The Project Gutenberg eBook of Queensland, the Rich but Sparsely Peopled Country, a Paradise for Willing Workers

This ebook is for the use of anyone anywhere in the United States and most other parts of the world at no cost and with almost no restrictions whatsoever. You may copy it, give it away or re-use it under the terms of the Project Gutenberg License included with this ebook or online at If you are not located in the United States, you will have to check the laws of the country where you are located before using this eBook.

Title: Queensland, the Rich but Sparsely Peopled Country, a Paradise for Willing Workers

Author: Queensland Government Intelligence and Tourist Bureau

Release date: July 21, 2018 [eBook #57563]

Language: English

Credits: Produced by ellinora, Robert Tonsing and the Online
Distributed Proofreading Team at (This
file was produced from images generously made available
by The Internet Archive)


Sixth Edition
Terse  ——

The Queen State
of the
Area, 429,120,000 acres
Intelligence and Tourist Bureau
Corner of Queen and George streets, Brisbane
The Rich
but Sparsely


Agricultural Labourers

Men accustomed to Live Stock


Domestic Servants

Men, with small capital, accustomed to outdoor life

Men, without capital, not afraid of hard work

Young men, without experience, who are willing to take employment whilst they learn the methods of work in Queensland

Any steady energetic individual from the above classes should have no difficulty in earning a good livelihood and in making a comfortable home in Queensland

Intelligence and Tourist Bureau
Corner of Queen and George Streets, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia


The Rich but Sparsely Peopled Country


Ordinary Farm Labourers.

20s. to 27s. 6d. per week with board and lodging.


20s. to 30s. per week with board and lodging.

Harvest Hands (Wheat).

5s. to 7s. per day with board and lodging.

Ordinary General Labourers.

7s. to 8s. 6d. per day.


8s. to 10s. per day.

Dairy Hands—Men.

20s. to 25s. per week with board and lodging.

Dairy Hands—Boys.

10s. to 20s. per week with board and lodging.


11s. to 12s. per day of eight hours, or 5s. to 7s. 6d. per ton.

Cane Farm Chippers.

37s. to 39s. per week with board and lodging, or 8s. 8d. to 9s. 2d. per day of eight hours without board and lodging.

Boiler Attendants and Engine-drivers.

8s. to 12s. per day.


Fitters and Engineers.

11s. to 14s. per day.

Carpenters and Joiners.

12s. to 14s. per day.


11s. to 13s. 4d. per day.


13s. to 14s. per day.


9s. 4d. to 13s. per day.

Blacksmiths (General).

9s. 4d. to 15s. per day.

Blacksmiths (Engineering).

11s. to 12s. 6d. per day.


11s. to 13s. per day.


9s. to 11s. per day.


20s. to 35s. per week with board and lodging, 6s. to 8s. per day.

Sawmill Hands.

8s. to 12s. 4d. per day.

Married Couples.

(Man, farm; Wife, cook) £80 to £120 per annum with board and lodging. On sheep and cattle stations married couples are provided with a furnished cottage, rations, and other perquisites to the value of about £3 per week in addition to their wages.


Stockmen and Boundary Riders.

From 20s. to 35s. per week and found. Where married men are employed on sheep and cattle stations, they are allowed, in addition to their wages, a furnished house, rations, and other perquisites to the value of about £3 per week. Single men similarly employed get, besides their wages, board and lodging and other perquisites equivalent to what it would cost them for board and lodging in the township.

Useful Lads.

10s. to 15s. per week with board and lodging.


15s. to 30s. per week with board and lodging.

Female Domestics.

10s. to 30s. per week with board and lodging.

Cooks (Male and Female).

20s. to 40s. per week with board and lodging.


6s. to 8s. per day and one meal.


Where is Queensland?

The State of Queensland is situated in the northeast of the island-continent of Australia, between latitude 29 deg. and 10 deg. south; longitude 153-1/2 and 138 deg. east.

What is Queensland?

The richest State of the Commonwealth of Australia, with an area of 429,120,000 acres, over 3,000 miles of coast line, and the healthiest climate in the world.


How to get to Queensland.

By any of the great steamship companies’ boats that call at Brisbane (the capital), or by any vessel sailing for Australian ports.

Where to get Particulars re Passages.

At the Queensland Agent-General’s Office, Marble Hall, 409 and 410 Strand, London, W.C., and Immigration Depôt, Kangaroo Point, Brisbane.

Free Passages.

These are granted from the United Kingdom to any port of Queensland to agricultural labourers introduced under contract.

