres.

4. The division was relieved the end of July. After having been in reserve for several days it engaged in the battle of Ypres on the Frezenberg front on August 4; here it was severely tried by artillery fire.

5. It was withdrawn from the front August 18 and sent to rest, first at Tournai and later in the Moorslede District.

6. On September 23 it was again sent into the line in the battle of Flanders to the south of Zonnebeke (Polygone wood), and again suffered serious losses on the 26th.

Alsace.

7. The 3d Reserve Division was relieved September 28 and transported to Alsace (Mulhouse District), where it remained in repose up to the middle of October.

8. About the 10th or 15th of October it occupied the sector north of the canal from the Rhone to the Rhine, and remained there till the end of October.

9. At this time it was withdrawn from the front. It entrained for Metz November 10. In December it was in the vicinity of Sissone.

Aisne.

10. About December 13 it entered the line in the Craonne sector (Juvincourt area). At the beginning of January it took over the neighboring sector (Bouconville).

85

VALUE—1917 ESTIMATE.

Very mediocre morale. The 49th Reserve Regiment was very severely tested by losses and desertions to such a point that it had to be returned to the rear after August 18, 1917. September 26 the 8th Company of the same regiment refused to take part in the attack. The relatively high proportion of men of the 2d Landsturm levy may be responsible for these facts, since they formed part of the regiments of the Second District.

According to prisoners captured in February, 1918, the 3d Reserve Division seemed to be of mediocre quality: “6,000 men lost in Flanders, poorly replaced by men 50 per cent of whom were old, many being above 40, and by 30 per cent Poles.”

Nevertheless, despite the mediocrity of its personnel, it must be noted that the 49th Reserve was subjected to a special training for attack troops in November and December.

1918.

Laon.

1. The division held the line in the Craonne sector until about April 20, when it was relieved.

Oise.

2. It reappeared on May 1 near Hainvillers (southeast of Montdidier), where it remained until about June 20. The division was in the thick of the June fighting on the Oise and lost heavily.

3. About June 20 the division went to rest in the region of Guise.

Marne.

4. The division participated in the fighting between the Marne and Soissons when the Allies delivered their attack on the Marne salient. It relieved the 115th Division at Longpont on July 18 and withstood the attack until July 31. The 49th Reserve Regiment was almost annihilated in the course of the fighting near Mery. The other regiments were reduced to 70–80 rifles per company.

5. Retired from the front on July 31, the division rested at La Capelle until September 1.

Cambrai.

6. The division came into line east of Chevisy on September 2. Its composition had been altered by the disbandment of the 2d Reserve Regiment and the addition of the 2d Grenadier Regiment from the 109th Division. The British attack on the Somme of September 12 engulfed the division, which lost 1,300 prisoners.

Belgium.

7. It was withdrawn about September 27 and transferred to Belgium, where it entered the line near Dixmude on September 29. It held the line in this sector until October 16, when it passed into the second line for a week’s rest. Returning to line on the 23d, it remained in line until the armistice.

VALUE—1918 ESTIMATE.

The division is rated as a third-class division. Its morale was on the whole bad. The Polish elements deserted freely. In July pillaging of supply trains was apparently prevalent in the divisional area. Elements of the division refused to fight in the Oise battle in June, and the German command appeared to have confidence in its fighting value.

86

3d Naval Division.

COMPOSITION.

1917 1918
Brigade. Regiment. Brigade. Regiment.
Infantry 4 Nav. 1 Mar. Mar. 1 Mar.
    2 Mar. Inf. Brig. 2 Mar.
    3 Mar.   3 Mar.
Cavalry   3 Sqn. 7 Hus. Rgt.
Artillery 9 F. A. Rgt. 2 Matr. F. A. Rgt.
    925 Light Am. Col.
    1234 Light Am. Col.
    1292 Light Am. Col.
Engineers and Liaisons 1 Co. Mar. Pion. Btn. 115 Pion. Btn.
  3 Co. Mar. Pion. Btn.  1 Res. Co. 24 Pions.
  337 Pion. Co. 293 Signal Command:
  165 T. M. Co.  293 Tel. Detch.
     66 Wireless Detch.
Medical and Veterinary   610 Ambulance Co.
    2 Mar. Field Hospital.
    390 Field Hospital.
    569 Vet. Hospital.
Transports   679 M. T. Col.
Attached Coast Defense Btn.  

HISTORY.

1917.

1. The 3d Naval Division was organized in April, 1917. Its Regiments (1st, 2d, and 3d Naval Infantry) were detached from the Naval Corps, before the constitution of the division, to take part in the attacks upon Steenstraat on April 22, 1915, and on the Somme from September, 1916, to April, 1917. Since its formation the 3d Naval Division has scarcely left the coast.

Flanders.

2. In August, 1917, the 3d Naval Division occupied the sector of Lombartzyde.

3. In October it was in action on the Ypres front at Poelcappelle.

4. In December it again took over the sector of Lombartzyde.

RECRUITING.

The 3d Naval Division is recruited from the entire German Empire, the naval troops being imperial troops.

VALUE—1917 ESTIMATE.

Before the war the troops of the 3d Naval Division were landing and occupying troops for the German colonies. They are good units whose recruiting has been kept up to a high standard.

1918.

Albert.

1. The division was relieved north of St. Georges about the 1st of March and moved to Valenciennes, where it arrived about the 13th. From March 18 to 23 it moved up 87to the front by stages via Haussy-Cattenieres-Lesdain. On the 23d it followed up the advance, passing through Fins and Manancourt on the 24th–25th and coming into action at Contalmaison on the 25th. It captured Albert on the 26th. The division held a sector west of Albert until mid-April, and on April 24 returned to its former sector west of Anthuille. It was relieved about the end of May by the 24th Division.

2. On June 20 the division returned to relieve the 24th Division in the Aveluy sector. In mid-July the company strength was low. No drafts had been received recently and sickness was prevalent. This, together with the August spell in line, had considerably reduced the morale of the division. It was relieved on August 19 by the 83d Division.

Scarpe-Somme.

3. The division rested at Flers for five days, when it came into line west of Grevillers on the night of August 23–24 to reinforce the line. It was withdrawn in a few days (Aug. 26) and rested at Cambrai. Five hundred prisoners were taken from the division in this period.

4. The division rested at Thourout during the first half of September. On the 27th it was engaged west of Marcoing and fought in that area until the end of the month. The total prisoners captured from the division was 700.

5. After two weeks’ rest in the Cambrai area, the division returned to line at Molain on October 17. It fought in the Molain-Catillon area until October 23, when it was relieved by the 19th Reserve Division. On November 1 it was again in line, northwest of the Hattencourt Farm. The last identification was at Any, on November 7.

VALUE—1918 ESTIMATE.

The division was rated as third class. Its use in the Somme March offensive and as an intervention division in the Scarpe-Somme battle suggest that the division was a second class division.

88

4th Guard Division.

COMPOSITION.

1915 1916 1917 1918[3]
Brigade. Regiment. Brigade. Regiment. Brigade. Regiment. Brigade. Regiment.
Infantry.   5 Ft. 5 Gd. 5 Ft. 5 Gd. 5 Ft. 5 Gd. 5 Ft.
    5 Gren.   5 Gren.   5 Gren.   5 Gren.
    93 Res.   93 Res.   93 Res.   93 Res.
Cavalry.   3d Sqn. Gd. Res. Ulan Regt. 2d Sqn. Gd. Res. Drag. Rgt. 2d Sqn. Gd. Res. Drag. Rgt.
Artillery.   (z) 2d Gd. Res. F. A. Rgt. 4 Gd. Art. Command: 4 Gd. Art. Command:
    6 Gd. F. A. Rgt.  6 Gd. F. A. Rgt.  6 Gd. F. A. Rgt.
         3 Abt. 1 Gd. Ft. A. Rgt. (5, 6, and 10 Btries.).
         1208 Light Am. Col.
         1285 Light Am. Col.
         1359 Light Am. Col.
Engineers and Liaisons.   (z) Co. 3 Gd. Pions. 106 Pion. Btn.: 106 Pion. Btn.:
    261 Pion. Co.  261 Pion. Co.  261 Pion. Co.
    4 Gd. T. M. Co.  269 Pion. Co.  269 Pion. Co.
    4 Gd. Pont. Engs.  4 Gd. T. M. Co.  4 Gd. T. M. Co.
    4 Gd. Tel. Detch.  315 Searchlight Section. 4 Gd. Signals Command:
       4 Gd. Tel. Detch.  4 Gd. Tel. Detch.
         61 Wireless Detch.
Medical and Veterinary.     267 Ambulance Co. 267 Ambulance Co.
      392 Field Hospital. 392 Field Hospital.
      397 Field Hospital. 397 Field Hospital.
      Vet. Hospital. 4 Gd. Vet. Hospital.
Transports.     13 Gd. Truck Train. 533 M. T. Col.
      533 M. T. Col.  
Attached.     32 M. G. S. S. Detch. 44 Observation Group.
      70 Anti-Aircraft Section. 72 Sound Ranging Section.
        244 Reconnaissance Flight.
        20 Balloon Sqn.

3.  According to a document of Aug. 21, 1918.

89

HISTORY.

1915.

The 4th Guard Division was formed on the Russian front in March, 1915.

Russia.

1. From March 14 to July 12 the 4th Guard Division was in line near Przasnysz. It belonged to Gallwitz’s army, which was operating north of the Vistula.

2. From July 13 to September 28 the division took part in many fights, notably on the Narew, and took part in the pursuit as far as the region of the marshes of Lithuania.

3. Withdrawn from the front and reached Kovno on foot, where it entrained for the Western Front on October 10 via Koenigsberg, Luebeck, Hamburg, Aix-la-Chapelle, Namur. Detrained at Douai and sent to rest.

France.

4. From November 14 to 26 it occupied a sector near Arras, then went to rest near Cambrai.

5. From December 15, 1915, to January 4, 1916, it built entrenchments in the region of Wytschaete-Messines.

1916.

1. During January and February, 1916, the 4th Guard Division continued its entrenching work in the sector Wytschaete-Messines and held the sector at the same time.

2. Until the end of April, 1917, the 4th Guard Division, together with the 1st Reserve Guard Division, formed the reserve corps of the guard. Both these divisions were put through a course of training with a view to active operations.

3. From May 9 to July 23 the division remained in line northeast of Neuville-St. Vaast.

Somme.

4. Engaged in the battle of the Somme July 25 (Estres sector), suffered heavy losses and was withdrawn August 19. Engaged again after a few days of rest and fought some severe local battles until September 10 (Thiepval sector).

5. After seven days of rest behind the Flanders front it held a quiet sector north of Ypres from September 17 to October 25.

6. From November 6 to 25 it was again sent to the Somme, where it was subjected to several heavy local attacks (Warlencourt sector).

1917.

1. Remained in the Warlencourt sector until March 17, 1917. It was relieved immediately after it had retired to the Hindenburg line.

Lens.

2. After three weeks’ rest in the region of Tournai it was sent by stages to the south of Lens, where it went back in the lines. It suffered considerable losses there. Withdrawn from the front July 11.

3. At rest in the region of Pont-a-Vendin and Meurchin. On August 15 the division was hurried up to the north of Lens. It attacked to regain the lost ground but in vain. Its losses were extremely heavy.

4. The division stayed in line until September 15.

Flanders.

5. At rest for a week behind the front. Entrained September 23 and 24 at Carvin for Flanders.

6. It was at first in the reserve of the army, but went into line September 27 east of Zonnebeke. After one of its regiments had attacked and was stopped by the British artillery fire (Oct. 22), the division obtained replacements and on October 4 renewed 90its attempt to retake the heights lost on September 26. Warned by a British attack, they became demoralized and fled in disorder toward Becelaere. The losses of the 4th Guard Division were so heavy that it had to be relieved on October 5 to 7.

7. Entrained for Guise and arrived there October 10. Went into line on the 14th in the sector of Itancourt, southeast of St. Quentin, and was still holding it in December. Its forces were much reduced by the attacks in Flanders and were reinforced by neighboring units (13th Landwehr Division).

VALUE—1917 ESTIMATE.

Formerly an excellent combat unit, having that traditional esprit de corps which animated the regiments of the Prussian Guards. At the present time (November, 1917) it has lost a good part of its fighting value. It seems to have been much weakened by the battle of Ypres (October, 1917).

1918.

Guise.

1. The division rested during January near d’Origny Ste. Benoite (west of Guise).

Somme.

2. On February 4 the division came into line northwest of Bellenglise. It was relieved about the middle of February.

3. Upon relief, it marched via Bohain to St. Souplet, near Le Cateau. Here the division underwent a course of training in this area until March 18, when it marched via Bohain-Brancourt-Montbrehain-Ramicourt back to its old sector at Bellenglise, arriving in line March 20.

Battle of Picardy.

4. The division attacked in the first line and advanced by Hesbecourt March 21–26. Passing into support for eight days it was reengaged April 3–8 near Bouzencourt and le Hamel, suffering very heavy losses. Between the 8th and the 24th the division rested. It was in line again near Marcelcave from the 22d to the end of April, participating in the attack at Villers-Bretoneaux on the 24th. Heavy losses were again sustained.

5. Again the division went to rest at St. Souplet, near le Cateau. The 2d Battalion of the 427th Regiment, dissolved, arrived as a reinforcement for the division on May 27. The division was moved by rail to Flavy le Martel on night of June 1. It marched by nights to Canny sur Matz (by Golancourt, Guiscard, and Candor) and entered the line on the night of June 8–9.

Battle of the Oise.

6. The division attacked on the 9th between Roye sur Matz and Canny sur Matz. It penetrated by Marquelise to Antheuil. The French counterattack threw it back north of Antheuil on the 11th. The division stayed in line until the 19th.

Lorraine.

7. After resting at Bohain until June 29 the division was moved to Lorraine by Valenciennes-Brussels-Namur-Saarburg. Here it was rested and reconstituted.

8. The division returned by rail to Athies sur Laon on July 22. From there it marched to Mousey sur Aisne by stages and then in trucks to Mareuil en Dole on July 25.

Battle of the Marne, Vesle, Aisne.

9. The division was engaged July 27 southeast of Fere en Tardenois. It fell back toward Fismes on August 1–2, from where it was shifted into the Courlandon-Breuil sector, which it held from August 14 to the beginning of September. On the 5th it moved to the south of Glennes, remaining there until the 30th, when it fell back across the canal. The division was relieved on October 2, but turned back to line on the 5th to cover the retreat near Benu au Bac. On the 7th it went to rest for a week.

91
Ardennes.

10. Reengaged west of Chateau Porcien from October 14 to November 5. The 93d Regiment was mentioned in the German communique of November 2 as fighting especially well. In the retreat the division passed through Renneville and Rubigny, where it was last identified on November 11.

VALUE—1918 ESTIMATE.

The division was always regarded as a first-class fighting division, although the losses on the Somme in March and the setback on the Oise in June lowered its value. Constant fighting impaired the morale and kept the effectives low, but the division was always to be included in the first-class divisions.

92

4th Division.

COMPOSITION.

1914 1915 1916 1917 1918
Brigade. Regiment. Brigade. Regiment. Brigade. Regiment. Brigade. Regiment. Brigade. Regiment.
Infantry. 7. 14. 7. 14. 7. 14. 8. 14. 8. 14.
    149.   149.   149.   49.   49.
  8. 49. 8. 49. 8. 49.   140.   140.
    140.   140.   140.        
Cavalry. 12 Drag. Rgt. (v. Arnim). 12 Drag. Regt.   3d Sqn. Horse Gren. Rgt. 2 Sqn. 3 Horse Gren. Rgt.
Artillery. 4 Brig.: 4 Brig.: 4 Brig.: 4 Art. Command: 4 Art. Command:
   17 F. A. Rgt.  17 F. A. Rgt.  17 F. A. Rgt.  53 F. A. Rgt.  53 F. A. Rgt.
   53 F. A. Rgt.  53 F. A. Rgt.  53 F. A. Rgt.    48 Ft. A. Btn.
           939 Light Am. Col.
           945 Light Am. Col.
           1319 Light Am. Col.
Engineers and Liaisons.   1 Pion. Btn. No. 2: 1 Pion. Btn. No. 2: 114 Pion. Btn.: 114 Pion. Btn.:
     Field Co. 1 Pion. Btn. No. 2.  2 Co. 2 Pions.  2 Co. 2 Pions.  2 Co. 2 Pions.
     4 Pont. Engs.  4 T. M. Co.  5 Co. 2 Pions.  5 Co. 2 Pions.
     4 Tel. Detch.  4 Pont. Engs.  2 Co. 114 Pions.  4 T. M. Co.
       4 Tel. Detch.  4 T. M. Co.  55 Searchlight Section.
         7 Searchlight Section.  4 Signals Command:
         4 Tel. Detch.  4 Tel. Detch.
         4 Pont. Engs.  72 Wireless Detch.
Medical and Veterinary.       6 Ambulance Co. 6 Ambulance Co.
        17 Field Hospital. 17 Field Hospital.
        Vet. Hospital. 19 Field Hospital.
          131 Vet. Hospital.
Transport.       8 Truck Train. 537 M. T. Col.
        9 Truck Train.  
        537 M. T. Col.  
Attached.       Construction Co.  
93

HISTORY.

(Second District—Pomerania.)

1914.

France.

1. At the beginning of the campaign the 4th Division fought on the Western Front until November, 1914. It detrained at Rheydt on August 9 and 10, and entered Belgium on the 14th and France on the 25th. Fought at Sailly-Saillisel on the 28th; reached Grand-Morin September 5 and fought at Acy en Multien on the 6th. After retreating to the north of Soissons it remained south of Roye from the end of September to the end of October, and was near Ypres in November.

Russia.

2. Sent to Russia and took part in the second offensive on Warsaw.

1915.

1. In January it took part in the battles of Bolimow. In February it went to the Carpathians (Army of the South under Linsingen). Took part in the offensive on Lemburg.

2. About September 27, 1915, it was relieved in the region south of Baranovitchi and entrained at Kobryn for the Western Front.

France.

3. It arrived in the vicinity of Sedan at the beginning of October. After a few days’ rest it marched to the north of Tahure.

4. On October 30 the division took part in the attack of Butte De Tahure and suffered severe losses.

5. At the beginning of November it left Champagne for the region of Reims where its units went into the trenches on November 8. Until the beginning of April, 1916, it held the sector northwest of Prunay.

1916.

1. At the beginning of April the division was sent to rest in the vicinity of Rethel. During this period (Nov. 15 to Apr. 16) its losses were light.

Verdun.

2. At the beginning of May the division was sent to the region of Verdun. On May 4 it took part on the attack on Hill 304, where it suffered heavy losses.

3. Relieved May 15 and sent to rest in the region of Mouzon-Carignan, from where it went to the region of Damvillers.

4. At the beginning of July it was sent to hold the sector of Thiaumont at the moment when the French recommenced their offensive in that region. Its losses were very heavy.

5. On August 3 it left Thiaumont for the region of Cumieres, on the left bank of the Meuse (Aug. 5).

6. At the end of September it held the sector Malancourt-Avocourt.

7. Relieved at the end of October and trained at Dun. After a short rest it went into line in December northeast of Vaux.

1917.

1. The division remained in the Vaux sector until April 17.

2. It relieved the 10th Reserve Division in the region of Satigneul (night of Apr. 15–16) a few hours before the beginning of our attack. It remained in this sector until May 5 and was subjected to French attacks of April 16 and May 4.

3. Beginning May 5, it was relieved and went into camp in the region of Caurel.

94
Champagne.

4. On May 7 and the following days it went into the sector of Grille Mont Haut and held this until June 19.

5. The division was put in reserve on this date in the region Epove-Warmeriville.

6. Went into line in the sector Moronvilliers (July 19 and days following) until the end of October.

Belgium.

7. At the end of October it entrained at Juniville and went to Belgium, where it held the sector Poelcapelle until November 24.

8. It went into line again east of Armentieres on November 30 and was still in that sector on January 11, 1918.

RECRUITING.

In spite of heavy losses suffered several times, it would seem that they wished to keep up the Pomeranian character of the 4th Division, although it received in September, 1915, some men of the 1915 class from Hesse-Nassau, and later on a number of Brandenburgers and Silesians, as the third and sixth districts often furnished their ratio to the districts temporarily out of men. A great majority of men, however, came from Pomerania, and as the resources of this Province in men are limited it was necessary, to keep up the provincial composition of this division, to draw from the Landwehr depots and the battalions of Pomeranian Landsturm. Since it was impossible to maintain the quality of the division, it seems that they were anxious to maintain its nationality.

VALUE.

The 4th Division was always a very good division and gave proof of very fine military qualities in all the battles in which it took part, especially in the sector of Sapigneul during the offensives of April 16 and May 4, 1917. It would seem that the nature of the replacements they received, especially the most recent ones, has considerably altered the value of this division.

1918.

1. The division was relieved from the front of Armentieres on January 23, and went to rest and instruction in the Oisene area (southwest of Deyuze). After four weeks the division entrained at Roubaix on March 16 and detrained at Douai on the following day. Hence it marched by stages to Neuville St. Remy, a suburb of Cambrai. The division was concentrated south of Inchy on the night of March 20–21.

Battle of Picardy.

2. Engaged on March 21, the division advanced by Doignies and Herrnies. It passed to rest on the 24th and was reengaged from March 26 to April 6 at Miraumont, Hebuterne, and Colincamps. The division suffered very heavy losses in the engagement.

3. Relieved from the Hebuterne front on April 6, the division rested two weeks in the Bapaune-Cambrai area. The division moved north to the Lys front via Douai-Lille.

Battle of the Lys.

4. The division was in line west of Merville from April 23 to May 14.

5. While at rest north of Tournai, the division was reconstituted and prepared for another heavy engagement.

6. The division entrained for Loos on June 30 and moved on to Sailly sur la Lys on July 18.

95
The Lys Withdrawal.

7. The division came into line near Merris on July 27. It lost 500 prisoners south of Meteren on August 18. On the 30th the division fell back on Bailleul and later to Bac St. Maur and Fleurbaix. It was relieved at Fleurbaix on October 11.

8. The division rested from the 11th to the 21st near Denain.

9. Again the division was engaged to the east and northeast of Solesmes and near Le Quesnoy, retreating to Beaurain, Ghissignies, and Ruesnes. It passed in the second line on November 1, but came back to the line south of Le Quesnoy about November 5. It retreated by Locquignol toward Maubeuge, where it was last identified on November 9.

VALUE—1918 ESTIMATE.

The 4th Division was a very good division. In 1918 its morale was mediocre, due to the young recruits.

96

4th Ersatz Division.

COMPOSITION.

1914 1915 1916 1917 1918
Brigade. Regiment. Brigade. Regiment. Brigade. Regiment. Brigade. Regiment. Brigade. Regiment.
Infantry. 9 Ers. 9, 10, 11, and 12, Brig. Ers. Btns. 9 Ers. 9, 10, 11, and 12, Brig. Ers. Btns. 9 Mixed Ers. 359. 13 Ers. 360. 13 Ers. 214 Res.
            360.   361.   360.
          13 Mixed Ers. 361.   362.   362.
            362.        
  13 Ers. 13, 14, 15, and 16, Brig. Ers. Btns. 13 Ers. 13, 14, 15, and 16, Brig. Ers. Btns.            
  33 Ers. 33, 34, 35, 36, and 81, Brig. Ers. Btns. 33 Ers. 33, 34, 35, and 81, Brig. Ers. Btns.            
Cavalry. Ers. Detchs. of the 9, 13, and 33 Ers. Brigs. Ers. Detchs. of the 9, 13, and 33 Ers. Brigs. 4 Ers. Cav. Sqn. Ers. Cav. Detch. (3d C. Dist.). 3 Sqn. 10 Hus. Rgt.
Artillery. 1 Ers. Abt. of the 18 and 39 F. A. Rgt. 1 Ers. Abts. of the 18 and 39 F. A. Rgt. 90 F. A. Rgt. 139 Art. Command: 139 Art. Command:
  1 Ers. Abts. of the 40 and 75 F. A. Rgt. 1 Ers. Abts. of the 40 and 75 F. A. Rgt. 91 F. A. Rgt.  90 F. A. Rgt.  90 F. A. Rgt.
  1 Ers. Abts. of the 45 and 60 F. A. Rgt. 1 Ers. Abts. of the 45 and 60 F. A. Rgt.      119 Ft. A. Btn.
           1052 Light Am. Col.
           1059 Light Am. Col.
           1323 Light Am. Col.
Engineers and Liaisons. 1 Ers. Co., 3 Pions. 1 Ers. Co., 3 Pions. 303 Pion. Co. 504 Pion. Btn.: 504 Pion. Btn.:
  1 Ers. Co., 4 Pions. 1 Ers. Co., 4 Pions. 304 Pion. Co.  304 Pion. Co.  304 Pion. Co.
  1 Ers. Co., 9 Pions. 1 Ers. Co., 9 Pions. 305 Pion. Co.  305 Pion. Co.  305 Pion. Co.
      161 T. M. Co.  161 T. M. Co.  161 T. M. Co.
         251 Searchlight Section.  59 Searchlight Section.
         554 Tel. Detch. 554 Signal Command:
           554 Tel. Detch.
           123 Wireless Detch.
Medical and Veterinary.       64 Ambulance Co. 64 Ambulance Co.
        135 Field Hospital. 135 Field Hospital.
        136 Field Hospital. 136 Field Hospital.
        Vet. Hospital. 136 Vet. Hospital.
Transports.         762 M. T. Col.
Attached.   1 Res. Co., 25 Pions. 103 Antiaircraft Section    
      2 Res. Co., 25 Pions.    
97

HISTORY.

(360th and 361st: Fourth District—Prussian Saxony. 362d: Ninth District—Schleswig—Holstein.)

1914.

The 4th Ersatz Division was organized in August, 1914, by grouping together brigade Ersatz Battalions coming from the Third, Fourth, and Ninth districts (Brandenburg Prussian-Saxony, Mecklenburg, Schleswig-Holstein, and Hansa towns).

Lorraine.

1. Detrained August 18 at Teterchen (Lorraine) and at the battle of the 20th the division was in the rear of the 2d Bavarian Corps. It fought on the 22d along the Marne-Rhine Canal between Einville and Dombasle, retreated on the 23d, suffered heavy losses on the 25th at Mazerulles, and engaged only a few units of its 9th Brigade in the attack on Nancy in September.

2. On September 15 the division went to rest west of Delme. On the 23d it entrained at Rening (Sarralbee-Benestroff line), passed through Metz, Luxemburg, Arlon, Marche, Liége, Louvain and detrained September 25, 1915, at Brussels.

Belgium.

3. From there it went to Bruges (Oct. 14), then Ostend (Oct. 16). On the 17th by the road along the coast it marched from Ostend to Nieuport (Oct. 30). It then went into the line in front of the Belgians on the right bank of the Yser (November).

1915.

Dixmude.

1. Remained in the sector north of Dixmude during the whole of 1915.

2. At the end of July, 1915, the brigade Ersatz Battalions of the division were grouped into regiments. The 4th Ersatz Division was made up of the 359th, 360th, 361st and 362d Infantry. With the 37th Landwehr Brigade and the 2d Reserve Ersatz Brigade (Basedow Division) it constituted the Werder Corps (December).

1916.

1. The division was kept in the region of Dixmude until April, 1916.

2. After April a part of the division was sent east of Ypres between the Ypres-Roulers Railway and the Comines Canal. Some of the units of the division remained in line near Dixmude.

Somme.

3. About September 27 the division left Belgium for the Somme, where it was engaged during the first two weeks of October near Le Sars.

4. On October 15 it returned to Belgium and went back to the sector east of Ypres in November.

5. Sent to rest about November 30 and sent back to the Somme south of Bapaume, about the middle of December.

1917.

1. Remained south of Bapaume (Le Transloy-Gueudecourt) until the end of February, 1917.

2. About the middle of March it relieved the 14th Bavarian Division in the same sector at the beginning of the retirement of the German troops, withdrew to the east of Bertincourt, via Neuville-Bourjonval, Metz en Courtuere, and fought on the Trescault-Havricourt line (April).

Artois.

3. Relieved about April 26 or 28 and sent north of the Scarpe about May 10. Engaged near Roeux until about May 18 and suffered heavy losses (more than 800 prisoners).

4. At the end of May it was sent to the Eastern Front. The 361st Infantry entrained May 26 at Vitry en Artois, via Paderborn-Halle-Leipzig-Dresden-Breslau-Lemburg.

98
Galicia.

5. Until July the division remained in reserve in Galicia with the Bothmer army.

6. In July it held the sector south of Brzezany. Took part in the offensive against the Russians, and in September was near Radautz, where it remained until December. Due to some of its forces being transferred to other organizations more than to its losses, the companies of the 362d Infantry from August to October, had fallen from 120 men to 70 (examinations of Russians).

France.

7. Relieved December 4 and entrained the 16th for the Western Front, via Lemberg-Cracow-Breslau-Berlin-Hanover-Aix la Chapelle-Brussels-Courtrai-Tournai. Detrained the 26th.

RECRUITING.

360th Infantry: Brandenburg and Prussia Saxony. 361st and 362d Infantry: Prussia Saxony, Hanover, Schleswig-Holstein and Hansa towns.

VALUE.

A fairly good division.

1918.

La Bassee.

1. The first entry into line of the division was on January 18 in the sector south of the La Bassee Canal, relieving the 6th Bavarian Division.

Battle of the Lys.

2. On the 5th of April the division crossed north of the canal and attacked in the Gorre-Givenchy-Festubert region. Seven hundred prisoners were lost on April 9, besides heavy casualties. The division was relieved on April 20–21.

Woevre.

3. The division was moved to the region south of Metz for a rest. About May 18 it took up a sector south of Les Esparges, which it held until about June 13.

4. After resting near Conflans until June 25, it entrained in the Woevre and moved by Sedan-Charleville to the region east of Laon, arriving on June 28. It proceeded to the line by the road through Fismes.

Aisnes-Marne.

5. The division was engaged at Bussiares, Torcy, and Hautevisnes between June 30 and July 18. It met the attack of July 18 and was thrown back toward Oulchy le Chateau. On the 24th it was relieved.

6. The division rested at Perthes for a week and then moved to Novy. It entrained at Amagne on August 12 and traveled to Ostrecourt, where it remained for two weeks. On August 28 it occupied the Dricourt-Queant line astride the Arras-Cambria road.

Second Battle of Picardy.

7. Engaged on the 29th, the division came in for some heavy fighting. It was thrown back on Dury (Sept. 2) and after losing 1,650 prisoners was relieved on September 5.

8. The division rested until the middle of September. The 214th Reserve Regiment coming from the dissolved 46th Reserve Division, replaced the 361st Regiment.

9. The division was engaged near the La Bassee Canal from September 16 to October 1. It rested until the 16th, when it was reengaged southwest of Lille. In the retreat it fell back by Wavrin, Seclin, Cysoing, Ere, Mons and Blaugies. The last identification was at Boussu on November 9.

VALUE—1918 ESTIMATE.

The division was rated as a third-class division. At no time in 1918 did it distinguish itself, especially not in the Lys battle. Before the July 18 attack, the infantry effectives of the division numbered about 3,200. In October the battalions were reduced to three companies.

99

4th Landwehr Division.

COMPOSITION.

1914 1915 1916 1917 1918[4]
Brigade. Regiment. Brigade. Regiment. Brigade. Regiment. Brigade. Regiment. Brigade. Regiment.
Infantry. 22 Ldw. 11 Ldw. 22 Ldw. 11 Ldw. 22 Ldw. 11 Ldw. 22 Ldw. 11 Ldw. 22 Ldw. (?)
    51 Ldw.   51 Ldw.   51 Ldw.   23 Ldw.   23 Ldw.
  23 Ldw. 22 Ldw. 23 Ldw. 22 Ldw. 23 Ldw. 22 Ldw.   51 Ldw.   51 Ldw.
    23 Ldw.   23 Ldw.   23 Ldw.   404.    
Cavalry. Ers. Cav. Rgt. of the 4 Ldw. Div. (4 Sqns.). Ers. Cav. Rgt. of the 4 Ldw. Div. Ers. Cav. Rgt. of the 4 Ldw. Div. 3 Sqn. 4 Drag. Rgt.  
  2 Ldw. Cav. Rgt. (3 Sqns.).        
Artillery. 4 Ldw. F. A. Rgt. (Ers. Abtls. 6, 42, and 56 F. A. Rgt.). 4 Ldw. F. A. Rgt. 4 Ldw. F. A. Rgt. Art. Command: 4 Ldw. F. A. Rgt. (Staff, 2 Abt. Staff and 5 and 6 Btries.).
         4 Ldw. F. A. Rgt. (9 Btries.).  
Engineers and Liaisons. 1 Ers. Co. 6 Pions. 1 Ers. Co. 6 Pions. 1 Ers. Co. 6 Pions. (404) Pion. Btn.: 2 Ers. Co. 6 Pions.
      2 Ers. Co. 6 Pions.  1 Ers. Co. 6 Pions. 504 Signals Command:
      304 T. M. Co.  2 Ers. Co. 6 Pions.  504 Tel. Detch.
         304 T. M. Co.  
         25 Light Fortress Searchlight Section.  
         323 and 332 Searchlight Sections.  
         Tel. Detch.  
Medical and Veterinary.       236 Ambulance Co. 236 Ambulance Co.
        19 Ldw. Field Hospital. 19 Ldw. Field Hospital.
        20 Ldw. Field Hospital. 504 Vet. Hospital.
        Vet. Hospital.  
Transport.       785 T. M. Co.  
Attached. 21 Mixed Ers. Brig. (21, 22, 23, 24, and 78, Brig. Ers. Btns.) Dis. in Sept.     7th Munster Landst. Inf. Btn. (7 C. Dist. Batn. No. 69) arrived from 3 Ldw. Div.  

4.  The elements below are those grouped in the 4th Landwehr Division Postal Zone. Other elements belonging to the 4th Landwehr Division but operating in other sectors (Nov. 13) are listed as attached to the divisions they are operating under.

100

HISTORY.

(Sixth District—Silesia.)

1914.

At the beginning of the war the 4th Landwehr Division, with the 3d Landwehr Division, formed the 2d Landwehr Corps (former 7th Landwehr Corps), which was engaged on the Eastern Front.

Poland.

1. The 4th Landwehr Division at the beginning of September, 1914, took part in the battle of Tarnowka with the 3d Landwehr Division, then in the operations before Warsaw and the retreat following the enveloping movement of the Russians at Lodz. In December it was located between the Vistula and Pilica (at Czenstochow, Dec. 1; near Kielce, Dec. 28).

1915.

1. Until July, 1915, the division remained on the Polish front (left bank of the Vistula) between Radom and Gravowiec.

Baranovitchi.

2. Took part in the offensive against the Russians, which carried it through the region of Baranovitchi in July to August.

1916.

1. Held the front northeast of Baranovitchi from September, 1915, until the beginning of 1918. In 1916 it contributed drafts to the 420th Infantry.

1917.

1. Sector of Baranovitchi. The division had many of its forces transferred to the Western Front: In November, 1917, for the 52d Division; in February, 1918, for the 5th Reserve Division, but during 1917 it was reinforced by the 404th Infantry, coming from the 18th Landwehr Division.

VALUE—1917 ESTIMATE.

Mediocre.

1918.

Ukraine.

1. At the beginning of April, 1918, the 4th Landwehr Division marched into Russia. On the 14th of April, the 11th Landwehr Regiment was near Minsk; and at the beginning of May it was east of Kiev, along with the 404th Regiment.

2. On June 15 the 23d and 51st Landwehr Regiments were identified near Ochra.

3. A man of the 51st Landwehr Regiment wrote on October 23: “The latest news is that the 4th Landwehr Division is going into France.” The division was still in Russia on October 28 and was never identified on the Western Front.

101

4th Bavarian Division.

COMPOSITION.