Conditions of Free Passages.

The employer must pay a fee of £7 for each labourer introduced, provide him with suitable accommodation, and guarantee him a year’s work at wages approved by the Government.

Approved Immigrants.

Approved immigrants can obtain a passage to any port in Queensland at the following rates:—Males, 12 years and upwards, £7; females, 12 years and upwards, £3; immigrants’ children (1 year and under 12 years), £1 10s. Maximum age: Males, married women, and widows, 45 years; single women, 35 years.

On What Conditions?

The sum of £1 must be deposited with the Agent-General, in addition to the prescribed fees. This sum is refunded to the immigrant on arrival. In the case of families applying for passages as assisted immigrants, one deposit only covers the whole family.

Nominated Immigrants.

Residents of Queensland with a qualification of at least six months’ permanent residence therein can obtain passages for their friends and relatives in Great Britain and Europe only at the rates already stated.


Assisted Passages.

Approved females (between the ages of 18 and 35 years), prepared to accept domestic service for twelve months, may obtain passages to Queensland on payment of £1 before sailing, the balance of the fare (£2) to be paid by monthly instalments within six months after their arrival in Queensland. Passages may also be granted to farm lads (between 16 and 20 years of age) on payment of £1 before sailing, the balance of the passage money (£6) to be paid by monthly instalments within six months after their arrival in Queensland. Employment is guaranteed in every case, and the lads must consent to work on a farm for, at least, twelve months.

What Queensland Offers.

An easy living to any industrious man or woman in the healthiest climate in the world.

What Queensland Wants.

Thousands of able-bodied men and women to fill up her empty spaces and develop her resources.


Agricultural labourers and domestic servants are in great demand at good rates of wages. (See wages list at pages 3 to 5.)

Where to get Information in England.

At the office of the Agent-General, Marble Hall, 409 and 410 Strand, London, W.C.

What Population could Queensland Carry?

Queensland could easily carry a population of 50,000,000. At present she has only about 680,000 people.

Where to get Advice about Work on Arrival.

At the Government Labour Bureau, Edward street, Brisbane, or any of its branches throughout the State.


Where to get Information of Lands Available.

At the Land Settlement Inquiry Office, Lands Department, Executive Buildings, George street, Brisbane, or any local Government Land Agent throughout the State.

Where to get Information re Crops, Soils, etc.

At the Agricultural Department, William street, Brisbane.

Where to get Information about any Part of the Country, Travelling, and Rate of Living.

At the Government Intelligence and Tourist Bureau, corner of Queen and George streets, Brisbane.

Tourist Trips.

All information re tourists’ trips—especially the Great Northern coastal trip and magnificent scenery—can be obtained at the Government Intelligence and Tourist Bureau.

What can Queensland Produce?

With her immense area and variety of soils and climates Queensland can produce every crop that is found in the markets of the world, from barley to cocoa. Her mineral wealth is very great and scarcely tapped.


Sugar-cane, wheat, oats, barley, rye, maize, lucerne, rape, cotton, tobacco (cigar and pipe), coffee, potatoes, fibres, rubber, ramie, pumpkins, sisal hemp, mangolds, sorghums, millet, rice, turnips, cowpea, canary seed, cassava, peanuts, arrowroot, and others.



Grapes, pineapples, bananas, oranges, lemons, mangoes, apples, pears, peaches, plums, apricots, cherries, figs, nectarines, quinces, strawberries, persimmons, passion fruit, almonds, blackberries, rosellas, custard apples, papaws, cocoanuts, Cape gooseberries, melons, guavas, loquats, and others.


Cabbages, cauliflowers, cucumbers, tomatoes, potatoes (English and sweet), lettuce, cress, mustard, turnips, carrots, parsnips, beetroot, asparagus, borecole, leeks, rhubarb, beans, chicory, squashes, onions, capsicums, eschalots, peas, seakale, salsify, yams, artichokes, choko, chillies, celery, and others, including herbs of all sorts.


Wool, leather, hides and skins, tallow, frozen meat, pork, sugar, molasses, malt, butter, cheese, flour, bran, pollard, cornflour, wine, condensed milk, jams and preserved fruits, manufactured timber, biscuits, confectionery, clothing of all kinds, mineral and aerated waters, &c.


Gold, silver, copper, lead, tin, iron, coal, wolfram, bitumen, antimony, manganese, bismuth, molybdenite, limestone, ironstone, scheelite, graphite, &c.