1914 1915 1916 1917 1918
Brigade. Regiment. Brigade. Regiment. Brigade. Regiment. Brigade. Regiment. Brigade. Regiment.
Infantry. 7 Bav. 5 Bav. 7 Bav. 5 Bav. 7 Bav. 5 Bav. 7 Bav. 5 Bav. 7 Bav. 4 Bav.
    9 Bav.   9 Bav.   5 Bav. Res.   5 Bav. Res.   5 Bav.
  5 Bav. Res. 5 Bav. Res. 5 Bav. Res. 5 Bav. Res.   9 Bav.   9 Bav.   9 Bav.
    8 Bav. Res.   8 Bav. Res.            
Cavalry. 5 Bav. Light Cav.   5 Bav. Light Cav. (3 Sqns.). 3 Bav. Light Cav. (5th Sqn.). 5 Sqn. 3 Bav. Light Cav. Rgt.
Artillery. 4 Bav. Brig.: 4 Bav. Brig.: 4 Bav. Brig.: 4 Bav. Art. Command: 4 Bav. Art. Command:
   2 Bav. F. A. Rgt.  2 Bav. F. A. Rgt.  2 Bav. F. A. Rgt. 2 Bav. F. A. Rgt.  2 Bav. F. A. Rgt.
   11 Bav. F. A. Rgt.  11 Bav. F. A. Rgt.  11 Bav. F. A. Rgt. 11 Bav. F. A. Rgt. (?).  2 Abt. 4 Bav. F. A. Rgt.
           122 Bav. Light Am. Col.
           134 Bav. Light Am. Col.
           135 Bav. Light Am. Col.
Engineers and Liaisons. 2d Field Co. 2d Field Co. 2d and 5th Field Cos. 6 Bav. Pion. Co. 8 Bav. Pion. Btn.:
  2 Bav. Pion. Btn. 2 Bav. Pion. Btn. 2 Bav. Pion. Btn. 9 Bav. Pion. Co.  6 Bav. Pion. Co.
    4 Bav. Pont. Engs. 4 Bav. T. M. Co. 4 Bav. T. M. Co.  9 Bav. Pion. Co.
    4 Bav. Tel. Detch. 4 Bav. Pont. Engs. 4 Bav. Tel. Detch.  14 Bav. T. M. Co.
      4 Bav. Tel. Detch.    4 Bav. Searchlight Section.
          4 Bav. Signal Command:
           4 Bav. Tel. Detch.
           108 Bav. Wireless Detch.
Medical and Veterinary.       5 Bav. Ambulance Co. 5 Bav. Ambulance Co.
        11 Bav. Field Hospital. 11 Bav. Field Hospital.
        Vet. Hospital. 12 Bav. Field Hospital.
Transports.       M. T. Col. 684 Bav. M. T. Col.
Attached.     35 Labor Btn.    
102

HISTORY.

(Second Bavarian District—Bavaria and Lower Franconia.)

1914.

1. At mobilization the 4th Bavarian Division, with the 3d Bavarian Division, formed the 2d Bavarian Army Corps. It transferred its 8th Brigade (Metz Garrison) to the 33d Reserve Division and replaced it by the 5th Bavarian Reserve Brigade, organized in the Palatinate. The other brigade, the 7th, detrained, commencing August 3, between Morhange and Remilly. The reserve brigade detrained August 10 at St. Avold. Assembled the 18th in the rear of the Metz-Strasbourg Railroad and with the 2d Bavarian Army Corps constituted the 6th Army (Crown Prince Ruprecht of Bavaria).

Lorraine.

2. On August 20 it fought west of Morhange. Then it captured the fort of Manonviller (with the 22d Bavarian of the 3d Bavarian Division) and advanced to Mortagne, south of Luniville. September 11 it was withdrawn to the rear.

Somme.

3. September 18 the division entrained at Metz for Namur, from where it went to the north of Peronne (Sept. 25). It then became part of the 2d Army and fought from September 26 to the middle of October in the region north of the Somme (Fricout, Mametz, Montauban).

Flanders.

4. During the third and fourth weeks of October (beginning the 23d) it went to Flanders (6th Army) south of Ypres. It held the sector of Wytschaete from November 14 to October 15 and was on the defensive. November 9 the 5th Infantry was reduced to less than 800 men (notebooks).

1915.

In March, 1915, the 8th Reserve Infantry was transferred from this division to the 10th Bavarian Division.

Artois.

1. September 26, 1915, some of its units fought on the Loos-Hulluch front at the time of the British attack. In the counter attack, during which these troops retook ditch No. 8, they suffered severe losses.

In November the whole division was in the region of Loos south of Hulluch, where it stayed until August 16. In this sector it carried on mine warfare. About the end of April, 1916, it lost 1,100 men while attempting a gas attack.

1916.

Somme.

1. Toward the end of August, 1916, the division was sent to the Somme.

2. It was engaged between Martinpuich and Longueval, where it fought violent battles for the Bois Haut (Aug. 25–28 to Sept. 15). Its total losses were 5,361 men, or 60 per cent of its effectives.

Flanders.

3. Again sent to Flanders and held the sector northeast of Armentieres (east of the Bois de Ploegsteert) from October 16 to June 17.

1917.

1. In June, 1917, while still in line in front of Bois de Ploegsteert, it was in part subjected to the British attack against Messines ridge, and suffered especially from the artillery preparations. It lost 200 prisoners.

2. Relieved from the Belgian front about June 16 and sent to rest in the region of Audenarde until July 7.

1033. Beginning July 9, it was engaged southeast of Armentieres (between the Lys and Wez-Macquart) July and August.

4. Withdrawn from the Armentieres sector in the middle of September and went into line northeast of Ypres, between Zonnebeke and Passchendaele, from September 26 to October 27. Suffered heavy losses (30 per cent of its forces).

Lorraine.

5. October 11 entrained at Pitthem and went to Conflans the 13th from where it went into line in the region of Thiaucourt (Limey sector). It was there still in February, 1918.

RECRUITING.

Lower Franconia and Bavarian Palatinate.

VALUE—1917 ESTIMATE.

The 4th Bavarian Division went through some very severe offensive and defensive fights and came through them with honors.

The prisoners examined gave proof of vigor and tenacity if not of intelligence. As soon as it is filled up again this division shall again take its place on the most effective fronts (December, 1917).

It is to be noted that February, 1918, it is not yet completely filled up and does not seem to be in shape for an offensive.

1918.

1. The division remained in the quiet Thiaucourt sector until late March when it was relieved by the 40th Division. On April 14 it entrained at Nancieulles and traveled via Audun le Romain-Longuyon-Sedan-Charleville-Hirson-Avesnes-Denain-Orchies to Rouchin. It marched to Armentieres, arriving on April 16, and proceeded to reserve near Bailleul on the following day.

Kemmel.

2. On the 23d of April the division came into line northeast of Dranoutre, suffered heavy losses about here, and was relieved about May 1.

3. The division rested until June 11 in the north of France. During this time it was reviewed by the King of Bavaria and Prince Franz. The division commander was decorated.

Flanders.

4. It returned to line near Merris about June 11. It continued in line, suffering heavy losses until July 10.

5. The division rested out of line until August 17.

6. It was reengaged on August 17 east of Bucquoy, coming from Lille via Cambrai Velu Beugny. It was withdrawn from the battle north of Bapaume on August 25, after losing 1,600 prisoners.

7. The division rested near Tourcoing until late in September.

8. On September 29 the division was identified in line in Champagne, north of Maure. Its composition had been changed by the disbandment of the 5th Bavarian Reserve Regiment and the substitution of the 4th Bavarian Regiment from the dissolved 14th Bavarian Division. The division continued on this front, with short periods in the second line, until November 4. It was identified north of Marvaux (October 4), near Monthois (October 11), between Namdy and Falaise (October 19). The division was considered in reserve 3d Army between November 4 and the armistice.

VALUE—1918 ESTIMATE.

The division was of the first quality. It saw heavy fighting and showed itself very aggressive in attack and tenacious in defense. The extensive replacements which have been necessary did not improve the morale, but due to the high quality and spirit of the organization, it was always to be considered as a first-class division.

104

4th Cavalry Division (Dismounted).

COMPOSITION.

1918
Brigade. Regiment.
  39 Cav. 38 Ldw. Inf. Rgt.
    40 Ldw. Inf. Rgt.
    9 Res. Schutzen Uhlan Rgt.
    89 Schutzen Rgt.
    87 Schutzen Rgt.
Engineers and Liaisons. 2 Ldw. Pion. Co., 14 C. Dist. Pions.
Medical and Veterinary. 99 Ambulance Co.
Attached. Landst. Inf. Btns.
  VII-54 Munster.
  XIV-14 Bruchsae.
  IV-15 Jorgan.
  XVI-7 2d Saarlouis.
  XIV-51st Offenburg.

HISTORY.

1918.

1. The 4th Cavalry Division entrained in the Riga region on the 1st of April, 1918, for the Western Front. It detrained at Molsheim in Alsace on April 7, and went into line near the Ban de Sapt (Vosges). The division had recently been reorganized. During April a report was received stating that Lieut Gen. von Krame, commander of the 39th Cavalry Brigade, had been decorated. The division continued to hold the Alsace sector until the armistice.

VALUE—1918 ESTIMATE.

The division was rated as fourth class.

105

5th Guard Division.

COMPOSITION.

1917 1918
Brigade. Regiment. Brigade. Regiment.
Infantry. 2 Gd. 3 Ft. 2 Gd. 3 Ft.
    3 Gren.   3 Gren.
    20.   20.
Cavalry. 1 Sqn. 2 Gd. Uhlan Rgt. 1 Sqn. 2 Gd. Uhlan Rgt.
Artillery. 5 Gd. Art. Command: 5 Gd. Art. Command:
   4 Gd. F. A. Rgt.  4 Gd. F. A. Rgt.
     1 Abt. 1 Gd. Res. Ft. A. Rgt.
     1180 Light Am. Col.
     1181 Light Am. Col.
     1203 Light Am. Col.
Engineers and Liaisons. 100 Pion. Btn.: 100 Pion. Btn.:
   4 Gd. Pions.  4 Gd. Pion. Co.
   1 Gd. Res. Pion. Co.  1 Gd. Res. Pion. Co.
   9 Gd. T. M. Co.  9 Gd. T. M. Co.
   (?) 28 Searchlight Section.  195 Searchlight Section.
   5 Gd. Tel. Detch. 5 Gd. Signal Command:
     5 Gd. Tel. Detch.
     149 Wireless Detch.
Medical and Veterinary. 3 Ambulance Co. 3 Ambulance Co.
  8 Field Hospital. 8 Field Hospital.
  9 Field Hospital. 9 Field Hospital.
  Vet. Hospital. 5 Gd. Vet. Hospital.
Transports. M. T. Col. 680 M. T. Col.
  680 Divisional M. T. Col.  
Odd units. Field Recruit Depot No. 815.  
Attached. 3 Abt. 43 Res. F. A. Rgt.  
  2 Abt. 3 Bav. Ft. A. Rgt.  
  2 Abt. 11 Res. Ft. A. Rgt.  
  2 Abt. 21 Ft. A. Rgt.  
  3 Btry. 57 Ldw. Ft. A. Rgt.  
  5 Btry. 57 Ldw. Ft. A. Rgt.  
  6 Btry. 57 Ldw. Ft. A. Rgt.  
  10 Btry. 13 Res. Ft. A. Rgt.  
  11 Btry. 13 Res. Ft. A. Rgt.  
  6 Btry. 17 Bav. Ft. A. Rgt.  
  464 Ft. A. Btry.  
  4 Co. 8 T. M. Btn.  
  3 Co. 8 T. M. Btn.  
  1 Co. 5 Road. Const. Btn. No. 72.  
  3 Co. 166 Labor Btn.  
  43 Res. Pion. Co.  
  199 Signal Btn.  
  307 Signal Btn.  
  2 Field Signal Co.  
  60 Balloon Section.  
  114 Supply Train.  
  21 Munition Train.  
  181 Munition Train.  
  190 Munition Train.  
  374 Munition Train.  
  517 Munition Train.  
  560 Supply Train.  
  50 Supply Train.  
  1 Field Bakery.  
106

HISTORY.

1917.

Organized in February, 1917, from regiments transferred from already existing units (3d Foot Guards, transferred from the 1st Guard Division; 3d Grenadier Guards, transferred from the 2d Guard Division; 20th Infantry, from the 212th Division, previously belonging to the 6th).

Craonne.

1. It appeared for the first time in line about March 20 between Craonne and Hurtebise, where it suffered heavy losses, April 16 to 18.

2. Relieved May 4 and went to a calm sector in the region of Preqmontreq.

3. About June 5–6 it was sent to rest in the region north and northwest of Laon. June 20 it was located in the region of Sissonne, where it remained until July 7.

Californie Plateau.

4. On the night of July 7–8 it arrived in this sector. It executed a violent attack on July 19 and again suffered heavy losses. Relieved July 27.

5. Reinforced by drafts from depots in Brandenburg and rested in the region of Mauregny en Haye and Barenton sur Cerre, and then went through a methodical and intensive training at the camp at Chivy les Etouvelles.

Chemin des Dames.

6. About August 20 it relieved the 43d Reserve Division on the Chemin des Dames between Panthéon and La Royere; suffered considerable losses during the French offensive of October 23.

7. In the region of Vervins at the beginning of November, with its battalions greatly reduced.

8. Went into line near Hargicourt at the end of November.

RECRUITING.

The 20th Infantry (3d Brandenburg) was a regiment from the Province of Brandenburg.

The 3d Foot Guards and the 3d Grenadier Guards were drawn not only from Brandenburg, but generally from the Kingdom of Prussia.

VALUE—1917 ESTIMATE.

The 5th Guard Division must be considered one of the best divisions of the German Army. Its regiments are extremely good.

The Division had been brought to the Aisne to retake the Californie Plateau, and it showed wonderful energy in this work (July 19, 1917). October 23, 1917, at the Chemin des Dames, in spite of its great losses and of the fact that the 1918 class formed about 20 per cent of its effectives, the division showed great resistance, and left only a comparatively small number of prisoners in our hands (about 300).

1918.

1. The division arrived at Fourmies on January 10 for training and maneuvers. About February 14 it marched to Avesnes, where it rested until March 5. It then marched to St. Quentin by night marches, passing through Homblieres, Dallow, Happencourt, Tugny, and crossed the Crozat Canal between Ham and St. Simon on March 23.

Battle of Picardy.

2. On the night of the 23d it relieved the 45th Reserve Division in front of Golancourt, where it met a lively resistance. From the 24th to the 27th it was in army reserve resting in the region Golancourt le Plesses Patte d’Oie. On the 28th it moved

107by Flavy le Meldux, Ecuvilly, Catigny, Candor, and entered line west of Lassigny on the 29th, relieving the 1st Bavarian Division. On the 30th it attacked west of the Roye sur Matz railroad but was stopped by our counterattacks. Until April 10 the division was in line at Beuvraignes and at Roye sur Matz. On the 8th it received 400 men, mostly of the 1919 class, in reinforcements.

3. Withdrawn from line on April 4, the division moved by degrees to the northeast of Laon on April 24, where it was reorganized, reinforced, and rested near Rozay sur Serre. By night marches it moved to the Aisne front and entered line on May 26, between Corbeny and the Californie Plateau.

Battle of Aisne.

4. It fought in the offensive from May 27 to 30, advancing by Guyencourt, Fismes, Crugny, Cierges, and Vincelles. Between May 31 and June 7 it was in reserve at Coulonges, Sergy, Beuvardes, Grisolles, and Sommelous. The division was reengaged northwest of Chateau Thierry on June 7 against the American 2d Division.

Chateau Thierry.

5. In the three weeks the division was in the Torcy-Hautevesnes sector it lost most heavily. Several companies of the 20th Regiment were annihilated on June 8–9; the others were reduced to 30–40 rifles. The division lost about one-half its effectives in this period.

6. It was withdrawn about June 30 and reconstituted in reserve of the Torcy sector near Coincy from July 1 to 17.

Battle of the Marne.

7. The division came back on the 18th and engaged in rear-guard fighting near Monthiers and Grisolles. It was engaged on defensive works near Blanzy les Fismes from July 29 to August 8.

8. It rested in the region of Bruyeres from August 2–8, when it was transported to Belgium by Marle-Hirson to rest. On the 31st it was alerted and entrained, the regiments following with a day’s interval by Mauberg-St. Quentin, detraining at Laon and Crepy en Laonnois. From that point it moved by foot to Vauxaillon front.

Aisne-Ailette.

9. On September 3 the division relieved the 238th Division east of Louilly. In the succeeding days it suffered very heavily. It was relieved on September 16.

10. The division left the Laon area on September 16 and detrained that night at St. Juvin, where it rested until September 24. The heavy losses of the division were made good while there.

Argonne.

11. It entered the line opposite the American 1st Army on September 27 in the region of Montblainville. After heavy losses, which caused a partial disintegration of the division, it withdrew on October 8. The 3d Guard Grenadier Regiment was practically destroyed in this fighting.

Woevre.

12. It was transported to the Woevre and on October 19 was engaged east of Verdun at Chatillon sous les Cotes. Here it remained until the armistice.

VALUE—1918 ESTIMATE.

The division was rated as a first-class division, but after its rough handling in the Hautevesnes-Torcy sector it lost much of its value as an attack division.

Both on the Aisne in September and in the Argonne the division’s losses were extremely heavy. Battalions were reduced to three companies in October. By the 20th of October the remnants of the companies were combined to make one.

108

5th Division.

COMPOSITION.

1914 1915 1916 1917 1918
Brigade. Regiment. Brigade. Regiment. Brigade. Regiment. Brigade. Regiment. Brigade. Regiment.
Infantry. 9. 8 Body Gren. 9. 8 Body Gren. 10. 8 Body Gren. 10. 8 Body Gren. 10. 8 Body Gren.
    48.   48.   12 Gren.   12 Gren.   12 Gren.
  10. 12 Gren. 10. 12 Gren.   52.   52.   52.
    52.   52.            
Cavalry. 3 Hus. Rgt. (3 Sqns.) (?) 3 Hus. Rgt. (3 Sqns.). 3 Hus. Rgt. (?). 3 Sqn. 3 Hus. Rgt.
Artillery. 5 Brig.: 5 Brig.: 5 Brig.: 5 Art. Command: 142 Art. Command:
   18 F. A. Rgt.  18 F. A. Rgt.  18 F. A. Rgt.  18 F. A. Rgt.  18 F. A. Rgt.
   54 F. A. Rgt.  54 F. A. Rgt.  54 F. A. Rgt.    67 Ft. A. Btn. (Staff and 1, 2, and 3 Btries).
           848 Light Am. Col.
           879 Light Am. Col.
           792 Light Am. Col.
Engineers and Liasions.   1 Pion. Btn. No. 3: 1 Pion. Btn. No. 3: 116 Pion. Btn. (formerly 1 Pion. Btn. No. 3): 116 Pion. Btn.:
     Field Co. 3 Pions.  1 Co. 3 Pions.  1 Co. 3 Pions.  1 Co. 3 Pions.
     5 Pont. Engs.  5 Pont. Engs.  2 Co. 3 Pions.  2 Co. 3 Pions.
     5 Tel. Detch.  5 Tel. Detch.  5 T. M. Co.  14 Bav. Pion. Co.
       5 T. M. Co.  319 Searchlight Section.  5 T. M. Co.
         5 Tel. Detch.  35 Searchlight Section.
         99 Searchlight Section. 5 Signal Command:
           5 Tel. Detch.
           29 Wireless Detch.
Medical and Veterinary.       9 Ambulance Co. 9 Ambulance Co.
        Field Hospital. 27 Field Hospital.
        Vet. Hospital. 26 Field Hospital.
          5 Vet. Hospital.
Transports.       11 Supply Train. 538 M. T. Col.
Attached.     Field M. G. Co. of the 10 Brig. M. T. Col.  
        M. G. S. S. Detch. No. 5.  
        68 Anti-Aircraft Sect.  
109

HISTORY.

(Third District—Brandenburg.)

1914.

France.

1. The 5th Division with the 6th Division formed the 3d Army Corps. At the beginning of the campaign it was part of the 1st Army (Von Kluck). It detrained near Aix la Chapelle August 9 and 10, entered Belgium the 14th, and passed through Louvain the 19th. Took part in the battle of Charleroi and the battle of the Marne (at Sancy and Cerneux, Sept. 6), then in the battles between the Aisne and the Marne in September, and was finally stabilized between the Aisne and the Oise, in the region Vailly and Soissons.

1915.

1. Battle of Soissons (Jan. 13).

2. About June 10 the 5th Division was no longer a part of the 1st Army. July 1 it was sent to Douai, and about July 14 held the sector before Arras.

3. September 25, 1915, took part in the attacks in Champagne.

Belgium.

4. Went to Belgium in December. About December 25 was at rest in the region Hirson-Avesnes.

1916.

Verdun.

1. At the beginning of February, 1916, it was in the region of Spincourt.

2. At the end of February at Verdun. It fought near Herbebois February 23. It attacked Douaumont February 26 and suffered severe losses. It was again engaged from March 8 to 15 and from April 22 to the end of the May.

Somme.

3. July at the Somme (Longueval, Bois Delville). Suffered heavy losses.

4. Middle of August in Champagne (Auberive) until October 12.

Verdun.

5. December, 1916, it went again to Verdun (region of Vaux, Dec. 7). Units of the 5th Division were engaged as reinforcements during the French attack of December 15. The division was withdrawn from the Verdun front about December 25 and sent to the region of Mulhouse.

1917.

Alsace.

1. Stayed in Upper Alsace (region of Mulhouse and Ferrette) until April 20, 1917. It held temporarily a calm sector in the Vosges region, but during this period it is used particularly for entrenching works on the French front and the Swiss frontier.

Champagne.

2. It was alarmed. It entrained in the region of Mulhouse and was sent through Montmedy and Sedan to Champagne, where it went into line on April 23 in the Mont-Haut sector, where it suffered very heavy losses.

3. Left Champagne front at the beginning of May.

4. Toward the end of June it was in the Woevre in the region between Conflans and Briey.

5. At the beginning of July it was again in the Champagne (Téton sector).

Russia.

6. Sent to the Eastern Front in July and relieved at the beginning of September by the 6th Reserve Division in the region of Zbrucz.

Italy.

7. About October sent from Galicia to Italy.

110
France.

8. Sent from Italy to France at the beginning of January, 1918, and at rest behind the front in Champagne. January 20, 1918, it went into line near Butte du Mesnil.

RECRUITING.

Essentially from Brandenburg (Regiments of the Mark, as the communiques sometimes call it), and its provincial character has been carefully maintained.

VALUE—1917 ESTIMATE.

Although not as good as at the beginning of the war, the morale of the 5th Division seemed good and its fighting value worthy of consideration (July 17).

1918.

1. After its return from Italy the division rested and trained at Chenois, near Charleville, from January 1 to March 1, when it moved to Anderlues-Resbaix (west of Charleroi) from March 1 to 14. On that date it moved to the front by night marches by Maubeuge, Landrecies, Wassigny, and Etaves.

Battle of Picardy.

2. It took its place in line between Lesdins and Remancourt (north of St. Quentin) on the night of March 20–21. The next day it was engaged in support of the 25th Division, advancing via Morcourt and Fayet. It took part in the attack on Holnon Wood and reached Attilly that night. It continued to advance on the 22d via Beauvois-Lanchy-Uguy-Quivieres-Croix-Moleguaux to a point east of Falvy. On the 24th it forced the crossing of the Somme at Falvy and Pargny and reached Morchain that night. It was at Omilcourt on the 25th and captured Chaulnes on the 26th; from there it advanced to Fouquescourt and Rouvroy on the 27th, crossed the Avre, and when the line stabilized near Aubvillers the division withdrew, March 28. Its losses in the fighting were extremely heavy. In crossing the Somme it especially distinguished itself.

3. The division rested until April 3, when it was reengaged between Sauvillers and Grivesnes from April 3–12. It again lost heavily, especially the 52d Regiment, during the attack of April 4 near the Bois de Arrachies.

4. It rested and trained from April 13 to May 23 at Iron et Vadencourt, near Guise. It is known to have received 1,000 men from Beverloo on April 14. From May 23 to 26 it marched toward the Aisne front by night, through Parpeville, Monceau le Neuf, Aisis sur Serre, Couvron, Laniscourt, Foucancourt.

Battle of the Aisne.

5. On the night of June 26 it entered line southeast of Lizy. In the offensive the division advanced by Chavignon, Malmaison, Uregny, region of Pommiers, Mercin, Pernant, east of Ambleny. It was partially relieved on June 7 and the last elements withdrawn by June 13.

6. The division rested between Guise and Le Nouvion (Mannappes Lechelle) from the middle of June to July 18. During this period the Spanish sickness ravished the troops. Reinforcements reconstituted the division during this period. On July 19 the division was transported to Anezy le Chateau by way of Wassigny, Guise, Mesbricourt. By marches it moved by steps to south of Soissons.

Battle of the Marne.

7. On July 21 the division was engaged near Buzancy. It fell back to the Vesle by Acy on August 1–2. It remained in the sector south of Vailly (Ciry-Salsogne, Sermoise) until September 5, when it retired to the line Vailly-Celle sur Aisne. After losing more than 1,000 prisoners it was relieved on September 18.

111
Ardennes.

8. The division was reengaged in the region of Jonchery on September 28. It retired north of the Aisne (Sept. 30) toward Berry au Bac. Again retreated October 10 by Prouvais, La Malmaison, to Nizy le Comte. It was in line there until October 17, when it retired to the second line for a week. It was reengaged in the same region from October 25 to November 5, when it retreated by Rozoy and Brunehamel with extremely heavy losses.

VALUE—1918 ESTIMATE.

Before the summer of 1918 the 5th Division was an excellent assault division, frequently mentioned in German communiques. But after August, 1918, it became a sector-holding division. It was almost constantly in line after July 21 with consequent lowering of morale and discipline. In November it had but two battalions per regiment and three companies per battalion.

112

5th Reserve Division.

COMPOSITION.

1914 1915 1916 1917 1918
Brigade. Regiment. Brigade. Regiment. Brigade. Regiment. Brigade. Regiment. Brigade. Regiment.
Infantry. 9 Res. 8 Res. 9 Res. 8 Res. 10 Res. 8 Res. 10 Res. 8 Res. 9 Res. 8 Res.
    48 Res.   48 Res.   12 Res.   12 Res.   12 Res.
  10 Res. 12 Res. 10 Res. 12 Res.   48 Res.   48 Res.   48 Res.
    52 Res.   52 Res.            
  3 Res. Jag. Btn. 3 Res. Jag. Btn.            
Cavalry. 2 Res. Dragoon Rgt. (3 Sqns.).   2 Res. Drag. Rgt. 2 Res. Drag. Rgt. (?) (1 Sqn.). 5 Sqn. 4 Drag. Rgt.
Artillery. 5 Res. F. A. Rgt. (6 Btries.). 5 Res. F. A. Rgt. 5 Res. F. A. Rgt. 90 Art. Command: 90 Art. Command:
         5 Res. F. A. Rgt.  5 Res. F. A. Rgt.
           4 Abt. 17 Res. Ft. A. Rgt.
           1086 Light Am. Col.
           1176 Light Am. Col.
           1202 Light Am. Col.
Engineers and Liaisons. 4 Field Co. and 2 Res. Co. of the 2 Pion. Btn. No. 3. 4 Field Co. and 2 Res. Co. of the 2 Pion. Btn. No. 3. 4 Field Co. and 2 Res. Co. of the 2 Pion. Btn. No. 3. (305) Pion. Btn.: 505 Pion. Btn.:
    5 Res. Pont. Engs. 205 T. M. Co.  4 Co. 3 Pions.  4 Co. 3 Pions.
    5 Res. Tel. Detch. 5 Res. Pont. Engs.  2 Res. Co. 3 Pions.  2 Res. Co. 3 Pions.
      5 Res. Tel. Detch.  205 T. M. Co.  205 T. M. Co.
         Tel. Detch.  69 Searchlight Section.
          405 Signal Command:
           405 Tel. Detch.
           44 Wireless Detch.
Medical and Veterinary.       503 Ambulance Co. 503 Ambulance Co.
        64 Res. Field Hospital. 64 Res. Field Hospital.
        65 Res. Field Hospital. 65 Res. Field Hospital.
        Vet. Hospital. 135 Res. Vet. Hospital.
Transports.       M. T. Col. 705 M. T. Col.
113

HISTORY.

(Third District—Brandenburg.)

1914.

The 5th Reserve Division is organically a part of the 3d Reserve Corps, with the 6th Reserve Division.

Belgium.

1. At the beginning of the war the division belonged to the 1st Army (Von Kluck). Detrained at Crefeld from August 10 to 12; entered Belgium the 18th. The 3d Reserve Corps was sent to France. The division was at Malines on August 22, at Vilvorde the 26th, and fought against the Belgians on that day. The 3d Reserve Corps then turned toward Antwerp, which it besieged. After the city was taken the corps advanced toward the sea through Ghent, Bruges, October 13 to 16. The 19th the 5th Reserve Division attacked in the direction of Nieuport. At the beginning of November it fought in the vicinity of Bixschoote, in the forest of Houthulst; then until the end of November it held the Dixmude-Langmarck front.

Russia.

2. About December 2 the division entrained for the eastern front. On arriving in Russia it became part of Mackensen’s army (9th Army). It was sent to the Bzura.

1915.

1. In February, 1915, the division was attached to the 10th Army and took part in the battle of Prasnysz.

2. In May one of its brigades remained before Kovno with the 10th Army (Gen. von Eichhorn). The other brigade joined the 3d Reserve Corps of the 9th Army (Gen. von Fabeck) and fought on the Bzura. The 52d Reserve Infantry was transferred to the 107th Division.

3. In July the division was reorganized. It was attached to the 9th Army before Warsaw and fought between the Bzura and the Pilica.

4. In November, after crossing the Vistula and the Bug it arrived before Baranovitchi. It remained in this region until March, 1917.

1916.

1. On January 1, 1916, it held the eastern sector of Novo-Grudok, north of Baranovitchi.

2. At the beginning of April the division was placed in reserve behind this sector.

3. During the first two weeks of July it was engaged between Gorodivche and Baranovitchi to oppose the Russian offensive started on this part of the front. On July 8 it suffered heavy losses. (The 8th Reserve had 1,200 men out of action.)

1917.

France.

1. It was relieved in this area about the middle of April and sent to the Western Front.

2. Entrained between the 17th and 18th of April at Molczacz (Baranovitchi sector) and went to France, via Brest-Litovsk-Warsaw-Oppeln-Breslau-Goerlitz-Dresden-Leipzig-Sondershausen-Frankfort on Main-Sarrebrucken-Metz. It detrained at Mars la Tour.

Woevre.

3. It was then sent to St. Maurice sous les Cotes, where it rested for a few days and then went to the Cotes de Meuse, east of the Combres Heights. It went into the sector before Combres (Calonne trench) on May 15 or 16, and there became accustomed to the Western Front.

114
Californie Plateau.

4. Relieved May 27, it was sent behind the Aisne front; spent about three weeks in the Sissonne region, and about June 19 went into line on Californie Plateau near Chaevreux. On June 24, July 3 and 22, the division executed some violent attacks on Californie Plateau, and some of its units lost half their men.

5. Partially relieved about July 23, the units of the division were sent to rest successively at St. Erme, Ramecourt, and La Selve. Before August 10 it was back on Californie Plateau (region of Craonne south of Corbeny).

6. The division took part on the same position in the general retreat of November 1 which brought the German lines back to the north of the Ailette following the French attack of La Malmaison. The division remained on these new lines (south and west of Corbeny) until January 22, 1918.

7. Relieved on this date and put through a course of training in the region of Chimay. On February 18 it marched to the sector of Juvincourt.

RECRUITING.

Brandenburg.

VALUE—1917 ESTIMATE.

The division is considered by the Germans as a very good division. Its original elements came from the best corps, the Brandenburg corps, but it contains a large proportion of Poles. The division needs rest and replacements. When reconstituted it will probably again be a good unit. (Dec. 29, 1917.)

1918.

Laon.

1. On February 21 the division relieved the 113th Division at Juvincourt, which sector it held until March 26.

Picardy.

2. It was withdrawn to reinforce the battle front at Chauny, where it appeared on April 2. About April 11, it retired to second line, from which it returned to the battle front on April 25, relieving the 242d Division at Couchy le Pots. The division continued to hold this sector until early June.

Noyon.

3. Between June 1 and 10 it was moved from the Couchy le Pots sector to reinforce the Montdidier-Noyon battle front, where it was identified on June 12 near Courcelles. It was withdrawn on June 17.

4. During July the division rested in rear of the Amiens front.

Somme.

5. It came into line on August 8 at Trace le Mont. In the opening week of the offensive it lost many prisoners and retired from the line about August 20 to rest near St. Gobain. On the 29th it returned to line near Arblencourt-Champs. It withdrew early in September but returned to support the 80th Reserve Division in a counterattack executed in the region Sancy-Vauxillon September 16–18.

6. Following this the division was rested near Laon. On October 7 it was entrained and moved to the region of Tupigny-Mennevret.

7. It was engaged on October 9 to the east of Bohain before the extreme right of the 4th British Army. It was relieved in this sector on October 23 by the 200th Division. At this time the division was very low in effectives; two regiments had three battalions of three companies and one regiment had but two battalions. The average company strength was about 50 men.

8. Retired to rest for 15 days, the division returned to line on November 5, near Wiege Faty. It was last identified at Trelon on November 11.

VALUE—1918 ESTIMATE.

The division was rated as a second-class division. In the earlier years it was a very good division, but through losses and lack of reinforcements during 1918 considerably reduced its value.

115

5th Ersatz Division.

COMPOSITION.

1916 1917 1918 1918
Brigade. Regiment. Brigade. Regiment. Brigade. Regiment. Brigade. Regiment.
Infantry. 37 Mixed Ldw. 73 Ldw. 37 Ldw. 3 Res. Ers. 37 Ldw. 73 Ldw. 37 Ldw. 73 Ldw.
    74 Ldw.   73 Ldw.   74 Ldw.   74 Ldw.
  2 Res. Ers. 4 Res. Ers.   74 Ldw.   8 Landst.   (?)
    3 Res. Ers.            
Cavalry. 8 Cuirassier Rgt. (Ers. Sqn.). 8 Cuirassier Rgt. (Ers. Sqn.).   1 Sqn. 16 Drag. Rgt.
    88 Cav. Rgt. (3 Sqn.).    
Artillery. 102 F. A. Abtl. (1 Ers. Abt. 26 F. A. Rgt). 102 F. A. Regt.   250 Ldw. F. A. Rgt.
Engineers and Liaisons. 161 T. M. Co. Pion. Btn.:   2 Landst. Co. 9 C. Dist Pions.
     (?) 2 Landst. Co. 9 C. Dist. Pions.   111 Searchlight Section.
     405 T. M. Co.   555 Signal Command.
     303 Searchlight Section.   555 Tel. Detch.
     555 Tel. Detch.    
Medical and Veterinary.   269 Ambulance Co.   269 Ambulance Co.
    (?) (11 Ldw.) Field Hospital.   500 Field Hospital.
    505 Vet. Hospital.   11 Ldw. Field Hospital.
        505 Vet. Hospital.
Transports.   763 M. T. Col.   763 M. T. Col.
Attached.   2 Insterburg Landst. Inf. Btn. (1 C. Dist. Btn. No. 6).    
116

HISTORY.

(73d Landwehr and 74th Landwehr: Tenth District—Hanover. 8th Landsturm; Eighth District—Rhine Province.)

1916.

The 5th Ersatz Division was organized in the fall of 1915 with the name of Basedow Division. It comprised the 37th Landwehr Brigade (73d and 74th Landwehr); until then attached to the 26th Reserve Corps, and the 2d Reserve Ersatz Brigade (3d Ersatz Reserve and 4th Reserve Brigade), situated in the Dixmude sector. With the 4th Ersatz Division, the Basedow Division, which became the 5th Ersatz Division in 1916, constituted at the end of 1915 the Werde Corps.

Belgium.

1. From January to October, 1916 the division remained in Belgium (region of Yser, then southeast of Ypres). However, the 4th Ersatz Reserve was transferred to the 206th Division at the beginning of September.

Somme.

2. Withdrawn from the Ypres front at the beginning of October, the division was sent to the Somme and engaged north of Courcelette from October 19 to 30.

3. In November it was sent to rest behind the Champagne front.

Russia.

4. At the beginning of December it was sent to Russia (the 73d Landwehr entrained December 11 northeast of Reims, via Dusseldorf-Hamburg-Koenigsburg-Tilsit-Poneviej. Detrained at Elovka the 16th).

1917.

Courland.

Sent into line in the Illukst sector (region of Dvinsk) at the beginning of January 1917 and remained in this country during the whole year (Illukst, Lake Stenten, Kchtchava). Its losses were very small—17 killed and 20 wounded in the 3d Ersatz Reserve from the end of December, 1916, to the end of August, 1917. Because the sector was so quiet the division had only small forces during the last months of 1917. The 73d Landwehr at the end of November had only 60 to 65 men per company (examination of Russians).

VALUE—1917 ESTIMATE.

The division remained for a long time in the quiet sectors of the Russian front and seems to have had only moderate fighting value.

1918.

Courland.

1. The 5th Ersatz Division was still in the vicinity of Dvinsk in February. In March it exchanged the 3d Ersatz Regiment for the 8th Landsturm Regiment of the 87th Division, the latter being on the point of leaving for France.

Livonia.

2. The division advanced into Livonia (in March) and remained in the Pskov-Ostrov region as late as June 27th. The 74th Landwehr Regiment was identified here on August 6, but the rest of the division was identified near Mitau during July.