Opal, topaz, sapphires, rubies, diamonds, agates, emeralds, zircon, oriental chrysoberyl, olivines, rock crystal, tourmaline, cornelian, amethyst, spinel, pleonaste, pyrope, cairngorm, white and yellow jargoon, carbonado.

What is the Area of Queensland?

429,120,000 acres, or 670,500 square miles.


What Area is under Cultivation?

920,010 acres.

Under Crop, 1913.

   〃      Barley
   〃       Maize
English Potatoes
Sweet Potatoes

And various acreages in miscellaneous crops. Total area under crops, 747,814 acres.


Both tropical, sub-tropical, and deciduous fruits do well. Thirty years ago out of every 100 cases of oranges imported into Queensland 95 came from New South Wales. Now the citrus fruit industry has grown to such an extent that Queensland does not import 5 per cent., but has become a big exporter to Southern centres.


Pineapples grow all the year round in Queensland.

Where are Fruits Principally Grown?

Deciduous fruits principally at Stanthorpe. Bananas, oranges, mangoes, citrus fruits, tomatoes, &c., in the North. Pineapples, oranges, and citrus fruit (in large quantities), peaches, bananas, passion fruit, melons, custard apples, &c., in the South. The Blackall Range and Cleveland have also become great strawberry-producing districts.

Where are the Crops and Products Raised?

Cereals, root crops, fodder plants, tobacco, cotton, English and sub-tropical fruits in the South. Sugar-cane, bananas, coffee, tobacco, cotton, and tropical products in the North. Wool on the Darling Downs and the great grazing districts west of the Main Range.


What is the Mean Annual Rainfall?

It varies considerably. Along the Pacific slope it runs approximately from 48 inches at Brisbane to 150 inches in the Far North. West of the Great Dividing Range the rainfall diminishes from 30 inches to about 10 inches, according to the distance from the Main Range.

What is the Climate Like?

The climate of Queensland is the most perfect winter season in the world.

But is not the Heat Great in Summer?

Although there are occasional hot days, the summer season is not unpleasant. The mean summer temperatures are:—South Queensland, from 66.5 to 76.7; Central, 80.5; South-western, 80.8; North, 81.2; North-western, 84.3.

Is it Healthy?

The death-rate in Queensland in 1913 was only 10.39 per 1,000.

But does the Climate Suit English and European People?

Yes. They live to a great age in the genial atmosphere of Queensland.

What Sort of People are already Settled in Queensland?

Scotch, Irish, English, Welsh, Germans, Danes, Italians, Swedes, Russians, and other people of White nationalities. Russians, Swedes, and Danes make splendid colonists, and are warmly welcomed.

Do People Often Return after Leaving Queensland?

Yes. Men who go home with the intention of spending the rest of their lives in England are constantly returning to Queensland.

What Openings are there in Queensland for the Investor?

There are numerous avenues of investment in sheep and cattle stations, farming and dairying on a large scale, city and country properties, mines and timber, in the development of secondary industries, and in the growing of rubber.


For the Man with Small Capital on Government Land?

With £150 to £200 a man can start dairying in a small way, and gradually increase his herd and operations. A good deal, of course, depends on the man.

Suppose he had £250 or £300?

He could make a good start with that.

Suppose he tried Fruit Growing?

With about £100 he could make a start. He could grow vegetables and minor crops until his trees grew old enough to bear, which would be in about three years from planting.

What could a Man do without Capital?

He could work for a station-owner or farmer until he had made enough to pay his deposit on the land he eventually selects.

Experienced Agricultural Labourers.

There is a great demand for this class.

Inexperienced Men.

Inexperienced men should take some employment and learn the methods of work in Queensland before sinking their capital in land or stock.

Domestic Servants.

Domestic servants, especially cooks, are in urgent demand at wages ranging from 10s. to 30s. per week.

Where Can Government Land be Obtained?

There are fifty-eight Land Agents’ Districts in Queensland, in all of which vacant Crown lands are still obtainable.

Agricultural Farms.

Agricultural farms vary from 10s. per acre upwards.


At what Age can a Person Select Land?

Over the age of 16 years.

Can a Man with Little Capital acquire Land?

Yes. If he pays the first deposit, the Crown may defer payment of the next three years’ rent.

When is this Payable?

It is divided over the fifth to the thirteenth year with interest at 4 per cent. per annum.

Can a Single Woman hold Government Land?

Yes; with the exception of a homestead area, if she is over 16 years.

Can She hold a Homestead Area?

Yes; if she is over 21 years.