3. Toward the end of October, it was reported that the division, having been refitted, had come to the Western Front via Trier and Rethel; however, the division was never actually identified on the Western Front.

VALUE—1918 ESTIMATE.

The division was rated as 4th class.

117

5th Landwehr Division.

COMPOSITION.

1914 1915 1916 1917 1918
Brigade. Regiment. Brigade. Regiment. Brigade. Regiment. Brigade. Regiment. Brigade. Regiment.
Infantry. 14 Ldw. 36 Ldw. 14 Ldw. 36 Ldw. 14 Ldw. 36 Ldw. 30 Ldw. 25 Ldw. 30 Ldw. 25 Ldw.
    66 Ldw.   66 Ldw.   66 Ldw.   36 Ldw.   36 Ldw.
    17 Ldw. 30 Ldw. 25 Ldw. 30 Ldw. 25 Ldw.   65 Ldw.   65 Ldw.
  30 Ldw. 25 Ldw.   65 Ldw.   65 Ldw.        
    65 Ldw.                
Cavalry.     4 Sqn. 1 Uhlan Rgt. 2 Sqn. 16 Uhlan Rgt. 2 Sqn. 16 Uhlan Rgt.
Artillery.     1 and 2 Landst. 4 C. Dist. Batteries. F. A. Art. Command: 256 Ldw. F. A. Rgt.
      256 Ldw. F. A. Rgt. (left in July).  256 Ldw. F. A. Rgt. 1,415 Light Am. Col.
           
           
Engineers and Liaisons. 1 Ldw. 11 C. Dist. Pion. Co.   1 Ldw. 11 C. Dist. Pion. Co. (405) Pion. Btn.: 405 Pion. Btn.:
      1 Ldw. 16 C. Dist. Pion. Co.  1 Ldw. 11 C. Dist. Pion. Co.  1 Ldw. Co. 11 C. Dist. Pions.
      305 T. M. Co.  1 Ldw. 16 C. Dist. Pion. Co.  1 Ldw. Co. 16 C. Dist. Pions.
         305 T. M. Co.  305 T. M. Co.
         321 Searchlight Section.  217 Searchlight Section.
         Tel. Detch. 505 Signal Command:
           505 Tel. Detch.
           92 Wireless Detch.
Medical and Veterinary.       Ambulance Co. 12 Ambulance Co.
        151 Field Hospital. 67 Field Hospital.
        Vet. Hospital. 79 Field Hospital.
Transports.       M. T. Col. 775 M. T. Col.
Attached.   93 Ldw. Inf. Regt. (June to Sept.)      
118

HISTORY.

(25th Landwehr and 65th Landwehr: Eighth District—Rhine Province. 36th Landwehr: Fourth District—Prussian Saxony.)

1914.

The 5th Landwehr Division is composed of two Landwehr brigades meant to be the war garrison of Metz, where they detrained August 9 and 10, 1914: 14th Landwehr Brigade from the Fourth District (36th Landwehr and 66th Landwehr); 30th Landwehr Brigade from the Eighth District (25th Landwehr and 65th Landwehr). The 17th Landwehr was under the 14th Brigade.

Woevre.

1. During the first days of September the 14th Landwehr Brigade was engaged at Fresnes and Marcheville (in Woevre), near the 33d Reserve Division. It fought on the Cotes de Meuse, near Champlon and Les Eparges, at the beginning of October and suffered heavy losses there.

2. In December the two brigades (14th Landwehr Brigade and 30th Landwehr Brigade) were united in the Woevre (Warcq, Hennemont, Marcheville, Champlon, Saulx). The division at that time was part of the Von Strantz detachment.

1915.

1. The division remained in the sector between Warcq and Saulx en Woevre during the whole of 1915. In January the 17th Landwehr, from which many men had deserted, was sent to Russia, where it assisted in the formation of the 85th Landwehr Division.

1916.

Cotes de Meuse.

1. At the time of the Verdun offensive the division was present during the attacks on the Cotes de Meuse, near Braquis, Ronvaux, Manhuelles, at the end of February to March, 1916.

2. Toward the end of March the 14th Landwehr Brigade took the place of the First Guard Ersatz Brigade (Guard Ersatz Division) in the Apremont sector.

3. The 30th Landwehr Brigade was kept before the Cotes de Meuse (region of Fresnes en Woevre) until July. It then rejoined the other brigade east of St. Mihiel.

1917.

Forest of Apremont.

1. The division from this time on did not leave the Forest of Apremont sector. In April, 1917, the 66th Landwehr was transferred to the 23d Landwehr Division, newly organized, and soon sent to Russia.

VALUE—1917 ESTIMATE.

A sector unit.

1918.

1. On April 12 the division undertook a local operation in the Apremont sector in an effort to divert troops and artillery from the Somme front. About 800 men of the Storm Battalion were engaged. Forty-seven prisoners were lost in the attack. Aside from this the sector continued very quiet until September 12.

Battle of St. Mihiel.

2. The division was engaged in the attack in the St. Mihiel salient. It lost heavily in prisoners, among whom were the entire staff of the 3d Battalion, 65th Landwehr Regiment, which was taken on September 12 in the Bois de Thiaucourt. The division retreated with orders to take up positions between the first and second positions of 119the Hindenburg line. Here it had orders to hold the Mihiel Zone under all circumstances.

3. The division continued in line until the armistice.

VALUE—1918 ESTIMATE.

The 5th Landwehr Division was rated as a fourth-class division. In 1918 it held the Apremont sector continuously, showing no initiative or capacity for offensive operation, but due to the small losses and heavy effectives it offered as much resistance to our attack in September as did the other German divisions in the salient.

120

5th Bavarian Division.

COMPOSITION.

1914 1915 1916 1917 1918
Brigade. Regiment. Brigade. Regiment. Brigade. Regiment. Brigade. Regiment. Brigade. Regiment.
Infantry. 9 Bav. 14 Bav. 9 Bav. 14 Bav. 9 Bav. 14 Bav. 10 Bav. 7 Bav. 10 Bav. 7 Bav.
    21 Bav.   21 Bav.   21 Bav.   19 Bav.   19 Bav.
  10 Bav. 7 Bav. 10 Bav. 7 Bav. 10 Bav. 7 Bav.   21 Bav.   21 Bav.
    19 Bav.   19 Bav.   19 Bav.        
  2 Bav. Res. Jag. Btn. 2 Bav. Res. Jag. Btn.            
Cavalry. 7 Bav. Light Cav. Rgt. 7 Bav. Light Cav. Rgt. 7 Bav. Light Cav. Rgt. (2 Sqns.). 2 Bav. Light Cav. Rgt. (4 Sqns.). 4 Sqns. 2 Bav. Light Cav. Rgt.
Artillery. 5 Bav. Brig.: 5 Bav. Brig.: 5 Bav. Brig.: 5 Bav. Art. Command: 5 Bav. Art. Command:
   6 Bav. F. A. Rgt.  6 Bav. F. A. Rgt.  6 Bav. F. A. Rgt.  6 Bav. F. A. Rgt. (6 Btries.).  10 Bav. F. A. Rgt.
   10 Bav. F. A. Rgt.  10 Bav. F. A. Rgt.  10 Bav. F. A. Rgt.    3 Abt. 1 Bav. F. A. Rgt. (Staff, and 9, 10, and 11 Btries.).
          103 Bav. Light Am. Col.
          109 Bav. Light Am. Col.
          166 Bav. Light Am. Col.
Engineers and Liaisons. 1 and 4 Field Cos. 3 Bav. Pion. Btn. 1 and 4 Field Cos. 3 Bav. Pion. Btn. 1 and 4 Field Cos. 3 Bav. Pion. Btn. (S) 5 Bav. Pion. Btn.: 3 Bav. Pion. Btn.:
    5 Bav. Pont. Engs. 5 Bav. T. M. Co.  10 Bav. Pion. Co.  10 Bav. Pion. Co.
    5 Bav. Tel. Detch. 5 Bav. Pont. Engs.  13 Bav. Pion. Co.  13 Bav. Pion. Co.
      5 Bav. Tel. Detch.  5 Bav. T. M. Co.  5 Bav. Searchlight Section.
         5 Bav. Tel. Detch. 5 Bav. Signal Command:
           5 Bav. Tel. Detch.
           100 Bav. Wireless Detch.
Medical and Veterinary.       3 Bav. Ambulance Co. 6 Bav. Ambulance Co.
        6 Bav. Ambulance Co. 21 Bav. Field Hospital.
        Field Hospital. 25 Field Hospital.
        Vet. Hospital.  
Transport.       114 M. T. Col. 685 M. T. Col.
Attached.     84 Labor Btn. Anti-Aircraft.    
      Section 1 Bav. Balloon Sqn.    
121

HISTORY.

(Upper and Middle Franconia—Bavaria.)

1914.

Lorraine.

1. At the beginning of the war the division was a part of the 3d Bavarian Army Corps, with the 6th Bavarian Division, and was part of the 6th Army (Crown Prince Ruprecht of Bavaria). Detrained between Boulay and Courcelles from August 9 to 11, it fought August 20 on the right of the 2d Bavarian Corps at Oron, Lusy, Fremery. Crossed the frontier on the 22d and advanced to Sanon, fighting on the 25th at Serres and Hoéville, and on September 2 at Einville Wood. During the days following it formed the left of the troops attacking Nancy by way of Champenoux.

Woevre.

2. After its failure the division was assembled at Metz on September 13 and 14. The 19th it was at Mars-la-Tour. From there going through La Haye it reached the Cotes de Meuse. The 7th Infantry took Nonsard the 20th and Heudicourt the 21st. Marching on the left of the 6th Bavarian Division, which went up the hill, the 5th Bavarian Division, walking along the summit, established itself in the forest of Apremont at the beginning of September 25 and held it during the whole of 1915, and, except for the months of October and November, 1915, during the summer of 1916. Its losses were quite high during the first two months of the campaign. On October 14 the 1st Company of the 14th Infantry had only 1 officer and 41 men (notebooks).

1915.

Champagne.

1. October 6, 1915, the division was sent to Champagne, via Audun le Roman-Longuyon-Sedan, to relieve the 16th Reserve Division which had been crushed by the French attack of September 25. It was engaged south of Tahure (La Courtine) beginning October 13.

Woevre.

2. At the beginning of December it returned to its old sector east of St. Mihiel.

1916.

Artois.

1. In July, 1916, the division was withdrawn from the St. Mihiel salient and sent to Artois. It held the Lens-Vimy sector until the end of August, 1916.

Somme.

2. September 7 to 8 it was engaged in the Somme (Delville Wood-Ginchy). It suffered heavy losses in the fights around Ginchy and during the British attack of September 15 (Flers, Gueudecourt).

Artois.

3. Relieved September 20, it went back into line after a few days of rest in the sector Neuve-Chapelle, south of the Armentieres road.

1917.

Artois.

1. The division remained on the front south of Armentieres during the whole winter 1916 to 1917. In February it was reduced to three regiments on the transfer of the 14th Infantry to the 16th Bavarian Division, newly organized.

2. It left the lines at the end of April, but at the beginning of May went to the sector north of Arras, where it fought heavily at Fresnoy on May 7 and southeast of Gavrelle on June 28.

Belgium.

3. Withdrawn from the Oppy-Gavrelle front July 1 and sent to rest near the Belgian-Dutch front. It went through a period of training at the Brasschaet camp in July.

122
Flanders.

4. About August 6 it entrained and went to Gits, via Lokeren, Ghent, Thielt, and Pitthen. From there it went to Roulers. On August 10 held the sector south of St. Julien, east of Ypres, where it suffered heavy losses in the fighting of August 15 and days following. Relieved August 24.

5. After a period of rest the division went back into line September 8 in the quiet sector of Deulemont (south of the Lys) and held it until the end of February, 1918.

RECRUITING.

Upper and Middle Franconia (3d Bavarian District).

VALUE—1917 ESTIMATE.

Although not among the best Bavarian divisions, it was a good combat unit. In 1917 it did well at Arras and on the Ypres front where it suffered heavy losses (information from the British, February, 1918).

1918.

1. About February 13 the division was relieved, moved to Tourcoing (Feb. 14), and trained in that area until March 17, when it marched to Roubaix. It entrained and moved to Fressies (5 miles north of Cambrai), rested until the 19th, and moved to the front.

Battle of Picardy.

2. It was engaged east of Cambrai (Vaux-Vrancourt) on March 22. Retiring to second line about April 4, it rested near Sapignies until about April 11, when it was identified southeast of Boyelles. It was relieved by the 111th Division on May 6.

3. The division trained in the Somain area until May 22, when it was moved by trucks via Cantin and Palluel to Ecourt. A day later it marched to Bullecourt and relieved the 221st Division on night of May 24–25. Lieut. Gen. v. Endres, the division commander, was promoted to the command of the 1st Bavarian Corps about this time. The division was relieved in the Boyelles sector on July 15 by the 21st Reserve Division.

Battle of the Somme.

4. After resting behind the Arras Front the division entered the line near Lihons on August 10. After suffering heavy losses it withdrew from the battle front south of Peronne on September 24 and retired to the Le Cateau region.

5. It rested for a week and returned to the battle at Rumilly on the night of September 30-October 1. About October 12, after heavy losses, it was withdrawn and rested near Valenciennes.

6. On October 25 it was again put in line at Rameguies-Chin. It was last identified at Mourcourt on November 9.

VALUE—1918 ESTIMATE.

The 5th Bavarian Division was a first-class division. In 1918, it was almost constantly engaged in the most active sectors on the British front.

123

5th Bavarian Reserve Division.

COMPOSITION.

1914 1915 1916 1917 1918
Brigade. Regiment. Brigade. Regiment. Brigade. Regiment. Brigade. Regiment. Brigade. Regiment.
Infantry. 9 Bav. Res. 6 Bav. Res. 9 Bav. Res. 6 Bav. Res. 9 Bav. Res. 10 Bav. Res. 11 Bav. Res. 10 Bav. Res. 11 Bav. Res. 7 Bav. Res.
    7 Bav. Res.   7 Bav. Res.   7 Bav. Res.   7 Bav. Res.   10 Bav. Res.
  11 Bav. Res. 10 Bav. Res. 11 Bav. Res. 10 Bav. Res.   3 Bav. Res.   12 Bav. Res.   12 Bav. Res.
    13 Bav. Res.   13 Bav. Res.   12 Bav. Res.        
        39 Ldw.            
  1 Bav. Res. Jag. Btn. 1 Bav. Res. Jag. Btn. 1 Bav. Res. Jag. Btn.        
Cavalry. 5 Bav. Res. Cav. Rgt. (3 Sqns.). 5 Bav. Res. Cav. Rgt. (?) (?) 2 Sqn. 3 Bav. Light Cav. Rgt.
Artillery. 5 Bav. Res. F. A. Rgt. (6 Btries.). 5 Bav. Res. F. A. Rgt. 5 Bav. Res. F. A. Rgt. (9 Btries.). 17 Bav. Art. Command: 17 Bav. Art. Command:
         5 Bav. Res. F. A. Rgt. (9 Btries.).  5 Bav. Res. F. A. Rgt.
           17 Bav. Ft. A. Btn.
           102 Bav. Light Am. Col.
           104 Bav. Light Am. Col.
           119 Bav. Light Am. Col.
Engineers and Liaisons. 4 Field Co. and 1 Res. Co. 2 Bav. Pion. Btn. 4 Field Co. and 1 Res. Co 2 Bav. Pion. Btn. 4 Field Co. and 1 Res. Co. 2 Bav. Pion. Btn. (18) Bav. Pion. Btn. 18 Bav. Pion. Btn.:
    5 Res. Pont. Engs. 205 Bav. T. M. Co.  2 Bav. Res. Pion. Co.  2 Bav. Res. Pion. Co.
    5 Res. Tel. Detch. 5 Bav. Res. Cable Pont. Engs.  19 Bav. Res. Pion Co.  19 Bav. Res. Pion. Co.
      5 Bav. Res. Tel. Detch.  205 Bav. T. M. Co.  205 Bav. T. M. Co.
         405 Bav. Tel. Detch.  8 Bav. Searchlight Section.
          405 Bav. Signal Command:
           405 Tel Detch.
           103 Wireless Detch.
Medical and Veterinary.       16 Bav. Ambulance Co. 16 Bav. Ambulance Co.
        46 Bav. Field Hospital. 46 Bav. Field Hospital.
        56 Bav. Field Hospital. 50 Bav. Field Hospital.
        Vet. Hospital.  
Transports.       M. T. Col. 751 Bav. M. T. Col.
Odd units.          
Attached.          
124

HISTORY.

(Third Bavarian District—Upper Palatinate, Upper and Middle Franconia.)

1914.

Lorraine.

1. The division constituted, with the 5th Bavarian Reserve Division, the 1st Bavarian Reserve Corps, and at the beginning of the war was part of the army of Crown Prince Ruprecht of Bavaria (6th Army). It detrained from August 11 to 13 between Sarreguemines and Sarralbe. It fought August 20 on the left of the 21st Corps at Loudrefeing, was engaged the 26th at Maixe, September 2 at Deuxville, northwest of Luniville, and remained a few days longer behind Luniville.

2. On September 13 it was in line on the Seille and the Paris-Avricourt Railroad and remained there until the last days of the month.

Artois.

3. September 28 and 29 the division entrained at Metz. Detrained the 30th and October 1 at Valenciennes. Engaged north of Arras (Roclincourt-Carency) in October and November and took position in the sector.

1915.

In January, 1915, the division was increased by the 39th Landwehr Infantry (Westphalian), coming from Brussels and sent as punishment to the Artois front. In March and April two of its regiments were transferred, the 6th Reserve to the 10th Bavarian Division, and the 13th to the 11th Bavarian Division.

Artois.

1. May 9, 1915, the division suffered very heavy losses during the French offensive of Carency-Souchez. (The 10th Reserve Infantry lost 35 officers and 1,711 men, the 1st Reserve Bavarian Battalion of Chasseurs lost 13 officers and 750 men.)

2. In the middle of June the division was moved south of the Scarpe in front of Arras (Blangy sector).

1916.

In January, 1916, the 39th Landwehr Infantry went to Russia.

1. The division remained in Artois until August, 1916, and was increased by a regiment from the 1st Bavarian Division (3d Reserve Infantry later replaced by the 12th Reserve Infantry).

Somme.

2. Relieved about August 7, the division was sent to the Somme and was engaged near Maurepas from the middle of August to September. Heavy losses. August 19 the 2d Battalion of the 10th Reserve Infantry was reduced to 150 men (letter). September 1 the 3d Battalion of the 7th Reserve Infantry borrowed 200 men from the 5th Bavarian Ersatz (letter).

Aisne.

3. In the middle of September the division was sent to the Aisne, where it held a quiet sector east of Craonne until the end of November.

Somme.

4. About December 9 the division returned to the Somme (south of Saillisel.)

1917.

1. The division was withdrawn from the Somme front at the end of January, 1917, and sent to rest in the vicinity of Cambrai until April.

Aisne.

2. At the beginning of April it was sent east of Laon to the region of St. Erme, and reinforced the front south of Juvincourt between the Miette and the Aisne about 125April 12 in anticipation of the French offensive. It was subjected to the attack of the 16th and suffered heavy losses (2,000 prisoners).

St. Mihiel.

3. Withdrawn from the Aisne front about April 20, the division was reconstituted north of Laon (?), and on May 1 held the St. Mihiel sector (Chauvoncourt-Spada).

4. October 7 it left the region of St. Mihiel.

Flanders.

5. Sent to Flanders and sent into line October 12 near the Ypres-Roulers Railroad (Zonnebeke). In November it was left of Artois, where it held, after intervals of relief, a sector north of the Scarpe (from Gavrelle to Acheville). It was still there at the end of February, 1918.

RECRUITING.

3d Bavarian Division (Upper Palatinate, Upper and Middle Franconia).

VALUE—1917 ESTIMATE.

Good division, which has always fought well (October, 1917). April 16, 1917, it fought with great tenacity.

1918.

1. Early in January the division was relieved in its sector north of the Scarpe and went to rest north of Douai.

Scarpe.

2. It was reengaged southeast of Gavrelle on February 21, when it was in line during the attack. It took no prominent part in the offensive and was withdrawn about the 1st of April.

Somme.

3. On April 7–8 it came in line south of Hebuterne, where it was engaged until April 16. After eight days’ rest it came into line south of the Ayette, relieving the 195th Division on April 24. It was not withdrawn until July 24.

Alsace.

4. The division moved to Muelhausen, via Belgium and Germany, a trip of 10 days. While at rest there it was frequently alerted in anticipation of an expected Allied attack in that region. On September 4 it returned through Germany and Belgium to Douai, where the British were attacking.

5. It left Douai on September 22, detraining at Dun sur Meuse on September 23. From there the division marched to the front.

Meuse-Argonne.

6. On September 27 it was engaged at Daunevoux. It was engaged throughout the entire Meuse-Argonne battle on the American front. At Montfaucon it was forced back with heavy losses. The division affected relief by regiments, which were sent to close support to be reconstituted by drafts. Five hundred replacements were received early in October. The initial company combat strength averaged 60 men. On November 4 this had been reduced to 20. During the retreat of November 1–2 the division crossed the Meuse and took up a position on the east bank.

VALUE—1918 ESTIMATE.

The 5th Bavarian Reserve Division was rated as a second-class division. Apart from the Meuse-Argonne offensive, it did not see much heavy fighting during the year. Its effectives had been almost completely used up by the time of the armistice.

126

5th Cavalry Division.

COMPOSITION.[5]

1918
Brigade. Regiment.
Cavalry. 9 Cav. 4 Drag.
    10 Uhlan.
  11 Cav. 1 Cuirassier.
    8 Drag.
  12 Cav. 4 Hus.
    6 Hus.
Artillery. 5 Horse Art. Abt. (5.7 cm.).
Medical and Veterinary. 643 Ambulance Co.
Odd units. 1 M. G. Btry. 5 Cav. Pion. Detch.
Attached. 52 Ldw. Inf. Rgt.

5.  At the time of its dissolution, July, 1918.

HISTORY.

1918.

There were repeated rumors of the division being on the Western Front in 1918, but no satisfactory identification was ever received.

According to a deserter of the 8th Dragoon Regiment, who left his regiment in Jeumont, south of Binche, on May 20, the entire 5th Cavalry Division entrained in Russia about March 6 and detrained at Zossen, south of Berlin, where it was re-formed and trained. On the 26th of April the division moved to St. Amand, from where it moved two weeks later to the Jeumont and Marpent area.

Evidence points to the dissolution of the division on the Western Front about July, 1918.

VALUE—1918 ESTIMATE.

The division was rated as a fourth-class division.

127

6th Division.

COMPOSITION.

1914 1915 1916 1917 1918
Brigade. Regiment. Brigade. Regiment. Brigade. Regiment. Brigade. Regiment. Brigade. Regiment.
Infantry. 11. 20. 11. 20. 12. 20. 12. 24. 12. 24.
    35 Fus.   35 Fus.   24.   64.   64.
  12. 24. 12. 24.   64.   396.   396.
    64.   64.            
  3 Jag. Btn.                
Cavalry. 3 Hus. Rgt. (3 Sqns.).   3 Hus. Regt. (3 Sqns.). 3 Hus. Regt. (5 Sqns.). 5 Sqn. 3 Hus. Rgt.
Artillery. 6 Brig.: 6 Brig.: 6 Brig.: 6 Art. Command: 64 Art. Command:
   3 F. A. Rgt.  3 F. A. Rgt.  3 F. A. Rgt.  3 F. A. Rgt.  3 F. A. Rgt.
   39 F. A. Rgt.  39 F. A. Rgt.  39 F. A. Rgt.    1 Abt. 3 Ft. A. Rgt. (Staff and 2 and 4 Btries).
           1087 Light Am. Col.
           1168 Light Am. Col.
           1205 Light Am. Col.
Engineers and Liaisons.   1 Pion. Btn. No. 3: 1 Pion. Btn. No. 3: 1 Pion. Btn. No. 3: 3 Pion. Btn.:
     Field Co. 3 Pions.  2 Co. 3 Pions. (now 116 Pion. Btn.):  3 Co. 3 Pions.
     6 Pont. Engs.  6 T. M. Co.  3 Co. 3 Pions.  5 Co. 3 Pions.
     6 Tel. Detch.  6 Pont. Engs.  5 Co. 3 Pions.  6 T. M. Co.
       6 Tel. Detch.  6 T. M. Co.  64 Searchlight Section.
         6 Tel. Detch. 6 Signal Command:
           6 Tel. Detch.
           2 Wireless Detch.
Medical and Veterinary.       Ambulance Co. 8 Ambulance Co.
        Field Hospital. 29 Field Hospital.
        Vet. Hospital. 31 Field Hospital.
          233 Vet. Hospital.
Transport.       M. T. Col. 539 M. T. Col.
Attached.     M. G. Co. to the 12 Brig. 242, 244, 245, and 246 Mountain M. G. Detch., Naumburg Landst. Inf. Btn. (IV C. Dist. No. 11).  
128

HISTORY.

(Third District—Brandenburg.)

1914.

At mobilization the 6th Division formed, together with the 5th Division, the 3d Army Corps (Berlin).

Charleroi-Marne.

1. At the beginning of the war the 3d Army Corps belonged to the 1st Army (Von Kluck). Entered Belgium August 4 and the 11th Brigade made part of the unit which attacked Liège. Its reservists rejoined it there. The 12th Brigade crossed the Belgian frontier August 15; then the division, completely filled up, marched via Tongres, Louvain, and Hal. It fought the 24th at Mons and Frameries. Going via Villers-Cotterets (Sept. 1), La Ferté-Milon, it arrived at Petit-Morin September 4. Engaged the 6th between Montceaux and Courgivaux on the left of the 5th Division. Obliged to retreat, it established itself on the right bank of the Aisne in the region of Soissons. It remained there until the end of June, 1915.

Aisne.

2. From October 30 to November 30, 1914, the division, reinforced by units of neighboring organizations, directed a successful offensive against the French troops in the region Chavonne-Soupir and threw them back on the left bank of the Aisne November 17 to 19, 1914.

1915.

1. From the end of January to July, 1915, the Aisne front was held by the division and remained quiet, the division suffering no losses. At the end of March the 35th Fusilier Regiment was transferred to 56th Division (new division).

Artois.

2. Relieved from the region of Soissons toward the end of June and sent to Artois. On July 14 it took the place of the Bavarians before Arras. Withdrawn from the front toward the beginning of August and sent to rest between Valenciennes and Cambrai.

Serbia.

3. September 23 it entrained for the Eastern Front. With the 25th Reserve Division it constituted, on the Serbo-Hungarian frontier, a new 3d Army Corps belonging to the Gallwitz Army. October 9 it crossed the Danube and remained in Serbia until the capture of Kragujewatz. During this October campaign the division suffered greatly.

France.

4. Returned to the Western Front at the beginning of December. Sent to rest and reorganized in the region Hirson-Avesnes.

1916.

1. At the end of January and the beginning of February, 1916, it was sent to the front north of Verdun (Romagne-Mangiennes area).

Verdun.

2. February 22 it was engaged with the 5th Division in the zone between the western limits of Herbebois and the eastern slopes of the Cotes de Meuse. The two divisions did not go beyond Fort Douaumont, captured by the 24th Infantry. Their violent attacks on the village February 26 to 28 were repulsed. March 2 the regiments were withdrawn from the front and filled up.

3. On March 8 new and unsuccessful attacks against the village of Douaumont and the Hardaumont defenses.

1294. About March 15 the 3d Army Corps was withdrawn from the front. The 6th Division went to the region of Mulhouse to be reorganized. On April 25 the division was again engaged (south of Douaumont-Caillette Wood) and again suffered heavily. It is probable that each of its regiments were completely reorganized after each attack at Douaumont (more than 60 per cent losses).

6. At the end of May the division was relieved and sent to rest in the region of Ville au Montois.

Champagne.

7. In the middle of June it was sent to Champagne and occupied quiet sectors northeast of Prunay, then east of Auberive. It remained there till the end of September. It exchanged its 20th Infantry Regiment for the 396th Infantry Regiment, organized September 26. (See illustration.)

Somme.

8. At the beginning of October sent to the Somme and was engaged in the region of Gueudecourt and again suffered heavily, October 8 to 29.

Argonne.

9. Withdrawn from the Somme front at the end of October; went to the Argonne in the sector Fille-Morte-Boureuilles, November 30 to beginning of April, 1917.

1917.

1. At the beginning of April, 1917, the division was sent to Alsace. It stayed about two weeks in the region of Mulhouse.

Champagne.

2. About April 20 sent to Champagne and took over a sector south of Moronvilliers where it was subjected to the French attack of April 30. It had to be relieved a few days after, as it suffered great losses at Mont-Haut (50 to 75 men per company).

3. The division returned to Alsace and was reorganized behind the front in the region of Mulhouse.

Russia.

4. About July 1 sent to the Eastern Front in Galicia, where it held a sector in the Skalat region.

France.

Withdrawn from this front at the beginning of October it entrained for France, beginning the 7th, southeast of Tarnopol, and traveled via Lemberg-Cracow-Dresden-Cassel-Coblentz-Treves-Thionville-Montmedy-Charleville-Vouziers.

Aisne.

5. After staying a few days around Vouziers and Marle the division was sent on October 23, the date of the French offensive, precipitately near Laon. October 24 and 25 it took over a sector on the Ailette in the region of Lizy (Urcel sector) and was still holding it January 24, 1918, after a period of rest in Laon in November.

RECRUITING.

Same remarks as for the 5th Division.

VALUE—1917 ESTIMATE.

The 3d Army Corps was always considered as one of the star corps of the Prussian Army. The 6th Division was among the best in Germany.

The military qualities seem to have been considerably lessened after the losses suffered, notably before Verdun and in the Mont Haut sector. It must be noted, however, that, according to the examination of a deserter on November 2, 1917, the 396th Regiment is still considered as an excellent unit whose morale is intact.

130Losses before Verdun (February to May, 1916): 20th Infantry, 2,904 men (633 killed); 24th Infantry, 2,691 (584 killed); 64th Infantry, 2,819 (603 killed); 3d Battalion of Chasseurs, 1,422 (219 killed). Total, 9,831 men (2,039 killed).

1918.

Aisne.

1. The division was relieved by the 6th Bavarian Reserve Division January 12. It, in turn, relieved the 6th Bavarian Reserve Division the 24th. February 22 it was again relieved by the 6th Bavarian Reserve Division. It rested then in the Maubeuge area, where it underwent a thorough course of training. The division then marched via Catillon, Bohain, Fresnoy le Grand, Le Verguier, Berthaucourt, Vermand, Marteville, Trefcon, Monchy Lagache.

Peronne.

2. It came into line S. E. of that city near Meharicourt, March 24, relieving the 113th Division.

Aisne.

3. It was withdrawn from line about the 10th of April, and went to the Guise area, where, with the 5th Division, it was put through another course of training. It reinforced the battle front near Juvigny, May 27. It was withdrawn from line August 4.

It moved via Anizy le Chateau, southwest of Laon, Guise, Grougis, Bohain, Bertry, Neuvilly, Solesmes, Valenciennes, Ghent, to Turkyen (northwest of Roulers). The division remained here until September 7, when it entrained at Roulers and traveled via Lille and Denain to Iwuy, remaining in reserve in the Sancourt-Proville area until the 14th, when it was moved up into support near Ribecourt.

Cambrai.

4. During the night of September 17–18 it reentered the line and counterattacked against Havrincourt (southwest of Cambrai). It was withdrawn October 1, after suffering heavy losses.

5. The division came back into line near Escadoeuvres (northeast of Cambrai), October 7. It was withdrawn on the 17th.

Valenciennes.

6. October 23 the division entered line near Escautpont (north of Valenciennes).

7. It was withdrawn a few days later, and reappeared in line south of Valenciennes on the 29th. The night of November 7–8 it was relieved by the 185th Division.

VALUE—1918 ESTIMATE.

According to an article by Prof. Wegener in the Koelnische Zeitung, March 30, the 6th Division “particularly distinguished itself” in the Somme offensive. It did very well, too, in the Aisne attack and also in the German attempts to prevent the Allied advance beginning July 18. It suffered very heavy losses—e. g., 1,550 prisoners in its two engagements on the Cambrai front during September and early October; nevertheless, it is still to be considered as one of the best German shock divisions.

131

6th Reserve Division.

COMPOSITION.[6]

1914 1915 1916 1917 1918
Brigade. Regiment. Brigade. Regiment. Brigade. Regiment. Brigade. Regiment. Brigade. Regiment.
Infantry. 11 Res. 20 Res. 11 Res. 20 Res. 11 Res. 20 Res. 12 Res. 20 Res. 12 Res. 20 Res.
    24 Res.   24 Res.   35 Res.   24 Res.   24 Res.
  12 Res. 26 Res. 12 Res. 26 Res. 12 Res. 24 Res.   35 Res.   35 Res.
    35 Res.   35 Res.   19 Landst.        
Cavalry. 3 Res. Uhlan Rgt. (3 Sqns.).   3 Res. Uhlan Rgt. 3 Res. Uhlan Rgt.? (1 Sqn.).  
Artillery. 6 Res. F. A. Rgt. (6 Btries.). 6 Res. F. A. Rgt. 6 Res. F. A. Rgt. 94 Art. Command: 94 Art. Command:
         6 Res. F. A. Rgt. (9 Btries.).  6 Res. F. A. Rgt.
           
Engineers and Liaisons. 1 Res. Co. 2 Pion. Btn. No. 3. 1 Res. Co. 2 Pion. Btn. No. 3. 1 Res. Co. 3 Pion. Btn. No. 3. (306) Pion. Btn.: 1 Res. Co. (2 Pion. Btn. No. 3).
    6 Res. Pont. Engs. 3 Co. 34 Res. Pions.  5 Co. 1 Pions. 3 Co. 34 Res. Pion. Btn.
    6 Res. Tel. Detch. 206 T. M. Co.  1 Res. Co. 3 Pions. 274 Searchlight Section.
      6 Res. Pont. Engs.  206 T. M. Co. 206 T. M. Co.
      6 Res. Tel. Detch.  274 Searchlight Section. 4 06th Tel. Detch.
         406 Tel. Detch.  
Medical and Veterinary.       516 Ambulance Co. 516 Ambulance Co.
        19 Res. Field Hospital. 18 Res. Field Hospital.
        20 Res. Field Hospital. 19 Res. Field Hospital.
        Vet. Hospital. 20 Res. Field Hospital.
          144 Vet. Hospital.
Transports.       M. T. Col. 706 M. T. Col.
Attached.     151 Cyclist Co. 151 Cyclist Co.  
      102 Labor Btn.    

6.  At time of dissolution, Aug. 23, 1918.

132

HISTORY.

(Third District—Brandenburg.)

1914.

The 6th Reserve Division belonged organically to the 3d Reserve Corps, like the 5th Reserve Division.

Belgium.

1. At the beginning of the war the 3d Reserve Corps belonged to the 1st German Army (Gen. von Kluck). The 6th Reserve Division detrained August 10 in the region of Crefeld, entered Belgium the 17th, passed through Belgian Limburg at the beginning of September, moved on Malines to oppose the Belgian offensive. September 9 the division attacked the Belgian troops in the region of Louvain and then took part in the siege of Antwerp.

Yser.

2. After the fall of Antwerp it moved toward the sea from October 13 to 16, through Ghent, Bruges, and Ostend. It concentrated near Thourout October 19 and fought along the Yser Canal. It fought violently in the region of Nieuport-Dixmude at the end of October and the beginning of November.

Russia.

3. At the beginning of December the 3d Reserve Corps went to Russia, the 6th Reserve Division being withdrawn from the Belgian front about the middle of November.

1915.

Poland.

1. On arriving on the Eastern Front the division was engaged on the Bzura and before Warsaw (9th Army, under Mackensen).

2. In July, 1915, it became a part of Von Buelow’s army, which marched on the left wing (north) of the German forces during the offensive against Russia (summer and fall of 1915).

Dvina.

3. In November the division still belonged to Von Buelow’s army, called the Niemen army, and was engaged on the Dvina.

1916.

Courland.

1. In February, 1916, the division (8th Army under Von Buelow) held a sector in the region of Riga-Friedrichstadt.

2. During its stay in Russia the division did not have very heavy losses except in July, 1916, when it opposed violent Russian attacks near Kekkau.

1917.

Courland.

1. Relieved from the Kekkau sector in May, 1917, and was sent to the Western Front.

France.

2. Entrained about May 6 at Mitau and sent via Cottbus, Cassel, Coblentz, Treves, Thionville to Dun, where it detrained May 13.

Mort Homme-Hill 304.

3. At the end of May the division went into line on the left bank of the Meuse in the sector Mort Homme-Hill 304. On June 29 some of the units of the division supported an attack attempted by the 10th Reserve Division against Hill 304 and suffered heavy losses. August 20 the French offensive struck them. Its losses were enormous. Two of its regiments, the 24th Reserve and 20th Reserve, were nearly 133wiped out. The 35th Reserve was not weakened quite so much, yet was seriously diminished. The division lost 2,800 prisoners.

Russia.

4. Withdrawn from the front, the division was sent to Galicia at the end of September. It was still there January 31 on the old Austro-Russian frontier after furnishing reinforcements to the Western Front.

RECRUITING.

Brandenburg.

VALUE—1917 ESTIMATE.

The 6th Reserve Division, a short time after its return from the Eastern Front, was considered about as follows: “Its value is mediocre. In spite of its units from Brandenburg and the recent creation of shock troops, its long stay in Russia has greatly depreciated its fighting value” (July 11, 1917).

This judgment was completely verified August 20, 1917: “The 6th Reserve Division on the whole opposed no resistance to the French attack of August 20 at any point. * * * The conduct of a good number of its officers seems not to have been edifying. A good many seized the pretext of intoxication or gave unsatisfactory reasons for withdrawing to the rear” (October, 1917).

The German command thought best to send this division back to the Eastern Front (September, 1917).

1918.

France.

The 6th Reserve Division entrained at Zborow the evening of March 8, and traveled via Sokal-Brest Litovsk-Varsovia-Kaliscz-Lissa-Gorlitz-Bautzen-Dresden-Leipsic-Weimar-Erfurth-Eisenach-Bebra-Fulda-Hanau-Frankfort-Mainz-Kreuznach-Thionville-Sedan to Balhain (northeast of Asfeld), where it arrived March 15.

The division rested at Villers (near Asfeld) until the 25th of March, when it reentrained and traveled to Crécy sur Serre. From there it marched via Mesbrecourt-Pouilly sur Serre-La Fère-Liez-Commonchon to the area northeast of Noyon, and remained in reserve for some days. Elements of the division came into line west of Chauny at the end of March, but were soon withdrawn. About the 1st of April the whole division marched to Roye and remained there until the 15th, when it continued its march via Erches and Arvillers to Plessier, relieving the 2d Guard Division southwest of Moreuil May 1.

The beginning of August it was relieved by the 24th Division and shortly after it was dissolved and the men composing it were sent as drafts to the 5th and 6th Divisions.

VALUE—1918 ESTIMATE.

The only aggressive action of the division on the Western Front during 1918 was a raid carried out by a battalion against the French lines in the La Gaune woods (southwest of Moreuil) early in May; it was not a success, and it is estimated that practically the whole attacking force was wiped out. The 6th Reserve is rated as a third-class division.

134

6th Bavarian Division.

COMPOSITION.

1914 1915 1916 1917 1918
Brigade. Regiment. Brigade. Regiment. Brigade. Regiment. Brigade. Regiment. Brigade. Regiment.
Infantry. 11 Bav. 10 Bav. 11 Bav. 10 Bav. 11 Bav. 10 Bav. 11 Bav. 10 Bav. 11 Bav. 6 Bav.
    13 Bav.   13 Bav.   13 Bav.   6 Bav.   10 Bav.
  12 Bav. 6 Bav. 12 Bav. 6 Bav. 12 Bav. 6 Bav.   13 Bav.   13 Bav.
    11 Bav.   11 Bav.   11 Bav.        
Cavalry. 2 Bav. Light Cav. Rgt. 2 Bav. Light Cav. Rgt. 2 Bav. Light Cav. Rgt. (2 Sqns.) 2 Bav. Light Cav. Rgt. (3d Sqn.) 3 Sqn. 2 Bav. Light Cav. Rgt.
Artillery. 6 Bav. Brig.: 6 Bav. Brig.: 6 Bav. Brig.: 6 Bav. Art. Command: 6 Bav. Art. Command:
   3 Bav. F. A. Rgt.  3 Bav. F. A. Rgt.  3 Bav. F. A. Rgt.  8 Bav. F. A. Rgt.  3 Bav. F. A. Rgt.
   8 Bav. F. A. Rgt.  8 Bav. F. A. Rgt.  8 Bav. F. A. Rgt.    2 Abt. 1 Bav. Res. Ft. A. Rgt.
           115 Bav. Light Am. Col.
           142 Bav. Light Am. Col.
           169 Bav. Light Am. Col.
Engineers and Liaisons. 2 and 3 Field Cos. 3 Bav. Pion. Btn. 2 and 3 Field Cos. 3 Bav. Pion. Btn. 2 Field Co. 3 Bav. Pion. Btn. (?) Bav. Pion. Btn.: 6 Bav. Pion. Btn.:
    6 Bav. Pont. Engs. 6 Bav. T. M. Co.  11 Bav. Pion. Co.  11 Bav. Pion. Co.
    6 Bav. Tel. Detch. 6 Bav. Pont. Engs.  12 Bav. Pion. Co.  12 Bav. Pion. Co.
      6 Bav. Tel. Detch.  6 Bav. T. M. Co.  6 Bav. T. M. Co.
         z (42) Searchlight Section.  6 Bav. Searchlight Section.
         6 Bav. Tel. Detch. 6 Bav. Signal Command:
           6 Bav. Tel. Detch.
           101 Bav. Wireless Detch.
Medical and Veterinary.       7 Bav. Ambulance Co. 7 Bav. Ambulance Co.
        Field Hospital. 20 Bav. Field Hospital.
        6 Bav. Vet. Hospital. 24 Bav. Field Hospital.
          6 Bav. Vet. Hospital.
Transports.       M. T. Col. 686 M. T. Col.
Attached.     46 Bav. Anti-Aircraft Section.    
135

HISTORY.

(Upper Palatinate and part of Lower Bavaria.)

1914.

Lorraine.

1. In August, 1914, the 6th Bavarian Division with the 5th Bavarian Division constituted the 3d Bavarian Corps and was part of the 6th Bavarian Army (Crown Prince Rupprecht of Bavaria). One of its brigades, the 11th, detrained, beginning August 4, at Remilly as a covering force. August 20 the division fought on the right of the 5th Bavarian Division at Prevecourt and Delme. They crossed the French frontier with this division on the 22d and were engaged the 25th at Maixe on the Sanon and north of Luneville during the first days of September. Also with the 5th Bavarian Division, it was near Champenoux September 8, at the time of the attack against Nancy until the 11th, and then retreated.

Cotes de Meuse.

2. Assembled at Metz from the 14th to the 17th, the division went on the 18th to the west of the Moselle. It reached and climbed the Cotes de Meuse the 21st and attacked the fort of the Camp des Romains and St. Mihiel the 27th.

St. Mihiel.

3. Following these attacks which continued during October and ended in the capture of the fort and of St. Mihiel, the division established itself from Chauvoncourt to Spada in November to December.

1915.

St. Mihiel.

1. The division remained in the sector of the St. Mihiel salient (Chauvoncourt-Spada-Lamorville) during the whole of 1915 and until June, 1916.

1916.

Verdun.

1. About June 20, 1916, the 11th Bavarian Brigade was relieved from the St. Mihiel sector and sent to Longuyon and from there to the Verdun front. It participated in opposing the French attack of June 23 (with the Alpine Corps) on Thiaumont and suffered heavy losses.

2. Sent to rest July 4.

3. The 12th Brigade withdrew from the St. Mihiel front July 13 and 16 and went into line before Fleury, beginning July 17 to 18 (11th Regiment). Its losses were such that on July 26 the replacement depot of the 11th Infantry at Ratisbonne was ordered by telegraph to furnish immediately 500 replacements (letter).

4. On August 2 and 3 the whole division was fighting in this sector and lost heavily.

Somme.

5. The division left the Verdun front about August 5. After a short stay in the Argonne it was sent to the Somme at the beginning of September, fought between Flers and Gueudecourt September 15 to 27 and again suffered serious losses.

Artois.

6. On August 1 the division took over the sector of Neuve Chapelle-Festubert, and remained there until May 10, 1917.

1917.

1. At the end of January, 1917, the 11th Infantry and the 3d Field Artillery were transferred to the 6th Bavarian Division (new).

136
Artois.

2. The division was relieved from the Neuve Chapelle sector May 10 and went into line northeast of Arras (Oppy, Fresnoy, Acheville), in the middle of May. They suffered some loss from gas attacks.

Flanders.

3. The division left Artois September 10 and went to Flanders (sector northeast of Langemarck) September 29. The British attack of October 4 caused it heavy losses and it lost Poelcappelle to the British.

4. Relieved October 8, sent to rest, and reorganized.

Artois.

5. On October 18 it appeared south of the La Bassee Canal, where it suffered again from gas attacks.

RECRUITING.

Upper Palatinate and part of Lower Bavaria (Third Bavarian district).

VALUE—1917 ESTIMATE.

The morale of the division was good. On the Fresnoy front in 1917 it showed activity and enterprise. It always reacted quickly against attacks, but it seems that it could easily be persuaded to adopt a more passive attitude if circumstances were such as to permit it (information of the British, February, 1918).

1918.

1. The 6th Bavarian Division was relieved south of the La Bassee Canal by the 4th Ersatz Division, January 18, and went to rest in the area south of Tournai.

Lille.

2. About the middle of February it relieved the 187th Division south of the Bois Grenier (west of Lille). About the 24th it was relieved by the 10th Ersatz Division, and went back nearer Lille, where it probably received training in open warfare, although this fact has never been definitely established.

Cambrai.

3. For the Somme offensive, the division was sent to the Cambrai front, entering the line March 20, near Bullecourt, and attacking the following day. Little progress was made by the Germans on this part of the front, and the division lost heavily in many attacks. It was withdrawn about March 26.

Dixmude.

4. April 4 it relieved the 214th Division south of Dixmude. A very elaborate attack against the Belgians was planned to take place here April 17, and it was to be made by the 6th Bavarian Division and some elements of adjoining units. It was presumed that the German successes at Mount Kemel had shaken the line to the north and that the whole Ypres salient could be captured. Preparations were made, and the attack attempted, but it failed completely, and the Belgians not only threw the enemy back but took a great many prisoners. It was withdrawn about the 19th and went to rest for a week near Ruddervoorde (south of Bruges), although some of its elements held part of the sector of the 1st Landwehr Division east of Merckem for a day or two.

Verdun.

5. The division was sent to the Verdun region via Brussels-Namur-Sedan-Montmédy, and went into camp in the vicinity of Chauvency (west of Montmedy), where it remained 10 days.

Meuse.

6. May 24 it relieved the 22d Division near Beaumont (north of Verdun).

137
Roye.

7. It was relieved about August 7, and after resting a few days moved up to the Roye region. It was identified in the Bois des Loges August 16; it had relieved the 206th Division. The division remained in line retiring in the face of the Allied advance, but fighting stubbornly, especially near Campagne, Montigny, and Essigny le Grand; at the last-named place it counterattacked violently, but in vain, September 29. It was still in line when the armistice was signed.

VALUE—1918 ESTIMATE.

The 6th Bavarian is rated as one of the 45 best enemy divisions. It suffered extremely heavy losses, but since it always fought well—though not brilliantly, during 1918—the German High Command sent it as many replacements as it could. The morale has always been good, but quite anti-Prussian.

138

6th. Bavarian Reserve Division.

COMPOSITION.

1914 1915 1916 1917 1918
Brigade. Regiment. Brigade. Regiment. Brigade. Regiment. Brigade. Regiment. Brigade. Regiment.
Infantry. 12 Bav. Res. 16 Bav. Res. 12 Bav. Res. 16 Bav. Res. 12 Bav. Res. 16 Bav. Res. 12 Bav. Res. 16 Bav. Res. 12 Bav. Res. 25 Bav.
    17 Bav. Res.   17 Bav. Res.   17 Bav. Res.   17 Bav. Res.   16 Bav. Res.
  14 Bav. Res. 20 Bav. Res. 14 Bav. Res. 20 Bav. Res. 14 Bav. Res. 20 Bav. Res.   20 Bav. Res.   20 Bav. Res.
    21 Bav. Res.   21 Bav. Res.   21 Bav. Res.        
Cavalry. 6 Bav. Res. Cav. Rgt. 6 Bav. Res. Cav. Rgt. 6 Bav. Res. Cav. Rgt. 6 Bav. Res. Cav. Rgt. (? Sqns.) 3 Sqn. 5 Bav. Light Cav. Rgt.
Artillery. 6 Bav. Res. F. A. Rgt. (9 Btries.). 6 Bav. Res. F. A. Rgt. 6 Bav. Res. F. A. Rgt. 18 Bav. Art. Command: 18 Bav. Art. Command:
         6 Bav. Res. F. A. Regt.  19 Bav. F. A. Rgt.
           12 Bav. Ft. A. Btn.
           143 Bav. Light Am. Col.
           110 Bav. Light Am. Col.
           107 Bav. Light Am. Col.
Engineers and Liaisons. 6 Bav. Res. Pion. Co. 6 Bav. Res. Pion. Co. 6 Bav. Res. Pion. Co. (19 Bav.) Pion. Btn.: 19 Bav. Pion. Btn.:
      10 Bav. Res. Pion. Co.  6 Bav. Res. Pion. Co.  6 Bav. Res. Pion. Co.
      206 Bav. T. M. Co.  7 Bav. Res. Pion. Co.  7 Bav. Res. Pion. Co.
      6 Bav. Res. Pont. Engs.  206 Bav. T. M. Co.  206 Bav. T. M. Co.
      6 Bav. Res. Tel. Detch.  2 Bav. Res. Searchlight Section.  19 Bav. Searchlight Section.
         406 Bav. Res. Tel. Detch. 406 Signal Command:
           406 Tel. Detch.
           144 Wireless Detch.
Medical and Veterinary.       17 Bav. Ambulance Co. 17 Bav. Ambulance Co.
        53 Bav. Field Hospital. 53 Bav. Field Hospital.
        Vet. Hospital. 54 Bav. Field Hospital.
Transports.       M. T. Col. 752 M. T. Col.
139

HISTORY.

(16th Bavarian Reserve Regiment: First Bavarian District. 17th Bavarian Reserve Regiment: Second Bavarian District. 20th Bavarian Reserve Regiment: (?).)

1914.

Flanders.

1. This division was organized in Bavaria in September, 1914, and sent to Belgium about October 21. Assembled in the vicinity of Lille and was sent toward Dadizeele the 27th and was near Gheluvelt October 29, but does not seem to have been in the fight.

2. November 1 it was sent south of Ypres between Hollebeke and Messines. It attacked in the direction of Wytschaete November 2 and suffered heavy losses: 11th Company, 4 officers and 181 men (16th Reserve Regiment); 6th company of the 17th Reserve Regiment, 5 officers and 228 men (casualty lists). November 6 the 3d company of the 21st Reserve Regiment was reduced to 3 provisional officers and 63 men (notebook).

1915.

Flanders.

1. The division remained in the Messines-Wytschaete sector until the beginning of March, 1915.

2. Relieved between March 6 and 8 and sent the 11th as reinforcements to the 7th Corps at Neuve Chapelle. Then sent to rest in the region of Roubaix in March.

Lille.

3. Beginning of April it went into line southwest of Lille between Grenier Wood and Aubers and held this sector until the end of September, 1916.

1916.

1. July 19, 1916, the division suffered heavy losses in opposing the British attack southeast of Laventie.

Somme.

2. Relieved from the Lille front about September 27 and engaged in the Somme district near Eaucourt l’Abbaye and Gueudecourt until October 13. Again suffered heavily.

Artois.

3. October 25 it took over the Vimy-Lievin sector, south of Lens.

1917.

1. The division held the front south of Lens during all the winter of 1916 to 1917 and executed many raids.

2. February 12 sent to rest near Douai and reorganized in February and March. One of its regiments, the 21st Reserve, was transferred to the 16th Bavarian Division, newly organized.

3. March 14 it went into line north of the La Bassee Canal.

4. Withdrawn from this sector at the end of April and was engaged May 8 northeast of Arras, at Oppy Gavrelle, until May 11. In the middle of June it returned to this sector for a few days and does not seem to have suffered heavy losses.

Ypres.

5. After a rest near Douai until the end of June the division was sent to Flanders. Was first placed in reserve south of Thielt during the first few weeks of July and engaged the 18th southeast of Ypres in the Ledeghem sector. Lost heavily from the artillery preparation and was relieved July 30 before the British attack.

140
Alsace.

6. Sent to Alsace and held the Altkirch sector from the middle of August to beginning of October.

Laonnois.

7. About October 16 to 17 it was sent to the region of Lizy, southwest of Laon. It relieved on the Ailette, east of Anizy le Chateau, about October 25, the remains of the 14th and 52d Divisions, decimated by the French attack of the 23d.

8. The division was not heavily engaged in the sector of Lizy. It continued to hold it in November and December 1917 and January 1918. During this period it was sent to Vervins for rest and training.

VALUE—1917 ESTIMATE.

The division was organized as an attack unit. From January 24 to February 19, 1918, it went through a training for the offensive in the vicinity of Vervins including breaking-through maneuvers, Feb. 1 with a Prussian division at Vallee aux Bleds; another divisional maneuver February 11 before the German Crown Prince and Gen. Ludendorff; third divisional maneuver February 18 (examination of prisoners, Feb. 28, 1918). It is to be noted that in Flanders, where the division had the only important fight it had in 1917 it suffered heavily. Its morale was so weakened that it had to be withdrawn before the British attack.

1918.

Vervins.

1. The 6th Bavarian Reserve Division was relieved in the Anizy le Chateau region by the 6th Division, January 24 and went to the vicinity of Vervins where it was put through a course of training in open warfare, in which artillery and aeroplanes participated. These exercises were supervised by the Crown Prince and Ludendorff.

2. February 22 it relieved the 6th Division in its former section. About the end of the month the division was relieved by elements of the 13th Landwehr Division, and by the extension of the flanks of the neighboring divisions, going to rest in the Chauny region.

Somme.

3. Toward the middle of April the division relieved the 206th Division near Mesnil St. Georges (southwest of Montdidier). It was relieved by the 25th Reserve Division April 21.

Ailette.

4. There is some doubt as to where the division went; it was reported northeast of Ghent, northeast of Laon, and in Lorraine. There is some evidence to show that it relieved the 222d Division near Anizy le Chateau during the night of May 2–3. This front was very quiet until the German offensive of May 27, in which attack the 6th Bavarian Reserve Division did not attack in the front line—being “leap-frogged” by the 5th and 6th Divisions acting as shock units—but followed up the advance coming into line between these two divisions during the night of the 27th–28th. It was at this time definitely identified. In the attack on Terny (May 28), the division met with strong resistance and suffered heavily. June 1 it captured Le Port, but lost it again to the French on June 7, with severe losses. It was relieved about the 15th by the 53d Reserve Division.

Marne.

5. July 17 it was identified near Passy sur Marne (west of Dormans). It was withdrawn August 6 and spent a fortnight refitting.

Bapaume.

6. August 23 it reinforced the front near Ervillers (northwest of Bapaume) having traveled via Cambrai, Bourlon, and Beugnâtre. The division was withdrawn early in September.

141
Ypres.

7. It relieved the 8th Division southwest of Messines during the night of September 17–18. Just before coming into line the 17th Bavarian Reserve Infantry Regiment was dissolved and its men drafted to the other two regiments of the division. It was replaced by the 25th Bavarian Infantry Regiment from the 14th Bavarian Division which was dissolved at this time. Likewise, the 6th Bavarian Reserve Field Artillery Regiment was dissolved and replaced by the 19th Bavarian Field Artillery Regiment from the 10th Bavarian Division disbanded in July. The division remained in line until the armistice was signed, withdrawing through Wytschaete-Houthem-Comines-Marcke-Ooteghem and Krinstraat.

VALUE—1918 ESTIMATE.

The 6th Bavarian Reserve is rated as a second-class division, which seems justified not only from opinions concerning its ability as a fighting unit coming from Allied sources, but also from the fact that, although it had a course of training in “breaking through” in February, it was never so used by the German High Command, serving rather as a “follow up” division. (Cf. May 27 offensive.) The division suffered heavy losses during its 1918 engagements; indeed, some prisoners captured the middle of September said that it was to be broken up. They were mistaken, but one of the infantry regiments and the artillery regiment were disbanded.

142

6th Bavarian Landwehr Division.

COMPOSITION.

1914 1915 1916 1917 1918
Brigade. Regiment. Brigade. Regiment. Brigade. Regiment. Brigade. Regiment. Brigade. Regiment.
Infantry. Von Frech. 121 Ldw. 1 Bav. Mixed Ldw. 1 Bav. Ldw. 1 Bav. Mixed Ldw. 1 Bav. Ldw. 2 Bav. Ldw. 1 Bav. Ldw. 2 Bav. Ldw. 1 Bav. Ldw.
  1 Bav. Mixed Ldw. 123 Ldw. 2 Bav. Mixed Ldw. 2 Bav. Ldw. 2 Bav. Mixed Ldw. 2 Bav. Ldw.   2 Bav. Ldw.   3 Bav. Ldw.
  2 Bav. Mixed Ldw. 1 Bav. Ldw.   3 Bav. Ldw.   3 Bav. Ldw.   12 Bav. Ldw.   12 Bav. Ldw.
    2 Bav. Ldw.   12 Bav. Ldw.   12 Bav. Ldw.        
    3 Bav. Ldw.                
    12 Bav. Ldw.                
Cavalry.   1 Ldw. Sqn. of the 1 Bav. C. Dist. 1 Ldw. Sqn. and 2 Ldw. Sqn. of 1 Bav. C. Dist. 2d Sqn. 2 Bav. Light Cav. Rgt. 2 Sqn. 2 Bav. Light Cav. Rgt.
        2d Sqn. 2 Bav. Light Cav. Rgt.  
Artillery.     6 Bav. Ldw. F. A. Rgt. 23 Bav. Art. Command: 6 Bav. Ldw. F. A. Rgt. (3 Abt., Staff, and 8 Btry.).
      2 Bav. Ldw. F. A. Abt.  6 Bav. Ldw. F. A. Rgt.  
      10 Bav. Mountain Art. Btry.    
Engineers and Liaisons.     16 Bav. Res. Pion. Co. 26 Bav. Pion. Btn.: 26 Bav. Pion Btn.:
      250 Pion. Co.  16 Bav. Res. Pion. Co.  16 Bav. Res. Pion. Co.
      14 C. Dist. 1 Ldw. Pion. Co.  306 Bav. T. M. Co.  26 Bav. Searchlight Section.
      1 Bav. C. Dist. 1 Landst. Pion. Co.  10 Bav. Res. Searchlight Section.  506 Bav. Signal Command:
      1 Bav. C. Dist. 2 Landst. Pion. Co.  506 Bav. Tel. Detch.  506 Bav. Tel. Detch.
           192 Bav. Wireless Detch.
           
Medical and Veterinary.       560 Ambulance Co. 19 Bav. Ambulance Co.
        19 Bav. Field Hospital. 60 Bav. Field Hospital.
        59 Bav. Field Hospital. 59 Bav. Field Hospital.
        36 Vet. Hospital.  
Transports.       47 Bav. M. T. Col. 794 Bav. M. T. Col.
        49 Bav. M. T. Col.  
Attached. Landshut Inf. Btn. (1 Bav. C. Dist. Btn. Landst. No. 7).   3 and 5 Cos. (Wurtt) Ski Btns. Neustadt Landst. Inf. Btn. (2 Bav. C. Dist. Btn. No. 4).  
  Nuremberg Inf. Btn. (3 Bav. C. Dist. Landst. Btn. No. 1).   Fribourg Landst. Inf. Btn. (14 C. Dist. 1 Btn. No. 7). Bomberg Landst. Inf. Btn. (2 Bav. C. Dist. Btn. No. 10).  
      1 Cologne 2 Landst. Inf. Btn. (8 C. Dist. Btn. No. 14). Ansbach Landst. Inf. Btn. (3 Bav. C. Dist. Btn. No. 2).  
      65 Labor Btn. 1 Cologne 2 Landst. Inf. Btn. (8 C. Dist. Btn. No. 14).  
143

HISTORY.

(First Bavarian District.)

1914.

Alsace.

1. The division was sent into the Vosges at the beginning of the campaign (3 brigades, of which one was from Wurtemberg). It fought in the valley of the Fecht in August, 1914. Beginning with October it occupied the region Ste. Marie aux Mines-Col du Bonhomme. October 2 the 1st Bavarian Brigade entrained at Colmar for Belgium and garrisoned Antwerp until December.

2. At the beginning of November the 3d Bavarian Landwehr Division took part in the attacks on the Violu.

1915.

1. From February to April, 1915, the units which at that time made up this division were again separated. The 1st Bavarian Landwehr (mixed) Brigade came back from Belgium in the middle of December and went to Champagne (Souain-Somme-Py) to reinforce the 15th Division; the 2d Mixed Brigade continued to hold the Orbey la Poutroye sector south of Bonhomme (valley of the Weiss). The Wurtemberg Brigade (von Frech) was transferred in April to the 7th Landwehr Division (Wurtemberg) in upper Alsace.

2. In April, 1915, the remaining two brigades were assembled on the Vosges front (Orbey, Valley of the Weiss) and from that time on held this sector without much change.

3. In July some units of the division fought in the region of the Linge.

1916.

1. Vosges sector (valley of the Weiss, Col du Bonhomme). At the end of December, 1916, the 2d Bavarian Landwehr was transferred to the 2d Bavarian Landwehr Division (new).

1917.

1. In 1917 the division extended its sector from the region of Col du Bonhomme to the valley of the Fecht (Munster).

VALUE—1917 ESTIMATE.

The division was in line in the region of Orbey (south of Col du Bonhomme) from 1915 on. It is a mediocre division made up of elderly men. The companies have no shock troops. All the important operations are executed by the assault company of the division.

1918.

Alsace.

1. The 6th Bavarian Landwehr Division occupied the sector extending from south of Le Bonhomme to just west of Muenster, all through the year, being still in line when the armistice was signed.

VALUE—1918 ESTIMATE.

The division is a fourth-class one, being used only to hold one of the calmest sectors on the western front. All the young men were taken away from the division (except those in machine-gun and assault companies) and exchanged for older ones. In October the father of six children was captured. Morale was low, discipline poor. Several prisoners stated that the men did not hesitate to say, even in front of their officers, that the war had been lost by Germany and that they were thoroughly sick of it.

144

6th Cavalry Division (Dismounted).

COMPOSITION.

1918
Brigade. Regiment.
Cavalry. 5 Cav. 2 Drag.
    3 Uhlan.
    7 Cuirassier.
  45 Cav. 7 Res. Drag.
    13 Hus.
    13 Horse Jag.
  3 Cav. 2 Cuirassier.
    9 Uhlan.
    12 Hus.
Artillery. 133 Art. Command.
Engineers and Liaisons. 21 Pion. Btn.
  319 T. M. Co.
  674 Wireless Detch.
Medical and Veterinary. 256 Ambulance Co.
  106 Field Hospital.
  261 Vet. Hospital.
Attached. 70 Ldw. Inf. Brig.

HISTORY.

1918.

Alsace.

1. The division held the Badonviller sector until the last of April, when it was relieved by the 21st Landwehr Division. It rested at Mulhausen until July. At this time it was reorganized as a division of nine dismounted cavalry regiments.

Ypres.

2. On July 1 it entrained at Sierenz and traveled via Saarburg-Eupen-Liege-Brussels-Courtrai to Ingelmunster, where it detrained on July 3. The division then went into rest billets in the Iseghem-Winkel St. Eloi and Lendelede area, and on the night of July 27–28 it relieved the 1st Landwehr Division east of Ypres.

Cambrai.

3. It was relieved in Flanders and railed via Cambrai to Fins, where it detrained August 31. On September 4 it was in line at Manancourt and Nurlun. It was engaged in heavy fighting until September 25, when it was withdrawn from the battle front southwest of Cambrai after losing 400 prisoners.

Belgium.

4. It reinforced the Ypres battle front at Ledeghem on October 1 and fought there for about one week. It rested out of line a week and returned on October 15 to line east of Gulleghem. Two weeks later it was withdrawn in the Waereghem area.

5. On November 3 the division was again in line at Hermelgem. It was withdrawn within a few days and on the day of the armistice it was considered to be in reserve of the 4th German Army.

VALUE—1918 ESTIMATE.

The division was rated as fourth class. Its use in the active Ypres and Cambrai fronts indicates that it should have been rated higher after its reorganization in the summer.

145

7th Division.

COMPOSITION.

1914 1915 1916 1917 1918
Brigade. Regiment. Brigade. Regiment. Brigade. Regiment. Brigade. Regiment. Brigade. Regiment.
Infantry. 13. 26. 13. 26. 14. 26. 14. 26. 14. 26.
    66.   66.   27.   165.   165.
  14. 27. 14. 27.   165.   393.   393.
    165.   165.            
Cavalry. 10 Hus. Rgt. (3 Sqns.). 10 Hus. Rgt. (3 Sqns.). 10 Hus. Rgt. (3 Sqns.). 2 Sqn. 10 Hus. Rgt. 2 Sqn. 10 Hus. Rgt.
Artillery. 7 Brig.: 7 Brig.: 7 Brig.: 7 Brig.: 7 Art. Command:
   4 F. A. Rgt.  4 F. A. Rgt.  4 F. A. Rgt.  40 F. A. Rgt.  40 F. A. Rgt.
   40 F. A. Rgt.  40 F. A. Rgt.  40 F. A. Rgt.    4 Abt. 24 Res. Ft. A. Rgt.
           1244 Light Am. Col.
           1298 Light Am. Col.
           1301 Light Am. Col.
Engineers and Liaisons.   1 Pion. Btn. No. 4. 1 Pion. Btn. No. 4: 118 Pion. Btn. (formerly 1 Pion. Btn. No. 4): 4 Pion. Btn.:
     Field Co. 4 Pions.  1 Co. 4 Pions.  1 Co. 4 Pions.  1 Co. 4 Pions.
     7 Pont. Engs.  7 T. M. Co.  3 Co. 4 Pions.  3 Co. 4 Pions.
     7 Tel. Detch.  7 Pont. Engrs.  7 T. M. Co.  43 Searchlight Section.
       7 Tel. Detch.  7 Tel. Detch. 7 Signal Command:
         7 Pont. Engs.  7 Tel. Detch.
           132 Bav. Wireless Detch.
Medical and Veterinary.       10 Ambulance Co. 10 Ambulance Co.
        Field Hospital. 37 Field Hospital.
        Vet. Hospital. 41 Field Hospital.
          7 Vet. Hospital.
Transports.       M. T. Col. 540 M. T. Col.
Attached.       88 Labor Btn. (5th Co.).  
146

HISTORY.

(Fourth District—Prussian Saxony.)

1914.

The Seventh Division was recruited in the Province of Prussian Saxony and, with the 8th Division, belonged to the 4th Army Corps (Magdeburg).

Marne.

1. The 14th Brigade, which had already obtained reservists July 30, entrained on the evening of August 2 and was one of the six brigades ordered to take Liege. The whole division moved into the region of Liege August 15. It belonged to the 1st Army (Von Kluck), and passed through Louvain August 18 and through Brussels the 20th. On the 23d it was on the Haine, west of St. Ghislain. On the 24th between Quiévrain and Audregnies it threatened to envelop the Allied left. Going through Le Cateau and Peronne on August 28, the division passed through Grand Morin and arrived at Choisy, southeast of Coulommiers, from where it was sent in all haste to the aid of the right wing of the 1st Army (Etavigny, etc.).

Belgium.

2. After the retreat it went to the north of the Aisne below Soissons until the last days of September (fights at Cuisy en Almont, Morsain, Nouvron, Fontenoy).

3. At the end of September it was attached to the 6th Army (Crown Prince of Bavaria) and sent to Artois.

Artois.

4. At the beginning of October it fought south of Arras (Monchy aux Bois, Ransart, Wailly). It established itself south of the Scarpe.

5. It held the sector until the end of May, 1915. During this period it limited itself to organizing defensively.

1915.

1. In March the division was reduced to three regiments by the transfer of the 66th Infantry to the 52d Division (new).

2. In May, 1915, at the time of the French offensive in Artois some units of the division were sent as reinforcements to the region of Neuville-St. Vaast. It left some prisoners and suffered heavy losses on May 12 to 13.

Artois.

3. June 12 the division left the sector south of the Scarpe and went into line the 13th between Lorette and Angres (from the Souchez-Aix Noulette Road to the Blanc work). The French offensive struck it June 13 and the days following north of the road from Souchez to Aix Noulette. It was forced to give ground and lost many prisoners (250 men, among them 6 officers from the 26th Infantry north of Bois Carre; the 2d Battalion of the 26th Infantry lost 12 officers and 597 men out of action, according to the Prussian casualty lists).

4. At the beginning of July the division established itself south of the railroad from Grenay to Lens, north of Souchez. September 25 it fought in the third battle of Artois, north of Bois en Hache, before Angres and Lievin. It showed considerable energy, but again had many of its men captured.

5. The division remained in this sector southwest of Loos (south of the Lens-Béthune Road; Lene-Grenay Railroad) until July, 1916.

1916.

1. Until the beginning of July, 1916, the division had no serious battles.

2. About July 3 the division was relieved from the Loos front. On the 13th it was at Cambrai.

147
Somme.

3. July 14 and 15 it began to be engaged in the battle of the Somme between Pozieres and Bazentin le Petit. It suffered terrible losses. Relieved May 28.

Artois.

4. After a rest in the region of Valenciennes it went into line east of Arras August 9 and stayed there until September 17. At this time it transferred its 27th Infantry to the 211th Division and took in exchange the 393d Infantry, composed of levies from the regiments of the 7th, 8th, and 12th Divisions, 50th Reserve Division and 38th Landwehr Brigade.

Somme.

5. About September 18 it again took part in the battle of the Somme in the sector of Courcelette. It fought bravely and again suffered heavily.

Artois.

6. Withdrawn from the Somme about October 2 and went into the sector southeast of Loos October 5. Again withdrawn from this sector November 10 it went almost immediately into the line south of the La Bassee Canal and stayed there until May 28, 1917.

1917.

Artois.

1. During the winter of 1916–17 the division had no big battles, but suffered from raids executed by the British troops.

Flanders.

2. May 28 it was withdrawn from the La Bassee front and sent to the region of Ypres (sector of Hollebeke-Wytschaete) June 8 to 19.

Alsace.

3. At the beginning of July it was sent to Alsace to the vicinity of Mulhouse where it rested.

4. July 27 to 28 it entrained again for Artois via Mulhouse-Strassbourg-Sarreguemines-Metz-Thionville-Sedan-Hirson-Valenciennes-St. Amand.

Artois.

5. After a few days’ rest in the region of St. Amand and Orchies July 28 to August 3, it went into the lines north of Lens (Loos sector) where it lost heavily from August 9 to the beginning of September.

Belgium.

6. Relieved then and sent to rest at Pont a Marcq, it went back into the line between the La Bassee Canal and Hulluch September 21. Withdrawn from this sector during October and sent to the region of Ypres where it held a front on October 29 between Becelaere and Gheluvelt. It was still identified there January 29, 1918.

RECRUITING.

Province of Magdeburg (Prussian Saxony) and part of Thuringia. The 393d Infantry gets replacements from the depot of the 153d Infantry (Altenburg). Its resources from these replacements are as a rule sufficient and the Fourth District has even furnished recruits to the regiments of the Fourteenth. In exchange when it has relatively few replacements it has been helped out by Polish drafts from Silesia (Sixth District).

1918.

1. The division was relieved on February 4 and rested in the Eecloo area, participating in a large-scale maneuver.

2. It returned to line in the Becelaere sector on March 3, relieving the 8th Bavarian Reserve Division. It was withdrawn March 26.

148
Battle of the Lys.

3. It fought near Hollebeke, Messines, Wytschaete, between April 9 and May 1. It took part in the attack on the Ypres-Comines Canal on April 25.

4. During May it was at rest in Belgium near Deyuze (Cruyhautern). It entrained for Nesle about June 8, moving through Audenarde, Coutrai, Lille, Douai, Cambrai, and Ham. It marched to the front, southeast of Montdidier by Roye and Tilloloy June 9–11.

5. It was in line near Ressons-Marqueglise from June 14 to 24.

6. The division rested south of St. Quentin June 26 to 29, then at Origny June 30 to July 4. It entrained at Origny on July 4 and moved to Sedan by Guise, Hirson, Liart, and Charleville. It was north of Grandpre from July 5 to 10. On the 10th it was sent toward the Champagne front by Grandpre, Monthois, and Maure.

Battle of Rheims.

7. The division was engaged at Repon, east of Tahure, on July 15. Heavy losses were incurred during the attack of July 15. It was taken out on August 15.

Ailette.

8. It was moved by railroad to Chauny (by Laon) and detrained about August 20. About this time a dozen men per company were received.

9. On August 26–27 it entered line south of Juvigny (north of Soissons). In the fighting that followed the division was withdrawn to Leuilly on the night of August 31-Sept 1. It was relieved on the 3d after losing 605 prisoners. The German communique of August 30 credited the 165th Regiment with the destruction of 20 tanks in one attack.