What Land may Married Women hold from the Crown?

She may hold any selection not subject to personal residence conditions.

What Land a Married Woman cannot select from the Crown.

A married woman is not competent to select an agricultural homestead, a grazing homestead, free homestead, perpetual lease selection, agricultural farm, or prickly-pear selection, subject to the conditions of personal residence, unless she has obtained an order for judicial separation, or an order protecting her separate property.

Married Women’s Property Act.

Under “The Married Women’s Property Act, 1890,” she can hold any land, which she purchases absolutely, as if she were a man.

What are the Modes of Tenure?


Twenty Years’ Purchase without Interest.

Twenty years are allowed in which to pay for an agricultural farm. No interest is charged.

Annual Instalment.

The annual instalment is 6d. in the £1—that is, 2-1/2 per cent., or 3d. per acre on 10s. land; 6d. per acre on £1 land; 1s. per acre on £2 land. The whole of this goes to principal.

Completing the Purchase.

At above rate, in twenty years the farm is half paid for, and during that time the farmer has had the use of the farm for much less than a fair rental. At the end of the twenty-first year, he is expected to pay the remaining half. Taking money as worth 5 per cent., this is equivalent to selling the land at half the proclaimed price.

Deposit Money.

On an agricultural farm, agricultural homestead, perpetual lease selection, grazing selection, and unconditional selection —one year’s rent, and 1/5th of survey fee; on free homestead—fee of £1, and 1/5th of survey fee; on prickly-pear selection—full amount of survey fee.

What is the Deposit on an Agricultural Farm of 160 Acres?

£3 16s., taking the price of the land at 10s. per acre.

When can such a Farm be made Freehold?

In five years.

Freehold Title.

Queensland offers an unencumbered freehold title. The deeds for an agricultural farm may be obtained at any time after five years by paying the outstanding balance.


If such balance is paid off before it is due, a discount of 2-1/2 per cent. per annum is allowed.


Conditions for Agricultural Farms.

Maximum area, 2,560 acres (this, however, is allowed only in remote districts); price, from 10s. per acre upwards. The land must be fenced within five years, or other improvements effected equal in value to the cost of fencing. Five years’ personal residence or occupation as the case may require; thereafter, until made freehold, the condition of occupation must be performed.

Negotiable Leases.

The lease may be obtained as soon as the improvements are completed, and can be mortgaged, or, with the permission of the Minister, the land may be subdivided, transferred, or sublet.


Agricultural homesteads and free homesteads cannot be mortgaged. Agricultural selections and prickly-pear selections obtained under five years’ residence priority cannot be mortgaged during the first five years.

Agricultural Homesteads.

The price for a homestead is 2s. 6d. per acre, the annual rent 3d. per acre, the terms ten years’ personal residence, and the maximum area 320 acres.

Agricultural Homestead Conditions.

Land must be fenced within five years, or improvements made equal to value of such fence. When five years of residence have been performed and improvements effected, the selector may pay up the remaining rent, so as to make his total payments equal to 2s. 6d. per acre, and obtain deed of grant.

Grazing Farms—Area.

The total area held by one person must not exceed 60,000 acres, but when the area exceeds 20,000 acres the annual rental at the notified rental must not exceed £200.


Grazing Farms—Rental, Term, Conditions, &c.

Rental from nil per acre per annum. Term up to twenty-eight years. The holding must be continuously occupied by the selector or manager or agent. Within three years the land must be fenced. In cases where no rental is charged, the land is more or less infested with prickly pear or noxious weeds.

Grazing Farms—Lease.

As soon as the holding is fenced the lease is issued, which may be mortgaged or transferred, as stated in the case of agricultural farms.

Group Residence.

If it is proved to the satisfaction of the Commissioner that two or more selections, each of which is at a distance not exceeding five miles from each of the others, are held by members of one family, bonâ fide in their own separate interests, the Commissioner may issue a special license enabling the conditions of personal residence or the conditions of occupation required to be performed by them in respect of their selections to be performed by their residence on one of the selections which is itself held subject to the conditions of personal residence or conditions of occupation.

Grazing Homesteads—

Similar conditions to grazing farms, except that—


Unconditional Selections—

Up to 1,280 acres may be obtained under this tenure, at from 13s. 4d. per acre, payable in twenty annual instalments without interest. No other conditions.

Purchase of an Unconditional Selection.

A deed of grant may be obtained at any time on payment of the balance of the purchase price. Two and a-half per cent. per annum is allowed if the amount is paid before due.