Battle of the Argonne.

10. The division rested near Attigny until September 24, when it reinforced the Somme-Py front. It was engaged until October 22 with very heavy losses. It returned from the second line two days later to assist in covering the retreat between La Neuville en Tourne a Fuy and Juniville. From there it fell back on the Aisne (Ambly) and was retired on October 14.

VALUE—1918 ESTIMATE.

The division was rated as first class.

149

7th Reserve Division.

COMPOSITION.

1914 1915 1916 1917 1918
Brigade. Regiment. Brigade. Regiment. Brigade. Regiment. Brigade. Regiment. Brigade. Regiment.
Infantry. 13 Res. 27 Res. 13 Res. 27 Res. 14 Res. 36 Res. 14 Res. 36 Res. 14 Res. 36 Res.
    36 Res.   36 Res.   66 Res.   66 Res.   66 Res.
  14 Res. 66 Res. 14 Res. 66 Res.   72 Res.   72 Res.   72 Res.
    72 Res.   72 Res.            
  4 Res. Jag. Btn. 4 Res. Jag. Btn. 4 Res. Jag. Btn.        
Cavalry. 1 Res. Heavy Cav. Rgt. (3 Sqns.).   1 Res. Heavy Cav. Rgt. 1 Res. Heavy Cav. Rgt. (1 Sqn.). 3 Sqn. 9 Drag. Rgt.
Artillery. 7 Res. F. A. Rgt. (6 Btries.). 7 Res. F. A. Rgt. 7 Res. F. A. Rgt. (9 Btries.). 95 Art. Command: 95 Art. Command:
         7 Res. F. A. Rgt. (9 Btries.)  7 Res. F. A. Rgt.
           52 Ft. A. Btn.
           889 Light Am. Col.
           1106 Light Am. Col.
           1126 Light Am. Col.
Engineers and Liaisons. 4 Field Co. 2 Pion. Btn No. 4. 4 Field Co. 2 Pion. Btn. No. 4: 4 Field Co. 2 Pion. Btn. No. 4: 307 Pion. Btn.: 307 Pion. Btn.:
     7 Res. Pont.-Engs.  248 Pion. Co.  4 Co. 4 Pions.  4 Co. 4 Pions.
     7 Res. Tel.-Detch.  207 T. M. Co.  248 Pion. Co.  248 Pion. Co.
       7 Res. Pont.-Engs.  207 T. M. Co.  207 T. M. Co.
       7 Res. Tel.-Detch.  407 Tel.-Detch.  180 Searchlight Section.
          407 Signal Command:
           407 Tel. Detch.
           42 Wireless Detch.
Medical and Veterinary.       504 Ambulance Co. 504 Ambulance Co.
        22 Res. Field Hospital. 22 Res. Field Hospital.
        49 Res. Field Hospital. 24 Res. Field Hospital.
        Vet. Hospital. 407 Vet. Hospital.
Transports.       M. T. Col. 707 M. T. Col.
150

HISTORY.

(Fourth District—Prussian Saxony.)

1914.

1. At the beginning of the war the 7th Reserve Division was part of the 4th Reserve Corps.

Belgium.

2. It detrained August 10 to 12, 1914, near Dusseldorf, and was part of the 1st Army (Von Kluck). Reached Brussels via Tongres (Aug. 19) and Louvain, and advanced toward Paris through Enghien, Ath, Conde, Amiens (Aug. 30–31), Clermont, Creil, and Senlis (Sept. 4).

Marne.

3. At the battle of the Marne it was engaged northwest of Crouy sur Ourcq (Puisieux, Neufmoutiers, Monthyon) and suffered heavy losses, September 6 and 7.

4. From September 8 to 11 it withdrew through Villers Cotterets, Coeuvres, Port Fontenoy. It fought for a long time in the region of Nouvron.

Aisne.

5. After the front was stabilized it held the lines between the Soissons-Laon Road to southwest of Nouvron.

6. November 12 it had considerable losses at the attack of the Plateau of Nouvron.

1915.

1. The division held the Nouvron sector until September, 1915.

2. In January, 1915, some of the units of the division were engaged in the fights around Soissons, January 12 and 13.

3. In June several battalions were sent toward Quennevieres as reinforcements at the beginning of the French attack.

Champagne.

4. Relieved about September 22 to 25, the division was sent to Champagne at the beginning of October. Suffered heavy losses in the region of Tahure October 30.

1916.

1. Withdrawn at the end of January, 1916, from the sector of Tahure. It was sent to rest north of Rethel. It went back into line only for a short time toward the end of February north of Prosnes (the 36th Reserve Regiment alone appeared in this sector).

2. About May 10 the division was sent to the camp of Sissonne.

Verdun.

3. It was sent to the Verdun front and took part in the attack of June 1 on Thiaumont-Damploup in the sector of Bois de la Caillette. Suffered very heavy losses June 2 and 3 and at the attack of Bois de Vaux Chapitre on June 21. Total of losses before Verdun, 8,200 men. On June 16 the companies of the 36th Reserve were reduced to an average of 30 men (prisoners’ statements). From June 1 to 5 the 10th Company of the 72d Reserves received no less than 138 replacements.

Argonne.

4. The division was withdrawn from the Verdun front about July 1. Sent to the Argonne and occupied the sector north of Ville sur Tourbe (between Main de Massiges and the Aisne) until the end of August. It was reorganized in this region.

Somme.

5. After a rest in the vicinity of Longwy it was sent to the Somme and fought in the region of Gueudecourt September 23 to October 11.

151
Argonne.

6. About October 14 the division took over its old sector north of Ville sur Tourbe, south of Cernay en Dormois.

1917.

Meuse.

1. Withdrawn from the Argonne front about January 8, 1917, and sent, February 5, before Verdun (region of Louvemont, north of Chambrettes), where it was kept until the beginning of April.

2. The division next held the sector of Cernay les Reims at the end of April to May 25.

Champagne.

3. About May 30 and 31 it was sent into line before Teton (region of Moronvilliers) until the middle of August.

4. After a rest in the vicinity of Aussonce the division went into line at the beginning of September in the region of Nauroy, sector of Mont Haut-Cornillet. Relieved January, 1918, and sent to rest north of Rethel.

RECRUITING.

Prussian Saxony and part of Thuringia.

VALUE—1917 ESTIMATE.

At Tahure in October, 1915, and at Verdun the division obtained only mediocre results in spite of heavy losses. “This division seems to be rather a sector division than a shock unit.”

1918.

Rethel.

1. On January 14 the division was relieved by the 14th Bavarian Division and sent to Wassigny (north of Rethel) to rest and train. On March 14 it started by night marches toward St. Quentin, bivouacking in the woods by day and avoiding all villages. The itinerary followed was Dezy le Gros-Bucy les Pierrepont-Marle-Origny et Mesnil-St. Laurent, where it arrived March 21.

Battle of Picardy.

2. From the 22d to the 28th the division was in army reserve. It followed the general advance through Itancourt, Essigny, Grand Serancourt, St. Simon, Golancourt, Muirancourt, and Candor. On March 29 it relieved the 1st Bavarian Division west of Lassigny, where it attacked on the day following. It suffered such heavy losses that it was hastily relieved on the night of March 31-April 1.

Aisne.

3. It came into line near Reims on April 26 relieving the 25th Reserve Division between the Miettl and the Aisne. It took part in the offensive of May 27. About June 1 the division was relieved in the sector east of Ville en Tardenois.

Champagne.

4. The division moved to Champagne and relieved the Guard Cavalry Division on July 6. It passed into the second line on July 14 to permit a fresh division to pass through for the attack. It returned to line on the 20th, relieving the 1st Division near St. Hilaire. During July the 66th Reserve Regiment is known to have received drafts, raising the company strength to 100.

Soissons.

5. Between August 4 and 20 the exact date is not known, the division was moved from line in Champagne to the front west of Chavigny, where it was engaged on August 24. It took part in heavy fighting in that region until its relief about August 31.

1526. The division arrived at Fourmies from Laon on September 8, where it rested and trained until September 17. It entrained at Trelon and moved to Grandpre, from where it marched to the front by way of St. Juvin and Brieulles.

Meuse-Argonne.

7. The division was in line on the day of the American attack September 26, holding the sector immediately west of the Meuse. It was swamped on the opening attack without offering any considerable resistance. It was withdrawn on the 28th, but on October 9 elements were returned to fill a gap in the former sector of the 1st A. H. division. The last elements were finally withdrawn about October 25. The losses of the division in the Argonne are estimated at 3,500, including 2,260 prisoners.

VALUE—1918 ESTIMATE.

The division was rated as a second-class division. Its efforts in 1918 were generally unsuccessful in spite of heavy losses. By the time of the armistice it had been almost annihilated.

153

7th Landwehr Division.

COMPOSITION.

1914 1915 1916 1917 1918
Brigade. Regiment. Brigade. Regiment. Brigade. Regiment. Brigade. Regiment. Brigade. Regiment.
Infantry. Mathy (55). 119 Ldw. 52 Ldw. 119 Ldw. 51 Ldw. 119 Ldw. 52 Ldw. 122 Res. 52 Ldw. 122 Res.
    40 Ldw.   121 Ldw.   123 Ldw.   121 Ldw.   121 Ldw.
  52. 123 Ldw.   123 Ldw. 52 Ldw. 121 Ldw.   126 Ldw.   126 Ldw.
    121 Ldw.       126 Ldw.        
Cavalry.   2 Ldw. Sqn. (13 C. Dist.). 2 Ldw. Sqn. (13 C. Dist.). 2 Ldw. Sqn. (13 C. Dist.).  
        1 Sqn. 20 Uhlan Rgt.  
Artillery.   1 Ldw. F. A. Rgt. 1 Ldw. F. A. Rgt. Art. Command: 1 Ldw. F. A. Rgt. (except the 3d Abt. Staff and 7 and 9 Btries.).
         1 Ldw. F. A. Rgt. 1025 Light Am. Col.
Engineers and Liaisons.     2 Ldw. Co. 13 C. Dist. Pions. (407) Pion. Btn.: 407 Pion. Btn.:
      4 Ldw. Co. 13 C. Dist. Pions.  2 Ldw. Co. 13 Pions.  2 Ldw. Co. 13 C. Dist. Pions.
      6 Ldw. Co. 13 C. Dist. Pions.  3 Ldw. Co. 13 Pions.  141 Searchlight Section.
      307 T. M. Co.  307 T. M. Co. 507 Signal Command:
         334 Searchlight Section.  507 Tel. Detch.
         507 Tel. Detch.  
Medical and Veterinary.       571 Ambulance Co. 571 Ambulance Co.
        258 Field Hospital. 258 Field Hospital.
        33 Ldw. Field Hospital. 33 Ldw. Field Hospital.
        Vet. Hospital. 47 Vet. Hospital.
Transports.       M. T. Col. 776 M. T. Col.
Odd units.     1 Cyclist Co. 1 Cyclist Co.  
Attached.     13 Balloon Sqn.    
      59 Labor Btn.    
154

HISTORY.

(Thirteenth District—Wurtemberg.)

1914.

Alsace.

1. The 7th Landwehr Division did not leave Alsace from its organization in 1915 until February, 1917. Its first units appeared there beginning August 9, 1914, the date of the detraining of the 121st Landwehr at Neuf Brisach. The 119th Landwehr fought south of Mulhouse beginning August 19, and the 40th Landwehr at Dornach near Mulhouse on the same day.

2. In October, 1917, the 52d and 55th Brigades, which were to compose in 1915 the 7th Landwehr Division, were part of the Gaede Army Group and occupied the region of Munster, Guebwiller, Cernay.

3. In December the 123d Landwehr took part in the attacks on Hartmannswillerkopf.

1915.

Alsace.

1. In March, 1915, the 52d Brigade was in line in the valleys of the Fecht and the Lauch. The 119th Landwehr was south of Cernay. In April the 40th Landwehr (Baden) left the division and was transferred for some time to the 6th Landwehr Division (Bavarian).

2. The 7th Landwehr Division then contained the 119th, 121st and 123d Landwehr, to which a fourth regiment was joined, the 126th Landwehr, formed by drafts from the three others. The division, from then on exclusively Wurtemberger, from that time held the sector Wattwiller-Rhone-Rhine Canal (Cernay-Altkirch).

1916.

Alsace.

1. Cernay-Altkirch sector.

1917.

Alsace-Lorraine.

1. The division remained on the Mulhouse front (Cernay-Altkirch) until February 20, 1917. Relieved on that date and sent to Lorraine (Leintrey-Badonviller sector), where it replaced the 33d Reserve Division. It was at this time that the division was decreased to three regiments; its 119th Landwehr and 123d Landwehr were transferred to the 26th Landwehr Division and it obtained the 122d Reserves from the 54th Reserve Division.

Russia-Volhynia.

2. The division left the Lorraine front in the middle of May. Entrained beginning May 14 at Sarrebourg and sent to the Eastern Front via Nurnberg-Warsaw-Lublin-Kovel-Vladimir Volynski. It took over the Kisselin sector (Volhynia).

RECRUITING.

From April, 1915 on, the division was entirely composed from men from Wurtemberg.

VALUE—1917 ESTIMATE.

A mediocre division, much reduced by transferring its most energetic units to active regiments and Wurtemberg reserve regiments and receiving in exchange older men.

1918.

Ukraine.

1. In February, 1918, the 7th Landwehr Division left the Kisselin region and advanced into the Ukraine. “We are going into Russia to succor the Ukrainians,” wrote a man of the 122d Reserve Regiment from the Rovno region on February 26. 155On April 1, the 126th Landwehr Regiment was identified between Kiev and Odessa; along with the 122d Reserve Regiment it was identified near Odessa on the 9th.

2. On May 11 the division was identified south of Ekaterinoslav and on the 4th of July at Rostov on the Don.

3. The division was reported to have been sent to the Danube front about the middle of October, but it was never actually identified there.

VALUE—1918 ESTIMATE.

The division was rated as fourth class.

156

7th Cavalry Division (Dismounted).

COMPOSITION.

1918
Brigade. Regiment.
Cavalry. 28 Cav. 11 Uhlan.
    15 Uhlan.
    4 Res. Uhlan.
  30 Cav. 9 Hus.
    15 Drag.
    25 Drag.
  41 Cav. 26 Drag.
    5 Cuirassier.
    4 Uhlan.
Engineers and Liaisons. 19 Pion. Btn. (1, 2, and 3 Cos.):
   6 Cav. Pion. Detch.
   312 T. M. Co.
   186 Wireless Detch.
Medical and Veterinary. 606 Ambulance Co.
Odd Units 10 M. G. S. S. Detch. (1, 2, and 3 Cos.).
Attached 5 F. A. Rgt. (10 and 11 Btries.).

HISTORY.

1918.

1. The division held the Guebwiller (Alsace) sector until the end of May. It rested in the Saarebourg area until mid-July, when it was railed to Belgium (Courtrai area).

2. After resting near Courtrai for two weeks, the division entrained at Lauwe on August 13 for Armentieres, where it remained until August 23. It went into line in the Kemmel area for three days. The division was then railed back to Tourcoing, from where it was transferred by trucks to Lagnicourt on August 26 and came into line on the following day at Ecoust.

Arras-Cambrai.

3. In two weeks the division was heavily engaged in the Arras battle. It was relieved on September 9, after losing more than 700 prisoners. The division rested in the Cambrai area until September 22, when it relieved the 1st Guard Reserve Division north of Moeuvres. It was withdrawn on September 30.

Belgium.

4. The division entrained at Solesmes on October 5 and detrained at Mouscron. It remained here until October 14, when it moved to Deerlyck, and on the 17th elements counterattacked between Courtrai and Harlebeke. It was engaged until its relief on October 29 by the 49th Reserve Division northwest of Anseghem. The division was considered to be in reserve of the 10th German Army at the time of the armistice.

VALUE—1918 ESTIMATE.

The division was rated as fourth class. Its use on the Cambrai and Belgium fronts in September and October indicate that it might have been considered a third-class division after its reorganization.

157

8th Division.

COMPOSITION.

1914 1915 1916 1917 1918
Brigade. Regiment. Brigade. Regiment. Brigade. Regiment. Brigade. Regiment. Brigade. Regiment.
Infantry. 15. 36 Fus. 15. 36 Fus. 16. 72. 16. 72. 16. 72.
    93.   93.   93.   93.   93.
  16. 72. 16. 72.   153.   153.   153.
    153.   153.            
Cavalry. 10 Hus. Rgt. (3 Sqns.). 10 Hus. Rgt. (3 Sqns.). 10 Hus. Rgt. (3 Sqns.). 10 Hus. Rgt. (  Sqns.). 5 Sqns. 10 Hus. Rgt.
Artillery. 8 Brig.: 8 Brig.: 8 Brig.: 8 Art. Command: 8 Art. Command:
   74 F. A. Rgt.  74 F. A. Rgt.  74 F. A. Rgt.  74 F. A. Rgt.  74 F. A. Rgt.
   75 F. A. Rgt.  75 F. A. Rgt.  75 F. A. Rgt.    1 Abt. 1 Res. Ft. A. Rgt.
           815 Light Am. Col.
           983 Light Am. Col.
           1247 Light Am. Col.
Engineers and Liaisons.   1 Pion. Btn. No. 4: 1 Pion. Btn. No. 4: 118 Pion. Btn. or 1 Pion. Btn. No. 4: 118 Pion. Btn.:
     Field Co. 4 Pions.  2 Co. 4 Pions.  2 Co. 4 Pions.  2 Co. 4 Pions.
     8 Pont. Engs.  8 T. M. Co.  5 Co. 4 Pions.  5 Co. 4 Pions.
     8 Tel. Detch.  8 Pont. Engs.  8 T. M. Co.  8 T. M. Co.
       8 Tel. Detch.  8 Tel. Detch.  95 Searchlight Section.
          8 Signal Command:
           8 Tel. Detch.
           95 Wireless Detch.
Medical and Veterinary.       Ambulance Co. 11 Ambulance Co.
        31 Field Hospital. 36 Field Hospital.
        Vet. Hospital. 39 Field Hospital.
          8 Vet. Hospital.
Transports.       M. T. Col.  
Attached.     72 Anti-Aircraft Section. 72 Anti-Aircraft Section.  
      7 Balloon Sqn.    
158

HISTORY.

(Fourth District—Prussian Saxony.)

1914.

France.

1. With the 7th Division, the 8th Division formed the 4th Army Corps. It detrained August 10 to 12 near Dusseldorf and, with that corps, was part of the 1st Army (Von Kluck). Entered Belgium the 15th, passed through Louvain the 19th, and through Brussels the 20th, and executed with the 7th Division an enveloping movement on the left of the Allies. Fought at Solesmes the 26th and arrived east of Coulommiers September 6, from where it was sent in a great hurry to the right of the 1st Army, with the 7th Division (Lizy sur Ourcq-Plessis, Placy, etc.). September 8 the 11th Company of the 93d Infantry was reduced to 96 men (notebook).

2. After the retreat, beginning the 15th, it was engaged against the left wing of the British north of Soissons (battle of the Aisne, Cuffies, Chavigny, Pasly, etc.).

3. At the end of September it went with the 4th Army Corps to Artois with the 6th Army.

4. At the beginning of October it took part in the attacks south of Arras and held the lines near Monchy aux Bois.

1915.

1. The division held the Monchy sector during the first few months of 1915. At the end of May it was relieved from this sector and put in the reserve of the army near Douai after transferring the 36th Fusiliers to the 113th Division, newly formed (March).

2. During the first two weeks of June it went into line in the Souchez sector and opposed the French attacks. Relieved at the beginning of September and became army reserve near Tourcoing and Roubaix.

Loos.

3. At the battle of Loos during the counterattack the division suffered heavy losses in September and October.

1916.

1. In 1916 until the battle of the Somme the division did not take part in any serious engagements. It was established in the Loos sector. July 3 it left this front for the Somme.

Somme.

2. In the middle of July it went into battle on the Pozieres-Longueval-Bois Delville front and suffered very heavy losses.

3. Toward the end of July it was relieved and sent to rest in the region of Valenciennes.

4. August 9 it took over a quiet sector before Arras and stayed there about five weeks.

5. About September 18 it again went into the battle of the Somme. It held the Thiepval-Courcelette sector, where it had some hard fighting, which caused it heavy losses.

Artois.

6. October 1 it left this sector to again hold the trenches northeast of Loos.

1917.

1. During the winter of 1916–17 the division had no heavy fighting. However, in April, May, and June it had serious losses due to the many raids executed by the British.

2. Toward the end of July and the beginning of August the division suffered considerably from artillery fire. It was relieved before the attack of the British before Lens.

159
Champagne.

3. August 5 it entrained for Rethel. Rested for some time in the region of Semide, then held the sector west of Butte du Mesnil from August 15 to September 15.

Belgium.

4. About September 18 it was sent in the region of Bouziers and October 4 went into line west of Becelaere (Belgium), and shortly afterwards, October 9, south of Hollebeke. It was still there January 20, 1918.

RECRUITING.

Province of Prussian Saxony, Duchy of Anhalt, and part of Thuringia. Same remarks as for the 7th Division. The fluctuations in the resources of the region are evidenced by the following facts: On November 4, 1917, a man came to the 5th Company of the 93d Infantry who was born in 1898 in the Eighth District, was a farmer, and had been called up September 3, having had just two months of training. He was sent by a depot in Cologne.

VALUE—1917 ESTIMATE.

Since the battles of 1914 the division remained entirely on the offensive. It always defended itself well in attacks and held its positions with tenacity.

During its stay on the Champagne it did not show any activity, but also it had no desertions. It may be said that its morale is good. (September, 1917).

1918.

1. The division was relieved by the 17th Reserve Division in the Hollebeke sector about January 31. It rested and trained near Coutrai during February and until March 7.

2. On March 7 it was engaged west of Zandvoorde, where it was in line until April 11.

Battle of the Lys.

3. The division came into the battle line west of Merville on April 11, which town it captured. About the 23d it passed to the second line.

4. The division rested for two weeks at Canteleu (a suburb of Lille). It returned to a rest camp north of Kemmel about May 12th.

Ypres.

5. It was engaged south of Ypres from May 15 until the 1st of July in the sector, with division headquarters at Halluin.

6. The division rested near Coutrai during July, from where it returned to its former sector south of Ypres on July 26 and was in line until the night of September 17–18.

Le Catelet.

7. It was moved south to relieve the Alpine Corps at Vendhuile, where it came in on September 23. In the fighting the division was driven back by Aubencheul-Villers Cutreaux on Maretz-Clary early in October. After suffering heavy casualties and losing over 400 prisoners, it was withdrawn on October 14.

8. The division rested in the Guise area until October 22.

9. It was reengaged north of Le Cateau on October 22–23, but withdrew about November 1. On the 5th it was identified in line north of Maulde, where it remained until the end.

VALUE—1918 ESTIMATE.

The division was regarded as a first-class division. A majority of its men came from the younger classes. Its effectives were high and the morale good. Apart from the Armentieres offensive in April, the division was on the defensive during 1918.

160

8th Landwehr Division.

COMPOSITION.

1915 1916 1917 1918
Brigade. Regiment. Brigade. Regiment. Brigade. Regiment. Brigade. Regiment.
Infantry. 56 Ldw. 109 Ldw. 56 Ldw. 109 Ldw. 56 Ldw. 109 Ldw. 56 Ldw. 109 Ldw.
    110 Ldw.   110 Ldw.   110 Ldw.   110 Ldw.
    109 Landst.   109 Landst.   111 Ldw.   111 Ldw.
Cavalry. 2 Ldw. Sqn. 14 C. Dist. 2 Ldw. Sqn. 14 C. Dist. (dissolved late 1916). 1 Sqn. 5 Horse Jag. Rgt. 1 Sqn. 5 Horse Jag. Rgt.
    3 Landst. Sqn. 14 C. Dist. (?)  
Artillery. Landst. F. A. Abt. (14 C. Dist.). 8 Ldw. F. A. Regt. Art. Command: 8 Ldw. F. A. Rgt.
       8 Ldw. F. A. Rgt. 803 Light Am. Col.
        1416 Light Am. Col.
Engineers and Liaisons. 4 Co. 14 Pions. 4 Co. 14 Pions. 408 Pion. Btn.: 408 Pion. Btn.:
  2 Res. Co. 14 Pions. 2 Res. Co. 14 Pions.  1 Res. Co. 14 Pions.  1 Res. Co. 14 Pions.
    308 T. M. Co.  2 Res. Co. 14 Pions.  2 Res. Co. 14 Pions.
       308 T. M. Co.  308 T. M. Co.
       305 Searchlight Section.  216 Searchlight Section.
       508 Tel. Detch. 508 Signal Command:
         508 Tel. Detch.
         177 Wireless Detch.
Medical and Veterinary.     559 Ambulance Co. 559 Ambulance Co.
      321 (?) Field Hospital. 321 Field Hospital.
      Vet. Hospital. 7 Field Hospital.
        563 Vet. Hospital.
Transports.     777 M. T. Col. 777 M. T. Col.
Odd.        
Attached. Fribourg Landst. Inf. Btn. (14 C. Dist. Btn. No. 7). 68 Labor Btn.    
  2 Heidelberg Landst. Inf. Btn. (14 C. Dist. Btn. No. 13). Pforzheim Landst. Inf. Btn. (14 C. Dist. Btn. No. 21).    
161

HISTORY.

(Fourteenth District—Grand Duchy of Baden.)

1915.

The 8th Landwehr Division was formed February, 1915, from Baden troops, which entered Alsace at the beginning of the campaign (the 110th Landwehr detrained Aug. 11, 1914, at Neuenburg near Mullheim and the 109th Landwehr on the same date), and the 109th Landsturm organized at the beginning of 1915 from five Baden Landsturm battalions.

Alsace.

The division held the same sector between Altkirch and the Swiss Frontier from its formation until January, 1917.

1916.

1. In February, 1916, the 109th Landwehr and the 110th Landwehr, which had up to that time remained on the defensive, took part in the attacks between Seppois and Largitzen and against the Scoonholz, northwest of Altkirch. They executed many raids during 1916.

2. The 109th Landsturm, which was in line at one end of the front, was broken up in May, 1916, and replaced in the division by the 111th Landwehr, newly formed, consisting in reality of three Landsturm battalions already stationed in Alsace, of which two were part of the 109th Landsturm (XIV 23 and XIV 25).

Cotes de Meuse.

About January 23, 1917, the division was withdrawn from the Alsace front and sent to the Cotes de Meuse, where it took over the sector west of Fresnes en Woevre. April 15 the division moved toward the north and held the lines to the Etain-Verdun road.

RECRUITING.

Entirely from Baden.

VALUE—1917 ESTIMATE.

The division was a defense division (May, 1918). Each company had one shock-troop squad per platoon (prisoners’ statements Dec. 8, 1917).

Like the 2d and 7th Landwehr Divisions, but to a smaller degree, the 8th Landwehr Division had some of its men transferred to active units; thus, in November, 1917, it transferred some men to 121st Division, then near it.

1918.

The division continued in the Woevre sector during 1918. Through failure to identify it, it was considered as out of line September 21 and September 25.

VALUE—1918 ESTIMATE.

It was rated as a fourth-class division. Its losses apart from the St. Mihiel attack were negligible. In the attack it did fairly well, without heavy loss. The morale was fair.

162

8th. Bavarian Reserve Division.

COMPOSITION.

1915 1916 1917 1918
Brigade. Regiment. Brigade. Regiment. Brigade. Regiment. Brigade. Regiment.
Infantry. 15 Bav. Res. 18 Bav. Res. 15 Bav. Res. 18 Bav. Res. 15 Bav. Res. 18 Bav. Res. 15 Bav. Res. 19 Bav. Res.
    19 Bav. Res.   19 Bav. Res.   19 Bav. Res.   22 Bav. Res.
  16 Bav. Res. 22 Bav. Res. 16 Bav. Res. 22 Bav. Res. 16 Bav. Res. 22 Bav. Res.   23 Bav. Res.
    23 Bav. Res.   23 Bav. Res.   23 Bav. Res.    
      Wurtt. Mountain Btn.        
Cavalry. 8 Bav. Res. Cav. Detch. 8 Bav. Res. Cav. Detch. 8 Bav. Res. Cav. Detch. 8 Bav. Res. Cav. Detch.
Artillery. 8 Bav. Res. F. A. Rgt. 8 Bav. Res. F. A. Rgt. 8 Bav. Art. Command: 8 Bav. Art. Command:
  9 Bav. Res. F. A. Rgt. 9 Bav. Res. F. A. Rgt.  8 Bav. Res. F. A. Rgt.  9 Bav. Res. F. A. Rgt.
       9 Bav. Res. F. A. Rgt.  19 Bav. Ft. A. Btn.
         105 Bav. Light Am. Col.
         171 Bav. Light Am. Col.
         172 Bav. Light Am. Col.
Engineers and Liaisons. 9 Bav. Res. Pion. Co. 8 Bav. Res. Pion. Co. (20 Bav.) Pion. Btn.: 20 Bav. Pion. Btn.:
    9 Bav. Res. Pion. Co.  5 Bav. Res. Pion. Co.  8 Bav. Res. Pion. Co.
    208 Bav. T. M. Co.  8 Bav. Res. Pion. Co.  9 Bav. Res. Pion. Co.
    8 Bav. Res. Pont. Engs.  9 Bav. Res. Pion. Co.  20 Bav. Searchlight Section.
    8 Bav. Res. Tel. Detch.  208 Bav. T. M. Co.  208 Bav. T. M. Col.
       3 Bav. Res. Searchlight Section. 408 Bav. Signal Command:
       803 Tel. Detch.  408 Bav. Tel. Detch.
         99 Wireless Detch.
Medical and Veterinary.     18 Bav. Ambulance Co. 18 Bav. Ambulance Co.
      30 Bav. Ambulance Co. 65 Bav. Field Hospital.
      55 Bav. Field Hospital. 57 Bav. Field Hospital.
      Vet. Hospital.  
Transports.       753 M. T. Col.
Attached.   8 Bav. Res. Cyclist Co. 8 Bav. Res. Cyclist Co. 1 Landst. Inf. Btn. 10 C. Dist.
    81 Anti-Aircraft Section.   1, 2, and 3 Abtls. 24 Res. F. A. Rgt.
    6 Bav. Labor Btn.   69 Ldw. Ft. A. Btn.
    64 Labor Btn.   14, 33, and 34 Mortar Btries.
    69 Labor Btn.   52 Searchlight Section.
        94 Pion. Btn.
        66 Balloon Sqn.
        115 Observation Section.
        2 Sound Ranging Section.
        286 Reconnaisance Flight.
         Elements attached in October, 1918.
164

HISTORY.

(19th Bavarian Reserve: First Bavarian District. 22d Bavarian Reserve: Second Bavarian District. 23d Bavarian Reserve: Third Bavarian District.)

1915.

Alsace.

1. The division was organized in January, 1915 (second series of new reserve divisions) and was identified on the front for the first time at the beginning of February, 1915, in the valley of the Lauch and at Hartmannswillerkopf. It fought at the end of February in the region of Munster-Metzeral-Sultzeren. On the 24th it took part in the attack of Reichackerkopf and lost heavily.

2. Since that time and until May the division remained in the same sector of Alsace.

Galicia.

3. Relieved at the end of May and sent to Galicia, where it became part of the 11th Army and cooperated in the capture of Przemsl June 3.

Alsace.

4. Returned to the Western Front at the beginning of July and went to rest in the region of Schelestadt (Alsace); then went into line again about July 14 in the valley of the Fecht (Reichackerkopf-Metzeral). It repulsed an attack of the French July 20 at Reichackerkopf.

1916.

Alsace.

1. The division remained in Alsace, sector of Metzeral-Sondernach, for a year from July, 1915, to July, 1916. During this period it did not take part in any action.

Somme.

2. About July 10, 1916, it entrained at Mulhouse, Colmar, and Pfaffenheim, south of Colmar, and went to the Somme, south of Péronne, and was in reserve until July 20. July 21 and 22 it was engaged between Maurepas and Guillemont (the 23d Bavarian Reserve was detached and went to the east of Estrees).

3. Relieved August 15 after suffering heavy losses during the attacks of July 30 and August 12. Reorganized in the region of St. Quentin, then went back into line for a short time west of Roye at the beginning of September.

4. Withdrawn from the region of Roye in the middle of September and sent to the Roumanian front October 13 to 23, via Mons-Maubeuge-Namur-Liége—Aix-la-Chapelle-Cologne-Cassel-Halle-Leipzig-Prague-Brunn-Budapest-Arad.

1917.

Roumania.

5. Took part in the operations on the frontier of Transylvania in the region of the Oltu in October to November and in the valley of the Trotus in December.

Galicia.

2. In July it left Roumania and went to Galicia. At the end of July it was in the region of Nowitza. August 27 it fought at Bojan. In September it was at Czernowitz and went to rest near Radautz in Bukowina beginning September 6. After being reviewed by the Emperor September 27 it was filled up again (men of the 1918 class with less than four months’ training were sent to the 22d Reserve Infantry) and sent to the Western Front.

Belgium.

3. It entrained October 15 at Kolomea. Itinerary: Stanislau-Lemberg-Cracow-Leipzig-Northeim-Paderborn-Aix la Chapelle-Liege-Louvain-Malines-Brussels-Bruges, and detrained at Thourout October 23.

4. October 26 the division took over the Aschhoop sector near Dixmude.

165

RECRUITING.

It seems to come from all over Bavaria.

VALUE—1917 ESTIMATE.

The division had no serious fighting from August, 1916, on. Its losses on the Eastern Front were few. It was trained especially for mountain warfare, and they carried on this sort of warfare for a long time in Alsace, Galicia, and Roumania.

1918.

1. On January 24 the division was relieved at Dixmude and sent to Ghent for rest. From there it was transferred to Courtrai.

Belgium.

2. It relieved the 7th Division in the Becelaere sector on February 4, a quiet part at that time, and remained until March 7, when it was in turn relieved by the 7th Division.

Battle of the Lys.

3. It rested at Ostend until the Lys battle began, when it returned to attack on April 9 in the Estaires sector, which was defended by Portuguese. It advanced toward Calonne sur Lys, where it was withdrawn about April 14. The losses were 50 per cent of the effectives in this fighting.

Woevre.

4. Upon relief the division entrained on April 20 at Roubaix and moved to Conflans. On May 11 it relieved the 78th Reserve Division north of Seicheprey. It was in line in this sector until June 27. A draft of 300 men were received late in June.

Champagne.

5. The division rested at Conflans until July 4. It was then moved to Wassigny (north of Rethel) on the 5th. It marched toward the front by Herpy and St. Remy July 8 to 14. It was in reserve on July 15 east of Reims, in support of the 15th Bavarian Division. The division was not actively engaged in this offensive.

6. Withdrawn from Champagne, the division marched toward the front south of the Vesle by Warnerville, Soivre, and Jonchery, Vendeuil.

Vesle.

7. It was engaged west of Reims (St. Euphraise, Vrigny) between July 22 and August 8.

8. About August 22 the division arrived in the area northeast of Ath from the Aisne front to refit and train.

Ardennes.

9. It was engaged west of La Pompelle on September 20, retreating to the Suippe, south of Bazancourt, about October 1, then toward Chateau Porcien and Faizy. It was relieved about October 15.

10. It rested for 10 days at Son and St. Fergeux, receiving 150 to 200 men per regiment as drafts.

11. On the 25th the division returned to line in the Chateau Porcien sector. It retired in November by Son, Chappes, Dommely, and La Romagn, where it was last identified on November 7.

VALUE—1918 ESTIMATE.

The division was rated as a first-class division, though it was considered as a shade under the class of the best divisions. It fought hard on the Lys, losing but 1 prisoner. It was not used later as an attack division. The morale was good.

166

8th. Cavalry Division.

COMPOSITION.[7]

1918
Brigade. Regiment.
Cavalry. 39 Cav. Guard Reiter.
    17 Uhlan.
  40 Cav. Karabinier.
    21 Uhlan.
  38 Cav. 2 Jager.
    6 Jag.
Artillery. 12 Horse Art. Det.
Engineers and Liaisons. Pion. Detch.
  8 M. G. Btry.
  260 Searchlight Section.
Medical and Veterinary. 54 Field Hospital.
Attached. 44 Cav. Brig.:
  11 Horse Jag. Rgt.
  9 Res. Uhlan Schutzen Rgt.
  87 Cav. Schutzen Rgt.
  89 Cav. Schutzen Rgt.
  7 Landst. Inf. Rgt.

7.  At the time of its dissolution, April, 1918.

HISTORY.

1918.

The division continued on the Eastern Front, employed in small police detachments, until about April 1, when it was dissolved.

VALUE—1918 ESTIMATE.

The division was rated as a fourth-class division.

167

9th Division.

COMPOSITION.

1914 1915 1916 1917 1918
Brigade. Regiment. Brigade. Regiment. Brigade. Regiment. Brigade. Regiment. Brigade. Regiment.
Infantry. 17. 19. 17. 19. 18. 7 Gren. 18. 7 Gren. 18. 7.
    58.   58.   19.   19.   19.
  18. 7 Gren. 18. 7 Gren.   154.   154.   154.
    154.   154.            
Cavalry. 1 Uhlan Regt.   1 and 2 Sqns., 1 Uhlan Regt. 2 Sqn. 1 Horse Jag. Rgt. 2 Sqn. 1 Horse Jag. Rgt.
Artillery. 9 Brig.: 9 Brig.: 9 Brig.: 9 Art. Command: 9 Art. Command:
   5 F. A. Rgt.  5 F. A. Rgt.  5 F. A. Rgt.  5 F. A. Rgt.  5 F. A. Rgt. (except 4 Abt.)
   41 F. A. Rgt.  41 F. A. Rgt.  41 F. A. Rgt.    2 Abt. 6 Res. Ft. A. Rgt. (5, 6, and 12 Btries.).
           907 Light Am. Col.
           1175 Light Am. Col.
           1201 Light Am. Col.
Engineers and Liaisons.   1 Pion. Btn. No. 55: 1 Pion. Btn. No. 5: 120 Pion. Btn.: 120 Pion. Btn.:
     Field Co. 5 Pions.  1 Co. 5 Pions.  1 Co. 5 Pions.  5 Co. 5 Pions.
     9 Pont. Engs.  9 Pont. Engs.  5 Co. 5 Pions.  1 Co. 5 Pions.
     9 Tel. Detch.  9 Tel. Detch.  9 T. M. Co.  9 T. M. Co.
       9 T. M. Co.  304 Searchlight Section.  194 Searchlight Section.
         9 Tel. Detch. 9 Signal Command:
           9 Tel. Detch.
           53 Wireless Detch.
Medical and Veterinary.       14 Ambulance Co. 14 Ambulance Co.
        45 Field Hospital. 48 Field Hospital.
        48 Field Hospital. 52 Field Hospital.
        52 Field Hospital. 9 Vet. Hospital.
        9 Vet. Hospital.  
Transports.       M. T. Col. 542 M. T. Col.
Attached.     37 Searchlight Section. 37 Searchlight Section.  
168

HISTORY.

(Fifth District—Lower Silesia.)

1914.

Cotes de Meuse.

1. The 9th Division with the 10th Division, formed the 5th Army Corps (Posen), and at the beginning of the war was part of the 5th Army (German Crown Prince). Detrained August 9 to 10 in annexed Lorraine, near Bouzonville, and fought August 22 at Virton. After a number of marches and countermarches in Woevre, it established itself during the first days of September with the 10th Division in a sector of Cotes de Meuse (Calonne trench). It remained there about two years from September, 1914, to September, 1916, with rest billets in the villages of the Woevre at the foot of the hills (Thillot, Woël, Hannonville, etc.).

1915.

Les Eparges.

1. In the spring of 1915 it took part in the battles of Les Eparges where it suffered heavily. In March it transferred its 58th Infantry to the 119th Division, newly formed, which was operating in Galicia beginning with April.

1916.

Verdun.

1. At the beginning of September, 1916, the division was withdrawn from the sector of Calonne trench and relieved the 14th Bavarian Division in the woods of Vaux Chapitre (Verdun). In this last sector it suffered huge losses. October 24, 1916, it lost 700 men captured.

2. Relieved at the beginning of November and reorganized with men of all ages from depots of the Fifth District.

3. November 4 it entrained behind Douaumont; was sent to the Aisne and put in the line November 8 in the sector of Nouvron, where it remained until the middle of February, 1917.

1917.

Cotes de Meuse.

1. Entrained at Laon during the last two weeks of February, 1917, and sent to Vigneulles, via Charleville-Conflans-Chambley; and again went into the sector of Calonne trench between February 18 and the end of April.

Californie Plateau.

2. Relieved at the end of April and sent from Mars la Tour-Vigneulles (via Conflans-Sedan-Liart) to the region of Rozoy sur Serre. After a few days’ rest in the vicinity of Sissonne it was engaged beginning May 6 in the attacks on the plateaus of Vauclerc and Californie, where some of its regiments suffered heavy losses, especially on the Winterberg.

3. Beginning May 18 the division did not attack any more but merely held the sector (Californie-Chevreux les Courtines). However, our attack of May 22 to 24 caused it heavy losses.

4. At the end of May the 9th Division was replaced by the 41st Division. It received reinforcements. (The 19th Infantry received 200 men June 14. About May 25, 60 men of the 1918 class were sent to the 6th Company of this regiment.) From May 13 to June 13 the 10th Company of the 154th Infantry received 68 men at least, most of them of the 1918 class.

5. About June 17–18 the division appeared in the sector of Juvincourt, where it attacked on the night of August 4–5 without success. Relieved about September 8 without having losses in this last sector.

169
Chemin des Dames.

6. During September it was sent to rest in the region of Pierrepont-Missy-Liesse. Engaged in the sector of Bovettes-Pargny-Filain from October 23 to 27 and withdrawn from this front at the beginning of November after some of its regiments had suffered heavy losses during the battle of October 23 to 25.

7. About the middle of November the division went to the sector of Chevregny, after a rest of about two weeks in the region of Laon, during which it was filled up again. It held this sector until the beginning of December. December 8 it was in the vicinity of Laon. January 11, 1918, some of the units were at Liesse.

RECRUITING.

The division (Fifth District) was recruited in Lower Silesia, where the German population is much more numerous than the Polish population. Although it received men from the Second and Third Districts in 1913 and men from the Seventh District in 1916, it could without great difficulty get all its men from its original territory. Its replacements come almost entirely from Lower Silesia, and in emergency from Silesia. It is more homogeneous than the 10th Division, where the Polish elements have to be balanced off by Germans.

VALUE—1917 ESTIMATE.

Among the various German units which were engaged in front of Verdun and at Californie Plateau, the 9th Division was one of those which showed the least resistance.

1918.

1. The division was relieved on the Chemin des Dames front on December 29 and went to rest and train in the Guise area until the middle of March, when it proceeded to the battle front.

Battle of Picardy.

2. It was at Marcyon March 20. On the 21st it followed up the attack without being engaged through Happencourt, Artemps, Tugny, Dury, Pithon, Ham, and Nesle (Mar. 25). It was engaged on the 26th near Roye and advanced by Montdidier to west of Mesnil-St. Georges March 27–28. Its attack of March 30 on Ayencourt-Royancourt met with heavy losses.

Montdidier.

3. The division was withdrawn on April 1 for a short rest, during which it received a draft of 400 men. It returned to line southwest of Montdidier and was in line from April 5 to 8.

4. Until the 18th it was in reserve near La Boissiere and later near Nesle until April 24.

5. It rested near Hirson and Vervins during May, again receiving drafts to the number of 300 men.

Battle of the Aisne.

6. On May 20 it marched by night stages to the Aisne front, passing through Froidmont, Verneuil sur Serre, and Bruyeres. On the opening day it advanced in reserve by Presles, Monampteuil, and Pargny Filain. It was engaged on the 28th at Sancy-Vregny and advanced in the first line south of Soissons, Venizel, Missy sur Aisne, Courmelles, Noyant, Chazelle, and Poisy (May 30). Its losses in front of Chazelle were particularly heavy. It was relieved on June 8. An official German document gives the division losses between May 28 and June 2 as 96 officers and 2,830 men.

7. It rested in the vicinity of Rethel and Novion-Porcien (June 15 to July 7) and reconstituted by drafts. It moved toward the Aisne front on July 10, going into reserve northeast of Rheims for a week. Alerted on the 17th it moved to Oulchy le Chateau.

170
Second Battle of the Marne.

8. The division was engaged near Hartennes and Varcy from July 20 to August 2. It was driven back on Fismes on that date and relieved the next day.

9. In August it rested and trained near Vailly and in the vicinity of Laon. After the 24th it was north of Rheims.

Champagne.

10. The division was engaged east of La Pompelle from September 20 to the beginning of October. On the 3d it was forced back on Isles Bazancourt, and later to Nanteuil sur Aisne. On October 17 it was relieved.

11. Two days later it was entrained for Flanders, but at Mons directed toward Avesnes and La Capelle.

12. Its last engagement was north of Guise from October 21 to November 4; then near Novin and Avesnes. 1,800 prisoners were taken on November 4.

VALUE—1918 ESTIMATE.

The division was rated as a first-class division. Its performance in 1918 was not of the best, however. It was engaged in the Somme, Aisne, and Marne actions without winning special credit. Discipline was reported to be lax, and morale poor at the end.

171

9th Reserve Division.

COMPOSITION.

1914 1915 1916 1917 1918
Brigade. Regiment. Brigade. Regiment. Brigade. Regiment. Brigade. Regiment. Brigade. Regiment.
Infantry. 17 Res. 6 Res. 17 Res. 19 Res. 17 Res. 6 Res. 18 Res. 6 Res. 18 Res. 6 Res.
    7 Res.   7 Res.   19 Res.   19 Res.   19 Res.
    19 Res.   6 Res.   102 (Ldw.).   395.   395.
    5 Res. Jag. Btn.   5 Res. Jag. Btn.   5 Res. Jag. Btn.        
            98 Res.        
            395.        
Cavalry. 3 Res. Dragoon Rgt. (3 Sqns.).   3 Res. Dragoon Rgt. 1 and 3 Sqns. 3 Res. Dragoon Rgt. 3 Sqn. 3 Res. Drag. Rgt.
Artillery. 9 Res. F. A. Rgt. (6 Btries.). 9 Res. F. A. Rgt. 9 Res. F. A. Rgt. 97 Art. Command: 97 Art. Command:
         9 Res. F. A. Rgt. (9 Btries.).  9 Res. F. A. Rgt.
           29 Ft. A. Btn. (Staff and 1 and 3 Btries.).
           735 Light Am. Col.
           1287 Light Am. Col.
           1361 Light Am. Col.
Engineers and Liaisons. 4 Field Co. 2 Pion. Btn. No. 5. 4 Field Co. 2 Pion. Btn. No. 5 4 Co. 2 Pion. Btn. No. 5. 309 Pion. Btn.: 309 Pion. Btn.:
  2 Res. Co. 2 Pion. Btn. No. 5. 2 Res. Co. 2 Pion. Btn. No. 5 2090 T. M. Co.  4 Co. 55 Pions.  4 Co. 5 Pions.
    9 Res. Pont. Engs. 9 Pont. Engs.  1 Res. Co. 18 Pions.  1 Res. Co. 18 Pions.
    9 Res. Tel. Detch. 9 Tel. Detch.  209 T. M. Co.  209 T. M. Co.
         409 Tel. Detch.  29 Searchlight Section.
          409 Signal Command:
           409 Tel. Detch.
           28 Wireless Detch.
Medical and Veterinary.       519 Ambulance Co. 519 Ambulance Co.
        Field Hospital. 13 Res. Field Hospital.
        Vet. Hospital. 25 Res. Field Hospital.
          409 Vet. Hospital.
Transports.       M. T. Col. 708 M. T. Col.
172

HISTORY.

(Fifth District—Posen.)

1914.

The division was part of the 5th Reserve Corps with the 10th Reserve Division.

Meuse-Woevre.

1. At the beginning of the war it belonged to the 5th German Army (Imperial Crown Prince). Concentrated in the region of Sarrebruck and crossed the southern part of Belgian Luxemburg; fought August 22 near Ville en Montois and September 1 in the region of Consenvoye-Flabas, and was kept east of the Meuse near Sivry September 2. Toward the end of September and the beginning of October the division sent a few units to the left bank of the Meuse (Forges-Malancourt-Chattancourt). The division established itself in Woevre during the last two weeks of October and at the beginning of November in the region Etraye-Wavrille-Romagne, where it did some fighting at Maucourt November 10.

Flanders.

2. About November 13 the division was sent from the region of Verdun to Flanders. Some units of the division fought near Poelcappelle and south of Bixschoote in support of the 3d Reserve Corps. It suffered very heavy losses.

3. Again sent to Woevre during the month of December.

1915.

Woevre.

1. In January, 1915, the division held the region Gincrey-Etrain-Warcq. It remained in this section during the whole of 1915 and until the end of February, 1916. In April it transferred its 7th Reserve Infantry to form the 121st Division.

1916.

Verdun.

1. A few days before the Verdun offensive (end of February, 1916,) the regiments of the division were relieved. The 6th Reserve and the 19th Reserve organized with their best units one attack battalion each. These battalions took part with the 15th Army Corps in the violent action at the beginning and suffered heavy losses.

2. March 7 its units were reorganized behind the front and the division advanced through Maucourt-Ornes and established itself north of Vaux. March 9 and 10 the three regiments of the division attacked successfully the village and fort of Vaux. They were repulsed nearly everywhere with very heavy losses.

3. About March 12 the division was relieved from before Vaux and sent to rest in the region of Senon-Amel.

4. Went back into line about March 20 south of Damploup. It did not attack any more, but bombardments caused it heavy losses.

5. Relieved about the end of April and sent to rest in the vicinity of Saverne (Alsace) until June 12.

Champagne.

6. About June 20 it went into line in Champagne (sector of Souain-Tahure) but did not take part in any important action.

Somme.

7. Withdrawn from the front about September 20 or 25 and sent to the Somme. Engaged between the eastern limit of Bouchavesnes and the main Péronne road until October 18. It had a few losses.

8. After a period of rest, probably in the vicinity of Vouziers, it was again sent to the Somme, first behind the front southeast of Bapaume December 1, then about December 17 in line in the sector of Bouchavenes-Bois de St. Pierre-Vaast until February, 1917.

173

1917.

1. In February, 1917, the division held on the Somme the sector north of the Ancre—south of Achiet le Petit.

2. Withdrawn from the front about March 10 and sent to rest in the region of Cambrai, and was established on a new front about March 20 west of Catelet near Gouzeaucourt, Villers Guislain.

Artois.

3. About April 15 it was relieved and went into line south of the Scarpe, northeast of Monchy le Preaux, from the beginning of May till the beginning of June.

Flanders.

4. It was again at the front east of Armentieres from the middle of June till about July 10, then after a rest in the vicinity of Ghent it was in line on the Ypres road at Menin, east of Klein-Zillebeke, from August 10 to September 25, and fought especially on the 20th, on which date it suffered heavily. The 11th Company of the 6th Reserve Infantry was reduced to 20 men, and the 12th to 27. The 19th Reserve Infantry had the same losses. The 3d Company of the 395th Infantry lost half of its men. (Summary of information Sept. 21 and Oct. 24, 1917.)

Cambrai.

5. Reorganized in the region of Cambrai and from that time on held various sectors of this front. It fought November 23 to 30 at Banteux, Masnières, and in December south of Marcoing. In January, 1918, it was at La Vacquerie and was relieved there February 21.

RECRUITING.

The Province of Posen, with a few units from other districts, for example the ninth, to reduce the proportion of Poles.

VALUE—1917 ESTIMATE.

The division fought well in many battles at the end of 1917, especially east of Ypres and before Cambrai.

1918.

Battle of Picardy.

1. The division reinforced the front southwest of Cambrai on March 22 and advanced by Montauban-Maricourt to west of Albert. It was relieved about the 1st of April. After losing heavily in the offensive it was withdrawn.

Lens.

2. It came into line in the quiet sector near Lens about April 10, relieving the 12th Reserve Division. On the 23d it shifted its sector south to Avion. The 12th Reserve Division returned from the Lys front to relieve it on about April 29.

3. The division moved north and entered the battle line in the Festubert sector on April 29. It continued in this sector until September 27, effecting only local reliefs. It reentered at once at Marcoing on September 29. A month later it arrived at Ath from line and went into line on November 2 at Hermes. The last identification was at Ellezelle on November 10.

VALUE—1918 ESTIMATE.

The division was rated as a second-class division. During 1918 its length of stay on the British front was remarkable. Nothing is known of its morale or losses.

174

9th Landwehr Division.

COMPOSITION.

1915 1916 1917 1918
Brigade. Regiment. Brigade. Regiment. Brigade. Regiment. Brigade. Regiment.
Infantry. 43 Ldw. 32 Ldw. 76 Ldw. 79 Ldw. 76 Ldw. 83 Ldw. 76 Ldw. 83 Ldw.
    83 Ldw.   83 Ldw.   116 Ldw.   116 Ldw.
  49 Mixed Ldw. 116 Ldw. 49 Ldw. 116 Ldw.   118 Ldw.   118 Ldw.
    118 Ldw.   118 Ldw.        
    56 Ldw.            
Cavalry. Ldw. Cav. Rgt. (18 C. Dist.). Ldw. Cav. Rgt. (18 C. Dist.). 1 Sqn. 4 Res. Drag. Rgt. 1 Sqn. 4 Res. Drag. Rgt.
Artillery. Ldw. F. A. Rgt. Ldw. F. A. Rgt. (?) Art. Command: 9 Ldw. F. A. Rgt.
       9 Ldw. F. A. Rgt.  
Engineers and Liaisons. 1 Ldw. Pion. Co. (18 C. Dist.). 2 Ldw. Pion. Co. (10 C. Dist.). (409) Pion. Btn.: 409 Pion. Btn.:
    1 Ldw. Pion. Co. (18 C. Dist.).  2 Ldw. Pion. Co. (10 C. Dist.).  2 Ldw. Co. 10 C. Dist. Pions.
    309 T. M. Co.  1 Ldw. Pion. Co. (18 C. Dist.).  1 Ldw. Co. 18 C. Dist. Pions.
       309 T. M. Co.  309 T. M. Co.
       509 Tel. Detch.  183 Searchlight Section.
        509 Signal Command:
         509 Tel. Detch.
         136 Wireless Detch.
Medical and Veterinary.     566 Ambulance Co. 566 Ambulance Co.
      62 Field Hospital. 62 Field Hospital.
      86 Field Hospital. 13 Ldw. Field Hospital.
      396 Field Hospital. 509 Vet. Hospital.
      Vet. Hospital.  
Transports.     221 M. T. Col.  
      904 M. T. Col.  
Attached.     151 Labor Btn.  
      171 Labor Btn.  
175

HISTORY.

(83d Landwehr: Eleventh District—Thuringia and Electoral Hesse. 116th Landwehr and 118th Landwehr: Eighteenth District—Grand Duchy of Hesse.)

1915.

Argonne.

1. This division was organized in the Argonne at the beginning of 1915 from infantry units in sector in that region and in Champagne. The 43d Landwehr Brigade detrained at Boulay (Lorraine) August 20, 1914, and fought in the Woevre the 24th. The 49th Landwehr Brigade was sent to Luxemburg August 20, followed the Eighteenth Reserve Corps, and took part with it in the battle of the Marne. In October the two brigades were in the Argonne.

2. From the time of its organization did not leave the Argonne. From the beginning of 1915 it held the sector at or near the Aisne (north of Ville sur Tourbe and north of Vienne le Chateau).

1916.

Argonne.

1. Sector north of Vienne le Chateau, from the region of Rouvroy to the ravine of Fontaine aux Charmes.

1917.

Argonne.

1. Sector north of Vienne le Chateau.

RECRUITING.

83d Landwehr: Electorate Hesse and Thuringia. 116th and 118th Landwehr: Grand Duchy of Hesse and Rhenish country. The document of July 11, 1917, calls the two regiments in question “Rhenish.”

At the end of 1917 and during the first months of 1918 the division exchanged a large number of men with the divisions stationed near it, which modified its regional composition to a certain degree.

VALUE—1917 ESTIMATE.

Sector division. (1918.)

The division had one storm company in July, 1917, and each regiment had a “Stosstrupp.”

1918.

The division continued to hold the sector in the Argonne Woods until the American attack on September 26. It was engaged on the opening days and withdrew on the 28th. The shattered elements were re-formed and reentered at once on the extreme right flank of the 4th French Army in the vicinity of the Aisne. The last identification was at Villers sur le Mont on November 10.

VALUE—1918 ESTIMATE.

The division was rated as a fourth-class division. On the defensive it showed some fighting ability.

176

9th Bavarian Reserve Division.

COMPOSITION.

1916 1917 1918[8]
Brigade. Regiment. Brigade. Regiment. Brigade. Regiment.
Infantry. 17 Bav. Res. 11 Bav. Res. 17 Bav. Res. 11 Bav. Res. 17 Bav. Res. 11 Bav. Res.
    14 Bav. Res.   14 Bav. Res.   14 Bav. Res.
    3 Bav. Ers.   3 Bav. Ers.   3 Bav. Ers.
Cavalry.   1 Sqn. 1 Bav. Res. Cav. Rgt. 1 Sqn. 1 Bav. Res. Cav. Rgt.
Artillery. 11 Bav. Res. F. A. Rgt. (9 Btries.). 9 Bav. Art. Command: 9 Bav. Art. Command:
     11 Bav. Res. F. A. Rgt.  11 Bav. Res. F. A. Rgt.
Engineers and Liaisons.   (21) Pion. Btn.: 8 Bav. Pion. Co.
     8 Bav. Pion. Co. 12 Bav. Res. Pion. Co.
     12 Bav. Res. Pion. Co. 209 Bav. T. M. Co.
     209 Bav. T. M. Co. 409 Tel. Detch.
     409 Tel. Detch. 105 Bav. Wireless Detch.
Medical and Veterinary.   13 Bav. Ambulance Co. 13 Bav. Ambulance Co.
    30 Bav. Field Hospital. 30th Bav. Field Hospital.
    58 Bav. Field Hospital. 58th Bav. Field Hospital.
    29 Bav. Vet. Hospital. 29 Bav. Vet. Hospital.
    30 Bav. Vet. Hospital.  
Transports.   M. T. Col. M. T. Col.

8.  Composition at time of dissolution, July 24.

177

HISTORY.

(Third Bavarian District—Upper Palatinate, Upper and Middle Franconia.)

1916.

1. This division was formed at the beginning of October, 1916, at Caudry and vicinity, and was one of the series of divisions organized at that time from drafts of units from already existing divisions.

Aisne.

2. Went into line at the beginning of October east of Craonne, in the sector of Ville au Bois.

3. At the beginning of December it was sent to rest between Cambrai and Le Cateau.

1917.

Somme.

1. The division was sent to the Somme and sent in its regiments singly to reinforce the sectors of Saillisel and Transloy in January, 1917.

Aisne.

2. At the beginning of February the division was sent back to the region of Laon-La Malmaison. It returned to the sector of Ville au Bois, where it opposed the French offensive of April 16 and lost 2,300 captured and many casualties; the 2d and 3d Battalions of the 14th Reserve Infantry were almost all taken prisoners.

Lorraine.

3. Relieved April 20 and sent to Lorraine, where it occupied the sector of Moncel-Arracourt May 1 to the beginning of August.

Flanders.

4. August 1 it entrained at St. Avold for Flanders. Detrained at Roulers and was placed in reserve in the region Staden-Zarren from August 9 to 16. It fought August 17 north of Ypres at Bixschoote-Langemarck, suffered heavy losses, and remained in line only three days.

Woevre.

5. August 24 it took over the sector of the Apremont forest near St. Mihiel until the end of October.

Flanders.

6. Returned to Flanders and sent to rest in the vicinity of Bruges and Ostend in October and November. About November 22 it went into line in the sector of Lombartzyde and left it at the beginning of December.

Cambrai.

7. It returned almost immediately to the front south of Cambrai (Gonnelieu-Villers-Guislain) in December, then to the sector of Hargicourt in January, 1918.

RECRUITING.

Almost entirely from the Third Bavarian District-Upper Palatinate, Upper and Lower Franconia.

VALUE—1917 ESTIMATE.

The division opposed a considerable resistance to the French attack of April 16, 1916, and gave proof of good qualities and defense.

1918.

1. The division was not engaged on March 21, being in reserve near Estrees from the 21st to the 24th. It was then used to clear up the ground near Bellenglise until March 27. It marched to the front by Mont St. Quentin, Vermandovillers, and Harvonnieres.

178
Villers Bretonneux.

2. From April 4 to 21 it was engaged near Villers Bretonneux. In the counterattack of the opening day a battalion of the 11th Bavarian Reserve Regiment ran away. For a week the division was in reserve south of Bray sur Somme. On April 27 it returned to line northeast of Villers Bretonneux, remaining until May 6.

3. It rested west of St. Quentin from May 11 to 17.

Battle of the Matz.

4. On the 19th the division entered the line on the Oise east of Noyon. After the 26th it was in front of Noyon. The division took part in the attack of June 6 on Suzay-Thiescourt-Passel. Relieved about the middle of June, the division was disbanded about June 27. Its regiments were turned into the 12th Bavarian Division.

VALUE—1918 ESTIMATE.

The division was rated as a second-class division. It was inferior to the other Bavarian units. Its morale was bad prior to its dissolution.

179

9th Cavalry Division.

COMPOSITION.[9]

1918
Brigade. Regiment.
Cavalry. 13 Cav. 4 Cuirassier.
    8 Hus.
  14 Cav. 11 Hus.
    5 Uhlan.
Artillery. 10 Horse Art. Abt.
Engineers and Liaisons. 5 M. G. Btry.
  7 M. G. Btry.
  9 Cav. Pion. Detch.
  415 T. M. Co.
Medical and Veterinary. 574 Ambulance Co.
Attached. Saxon Res. Reiter Rgt.
  3 Heavy Res. Cav. Schutzen Rgt.

9.  At the time of its dissolution, June, 1918.

HISTORY.

1918.

The division was employed in police duty in the Ukraine until about July 1, when it was dissolved.

VALUE 1918—ESTIMATE.

The division was rated as fourth class.

180

10th Division.

COMPOSITION.

1914 1915 1916 1917 1918
Brigade. Regiment. Brigade. Regiment. Brigade. Regiment. Brigade. Regiment. Brigade. Regiment.
Infantry. 19. 6 Gren. 19. 6 Gren. 20. 6 Gren. 20. 6 Gren. 20. 6 Gren.
    46.   46.   47.   47.   47.
  20. 47. 20. 47.   50.   398.   398.
    50.   50.            
Cavalry. 1 Horse Jag. Rgt.   1 Horse Jag. Rgt. (3 Sqns.). 3 Sqn. 1 Horse Jag. Rgt. 3 Sqn. 1 Horse Jag. Rgt.
Artillery. 10 Brig.: 10 Brig.: 10 Brig.: 10 Art. Command: 10 Art. Command:
   20 F. A. Rgt.  20 F. A. Rgt.  20 F. A. Rgt.  56 F. A. Rgt.  56 F. A. Rgt.
   56 F. A. Rgt.  56 F. A. Rgt.  56 F. A. Rgt.    2 Abt. 11 Ft. A. Rgt. (5, 6, and 7 Btries.).
           890 Light Am. Col.
           1171 Light Am. Col.
           1194 Light Am. Col.
Engineers and Liaisons. 2 Co. 5 Pions. 1 Pion. Btn. No. 5: 1 Pion. Btn. No. 5: 1 Pion. Btn. No. 5: 5 Pion. Btn.:
  3 Co. 5 Pions.  2 Co. 5 Pions.  2 Co. 5 Pions.  2 Co. 5 Pions.  2 Co. 5 Pions.
     3 Co. 5 Pions.  3 Co. 5 Pions.  3 Co. 5 Pions.  3 Co. 5 Pions.
     Field Co. 16 Pions.  1 Res. Co. 27 Pions.  10 T. M. Co.  10 T. M. Co.
     10 Pont. Engs.  10 T. M. Co.  46 Heavy Field Searchlight Section.  70 Searchlight Section.
     10 Tel. Detch.  10 Pont. Engs.  10 Tel. Detch. 10 Signal Command:
       10 Tel. Detch.  308 and 309 Searchlight Sections.  10 Tel. Detch.
           146 Wireless Detch.
Medical and Veterinary.       13 Ambulance Co. 13 Ambulance Co.
        46 Field Hospital. 218 Ambulance Co.
        50 Field Hospital. 46 Field Hospital.
        Vet. Hospital. 50 Field Hospital.
          164 Field Hospital.
          10 Vet. Hospital.
Transports.       M. T. Col. 543 M. T. Col.
181

HISTORY.

(Fifth district—Posen.)

1914.

The 10th Division at mobilization belonged to the 5th Army Corps (Posen). Detrained August 10 and 11 near Sarrelouis and belonged to the 5th Army (Prussian Crown Prince). Entered Luxemburg the 18th, passed through Arlon the 20th, and left it on the evening of the 21st.

1. Took part in the combat of August 22, 1914 at Ethe, near Virton, next to the 9th Division. August 28 it was north of Thionville, expecting to leave for Russia. August 30 it continued its march in the Woevre, reached the Cotes de Meuse, and attacked the fort of Troyon September 7.

Les Eparges.

2. After the battle of the Marne it held the sector of the Cotes de Meuse east of Verdun (Les Eparges-Callone) which it held almost all the time until October 1916. Took part in the series of combats which took place in this sector between April and July, 1915.

1915.

1. At the time of our offensive of September and October, 1915, in Champagne, the 10th Division sent some of its units there, but they returned to Woevre about December 10, 1915, after four weeks’ rest in Lorraine.

Woevre.

2. After this and until the beginning of October, 1916, the Division held its sector of the Cotes de Meuse.

1916.

Verdun.

1. In October 1916 the division was relieved and took over the sector of Douaumon in November. It suffered heavy losses December 15, when the French defeated it severely, and had to be withdrawn from the front.

1917.

Cotes de Meuse.

1. Reorganized at the beginning of January, 1917, after a three weeks’ rest in the region of Mars la Tour, and took over again its former sector of the Cotes de Meuse at the beginning of March, remaining there until the end of April.

Aisne.

2. Entrained May 1 at Mars la Tour and sent via Conflans-Montmedy-Sedan-Charleville-Hirson to the region north of the Aisne, where it took over a sector northwest of Braye en Laonnois. It made an attack there May 18 but did not lose very heavily.

3. On June 20 it was relieved and sent to rest near Crecy sur Serre. Left this region about July 25 and spent six days at Gizy and vicinity.

Chemin des Dames.

4. On July 30 it went into line in the sector from Ailles to Hurtebise. Its regiment suffered a great deal from our artillery fire. During the attack of August 31 to September 1 the division suffered heavy losses.

5. About September 15 the division was relieved. On the 20th it took over the sector of St. Gobain.

6. At the beginning of the French attack at the end of October an emergency call was sent the 23d for some of the units of the division which were at rest in the region of Crepy en Laonnois and during the night of the 23d–24th they went into line to cover the retreat of the divisions in line.

182
Forest of St. Gobain.

The greater part of the division remained in line in the forest of St. Gobain during this attack. The division was relieved about the middle of December; and on December 15 it was behind the St. Quentin front. At the end of January 18 the division relieved the 211th division in the sector of Ailles.

RECRUITING.

The 10th Division differs from the 9th in that its normal recruiting district (Province of Posen) is composed mostly of Poles. There are, therefore, a large number of Poles in its ranks, but it is evident that they are trying to mix them with Prussians, who are less liable to desert. The 47th Infantry on December 15, 1916, before Verdun contained men from the ninth and tenth districts. The 398th Infantry, whose companies were taken from various divisions, for example the 9th, the 10th and the 103d, obtained from the 103d Division Hessian and Thuringian units. There is the same variety in the 6th Grenadiers, which contained at the end of 1912 besides the original drafts from the district, men from the ninth and tenth districts, as well as from the eighteenth district, the latter belonging to the trained Landsturm (2d Bav.).

VALUE.

Until the attack of Verdun, the 10th division always had the reputation of being a good division composed of good units. At the time of the attack of the French December 10, 1915, however, the division which was in the sector north of Verdun did not seem to defend itself as stubbornly as might be expected. It should, however, be noted that 15 per cent of the forces were at that time weakened by sickness. During the German attack of May 18, 1917, the 47th Infantry clearly gave the impression that it was quite inferior to the two other regiments of the division. (The presence of Poles in the 47th should be noted.) August 31, 1917 at the Chemin des Dames, the units of the 10th division resisted well and counterattacked with vigor September 1.

1918.

1. The division was relieved in the Ailles on February 20 and went to rest and train for a month. It was at Montcornet, later near Saint Richaumont, Voulpaix, and La Vallee-aux-Bleds. It marched toward the St. Quentin front on March 20, by Origny-St. Benoite and Itancourt.

Battle of Picardy.

2. It was in the second line on March 21 and 22, advancing through Urvillers and Essigny. It was engaged March 23 to 25, crossing the Crozat Canal to the west of Jussy, Cugny, and Guiscard. It rested on the 25th and 26th. The division was reengaged on March 27 to the 30th in the vicinity of Libermont, Ognolles, Beuvraignes (27th) Conchy les Pots (28th–31st). The losses were heavy on the 27th and 28th. The division passed into the second line on the 31st and then to reserve at Solente (east of Roye) until the 30th of April.

3. The division rested and trained from May 5 to 20 at Jeantes la Ville and Nampcelle la Cour (east of Vervins). It received a draft of 800 men on May 18.

4. The division marched toward the Aisne front through Montigny le Franc, Marchais, Montaigu, and Mauregny, May 25 and 26, by night.

Battle of the Aisne.

5. It attacked on the Chemin des Dames on May 27, near Ailles, its former sector. It was in the front line of the advance through Paissy, Oeuilly, Barbonval, Blanzy, Bazoches (27th), Mareuil en Dole, (28th), south of Fere en Tardenois, (29th), south of Beuvardes (30th), south of Bouresches. It retired from the front about June 8.

183
Battle of the Marne.

6. The division was at rest near Sissonne after the middle of June to July 7. It marched to the front via Eppes, Brenelle, Foret de Fere, July 7 to 11. It crossed the Marne on the morning of the 15th, by pontoons, having passed through the sector of the 10th Ldw. Div. The division’s objective was a line 8 klms. south of the river, which was to have been reached by 11 a. m. The advance was completely checked by the American Division (3d) south of the Marne. The division lost 400 prisoners and many casualties.

7. The division was taken out within a few days and rested at Arcy-St. Restitute. It was engaged near Vierzy on the 26th and was thrown back on the Vesle by August 1, when it was relieved.

The Woevre.

8. The division was taken to Athies-sous-Laon, where it entrained on August 5 for Mars-la-Tour. The itinerary included Hirson, Charleville, Sedan. It camped at Sponville until the night of August 18–19. It relieved the 277th Division in the sector Richecourt, Lahayville, St. Baussant. The division had absorbed the 255th Division, dissolved on August 7, and its losses in men and material had been made up. The division sustained the American attack of September 12 and was thrown back north of Thiaucourt on Jaulny, Rembercourt. The division lost heavily in casualties and prisoners. Practically the entire 3d Battalion of the 398th Regiment was captured on the first day. It was taken out on September 20.

Moselle.

9. The division was reassembled at Loringen, near Metz. From the dissolved 77th Reserve Division the 257th Reserve Regiment was turned into the 6th Gren. Regiment (10th Division), the 419th into the 398th Regiment, and the 332d into the 47th Regiment. Other drafts from Germany were received to reconstitute the division. On the 5th of October the division entered the sector east of the Moselle (Nomeny), where it remained until October 28.

Meuse-Argonne.

10. The division returned to Metz and moved by rail for Pelte, via Metz-Longuyon-Montmedy. It went into position on November 3 northwest of Stenay. The last identification was on the Meuse on November 11.

VALUE.

The division was rated as a first-class division. It behaved creditably in the Somme and Aisne offensives. It was completely defeated on the Marne, from which it never recovered. The inferior qualities of the drafts received in August and September lowered the fighting value of the division.

184

10th Reserve Division.

COMPOSITION.