Prickly Pear Selection.

Maximum area, 2,560 acres. This applies to land infested with prickly-pear. Term, twenty-five years, with a peppercorn rental for the first period, and an annual rent during the second period equal to the amount of the purchasing price divided by the number of years in the second period.


The land must be absolutely cleared of pear during the first period as notified in the notification opening the land for selection, and kept clear during the second period.

Freehold of Prickly Pear Selections.

The freehold may be obtained at any time after the expiration of two years from the beginning of the second period by the payment of the balance of the purchase money, provided he has obtained a certificate from the Commissioner that the conditions have been fulfilled.

Price of Prickly Pear Selections.

The price varies according to the state of infestation from nil upwards, and in some cases where the land is badly infested a bonus is given. The purchasing price or bonus is stated in the opening notification.


Pastoral Holdings.

Pastoral holdings may be obtained on long leases, with practically no restriction as to area. Terms up to thirty years.

Occupation Licenses.

Large areas may be rented from the Government from year to year under an occupation license. No limitation to area.

Group Settlement.

Under special conditions families from the same community are allowed to settle in groups so as to permit of their retaining their social relations.

Size of Groups.

Groups of from six families to as many as seventy families have already been successfully formed.


It is a good plan for friends to club together to pay the expenses of one of their number to go to Queensland to find land for a “group” to accommodate them all.

Miners’ Homestead Leases.

Under the provisions of “The Miners’ Homestead Leases Act of 1913,” homestead leases can be acquired by application, or by tender or public auction by residents of any mining field throughout the State, in areas not exceeding 640 acres. During the first period of thirty years the annual rental on areas up to 40 acres is 1s. per acre, and 6d. for any additional acreage in excess of this area. This rental does not, of course, apply to homesteads acquired by tender or sale. After the expiration of the thirty years’ lease a nominal rental of 1s. only can be demanded. The minimum annual rental for any homestead is 5s.


Can an Alien select Land in Queensland?

Yes, provided he obtains a certificate to the effect that he can read and write words in such language as the Minister for Lands may direct; also provided that he becomes a naturalised British subject within five years of his selecting the land, failing which he will forfeit all his right, title, and interest in the land selected.

What is an Alien?

Any person who is not a British subject. For instance, Americans, Frenchmen, Swedes, Italians, Russians, &c.

When can an Alien become Naturalised?

After he has been at least two years in the Commonwealth of Australia, he may take the oath of allegiance, become a Britisher, and enjoy all the freedom and privileges appertaining thereto.

Where must Applications for Land be Lodged?

At the local Land Office.

How far from the Railway is the Available Land?

Most of the land is not far from existing lines. The policy of the Government, however, is to build light railway lines (as feeders to the main lines) to tap agricultural districts, and to anticipate settlement.

Light Railway Lines Opening Large Areas.

Some of these short lines which it is proposed to build will open up an immense area of good land.

Crown Lands at Auction.

Crown lands may be acquired in fee-simple by auction purchase in limited areas as town and suburban lots.


The minimum purchasing price for land bought at auction is 10s. per acre.


Terms of Purchase. Terms up to ten years may be allowed, with interest at 5 per cent. per annum.

What Assistance does the Government Give the Intending Settler?

The Government issues a railway ticket at half the ordinary fare to the intending settler desirous of inspecting Crown land with a view of selecting an area not exceeding 5,120 acres. If the intending settler subsequently takes up a selection, subject to personal residence conditions, not exceeding 5,120 acres in area, the half-fare paid by him is refunded, and his family, self, ordinary household furniture and effects, agricultural implements, seed, one dray, and one set of harness are carried free to the railway station nearest to his selection.

What Other Assistance?

Special reduced rates are granted for the carriage of building material, fencing wire, and two truckloads of live stock. Wire netting is also supplied on twenty years’ terms at 5 per cent. per annum.

Assistance to Obtain Water.

If desired, the State will also sink wells on waterless country, spreading the cost over the total purchase price of the land over the term of lease.

What is the Agricultural Bank?

A Government Bank institution established, primarily, for the purpose of assisting new settlers and also agriculturists and graziers, to whom it makes advances on the security of freeholds, licenses, and leases from the Crown, for the purpose of making improvements on the land or for paying off liabilities, at 5 per cent. per annum, repayable in twenty-five years or at any time at the option of the borrower.


What Security is Required?

The applicant for an advance must give a first mortgage on his holding. The bank advances 12s. in the £1 on the total value of the land and improvements.