1914 1915 1916 1917 1918
Brigade. Regiment. Brigade. Regiment. Brigade. Regiment. Brigade. Regiment. Brigade. Regiment.
Infantry. 18 Res. 37 Res. 19 Res. 37 Res. 19 Res. 37 Res. 77. 37 Res. 77. 37 Fus.
    46 Res.   46 Res.   98 Res.   37 Fus.   155.
  77. 37 Fus.   98 Res. 77. 37 Fus.   155.   37 Res.
    155. 77. 37 Fus.   155.        
        155.            
      (37 Res. Rgt. passed to 119 D. April, 1915.)            
Cavalry. 6 Res. Uhlan Rgt. (3 Sqns.). 6 Res. Uhlan Rgt. 6 Res. Uhlan Rgt. (?) 6 Res. Uhlan Rgt. 1 Sqn. 3 Res. Drag. Rgt.
Artillery. 10 Res. F. A. Rgt. (6 Btries.). 10 Res. F. A. Rgt. 10 Res. F. A. Rgt. (?) Art. Command: 61 Art. Command:
         Res. F. A. (Regt. Btries.).  10 Res. F. A. Rgt.
           2 Abt. 66 F. A. Rgt.
           1 Abt. 3 Res. Ft. A. Rgt.
           736 Light Am. Col.
           1107 Light Am. Col.
           1123 Light Am. Col.
Engineers and Liaisons.   Res. Co. 5 Pions. 1 Res. Co. 5 Pions. (310) Pion. Btn.: 310 Pion. Btn.:
    10 Res. Pont. Engs. 210 T. M. Co.  1 Res. Co. 5 Pions.  1 Res. Co. 5 Pions.
    10 Res. Tel. Detch. 10 Res. Pont. Engs.  2 Res. Co. 5 Pions.  2 Co. 5 Res. Pions.
      10 Res. Tel. Detch.  210 T. M. Co.  210 T. M. Co.
         Tel. Detch.  192 Searchlight Section.
          410 Signal Command:
           410 Tel. Detch.
           1 Wireless Detch.
Medical and Veterinary.       505 Ambulance Co. 505 Ambulance Co.
        26 Res. Hospital Field. 26 Res. Field Hospital.
        28 Res. Field Hospital. 28 Res. Field Hospital.
        410 Vet. Hospital. 410 Vet. Hospital.
Transports.       M. T. Col. 709 M. T. Col.
Attached.         10 M. G. S. S. Detch.
          254 Mountain M. G. Detch.
          234 Reconnaissance Flight.
          (Elements attached Sept. 22, 1918.)
185

HISTORY.

(Fifth District—Posen.)

1914.

France.

1. At mobilization the division, with the 9th Reserve Division, formed the 5th Reserve Corps. It was part of the 5th Army (Crown Prince of Prussia) and took part in the offensive which went around Verdun from the north. It fought at Ville en Montois August 22, in the Region of Consenvoiye-Flabas September 1, and in the vicinity of Sivry sur Meuse September 2. It remained on the right bank of the Meuse until the end of September.

Meuse.

2. About October 1 some of the units of the 10th Reserve Division were sent to the left bank (Cuisy-Forges-Gercourt).

3. At the beginning of November the division was regrouped in the region of Damvillers (right bank). Took part in the attacks toward Azannes November 10 and established itself in the sector of Consenvoye-Azannes (northeast of Orne-Bois des Caures in November and December).

1915.

1. The division held the region east of Consenvoye-Flabas-Bois des Caures-Azannes until the Verdun offensive February, 1916.

Woevre.

2. At the end of September, 1915, at the beginning of the French attack in Champagne, some units of the division (battalions of the 37th Reserves and 98th Reserves were sent as reinforcements to vicinity of Ville sur Tourbe and Massiges.)

1916.

Verdun.

1. About February 15, 1916, the division was relieved from the sector on the right bank of the Meuse and put in reserve. During the first days of the offensive it engaged only a few attack battalions. Beginning March 12 it was in line before Vaux and Fort Vaux and had very heavy losses. April 3 the 8th of the 37th Fusiliers received at least 64 replacements (recuperated men who entered the service the preceding November and recovered wounded and sick).

2. The division was relieved at the end of April and sent to rest in the region of Mulhouse from the beginning of May to June 12.

Champagne.

3. Sent to Champagne and held the sector north of Tahure, south of Somme Py, until September 20.

Somme.

4. After a few days rest it was sent to the Somme south of the St. Pierre Wood-Vaast from October 5 to 15. It suffered very heavy losses there.

5. At rest for 13 days, then entrained, and went to Dun via Hirson-Mézières-Charleville-Sedan October 23.

Mort Homme.

6. It held the sector of Mort Homme (left bank of the Meuse) from October 28 to February 8, 1917.

186

1917.

1. The division was at rest in the middle of February, 1917, in the region of Sedan, then of Dizy le Gros.

Aisne.

2. At the beginning of March it went into line in the region of Berry au Bac (from Hill 108 to Spigneul). It was relieved at the beginning of the French attack April 16. The French artillery preparation caused it heavy losses.

Mort Homme-Hill 304.

3. From April 24 to May 15 it was in line in its old sector—Cumierès-Mort Homme—and from the middle of May till July 19 in the adjoining sector—Hill 304-Avocourt Wood. It attacked June 28 and 29 and opposed our counterattacks of July 12 to 17, suffering heavy losses.

4. Withdrawn from the front about July 19.

5. At rest near Sedan and reorganized (replacements from the Fifth District and Eighteenth District (Frankfort on Main)).

Champagne.

6. It then took over the sector Vitry-Cernay les Reims about August 8. Remained there until about October 27.

7. November 9 it went into line north of Craonne in the region of Chermizy-Bouconville (?). Some of the units of the division were not in this sector. After a rest in the camp of Sissonne and at Poilcourt, end of October to middle of December, they went into line in the sector Miette-Aisne about December 17. About that date the division was regrouped north of Berry au Bac, where it was still in February, 1918.

RECRUITING.

Province of Posen. The differences were made up by the Sixth District mostly.

VALUE—1917 ESTIMATE.

The division is considered as a “big attack” division. In April, 1917, in the region of Berry au Bac it executed a well-conducted attack on Satigneul. The offensive value of the division showed itself again during the attacks of June 28–29 of 1917 at Hill 304.

There is no lack of volunteers for dangerous missions, and the motto of the division is said to be: “Get after the enemy and beat ’em wherever you find ’em.” The commanding general of the division and the colonel commanding the 155th consider that their men are able to endure hard battles (November, 1917).

1918.

Battle of Picardy.

1. The division was relieved about March 15 and sent to reenforce the Somme front. It was engaged near Beaulieu les Fontaines on March 25–26, where it remained until April 7. Heavy casualties were reported in this offensive.

Battle of the Aisne.

2. The division rested until May 27, when it took part in the offensive at Mont Notre Dame. About June 15 it was withdrawn to Athies (Laon), where it rested fallen until July 15.

Second Battle of the Marne.

3. On July 15 the division was again engaged south of the Marne at Montvoisin and Oeuilly on the opening day. It retired from the Vesle front, to which it had fallen back, about August 5.

187
Vesle.

4. After resting three weeks at Asfeld the division returned to the Vesle front on August 28 near Chalon sur Vesle and was engaged until September 18.

5. On the 18th the division was directed by stages to Laon and entered the line south of Laon at Ferme-Colombe on the 22d. The division appears to have been constantly in action until November 1, and possibly until the armistice. It was successively identified at Chevrigny, Montceau le Waast (Oct. 14), southeast of Toulle (Oct. 27), south of Banogne (Nov. 1). The last identification was at Maubert-Fontaine on November 10.

VALUE—1918 ESTIMATE.

The division was rated as a first-class division. It fought hard in most of the offensives of the year, and when on the defensive put up a hard, steady fight for two months without relief.

188

10th Ersatz Division.

COMPOSITION.

1914 1915 1916 1917 1918
Brigade. Regiment. Brigade. Regiment. Brigade. Regiment. Brigade. Regiment. Brigade. Regiment.
Infantry. 37 Ers. 37, 38, 39, and 40 Brig. Ers. Btns. 37 Ers. 37, 38, 39, and 40 Brig. Ers. Btns. 25 Mixed Ers. 369. 43 Ers. 369. 43 Ers. 369.
  25 Ers. 25, 26, 27, 28, and 79 Brig. Ers. Btns. 25 Ers. 25, 26, 27, 28, and 79 Brig. Ers. Btns.   368.   370.   370.
  43 Ers. 43, 44, 76, and 83 Brig. Ers. Btns. 43 Ers. 43, 44, 76, and 83 Brig. Ers. Btns. 43 Mixed Ers. 370.   371.   371.
            371.        
Cavalry. Ers. Cav. Detch. of 25 Ers. Brig. Ers. Cav. Detch. of 25 Ers. Brig. 10 Cav. Sqn. 1 Sqn. 1 Horse Jag. Rgt. 1 Sqn. 1 Horse Jag. Rgt.
  Ers. Cav. Detch. of 43 Ers. Brig. Ers. Cav. Detch. of 43 Ers. Brig. 2 Sqn. Horse Jag. Rgt. Ers. Sqn. 2 Horse Jag. Rgt.  
Artillery. 1 Ers. Abt. (46 and 62 F. A. Rgts.). 1 Ers. Abt. (46 and 62 F. A. Rgts.). 94 F. A. Rgt. 95 F. A. Rgt. 95 F. A. Rgt.
  1 Ers. Abt. (22 and 43 F. A. Rgts.). 1 Ers. Abt. (22 and 43 F. A. Rgts.). 95 F. A. Rgt.   156 Ft. A. Btn.
  1 Ers. Abt. (47 and 55 F. A. Rgts.). 1 Ers. Abt. (47 and 55 F. A. Rgts.).     1058 Light Am. Col.
          1060 Light Am. Col.
          1065 Light Am. Col.
           
Engineers and Liaisons. 1 Ers. Co. 10 Pions. 1 Ers. Co. 10 Pions. 2 Res. Co. 27 Pions. Pion. Btn.: 510 Pion. Btn.:
  3 Ers. Co. 11 Pions. 3 Ers. Co. 11 Pions. 2 Ldw. Pion. Co. (3 C. Dist.).  1 Ers. Co. 10 Pions.  246 Pion. Co.
    2 Ldw. Pion. Co. (3 C. Dist.). 307 Pion. Co.  307 Pion. Co.  308 Pion. Co.
      309 Pion. Co.  308 Pion. Co.  163 T. M. Co.
      163 T. M. Co.  163 T. M. Co.  57 Searchlight Section.
         261 Searchlight Section. 560 Signal Command:
         304 Tel. Detch.  560 Tel. Detch.
           109 Wireless Detch.
Medical and Veterinary.       66 Ambulance Co. 66 Ambulance Co.
        139 Field Hospital. 139 Field Hospital.
        140 Field Hospital. 140 Field Hospital.
        Vet. Hospital. 212 Vet. Hospital.
Transports.       M. T. Col. 765 M. T. Col.
Attached.     27 Balloon Sqn.    
189

HISTORY.

(369th and 370th: Seventh District—Westphalia. 371st: Eleventh District—Thuringia.)

1914.

This division was organized as early as August, 1914. It comprised the 25th, 37th, and 43d Mixed Ersatz Brigades, themselves constituted by the Brigade Ersatz Battalions of the Tenth, Seventh, and Eleventh Districts (Hanover, Oldenburg, Brunswick, Westphalia, Electoral Hesse, and Thuringia).

Lorraine.

1. Detrained August 17 and 18 near Sarrelouis and brought quickly to the rear of the 3d Bavarian Corps August 20, and crossed the frontier the 25th. September 7 it had heavy losses at the attack against Nancy (Champenoux). The 40th Brigade Ersatz Battalion lost half its forces (notebook). It continued, however, to take part in the operations in Lorraine in the region of Moncel until September 12, 1914, after which it went to rest near Chateau Salins.

Haye.

2. September 28 it entrained for Novéant and went into line on the Haye front, where it held various sectors (Loupmont, Richecourt, Apremont).

1915.

Haye.

1. During 1915 the division continued to hold the Lorraine front (Haye): Loupmont, Seicheprey, Lahayville, Mort Mare Wood.

2. At the end of July the division was reorganized. Its brigade Ersatz battalions were grouped into regiments and formed the 368th, 369th, 370th, and 371st Infantry. The companies were filled up again. The 9th company of the 370th Infantry received not less than 76 replacements in August (1915 class called up in May).

1916.

Woevre.

1. The division remained in the Flirey-Limey sector until the end of August, 1916. At that date it was relieved by the Guard Ersatz Division and sent to rest in the region of Thiaucourt.

Somme.

2. By September 5, leaving the 368th Regiment, which was transferred to the 213th Division, it entrained at Montmédy and went to the south of the Somme via Laon, Tergnier, and St. Quentin. It fought south of Berny en Santerre from September 14 to 25 and suffered considerable losses.

Champagne.

3. After a short rest in the region of St. Quentin the division was sent to Champagne. Until November 12 it held, without any particular incidents, the Ste. Marie à Py and Somme Py sector.

4. From the middle of November to the middle of December it was sent to rest in the region of Attigny.

Meuse.

5. December 28 it took over the Ornes-Bezonvaux sector.

1917.

1. Held the Verdun front (Bezonvaux) until April 19, 1917.

Champagne.

2. Between April 20 and 25 it returned to Champagne and took part in the attack south of Moronvilliers from the beginning of May to the beginning of June. From June 9 to beginning of August it was in line in the region of Regniéville-Remenauville (Haye).

190
Flanders.

4. After a rest behind the Lorraine front, the division entrained at Chambley August 21 for Belgium. About September 24 it was engaged before Ypres near Poelcappelle.

Galicia.

5. Withdrawn from the Belgium front about October 7 and entrained the 10th for Galicia, where it was identified south of Skala, November 17.

RECRUITING.

Westphalia and Rhine Provinces: 369th and 370th Infantry. Thuringia: 371st Infantry.

VALUE—1917 ESTIMATE.

The division suffered heavy losses in Champagne in May, 1917, and at Ypres in September and October, 1917. The division has only moderate value.

1918.

Battle of the Lys.

1. The division remained in line until the attack on the Lys in April. It was engaged north of the La Bassee Canal (Givenchy, Festubert, southeast of Lacre), from April 9 to 24. The losses were heavy, including 700 prisoners. The 360th Regiment suffered the most in the fighting.

2. It was relieved on the 12th and rested in rear of the line until the 29th, when it returned to its former sector at Locre until May 3.

3. The division rested near Roubaix (Bondues, Wambrechies) until the beginning of July. According to reports, sickness was very general throughout the division at the time.

La Bassee Canal.

4. On July 14 the division entered the line south of the La Bassee Canal, coming via Lille and Seclin. It remained in this sector until October 2.

5. It moved southward to reenforce the Cambrai-St. Quentin battle front on October 7, coming into line east of Tilloy. It fell back toward Valenciennes through Escaudoevres, Iwny (Oct. 11), Verchain (Oct. 21), Maing (Oct. 24–25), Famars (Oct. 27), north of Le Quesnoy (Oct. 27). It retired to the second line about November 1, but was reengaged southeast of Antoingt on November 9.

VALUE.

The 10th Ersatz Division was rated as a third-class division. Its service in 1918 was as a sector-holding division. It appears to have been a division of average value.

191

10th Landwehr Division.

COMPOSITION.

1915 1916 1917 1918
Brigade. Regiment. Brigade. Regiment. Brigade. Regiment. Brigade. Regiment.
Infantry.   1 E. Konigsberg (377). (?) 372. 180. 372. 180. 372.
    3 E. Konigsberg (378).   373.   377.   377.
  9 Ldw. 24 Ldw. 180. 377.   378.   378.
    48 Ldw.   378.        
Cavalry. 91 Ldw. Cav. Rgt. 91 Ldw. Cav. Rgt. 5 Sqn. 7 Dragoon Rgt. 5 Sqn. 7 Drag. Rgt.
Artillery. 97 F. A. Rgt. 97 F. A. Rgt. 130 Art. Command: 130 Art. Command:
       97 F. A. Rgt.  97 F. A. Rgt.
Engineers and Liaisons.   3 Co. 2 Pions. 410 Pion. Btn.: 3 Field Co. 1 Pion. Btn. No. 2.
    310 T. M. Co.  3 Co. 2 Pions. 1 Landst. Co. 5 C. Dist. Pions.
       310 T. M. Co. 310 T. M. Co.
       320 Searchlight Section. 510 Tel. Detch.
       Tel. Detch.  
Medical and Veterinary.     213 Ambulance Co. 213 Ambulance Co.
      147 Field Hospital. 147 Field Hospital.
      148 Field Hospital. 148 Field Hospital.
      210 Vet. Hospital. — Vet. Hospital.
Transports.     — M. T. Col. — M. T. Col.
Attached.   437 Inf. Rgt. 1 Landst. Pion. Btn. (4 C. Dist.).  
192

HISTORY.

(First District—Eastern Prussia.)

1915.

The present 10th Landwehr Division (the old 10th Landwehr Division took the name of the 1st Landwehr Division) was built around the 9th Landwehr Brigade (Brandenburg), which was brought to Koenigsburg as early as August 14, 1914, to constitute its war garrison. It found at Koenigsburg some of the mobile depot battalions of the regiments of the 1st Army Corps, from which came the three Koenigsburg Ersatz infantry regiments, which became, respectively, the 376th, 377th, and 378th Infantry. The present 372d Infantry is the former Ersatz infantry regiment of the 10th Landwehr Division.

Poland.

1. These troops, at first fighting in eastern Prussia, took part in the campaign in Poland with the 1st Landwehr Corps, beginning with the first part of 1915.

2. About the end of July, 1915, the division took part in the offensive against the Russians, forced the passage of the Narew, and advanced east of Vilna to the region of Vileiki in September.

Lake Narotch.

3. After the front was stabilized it established itself between Spiagla and Lake Svir, south of Lake Narotch.

1916.

1. The division remained in line near Lake Svir until July, 1916.

Volhynia.

2. About July 27 the units of the division were relieved from the front of Lake Narotch and sent to Volhynia to the Von Linsingen Army. The 9th Landwehr Brigade became independent and did not follow the division, which was reduced to three regiments. These were engaged on the banks of the Stokhod at the end of July at Lokatchi and Kachovka and remained in line in the region of Kisselin and Sviniouki until the beginning of 1918.

1917.

Volhynia.

1. January to December, 1917, in the Kisselin-Sviniouki sector.

2. In November, 1917, the three regiments of the division furnished 60 men per company for the Western Front, picked from the strongest, and received in exchange older men. In October, 16 men per company had already been transferred to the 14th Division following the latter’s losses on the Aisne.

RECRUITING.

The division is sufficiently homogeneous, the regiments as a rule coming from eastern Prussia. However, the necessity of filling up the ranks before being sent to France brought it a number of men from other Provinces.

VALUE—1917 ESTIMATE.

In spite of its drafts, which are good, and the large number of officers, many of whom are in the active army, the division remained on the Eastern Front until March, 1918. Up to the present time it has received no training with a view to warfare on the Western Front, and must be considered for the time being as of mediocre value (April, 1918). The men of more than 35 years of age were left in Russia as abrüstungs kommando (cleaning up and salvage).

193

1918.

Second Battle of the Marne.

1. On June 3 the division entrained in the Woevre and traveled via Conflans-Sedan-Mezieres-Laon to Malmaison, where it detrained on June 4. It marched to the front via Fismes, Fere en Tardenois, and Fresnes. It came into line on the Marne near Mont St. Pere about June 10. Here it was in line until July 15, when it dropped back to permit an attacking division to pass through. In the retreat the division again came into line a few days later and was heavily engaged on the defense until about August 1.

2. Heavy losses, including 300 prisoners on July 23, led to the dissolution of the division. Its effectives were turned into other fresh divisions. The 372d, 377th, and 378th went to the 37th Division, 36th Division, and 201st Division in the order named.

VALUE—1918 ESTIMATE.

The division was rated as a fourth-class division.

194

10th Bavarian Division.

COMPOSITION.

1915 1916 1917 1918[10]
Brigade. Regiment. Brigade. Regiment. Brigade. Regiment. Brigade. Regiment.
Infantry. 20 Bav. 16 Bav. 20 Bav. 16 Bav. 20 Bav. 16 Bav. 20 Bav. 16 Bav.
    6 Bav. Res.   6 Bav. Res.   6 Bav. Res.   6 Bav. Res.
    8 Bav. Res.   8 Bav. Res.   8 Bav. Res.   8 Bav. Res.
Cavalry. 3 Sqn. 5 Bav. Light Cav. Rgt. 5 Bav. Light Cav. Rgt. (3 Sqns.). 3 Sqn. 5 Bav. Light Cav. Rgt. 3 Sqn. 5 Bav. Light Cav. Rgt.
Artillery. 10 Bav. Brig.: 10 Bav. Brig.: 10 Bav. Art. Command: 10 Bav. Art. Command:
   19 Bav. F. A. Rgt. (6 Btries.).  19 Bav. F. A. Rgt.  19 Bav. F. A. Rgt.  20 Bav. F. A. Rgt.
   20 Bav. F. A. Rgt. (6 Btries., of which 3 are How.).  20 Bav. F. A. Rgt.  20 Bav. F. A. Rgt.  
         
Engineers and Liaisons. 20 Bav. Pion. Co. 20 Bav. Pion. Co. 10 Bav. Pion. Btn.: 10 Bav. Pion. Btn.:
    10 Bav. T. M. Co.  20 Bav. Pion. Co.  20 Bav. Pion. Co.
    10 Bav. Pont. Engs.  23 Bav. Pion. Co.  23 Bav. Pion. Co.
    10 Bav. Tel. Detch.  10 Bav. T. M. Co.  19 Searchlight Section.
       19 Searchlight Section.  10 Bav. T. M. Co.
       Tel. Detch.  10 Bav. Tel. Detch.
         97 Wireless Detch.
Medical and Veterinary.     10 Bav. Ambulance Co. 10 Bav. Ambulance Co.
      31 Bav. Field Hospital. 31 Bav. Field Hospital.
      34 Bav. Field Hospital. 34 Bav. Field Hospital.
      Vet. Hospital. 10 Bav. Vet. Hospital.
Transports.     M. T. Col. 690 Bav. M. T. Col.
Odd Units.   10 Bav. Cyclist Co. 10 Bav. Cyclist Co. 10 Bav. Cyclist Co.
Attached.       19 Bav. F. A. Rgt.

10.  Composition at time of dissolution, August, 1918.

195

HISTORY.

(16th Bavarian: First Bavarian District—Lower Bavaria. 6th Reserve Bavarian and 8th Reserve Bavarian: Second Bavarian District—Bavarian Palatinate.)

1915.

This division was organized in Belgium in March, 1915. Its three infantry regiments were drawn from already existing Bavarian divisions—the 16th Bavarian from the 1st Bavarian Division, the 6th Reserve Bavarian from the 5th Bavarian Reserve Division, and the 8th Bavarian Reserves from the 4th Bavarian Division.

1. In April, 1915, the division was in the region of Tournai.

Somme.

2. In May it took over the sector of Lihons-Estrees road to Foucaucourt, which it occupied until the Franco-British offensive of 1916.

3. In October some units of the division were sent as reinforcements to Neuville-St. Vaast and to Champagne.

1916.

Somme.

1. Remained in the Foucaucourt-Lihons sector until the middle of June, 1916.

2. At the end of June it was sent south of Bapaume and took part in the battle of the Somme near Contalmaison, Bazentin le Petit, and Longueval from July 1 to the end of July. The 6th Reserve Infantry suffered heavily. Its 2d Battalion lost 11 officers and 724 men (casualty lists).

Galicia.

3. About the middle of August the division was sent to the Eastern Front (Stanislau) and the trip lasted from August 13 to 18.

Bukovina.

4. September and October: Bukovina (Dorna-Vatra, Kirlibaba, west of Mont Capoul). It fought against the right wing of the Roumanian Army.

Transylvania.

5. From November, 1916, to the end of January, 1917, it held the sector of Tolgyes in Transylvania.

1917.

Galicia.

1. At the beginning of February, 1917, the division left the Roumanian front and went to Galicia (sector of Zalosce) from February to May, being attached to the 2d Austro-Hungarian Army.

France.

2. In May the division returned to France, via Zloczow (May 19), Lemberg, Cracow, Breslau, Frankfort on Main, Treves.

Alsace.

Detrained about May 25 in the region of Mulhouse; then was sent to rest and training in Upper Alsace at the beginning of June and sent to Belgium (June 12 to 14).

Flanders.

3. Fought south of the Ypres-Comines canal where it opposed the attack of July 31. It then went to the region of Catelet (sector of Gonnelieu) from August 12 to the end of September. It was near Becelaere in October.

Russia.

4. At the end of October it was again sent to the Eastern Front. After a few weeks’ rest at Brest Litovsk it returned to France without having fought. Entrained November 22 at Brest Litovsk and detrained in Lorraine the 27th. Itinerary: Warsaw-Posen-Erfurt.

Lorraine.

5. On November 29 to 30 it went into line in the forest of Bezange and was relieved in the middle of January, 1918.

196

RECRUITING.

The 16th Infantry: Lower Bavaria. The two other regiments: Bavarian Palatinate.

VALUE—1917 ESTIMATE.

The greater part of the division is composed of young men. It does not seem to have suffered any losses for a long time. However, its morale seems to have been shaken at times. When it was sent from St. Quentin to Ypres at the end of September, 1917, it is believed that the officers of the 16th Infantry had trouble in preventing a mutiny. (British Information Bulletin, Oct. 12, 1917.)

1918.

1. The division was relieved in the Vosges on May 13 and rested near Dieuze until May 30. It entrained and moved by Metz and Sedan, Charleville, Liart, and detrained near Laon on the 30th–31st. It moved to the front by Bruyeres, Braye en Laennois, Mont Notre-Dame, Neuilly-St. Front.

Battle of the Aisne and Marne.

2. It was reengaged southeast of Troësnes-Passy en Valois (on the Ourcq) from June 5 to July 18. It was thrown back on Rozet St. Albin (July 20) and then west of Armentieres (21st). About that date the division was relieved.

The division was dissolved in August and its units sent to the 6th Bavarian Reserve Division, 11th Bavarian Division, and 14th Bavarian Division.

VALUE—1918 ESTIMATE.

The division was rated as a second-class division. In 1918 it saw but six weeks of active fighting before it was dissolved.

197

11th Division.

COMPOSITION.

1914 1915 1916 1917 1918
Brigade. Regiment. Brigade. Regiment. Brigade. Regiment. Brigade. Regiment. Brigade. Regiment.
Infantry. 21. 10 Gren. 21. 10 Gren. 21. 10 Gren. 21. 10 Gren. 21. 10 Gren.
    38 Fus.   38 Fus.   38 Fus.   38 Fus.   38 Fus.
  22. 11 Gren. 22. 11 Gren. 22. 11 Gren.   51.   51.
    51.   51.   51.        
Cavalry. 2 Uhlan Rgt. 1 and 4 Sqns., 2 Uhlan Rgt.   2 Sqn. 2 Uhlan Rgt. 2 Sqn. 2 Uhlan Rgt.
Artillery. 11 Brig.: 11 Brig.: 11 Brig.: 11 Art. Command: 11 Art. Command:
   6 F. A. Rgt.  6 F. A. Rgt.  6 F. A. Rgt. (6 4.9 cm. gun Btries.).  42 F. A. Rgt.  42 F. A. Rgt.
   42 F. A. Rgt.  42 F. A. Rgt.  42 F. A. Rgt.    131 (M) Ft. A. Btn. (Staff, and 1, 2, and 3 Btries.).
           904 Light Am. Col.
           1367 Light Am. Col.
           1368 Light Am. Col.
Engineers and Liaisons.   1 Pion. Btn. No. 6: 1 Pion. Btn. No. 6: 122 Pion. Btn.: 122 Pion. Btn.:
     Field Co. 6 Pions.  1 Co. 6 Pions.  1 Co. 6 Pions.  1 Co. 6 Pions.
     11 Pont. Engs.  5 Co. 6 Pions.  5 Co. 6 Pions.  5 Co. 6 Pions.
     11 Tel. Detch.  11 T. M. Co.  11 T. M. Co.  11 T. M. Co.
       11 Pont. Engs.  269 Searchlight Section.  187 Searchlight Section.
       11 Tel. Detch.  11 Tel. Detch. 11 Signal Command:
           11 Tel. Detch.
           3 Wireless Detch.
Medical and Veterinary.       16 Ambulance Co. 16 Ambulance Co.
        55 Field Hospital. 59 Field Hospital.
        59 Field Hospital. 61 Field Hospital.
        61 Field Hospital. 11 Vet. Hospital.
        Vet. Hospital.  
Transports.       544 M. T. Col. 544 M. T. Col.
        644 M. T. Col.  
Attached.     Anti-aircraft Section. Anti-aircraft Section.  
      38 Labor Btn.    
198

HISTORY.

(Sixth District—Silesia.)

1914.

France.

1. The 11th Division belonged to the 6th Army Corps and detrained at Merzig August 10 and 11, 1914, passed through Luxemburg the 17th, and entered Belgian Luxemburg the 18th.

2. It belonged to the 5th Army (Prussian Crown Prince) and took part in the battle of August 22 at Tintigny, St. Vincent, and Belle Fontaine. It crossed the Meuse the 29th below Stenay, passed through Varennes and Ste. Menehould. September 7, at the high point of the German advance, it was near Revigny.

Rheims.

3. After the battle of the Marne it established itself at the western edge of the Argonne (from Binarville to Cernay en Bormois).

Argonne.

4. October 4 it fought at Binarville. October 21 the 22d Brigade was at Beine, east of Rheims. The 21st Brigade remained in the Argonne.

1915.

1. At the end of January, 1915, the 21st Brigade returned to the Rheims sector.

Champagne.

In February the 22d Brigade was attached temporarily in support of the 8th Reserve Corps on the Champagne front (east).

2. About the middle of June the division went to Artois to reinforce the 6th Army in preparation for the French offensive.

Souchez.

3. At the end of June it held the sector north of Souchez, east of Neuville St. Vaast. It executed many unsuccessful attacks on Souchez and the Chateau of Carleul. It suffered considerable losses during July. September 25 and 26 it had more losses before La Folie. Relieved at the end of September and sent to rest in the region of Cambrai. The casualty lists for the 10th Grenadiers show 432 killed, 1,023 wounded, 64 missing; total, 1,519 men. The losses were hastily made good from October 5 to 14 by replacements with less than three months’ training (oldest class Landsturm 2d Band and 1915 class men who entered service in July). The 9th Company of the 10th Grenadiers received in this way at least 119 men and the 12th Company of the 38th Fusiliers about the same.

4. During the first two weeks of October the division went into line in the sector astride the Somme.

1916.

Frise.

1. At the end of January, 1916, the division took part in the attack which ended in the taking of the village of Frise and suffered very heavy losses.

2. On May 25 it was relieved, and a short time afterwards took over the sector south of the Amiens-St. Quentin road. (At the end of June the first 1917-class soldiers arrived with older classes put back, taken from the mines and factories of Silesia.)

Somme.

3. In this sector it opposed the French attack of July 1 and days following. It suffered heavily and lost a large number of prisoners to the French. (The 11th Grenadiers, whose battalions had fought in three different places, separated from the rest of the division, had to have at least 181 replacements to complete the 11th Company. They arrived from July 6 to 20.)

1994. It was withdrawn from this sector about the end of July and sent to the region of St. Quentin to be reorganized.

5. On August 1 the division took over the trenches in the sector Andechy-Beuvraignes.

Somme.

6. September 4 it again went in to the battle of the Somme between Deniecourt and Vermandovillers. During these two actions in the Somme it suffered 83 per cent losses.

7. Relieved October 10 and took over the sector of Prunay the 24th, which it held until December 12, then went to rest near St. Quentin. The 11th Grenadiers left the division in October and were transferred to the 101st Division in Macedonia.

1917.

1. On January 4, 1917, the division went into line in the sector of Lassigny, then on February 10 in the sector of Ablaincourt, south of the Somme.

2. About the middle of the month of March the division retreated, with the other German forces engaged in the Somme, to the Hindenburg line.

3. March 29 it was sent to the Arras front.

Artois.

April 19 it opposed south of the Scarpe the first shock of the British attack. In spite of a desperate defense it was routed and lost 2,200 prisoners to the British. The 51st Infantry was reduced to 600 men (prisoners’ statements) and its 12th Company to 6 men.

4. On April 11 the division was relieved and reorganized in the region of Bruges. It received replacements especially from the 623d Infantry, which was dissolved, organized, and trained at the camp at Neuhammer.

Flanders.

5. At the beginning of June it was in support of the Wytschaete-Messines front when the British attacked. It then held this sector until June 26 and suffered heavy losses again (June 8 and 9).

Woevre.

6. After a few days’ rest it was sent to Metz and then put in line in the sector of Flirey (in Haye), end of July to September 15.

7. Relieved about the middle of September, and in October took over a sector on the Champagne front.

Flanders.

8. At the end of October it was sent to Flanders and went into line near Passchendeale. Withdrawn at the end of December and went to the rear of the front in the region of Maubeuge.

RECRUITING.

The division was recruited in the regions of Breslau, Glatz, and Schweidnitz from a German population. The Poles, therefore, coming from the Province of Silesia, are in the minority. The Sixth District is thickly populated and was able by itself to maintain the division even during the period of heavy losses.

VALUE—1917 ESTIMATE.

In spite of the heavy losses suffered at the Somme, Arras, and Wytschaete the division always fought well. Its value is diminished by the presence of a certain number of Poles who were generally ready to desert when they had a chance. Lieut. Col. Schwerck, commanding the 51st Infantry, received the order “Pour le Merite” after the battle of Arras. This reward, which has been given to only six other regimental commanders, seems to prove that the fighting value of the 11th Division at Arras in April, 1917, was greatly appreciated by the German High Command.

200

1918.

Champagne.

1. The 11th Division rested first in the Maubeuge region, and later near Charleville and Laon for about two months. About March 1 it relieved the 51st Reserve Division in the Butte de Mesnil. Here nothing except minor trench raids was attempted. Most of the older men were exchanged for young ones. It was relieved by the 88th Division April 15.

Lassigny.

2. April 20 it relieved elements of the 34th and 37th Divisions south of Dives, (east of Lassigny). It was relieved by the 202d Division during the night of May 22–23. It rested then for about 10 days in the Guiscard region.

Montdidier.

3. June 9 it reinforced the Montdidier-Noyon battle front south of Thiescourt (west of Noyon). It attacked the first day of the offensive as an attack division. It attacked on a front of 1,500 yards, with Compiegne as its final objective (its orders were captured), but did poorly, succeeding only in reaching Machemont—less than half way. In this engagement it suffered heavy losses. It was withdrawn the 16th and went to rest in the Guiscard region, where it received some 1,300 replacements.

4. The division relieved the 222d Division near Rubescourt (south of Montdidier) July 19. In the fighting which followed, the division lost heavily. The 10th Regiment received 300 replacements August 2; relieved about the 12th.

5. It reentered line near Varesnes the 22d and was withdrawn the 28th.

St. Quentin.

6. September 8 it came back into line southwest of St. Quentin near Jussy. It was withdrawn about the 20th.

7. Four days later the division was identified north of St. Quentin in the Gricourt sector; withdrawn the 2d of October.

8. It came back into line about the 12th near Barisis (south of LaFere). The division took part in the general German retirement and was identified successively at Remies, Mesbrecourt, Léa Ferte-Chevresis, Monceau le Neuf, Le Herie la Vieville, St. Algis, and Champ Bouvier. It was still in line when the armistice was signed.

VALUE—1918 ESTIMATE.

The 11th is rated as a good second-class division. It did not do well in the battle of the Oise, but everywhere else its conduct under fire was characterized by considerable tenacity. Losses were very heavy. Numerous cases of desertion, especially to the interior; a large number of replacements—returned prisoners from Russia—are said to have mutinied at Breslau.

201

11th Reserve Division.

COMPOSITION.

1914 1915 1916 1917 1918
Brigade. Regiment. Brigade. Regiment. Brigade. Regiment. Brigade. Regiment. Brigade. Regiment.
Infantry. 21 Res. 10 Res. 21 Res. 10 Res. 23. 10 Res. 23. 10 Res. 23. 22.
    11 Res.   11 Res.   22.   22.   156.
  23. 22. 23. 22.   156.   156.   10 Res.
    156.   156.            
Cavalry. 3 Res. Hus. Rgt. (3 Sqns.).   4 Res. Hus. Rgt. 1 Sqn. 4 Res. Hus. Rgt. 1 Sqn. 4 Res. Hus. Rgt.
Artillery. 11 Res. F. A. Rgt. (6 Btries.). 11 Res. F. A. Rgt. 11 Res. F. A. Rgt. (s) Art. Command: 11 Res. F. A. Rgt.
         11 Res. F. A. Rgt. (9 Btries.). 1 Abt. 5 Res. Ft. A. Rgt.
          748 Light Am. Col.
          1242 Light Am. Col.
          1296 Light Am. Col.
Engineers and Liaisons. 4 Field Co. 2 Pion. Btn. No. 6. 4 Field Co. 2 Pion. Btn. No. 6. 4 Field Co. 2 Pion. Btn. No. 6. (311) Pion. Btn.: 311 Pion Btn.
    11 Res. Pont. Engs. 211 T. M. Co.  4 Co. 6 Pions. 4 Co. 6 Pions.
    11 Res. Tel. Detch. 11 Res. Pont. Engs.  2 Res. Co. 25 Pion. Btn. 2 Res. Co. 25 Pions.
      11 Res. Tel. Detch.  211 T. M. Co. 211 T. M. Co.
         4 Heavy Field Searchlight Section. 39 Searchlight Section.
         411 Tel. Detch. 411 Signal Command:
          117 Wireless Detch.
          411 Tel. Detch.
Medical and Veterinary.       506 Ambulance Co. 506 Ambulance Co.
        29 Res. Field Hospital. 29 Res. Field Hospital.
        32 Res. Field Hospital. 32 Res. Field Hospital.
        411 Vet. Hospital. 411 Vet. Hospital.
Transports.       M. T. Col.  
Attached.     95 Anti-Aircraft Section.    
202

HISTORY.