When is it Repayable?

For the first five years only simple interest is charged at 5 per cent. per annum. After five years the borrower must begin to redeem his advance at the rate of £4 0s. 3d. half-yearly for each £100 borrowed, inclusive of interest, until the whole has been paid.

Can the Settler Borrow Money to Buy Stock?

Yes. The Agricultural Bank will advance 12s. in the £1 of the total value of the land and improvements for the purpose of purchasing stock, machinery, or implements the selector desires to purchase, or for relieving the liability on the holding. Advances at the rate of 13s. 4d. in the £1 on the value of the land and improvements thereon up to £200 can also be obtained for unspecified purposes.

Can an Alien Obtain an Advance?

Yes, provided he obtains a certificate to the effect that he can read and write words in such language as the Minister for Lands may direct; also provided he becomes a naturalised British subject within five years of his selecting the land.

Workers’ Dwellings Act.

Under the provisions of this Act the Government make advances, on easy terms of repayment, for the purpose of enabling persons of small incomes to erect dwelling-houses as homes for themselves and their families. The applicant must show that his income does not exceed £200 per annum, and that he is not the owner of a dwelling-house in Queensland or elsewhere.


Freeholds Farm.

Plenty of good freehold farms change hands from time to time in Queensland at from £3 to £20 per acre. Settlers not desirous of taking up Government land can easily be suited privately.

What is the Nature of the Soil?

It varies with the locality. All of the Northern and Eastern scrub lands are intensely fertile with vegetable mould. The Darling Downs contains 4,000,000 acres of magnificent black soil, principally decomposed basalt. The soil in the Maranoa district is lighter and more suited to wheat-growing and vines. These descriptions apply pretty generally to the whole of Queensland, particularly the Central Districts.

Who are the most Successful Farmers?

Those who carry on mixed farming, such as dairying, agriculture, sheep, pig and poultry raising, horticulture and bee-farming, &c.

Do many of the Farmers Keep Sheep?

Yes; many of them now go in for lamb-raising on lucerne. There are also a number of selectors who have sheep on areas of from 640 to 4,000 acres.

Is Dairying Increasing in Queensland?

Yes, every day; and nearly all the dairy farmers are independent men.

How much Milk was Obtained in 1913?

90,545,516 gallons. Quantity utilised for making butter, 73,582,041 gallons; for cheese, 5,268,447 gallons; for condensed milk, 2,131,382 gallons; sold for domestic purposes, 4,178,758 gallons; and 5,384,888 gallons used on farms.

How did these Dairymen Begin?

Most of them began in a very small way, buying a cow now and again as they could afford it.


Were they all Small Farmers?

Yes, for the most part. The larger farmers have also taken up dairying in addition to wheat, maize, barley, lucerne, and oat growing.

What was the Butter Production in Queensland in 1913?

35,199,387 lb., valued at £1,613,305.

Cheese, 1913?

5,395,050 lb., valued at £141,400.

Condensed Milk made in 1913?

8,059,051 lb., valued at £187,536.

What will a Good Average Cow Earn?

From 15s. to 30s. per month.

What is the Price of a Good Cow?

From £5 to £8. Of course some well-bred cows fetch a much higher figure.

What is the Class of Dairy Herd in Queensland?

Dairy stock have been imported to Queensland from the principal herds of the world, and a splendid class of cow is now in use, comprising the following breeds:—Milking Shorthorn, Ayrshire, Holstein, Guernsey, and Jersey.

How many Cows does the Average Farm Carry?

It all depends on the size of the holding. There are many large properties in Queensland milking several hundred cows daily throughout the year. The average herd is about 20, but many farmers milk from 80 to 150 daily.

How many Cows could you Carry on 160 Acres?

With good land, mixed farming, and by growing crops and conserving fodder, you could carry 30 to 40 at a low estimate. Some 160 acres cleared scrub farms carry 70 to 80 cows.


Monthly Cheques.

Suppliers to the factories are paid monthly by cheque, and some draw £100 and over per month for milk and cream.


Pig-raising is now considered to be a part of dairying, and is very profitable. The climate is particularly suited to pigs, and no housing is required.

Pig Farms.

On some holdings large mobs of young pigs are grazed on barley or alfalfa (lucerne), and topped up in batches in large sties.

Market for Pigs.

There is a certain market for pigs in Brisbane, Toowoomba, &c., where there are bacon-curing establishments.


Wheat is sown (late maturing varieties) in March and April, and (quick maturing varieties) in May, June, and July. Harvesting extends from October to early in December.

Where Wheat is Principally Grown.

In Southern Queensland. It can also be grown in the Central-western districts of Queensland.

Wheat Yield.

Crops of 20 to 30 bushels to the acre are commonly reaped in the best wheat-growing districts of Queensland. Forty bushels per acre have often been obtained in individual instances.


Maize is planted in July and August right up to January, and is fit for harvesting in 120 days. It can be grown all over Queensland, where the rainfall is sufficient. Two crops a year are possible in sub-tropical scrub and coastal country.


Maize Yield.

Immense yields of maize, from 40 to 80 bushels per acre, are frequently obtained on the rich scrub lands. Yields of 120 bushels per acre have also been obtained.


Barley does particularly well on the Darling Downs, where the quality of the crop for malting purposes is held by English experts to equal the best Hungarian. Crops of from 30 to 40 bushels are frequent in a good season.


Sugarcane growing is carried on along the coastal area from Brisbane northwards. It is planted from January to June; 2,085,588 tons of sugarcane were produced in 1913.

Price Paid for Cane.

Prices for cane vary according to its sugar-producing properties and the locality in which it is grown. These, however, range from 20s. to 27s. per ton. Crops of from 40 to even 70 tons per acre have been obtained in the North.


Hay averaged about 1-3/4 tons to the acre for the last twenty years. Individual crops yield much heavier results.


Both English and sweet potatoes give heavy yields.

A few of Queensland’s Products for 1913.

Wool (in grease)
Frozen and preserved meats
Meat Extract
Bacon and Hams
Sugar manufactured
English potatoes
Sweet potatoes

Lucerne or Alfalfa.

This is one of the best crops a farmer can grow in Southern Queensland. Once planted, it lasts from seven to ten years.

Lucerne Crops.

The roots of lucerne have been known to penetrate the soil for a depth of 30 ft. In a good year five to six cuttings can be obtained. Ten cuttings per annum are often obtained around Laidley, Southern Queensland.

Can a Man get any Crop with his First Ploughing?

Yes. Wheat or Maize.

What First Crop can be got off Scrub Land?

The method is to fell the scrub, and, after it has dried, put a fire through it. Maize is then put in with a hoe between the stumps. Some crops up to 85 bushels per acre have been garnered in this way.


State Agricultural College.

There is a State Agricultural College at Gatton, South Queensland, where students can undergo a three years’ training at a cost of under £30 per annum.

Are there any other State Experimental Farms?

Yes. At Hermitage, near Warwick; Roma, South-western Queensland; Warren, near Rockhampton; Gindie, near Emerald; Kairi, Atherton district (North Queensland); and at Kamerunga, near Cairns (North Queensland); Sugar Experiment Station and Laboratory, Mackay (North Queensland); and experimental plots in all the principal sugar districts.

House and Buildings.

At first a farmer generally erects a rough, cheap building of materials cut on the place at a cost of a few pounds, and when matters improve puts up a more suitable dwelling.

Where can Building Materials be Obtained?

Iron and wood can be obtained in any part of Queensland. Competition among the timber merchants is so keen that timber can be procured at a small cost. A small comfortable cottage can be built for about £100 upwards.

Do Droughts Often Occur?

The last drought was in 1902, and even then there were parts of Queensland not affected by it. Droughts do not, as a rule, affect the whole country, and with extended railway communication relief country will be available.

Recuperative Power of the Land.

The recuperative power of the land is marvellous. A fortnight after summer rain (following a dry spell) the country is waving with grasses. Owing to the mild climate, the growth is phenomenal.


Local Markets.

Farmers can readily dispose of all they can grow in the local markets, where competition amongst buyers is keen.

Southern Markets.

There is a certain market in the South for all Queensland produce.

Oversea Markets.

A certain market for wool, hides, butter, cheese, frozen meat, and other products exists in Great Britain and Europe. Trade with the United States and Canada is developing. There are splendid openings for trade with Java, China, Japan, and the East generally.

What is the Nature of the Trade with Asia?

Cattle, horses, bones, hoofs, leather, butter, cheese, fodder, fruits, glue pieces and sinews, barley, oats, wheat, bran, pollard, flour, hay, chaff, honey, refined animal fats, manures, bacon and hams, beef, mutton, pork, other meat, milk concentrated and preserved, potatoes, skins and hides, tallow, wool.


There were 707,265 horses in Queensland in 1913. A large remount trade is now done with India, Java, and the East.

What Parts of Queensland are the Best for Cattle?