(Sixth District-Silesia.).

1914.

France.

1. This division, with the 12th Reserve Division, formed the 6th Reserve Corps.

Lorraine-Meuse.

2. At the beginning of the war it belonged to the 5th Army (Prussian Crown Prince). Fought at Arrancy from August 22 to 25; crossed the Meuse the 21st of September. Fought in the region of Cierges September 2; advanced nearly to Triaucourt September 9 and retreated through the east of the Argonne near Montfaucon September 11 to 17.

3. At the end of September it established itself at the eastern edge of the Argonne (Varennes-Malancourt wood). It occupied this region until the Verdun offensive in February, 1916.

1915.

1. January to December, 1915, the division held the sector of Malancourt wood, south of Montfaucon, in Argonne. In April the 11th Reserve Infantry was transferred to form the 117th Division.

1916.

Verdun.

1. In February, 1916, when the battle of Verdun commenced, the division was still in its sector on the left bank of the Meuse.

2. In March it fought near Bethencourt. It took this village April 9. Relieved about May 15 after suffering very heavy losses (68 per cent of its infantry).

3. Sent to rest and reorganized with replacements from the 1916 class.

Somme.

4. It was at first army reserve in the region of Cambrai at the beginning of June. Then a hurry call was sent for the division June 27 and it went into the battle of the Somme.

5. July 2 to 3 it relieved some units of the 12th Division and 10th Bavarian Division on the front Hardecourt to the Somme and suffered enormous losses from July 2 to 9.

6. Received replacements July 10 and suffered again heavily between the 10th and 20th in the same region. It was withdrawn from the Somme front about July 24.

Flanders.

7. Reconstituted again with replacements from the depots of the 12th Army Corps and sent at the end of July and beginning of August to the east of Armentieres, south of the Lys, and held this sector until September 20 to 27.

Somme.

8. At the end of September the division returned to the Somme, between the Somme and Barleux. It opposed the attack of the French October 18 to 19 in the sector of Biaches.

9. The division was relieved from the Somme area at the beginning of November.

Artois.

10. Sent to Artois and went into line at the beginning of December in the sector of Lens, between Loos and Lievin.

1917.

1. About March 24 to 25, 1917, the division was withdrawn from the Artois front.

2. In line for six weeks between Cambrai and St. Quentin, in the sector Bellicourt-Bellenglise, from the end of March to May 10. Returned about May 14 to 15 to the region of Lens, where it stayed until August 20. (Attack of the Canadians on its right flank Aug. 15.)

203
Artois-Flanders.

3. At rest in the vicinity of St. Amand (Artois) at the end of August and beginning of September. Held the front south of Lens (sector Frenoy-Acheville) September 9. In November it was sent to Flanders near Passchendaele, where it alternated with the 12th Reserve Division until January, 1918. At rest from the middle of January and went back into line February 24 south of the forest of Houthulst.

RECRUITING.

Silesia. Drafts from other districts—for example, the fourth—to counterbalance the Polish element.

VALUE—1917 ESTIMATE.

At the present time (February, 1918) it is difficult to form a precise opinion of the fighting qualities of this division, as it has not been seriously engaged since the battle of the Somme. In the sector of Lens and Frenoy the heavy losses which it suffered from gas have no doubt caused a certain weakening of the morale. (One company of the 156th Infantry was reduced to 24 men.)

In Flanders the division held a difficult sector, but arrived at a time when active operations were coming to an end. The nature of the ground has been the main cause of its losses. (Information from the British, Feb. 9, 1918.)

1918.

Passchendaele.

1. The division remained in line south of Passchendaele until January 16, when it was relieved by the 31st Division. It then moved to the Oostroosebeke area, where it underwent a course of training in open warfare.

Ypres.

2. February 24 the division relieved the 199th Division astride the Ypres-Staden railway (northeast of Ypres).

Armentieres.

3. It was relieved about the 18th of March by the extension of front of the neighboring divisions, and one regiment was identified by prisoners as having reenforced the front south of Villers-Carbonnel (southwest of Peronne). This regiment was relieved March 26 and went to join the remainder of the division which was resting in the Turcoing area. April 9 the division reenforced the front in the Croix du Bac sector (north of the La Bassee Canal). It was withdrawn about the 16th, after losing heavily, and went to rest in the vicinity of Laventie.

4. April 28 it relieved the 81st Reserve Division southwest of Meteren. It was withdrawn about the 6th of May, going to be reconstituted in the area southeast of Bailleul.

5. It relieved the 12th Division southwest of Meteren during the night of May 18–19, remaining in line until June 7, when it was withdrawn to rest in the Courtrai area.

6. During the night of June 22–23 the division relieved the 216th Division in the Locre sector (west of Kemmel). Here it fought until a day or two before the armistice, when it seems to have been withdrawn.

VALUE—1918 ESTIMATE.

The 11th Reserve is rated as a second-class division. It has fought a great deal during 1918, especially since June, and has lost heavily. Its record has not been brilliant.

204

11th Landwehr Division.

COMPOSITION.

1915 1916 1917 1918
Brigade. Regiment. Brigade. Regiment. Brigade. Regiment. Brigade. Regiment.
Infantry. 33 Ldw. 75 Ldw. 33 Ldw. 75 Ldw. 33 Ldw. 18 Ldw. 70 Ldw. 18 Ldw.
    76 Ldw.   76 Ldw.   75 Ldw.   75 Ldw.
  70 Mixed Ldw. 5 Ldw. 70 Mixed Ldw. 5 Ldw.   76 Ldw.   424.
    18 Ldw.   18 Ldw.        
Cavalry. 92 Ldw. Cav. Rgt. 92 Ldw. Cav. Rgt. 1 Sqn. 11 Dragoon Rgt. (?). 1 Sqn. 11 Drag. Rgt.
Artillery. 98 F. A. Rgt. 98 F. A. Rgt. 131 Art. Command: 98 F. A. Rgt.
    910 Btry. F. A.  98 F. A. Rgt. 1018 Light Am. Col.
       910 Btry. F. A.  
Engineers and Liaisons.   1 and 2 Ldw. Pion. Cos. (3 C. Dist.). (411) Pion. Btn.: 4 Landst. Co. 3 C. Dist. Pions.
    311 T. M. Co.  1 Co. 1 Pions. 359 Searchlight Section.
       1 Ldw. Co. 3 Pions. 79 Searchlight Section.
       311 T. M. Co. 511 Signal Command:
       353 Searchlight Section.  511 Tel. Detch.
       272 Searchlight Section.  
       511 Tel. Detch.  
Medical and Veterinary.     217 Sanitary Co. 217 Ambulance Co.
      10 Ldw. Field Hospital. 105 Field Hospital.
      17 Ldw. Field Hospital. 150 Field Hospital.
        211 Vet. Hospital.
Odd Units.   11 Ldw. Div. Cyclist Co. 11 Ldw. Div. Cyclist Co.  
Attached.     70 Ldw. Brig.:  
       (424 Inf. & Consbruch Rgts. “1 and 2 Allenstein.”)  
       (20 C. Dist. 1 and 2 Btns. Landst.).  
       1 Lotzen Landst. Btn. (20 C. Dist. Btn. No. 4).  
       Neustadt Landst. Btn. (17 C. Dist. Landst. Btn. No. 9).  
205

HISTORY.

(18th Landwehr: Twentieth District—Eastern part of West Prussia. 75th Landwehr and 76th Landwehr: Ninth District—Schleswig—Holstein and Mecklemburg.)

1914.

East Prussia-Poland.

1. This division is the former Von Einem Division, which, with the Jacobi Division (former 10th Landwehr Division), formed the 1st Landwehr Corps on the Eastern Front in 1914–15. It took part in the battle of Tannenberg in August and fought near Lyck in October, 1914.

2. From November to December the 1st Landwehr Corps held the defiles of the Masurian Lakes, the 33d and 70th Landwehr Brigades being in the region of Angerburg and Loetzen.

1915.

1. In February, 1915, the 1st Landwehr Corps was identified between Mariampol and Suwalki.

2. From March to August the Von Einem Division, which became the 11th Landwehr Division, was in line before the fortress of Ossowiec.

Vichnev.

3. The offensive against the Russians brought it to the railroad Molodetchno-Lida, near Vichnev, in September. It established its positions there and remained more than two years, from September, 1915, to the beginning of 1918.

1916.

1. Vichnev-Krevo sector.

2. Toward the end of 1916 the 424th Infantry was assigned to the 11th Landwehr Division, which had given its 5th Landwehr to the 218th Division in October.

1917.

1. Vichnev-Krevo sector.

VALUE—1917 ESTIMATE.

On the Russian front since the beginning of the war. Mediocre quality.

1918.

Ukraine.

1. The 11th Landwehr Division, which was still in line south of Krevo in January, 1918, marched to the east in February. On April 30 it was identified in the Ukraine between Kiev and Koursk. About the middle of May it was in the Soumy region. A man of the 75th Landwehr Regiment wrote on the 16th of June: “I am still at Kiev, but I tell you one thing, it is much worse here than in the trenches, for there one has the enemy in front, while here it is just the opposite. The people are so badly disposed toward us they would eat us alive if they were able, but they can not.”

Russia.

2. The middle of July the division was identified south of Moscow. During all this time men were taken from the division and sent as replacements to the Western Front.

3. Early in November elements of the division were identified along the Danube.

VALUE—1918 ESTIMATE.

The division was rated as fourth class.

206

11th Bavarian Division.

COMPOSITION.

1915 1916 1917 1918
Brigade. Regiment. Brigade. Regiment. Brigade. Regiment. Brigade. Regiment.
Infantry. 21 Bav. 3 Bav. 21 Bav. 3 Bav. 21 Bav. 3 Bav. 21 Bav. 16 Bav.
    22 Bav.   22 Bav.   22 Bav.   3 Bav.
    13 Bav. Res.   13 Bav. Res.   13 Bav. Res.   22 Bav.
Cavalry.   4 Sqn. 7 Bav. Light Cav. Rgt. 1 Sqn. 7 Bav. Light Cav. Rgt. 2 Sqn. 7 Light Cav. Rgt. (Bavarian).
      2 Sqn. 7 Bav. Light Cav. Rgt.  
Artillery. 21 Bav. F. A. Rgt. 21 Bav. F. A. Rgt. 11 Bav. Art. Command: 11 Bav. Art. Command:
       21 Bav. F. A. Rgt.  21 Bav. F. A. Rgt.
         11 Bav. Ft. A. Btn.
         124 Bav. Light Am. Col.
         125 Bav. Light Am. Col.
         129 Bav. Light Am. Col.
Engineers and Liaisons. 19 Bav. Pion. Co. 19 Bav. Pion. Co. (11 Bav.) Pion. Btn.: 11 Bav. Pion. Btn.:
  21 Bav. Pion. Co. 21 Bav. Pion. Co.  19 Bav. Pion. Co.  19 Bav. Pion. Co.
    11 Bav. T. M. Co.  21 Bav. Pion. Co.  21 Bav. Pion. Co.
    11 Bav. Pont. Engs.  11 Bav. T. M. Co.  11 Bav. T. M. Co.
    11 Bav. Tel. Detch.  11 Bav. Tel. Detch. 11 Bav. Searchlight Section.
        11 Bav. Signal Command:
         11 Bav. Tel. Detch.
         179 Bav. Wireless Detch.
Medical and Veterinary.     11 Bav. Ambulance Co. 11 Bav. Ambulance Co.
      35 Field Hospital. 35 Bav. Field Hospital.
      37 Field Hospital. 37 Bav. Field Hospital.
      11 Vet. Hospital.  
Transports.     M. T. Col. 691 M. T. Col.
      691 Divisional M. T. Col.  
Odd Units.   11 Bav. Cyclist Co. 11 Bav. Cyclist Co.  
Attached.     M. G. S. S. Detch. No. 47.  
      308 Supply Train.  
      1107 Wireless Detch.  
      286 and 287 Field Signal Sections Pigeon Loft.  
      2 Co. 29 Pions.  
      3 Co. 29 Pions.  
      1 Co. 7 Pions.  
      Pfungstadt Landst. Inf. Btn.  
      2 Munster Landst. Btn.  
      1 Co. 60 Labor Btn.  
      1 Co. 12 Labor Btn. (Bayr.).  
208

HISTORY.

(3d Bavarian: First Bavarian District.) (22d Bavarian: Second Bavarian District.) (13th Reserve Bavarian: Third Bavarian District.)

1915.

Organized in April, 1915, in Galicia, in the Carpathians.

Galicia.

1. This division belonged to Mackensen’s army during the offensive in Galicia and took part in the capture of Przemysl May 31, 1915.

Bug.

2. Sent north, fought at Rava Ruska, and reached the Bug in the region of Cholm-Vlodava. Withdrew from the front at the end of August.

Serbia.

3. In September and October the division took part in the campaign against Serbia with Mackensen’s army. Crossed the Danube October 8 to 11; Valley of the Morawa; region of Monastir (November).

4. Left the front November 15 and went to rest in Hungary at Weisskirchen until the beginning of February, 1916.

1916.

France.

1. From February 9 to 10, 1916, the division entrained for the Western Front. Itinerary: Temesvar-Szegedin-Baja-Marburg-Graz-Salzburg-Munich-Ingolstadt-Wurzburg-Frankfort on Main-Coblentz-Cologne-Liège-Malines. Detrained at Antwerp February 15.

2. At rest in the region of Antwerp until March 1, and on that date it entrained for Vouziers.

Verdun.

3. Sent to the Verdun front (sector of Avocourt wood, Mar. 8), attacked March 20 and 22 and April 11 and suffered considerable losses; 75 per cent of its infantry out of action.

4. Relieved at the beginning of June and sent to rest in the region of Thionville, then sent to Cambrai.

Russia.

5. June 14 it returned to Russia. Itinerary: Solesme Busigny-Maubeuge-Liège-Aix la Chapelle-Hanover-Brest Litovsk-Kovel.

Kovel.

6. Went into action immediately and counterattacked near the Kovel-Rovno Railroad and suffered heavy losses.

Roumania.

7. In October it took part in the Roumanian campaign (Valley of the Jiul).

1917.

France.

1. Withdrawn from the Braila front at the beginning of January, 1917, and again entrained for France on the 10th. Itinerary: Bucarest-Budapest-Vienna-Salzburg-Munich. Detrained the 22d at Barr (Alsace).

Alsace.

2. In April held the sector Burnhaupt-Rhone-Rhine canal.

Aisne.

3. Sent from Mulhouse to Marle April 26 to 28, then to the south of Laon and took over the sector of Cernay May 5 to 6, where its losses were due especially to artillery fire.

2094. At rest in the region of Laon June 6 to August 3.

5. Coucy sector August 3 to September 15. The division did not have any hard action here, but suffered again from bombardment.

6. September 15, at rest in the vicinity of Sedan for one month.

Flanders.

7. Entrained at Sedan October 15 to 17; detrained at Courtrai October 18; went into line the 22d in the sector of Passchendaele, where it suffered heavily from the British attack of the 26th. Relieved immediately after this engagement and reorganized.

8. November 2 the division went back into line south of Passchendaele, but did not have any serious actions.

9. November 10, relieved and sent to rest.

Cotes de Meuse.

10. From November 18 to January 12, 1918, the division held the sector Chauvoncourt-Seuzey north of St. Mihiel. It took part in no infantry actions.

RECRUITING.

The whole of the Bavarian country.

VALUE—1917 ESTIMATE.

This division may be considered good. It took part on the Eastern and Western Fronts in a large number of battles, “Przemysl, Verdun, Argesul, Filipesci” (speech of William II), and did well everywhere (January, 1918).

1918.

Louvre.

1. The 11th Bavarian Division remained in the Seuzey sector, resting and being reconstituted, until relieved by the 82d Reserve Division on January 12.

2. About the middle of February it relieved the 1st Division in the Etain sector. This, too, was a very quiet sector and the division was not identified by contact. It was relieved about March 27 by the 10th Landwehr Division, and remained in rear of the Verdun front for a fortnight. It is probable that it was trained during this period, but the fact has never been definitely established.

Armentieres.

3. The division was then sent to the Armentieres front, where it relieved the 214th Division in the Neuve Eglise sector (northwest of Armentieres) April 13–14. Here it took part in very heavy fighting, especially south of Mount Kemmel, and suffered heavy losses as a result. It was withdrawn on the 26th of April, and proceeded to the area northeast of Ghent, detraining at Wachtebeke on the 29th. Here it was brought up to strength and reviewed by the King of Bavaria on May 20.

Soissons.

4. About June 3 the division left the Ghent region; it was identified in rear of the front in the region of Soissons on June 9. A few days later it reinforced the front near Coeuvres (southwest of Soissons). It was relieved by the 14th Division on June 21.

5. After resting immediately in rear of the front, it suffered severe losses from bombardment by gas shells during this period. The division came back into line in the Courmelles sector (south of Soissons) about July 15. July 18 it lost over 2,400 in prisoners alone. It was withdrawn about July 22.

Ypres.

6. The division rested for about a month. It was reconstituted, it being found necessary to dissolve one company in each battalion. August 26 the division relieved 210the 49th Reserve Division east of Boesinghe (northwest of Ypres). It fought, taking part in the general retirement, until withdrawn October 2, after losing more than 500 prisoners.

Ghent.

7. The division reinforced the front near Beveren (southwest of Ghent), and had not been withdrawn up to the time the armistice was signed.

VALUE—1918 ESTIMATE.

The 11th Bavarian is rated as being in the first of four classes of divisions. It fought well during 1918, but not brilliantly. Its losses were heavy, but not in comparison with other German divisions.

211

12th Division.

COMPOSITION.

1914 1915 1916 1917 1918
Brigade. Regiment. Brigade. Regiment. Brigade. Regiment. Brigade. Regiment. Brigade. Regiment.
Infantry. 34. 23. 24. 23. 24. 23. 24. 23. 24. 23.
    62.   62.   62.   62.   62.
  78. 63. 78. 63.   63.   63.   63.
    157.   157.            
Cavalry. 11 Horse Jag. Rgt.   6 Sqn. 10 Hus. Rgt. 4 Sqn. 2 Uhlan Rgt. 4 Sqn. 2 Uhlan Rgt.
Artillery. 12 Brig.: 12 Brig.: 12 Brig.: 12 Art. Command: 12 Art. Command:
   21 F. A. Rgt.  21 F. A. Rgt.  21 F. A. Rgt.  21 F. A. Rgt.  21 F. A. Rgt.
   57 F. A. Rgt.  57 F. A. Rgt.  57 F. A. Rgt.    68 Ft. A. Btn.
           851 Light Am. Col.
           887 Light Am. Col.
           937 Light Am. Col.
Engineers and Liaisons.   1 Pion. Btn. No. 6: 1 Pion. Btn. No. 6: 1 Pion. Btn. No. 6: 6 Pion. Btn.
     Field Co. 6 Pions.  2 Co. 6 Pions.  2 Co. 6 Pions. 2 Co. 6 Pions.
     12 Pont. Engs.  3 Co. 6 Pions.  3 Co. 6 Pions. 3 Co. 6 Pions.
     12 Tel. Detch.  12 T. M. Co.  12 T. M. Co. 12 T. M. Co.
       12 Pont. Engs.  6 Searchlight Section. 100 Searchlight Section.
       12 Tel. Detch.  10 Tel. Detch. 12 Signal Command:
         116, 117, and 118 Signal Detch.  12 Tel. Detch.
           182 Wireless Detch.
Medical and Veterinary.       15 Ambulance Co. 15 Ambulance Co.
        51 Field Hospital. 57 Field Hospital.
        57 Field Hospital. 60 Field Hospital.
        Vet. Hospital. 12 Vet. Hospital.
Transports.       27 Supply Train. 545 M. T. Col.
        M. T. Col.  
Attached.     17 Antiaircraft section. 17 Antiaircraft section.  
212

HISTORY.

(6th Corps District—Upper Silesia.)

1914.

France.

1. The 12th Division, forming with the 11th Division the 6th Army Corps (Breslau), formed a part of the 5th Army (German Crown Prince) at the beginning of the war, took part in the battle of August 22 at Rossignol les Bulles, entered France August 24, passed the Meuse above Mouzon on August 28, and took part in the battle on September 7 at Laheycourt and Villotte near Louppy.

Champagne.

2. After the battle of the Marne it was engaged (Sept. 21) at Berru and at Nogent l’Abbesse (east of Rheims). It remained on the Rheims front until the middle of June, 1915.

1915.

Artois.

1. In April the 12th Division gave the 157th Infantry Regiment to the 117th Division, a new formation.

2. Toward the middle of June, 1915, the 6th Army Corps was relieved on the Rheims front and transferred to Artois. The 12th Division then occupied a sector to the south of Souchez, from which it was relieved toward the end of September. In the Souchez sector it took part in some very heavy engagements (1st to the 16th of July).

3. After a rather short rest period in the region of Cambrai, the division took its position in the sector which crosses the Somme (during the first half of October).

1916.

Somme.

1. On the 1st of July, 1916, the 12th Division received the entire weight of the English attack north of the Somme (sectors Contalmaison-Hardecourt) and suffered very heavily (losses 61.5 per cent).

2. It was relieved on July 12 and reorganized in the vicinity of Cambrai.

3. About the 20th of July the 12th Division again took part in the battle of the Somme (in the sector northeast of Pozières), where it suffered heavy losses.

4. About the 9th of August it was relieved, and on the 21st went into the calm sector of Monchy aux Bois (south of Arras), which it held until October 16.

Ancre.

5. The 12th Division then held (Oct. 25 to Nov. 19) the sector north of the Ancre (Beaumont-Hamel) and suffered heavy losses (Nov. 14).

6. It was transferred to Champagne and took over the sector of Prunay on December 12.

Russia.

7. At the end of December it was relieved from this quiet sector and entrained on December 28, at Warmeriville for the Russian front by the route Aix la Chapelle-Cologne-Hanover-Luneburg-Hamburg-Stettin-Königsberg-Tilsit-Chavli-Ponieviej. It detrained southwest of Illuxt on January 2, 1917.

1917.

1. On the Russian front the 12th Division did not take part in any important battles. (Sector in the region of Dwinsk.)

France.

2. Relieved about the end of May, 1917, it returned to the Western Front. Itinerary Jelowka (May 27) -Insterburg-Posen-Leipzig-Weimar-Cologne-Saarbrucken. Detrained at Metz June 3 and reentrained on the 9th at Ars sur Moselle for Mouscron, by way of Metz-Luxemburg-Namur-Tournai, and detrained at Gheluwe.

2133. It remained in reserve first on the Wytschaete-Messines front, and then (Aug. 1) relieved the 22d Reserve Division in the sector east of Klein-Zillebeke after the Franco-British attack. In this sector the division did not engage in battle but suffered greatly from artillery bombardments.

Italy.

4. It was relieved on August 20 and transferred to Alsace for reorganization and rest. It remained in the region west of Bale until the end of September. It was then sent to the Italian front, to the 14th German Army, where it was engaged in the Tolmino sector on October 25, and relieved on the Piave about the 8th of December.

France.

5. The 12th Division was brought back from Italy to the French front about December 25. At the beginning of January, 1918, it was in the neighborhood of Zabern.

RECRUITING.

The 12th Division is recruited from Upper Silesia, a great mining and industrial center, which suffices to insure its own full recruiting and even helps out other districts less populated or temporarily below strength. The sending of these men outside of the district has the advantage of reducing, in its own regiments, the Polish element, which dominates in Upper Silesia.

VALUE—1917 ESTIMATE.

The 12th Division fought well at the Somme.

It appears to have been reorganized during its stay at Zabern (January, 1918). It has always been considered a good division.

1918.

Lorraine.

1. On January 24 the 12th division entered the Domevre sector, relieving the 233d Division. It was relieved on February 20 and went to rest and train in Alsace. On March 18 it entrained at Froeschweiler and moved to Ath, from where it marched to the Gory-Belloune area, south of Douai (a march of 40 miles).

Battle of Picardy.

2. On the 23d the division moved to Drury and up the Cambrai-Arras road to Vis en Artois, coming into line on the night of March 23–24. It attacked on the 24th, but was held up by the British artillery fire. It remained in line until April 1, making little progress in spite of heavy and costly fighting.

Battle of the Lys.

3. The division rested in the suburbs of Douai until mid-April. It was engaged northeast of Merris on the 17th. It appears to have received replacements in the interim. The division passed into the second line on May 18, after suffering especially heavy losses. In recognition of the service of the 12th Division, south of Arras and in the Lys battle, Gen. Lequis, the division commander, received the Order of Merit in May.

4. The division was at rest near Renaix (Belgium) from May 29 to July 12. It entrained at Audenarde on the 12th and moved to Perenchies (via Coutrai and Lille).

Meteren.

5. The division was engaged south of Meteren on the night of July 19–20; here it remained until August 28. In a local operation on August 18 the division lost 300 prisoners, otherwise the sector was quiet.

214
Battle of Cambrai.

6. It entrained near Armentieres on August 28 and went to a point north of Douai (Le Forest). It was engaged southeast of Morchies on September 3, and in the days following was driven back on Inchy en Artois, Marquion (3d to 13th). By the end of September it had passed Bourlon, Epinoy, Aubencheul au Bac, and Fressies. The division was relieved about October 6. The division lost more than 1,100 prisoners.

7. It was reengaged on October 11 southeast of Armentieres. It retreated by Lille (Oct. 20) east of Tourcoing, and at Helchin. On the 25th it was relieved.

8. On November 3 it was again in line east of Joulain and remained until the armistice. In withdrawing the division passed Maresches, Jenlain, Autreppe, and Blangies.

VALUE—1918 ESTIMATE.

The division was rated as a second-class division. It was actively engaged in the spring offensives and did well. After the middle of July it was almost constantly engaged in hard defensive fighting.

215

12th Reserve Division.

COMPOSITION.

1914 1915 1916 1917 1918
Brigade. Regiment. Brigade. Regiment. Brigade. Regiment. Brigade. Regiment. Brigade. Regiment.
Infantry. 22 Res. 38 Res. 22 Res. 38 Res. 22 Res. 23 Res. 22 Res. 23 Res. 22 Res. 23 Res.
    51 Res.   51 Res.   38 Res.   38 Res.   38 Res.
  23 Res. 22 Res. 23 Res. 22 Res.   51 Res.   51 Res.   51 Res.
    23 Res.   23 Res. 6 Res. Jag. Btn.        
  6 Res. Jag. Btn. 6 Res. Jag. Btn.            
Cavalry. 4 Res. Uhlan Rgt. (3 Sqns.). 4 Res. Uhlan Rgt. 4 Res. Uhlan Rgt. (?) 2 Sqn. 4 Res. Hus. Rgt.
Artillery. 12 Res. F. A. Rgt. (6 Btries.). 12 Res. F. A. Rgt. 12 Res. F. A. Regt. (?) Art. Command: 99 Art. Command:
         12 Res. F. A. Rgt. (9 Btries.).  12 Res. F. A. Regt.
           133 Ft. A. Btn.
           830 Light Am. Col.
           1243 Light Am. Col.
           1297 Light Am. Col.
Engineers and Liaisons. 1 and 2 Res. Cos. 2 Pion. Btn. No. 6. 1 and 2 Res. Cos. 2 Pion. Btn. No. 6. 1 and 2 Res. Cos. 2 Pion. Btn. No. 6. 312 Pion Btn.: 312 Pion Btn.:
    12 Res. Pont. Engs. 212 T. M. Co.  1 Res. Co. 6 Pions.  1 Res. Co. 6 Pions.
    12 Res. Tel. Detch. 12 Res. Pont. Engs.  2 Res. Co. 6 Pions.  2 Res. Co. 6 Pions.
      12 Res. Tel. Detch.  212 T. M. Co. (23) (?) Searchlight Section.  212 T. M. Co.
         412 Tel. Detch.  105 Searchlight Section.
          412 Signal Command:
           412 Tel. Detch.
           114 Wireless Detch.
Medical and Veterinary.       Ambulance Co. 520 Ambulance Co.
        30 Res. Field Hospital. 30 Res. Field Hospital.
        Vet. Hospital. 31 Res. Field Hospital.
          412 Vet. Hospital.
Transports.       711 M. T. Col. 711 M. T. Col.
Attached.     7 and 132 Anti-Aircraft Sections.    
      8 Bav. Labor Btn.    
216

HISTORY.

12th Reserve Division: (6th Corps District-Silesia).

1914.

The 12th Reserve Division formed, with the 11th Reserve Division, the 6th Reserve Corps, formed in Silesia at the time of mobilization.

Meuse-Argonne.

1. At the outbreak of the war, the division detrained at Sarrebruecken; fought in the neighborhood of Arrancy from the 22d to the 25th of August; remained at Mangiennes from the 27th to the 30th; crossed the Meuse on September 1; was beaten back with heavy losses on September 2 near Cierges; was at Rarécourt on the 7th and near Triaucourt on the 9th; spread out to the east of the Argonne upon Gercourt (11th to the 13th) and Montfaucon (Sept. 17).

2. At the end of September to the end of October took up its position east of Varennes in the district of Malancourt-Chattancourt and toward the end of October took its final position north of Bethencourt (southeast of Cuisy-Bois de Forges).

3. The division occupied this sector until the German offensive upon Verdun (end of February, 1916).

1915.

1. January to December, 1915, sector north of Bethencourt-Bois de Forges.

In April the 27th Infantry Regiment Reserve was transferred to the 117th Division, a new formation.

2. In September, 1915, elements of the 12th Reserve Division (battalion of the 23d Reserve Infantry Regiment) were detached in Champagne (Main de Massiges) to reinforce divisions engaged in fighting.

1916.

1. At the end of February, when the Verdun offensive began, the 12th Reserve Division still held the line in the region of Bois de Forges.

Verdun.

2. On the 6th of March, 1916, the division went into action; it took the village of Forges and, on March 10, the Corbeaux wood. It vainly attacked the Mort Homme.

3. It was withdrawn from the Verdun front in the middle of May, after suffering heavy losses (71 per cent of its infantry). It was first at rest in the Thionville region, and then in reserve in the Cambrai region, at the beginning of June.

Somme.

4. On July 2 it took part in the battle of the Somme (sector of Montauban-Hardecourt). It counterattacked near the Trônes wood and suffered very heavy losses. It was relieved about July 14, completely exhausted. (On the 10th of July not a single officer remained in the 2d Battalion of the 38th Reserve Infantry Regiment (letter). From the 17th of March to the 5th of July the 5th Company of the 23d Reserve Infantry Regiment received no less than 326 men as replacements).

5. On July 15 it was sent to rest in the Manancourt region. Elements of the division still remained in line, along the Somme near Guillemont, until August 1.

Flanders.

6. From the beginning of August until September 26–27, the 12th Reserve Division occupied a sector north of the Lys, near Armentières (Warneton-Messines), where it once more suffered losses.

Somme.

7. At the end of September the division was once more on the Somme front (Barleux-Berny). It remained there until the beginning of November without suffering any great losses.

217
Artois.

8. Transferred to Artois, it went into line on Vimy Ridge (sector Vimy-Roclincourt) at the beginning of December. It suffered fairly heavy losses. At the present time, 17 per cent of the prisoners from the 51st Reserve Infantry Regiment belong to the 1917 class.

1917.

1. The 12th Reserve Division remained on the Vimy front until February 27, 1917.

2. It was resting in the Avesnes region during the month of March.

3. From April 9–12 to May 24 it held the lines between Itancourt and the Oise.

St. Quentin.

4. After a fortnight’s rest in the Guise region, it occupied (from the beginning of June to Aug. 6–8), the St. Quentin sector (south of Fayet).

Flanders.

5. On August 7 the division entrained for Flanders, at Fresnoy le Grand. Disembarking near Courtrai, it was first in reserve near Passchendaele. A few of the elements of the division engaged in battle at Langemarck on the 17th of August. It was in line in the St. Julien sector (northeast of Ypres) on August 20, and relieved on August 24, after suffering heavy losses.

St. Quentin.

6. In rest at Origny, from August 29 to September 9, the division then occupied the sector southwest of St. Quentin (Sept. 9 to Nov. 11–12).

It left at this latter date to occupy the front south of Passchendaele until the middle of February, 1918, being relieved several times in the interval.

RECRUITING.

Silesia, especially Upper Silesia. In 1916, following the losses suffered at Verdun, a great number of the replacement troops consisted of men from the 3d and 4th Corps Districts (Brandenburg and Prussian Saxony) and of the 1916 class, and of returned convalescents of the 9th and 10th Corps Districts (Schleswig-Holstein and Hanover). This measure was not only dictated by necessity, but contributed to counterbalance the original Polish element.

VALUE—1917 ESTIMATE.

At Ypres (August, 1917), a certain number of men of the 51st Reserve Infantry Regiment refused to go into the trenches; according to prisoners, desertions to the rear were frequent, especially among the younger men.

The combat morale of the 12th Reserve Division may, however, have been restored during its long stay in the relatively quiet sector of St. Quentin (September to November, 1917).

1918.

Flanders.

1. On February 4 the division relieved the 12th Reserve Division in the Moorslede sector which it held until February 14.

Lens.

2. It was relieved by the 31st Division and moved south to relieve the 17th Division on night of February 17–18. It held this front until about April 10, when it was relieved by the 9th Reserve Division.

Battle of the Lys.

3. The division reinforced the battle front at Neuve Eglise on April 13 and fought until about April 25, suffering heavy losses. One company of the 51st Reserve Regiment was reduced to 9 men.

2184. Upon relief, the division returned to its former sector near Lens, where it was identified near Avion on April 27. It remained here until June 14, when it moved north and entered the line northeast of Hinges on June 17–18. About August 6, the division was relieved by the 1st Guard Reserve Division.

Arras.

5. It moved to Douai and rested until its return to line near Ecoust on night of August 30–31 to resist the British attack. Before its withdrawal on the 11th it had lost nearly 900 prisoners.

Lens.

6. The division rested at Cambrai during September and reentered the Lens sector on October 2. During October it was engaged at Noyelles (11th), Wattines (19th), and Rumignies (21st). It appears to have been out of line for a few days, returning on the night of November 3–4 west of Orsinval. It was at Wargnies le Petit (5th), St. Waast la Vallee (6th), Bavai (7th), northeast of Taisnieres (9th), and Villers St. Guislain (11th).

VALUE—1918 ESTIMATE.

The division was rated as second class. It appears to have been used principally as a sector-holding division on moderately active fronts.

219

12th Landwehr Division.

COMPOSITION.

1915 1916 1917 1918
Brigade. Regiment. Brigade. Regiment. Brigade. Regiment. Brigade. Regiment.
Infantry. 55 Ldw. 87 Ldw. (1 and 4 Btns. 87 Ldw. and 5 Btn. 76 Ldw. Rgt.). 55 Ldw. 87 Ldw. 55 Ldw. 56 Ldw. 87 Ldw.  
    99 Ldw. (4 Btn.).   99 Ldw. (4th Btn.).   87 Ldw.    
  82 Ldw. 40 Ldw. 82 Ldw. 40 Ldw.   435 Ldw. (include 4th Btn. 99 Ldw. Rgt.).    
    56 Ldw.   56 Ldw.        
  Gd. Jag. Btn. Gd. Jag. Btn.        
  Gd. Rifle Btn. Gd. Rifle Btn.        
  14 Jag. Btn. 9 Jag. Btn.        
Cavalry.     2 Sqn. 7 Res. Dragoon Rgt. 1 Sqn. 9 Res. Hus. Rgt.
Artillery. 1 Ers. Abt. 14 F. A. Rgt. 30 Res. F. A. Rgt. Art. Command: 252 Ldw. F. A. Rgt.
  1 Ers. Abt. 30 F. A. Rgt. 1 Mountain A. Btry.  12 Ldw. F. A. Rgt. 2 Bav. Ldw. Ft. A. Btn. (2d Btry.).
    9 Mountain A. Btry.    
    11 Mountain A. Btry.    
    18 Mountain A. Btry.    
Engineers and Liaisons.   (?) 2 Ldw. Pion. Co. (14 C. Dist.). 412 Pion. Btn.: 415 Pion. Btn.:
    312 T. M. Co.  1 Ldw. Co. 4 Pions.  1 Ldw. Co. 4 C. Dist. Pions.
       2 Ldw. Co. 14 Pions.  Landst. Ers. Co. 8 C. Dist. Pions.
       2 Ldw. Co. 16 Pions.  75 Searchlight Section.
       312 T. M. Co. 478 Signal Command:
       268 Searchlight Section.  478 Tel. Detch.
       512 Tel. Detch.  140 Wireless Detch.
Medical and Veterinary.