Cattle do well all over Queensland, and especially on the Eastern coast lands and the North.

What Number of Cattle are there in Queensland?

5,322,033 for 1913.

Where do Sheep Thrive Best?

On the great central plains of Western Queensland, and in the country west of the Dividing Range.


Number of Sheep in Queensland. 21,786,600 for 1913.

Increase of Sheep for Ten Years.


What was the Value of the Wool in 1913?


What was the Value of the Imports and Exports in 1913?

Imports (oversea only), £6,714,942; Exports (oversea only), £12,352,748; total, £19,067,690. The above figures do not, of course, include interstate transactions. It is reasonable to assume that the total value of the imports and exports would be, at least, doubled.

On what Area could a Man Profitably Grow Wool?

On a grazing farm of 20,000 acres, with a capital of £4,000, he could make a net income of £600 to £1,000 a year.

Are there Larger Areas than this?

Some of the stations carry from 100,000 to 200,000 sheep, and are over 1,000 square miles in area. One is 5,000 square miles in area.

Mining Employees.

There are 12,393 men employed in and around mines in Queensland.

What is the Ordinary Rate for Unskilled Labour in Mines?

From 8s. 3d. to 13s. per shift of eight hours.

At what Age should a Miner Come to Queensland?

Between 20 and 40 years.

What could a Practical Miner do in Queensland?

He could get work in a mine or prospect the country in search of minerals.


What is the Aggregate Area of the Mining Fields Proclaimed Open?

78,073 square miles.

What was the Total Output of Gold from Queensland Mines to the end of 1913?

17,973,674 fine oz.

What was the Total Value of this Output?


What was the Total Value of Minerals other than Gold won from Queensland Mines to the end of 1913?

£31,419,755. Grand total, all minerals, £107,767,020.

Miner’s Right.

On payment of 5s. a year any man can obtain a miner’s right authorising him to mine for minerals on any Crown lands.

Rewards for Discovery of New Goldfields.

On certain conditions, rewards, not exceeding £500 in one instance, and not exceeding £1,000 in another, are given by the Government for the discovery of new goldfields.


Prospectors for tin in the North—chiefly about Herberton—do fairly well.


The holder of a miner’s right may by himself or his agent take up and hold any number of claims or shares in such claims, provided that such claims or shares are duly worked and represented by the prescribed number of men.


The spring commences in September, and the summer ends in February. The winter climate is perfect.


Religious Freedom.

There is no State church in Queensland. All religious denominations are on an equality, and complete religious liberty prevails.


Education is free and compulsory.

Expenditure on Education.

£657,613 were spent by the State on education in 1913.

State Schools.

There are 1,338 State Schools in Queensland, with a total enrolment of 119,006 scholars, and 3,269 teachers.

Total Schools, including State Schools, 1913.

1,518 schools, with an average daily attendance of 97,852 scholars.

Country Schools.

There are excellent State schools situated throughout the country districts of Queensland.

Provisional Schools.

Provisional schools are established wherever necessary.

Higher Educational Institutions.

Six High Schools (free), 16 Technical Colleges, 10 Grammar Schools (boys and girls), a School of Mines at Charters Towers (North Queensland), and a University.

Education in Sparsely-populated Districts.

Travelling Government teachers periodically visit the more sparsely settled districts to arrange for the education of the children so circumstanced. Half-time Schools are also established on many sheep and cattle stations.


Adult Vote.

Every man and woman in Queensland over the age of twenty-one years is entitled to a vote.

A Law-abiding Community.

Queensland is one of the most law-abiding countries in the world.

Orderliness of Crowds.

The orderliness of large crowds is a remarkable feature of Australian life, and one which generally causes surprise on the part of the visitor. This orderliness is characteristic of Queenslanders.

A Notable Fact.

The morning after the assemblage of a crowd of nearly 60,000 people on the opening day of the Brisbane Show in 1914 showed a complete absence of wrongdoing on the police charge-sheet.

Election Crowds.

There is no rowdy conduct during elections in Queensland. Women visit the polls and record their votes as easily as attending church.

Queensland Railways.

The Queensland Railways are the property of the State.

How many Miles of State Railway are Open?

4,856 miles to 31st December, 1914.

Railway Receipts and Expenditure, 1913.

Net profit

Private Railways, to 31st December, 1914.

Only 330 miles.


What was the Value of the Gold produced in Queensland for 1913?

£1,128,768 for 265,735 fine oz.

Other Minerals.

Silver, 604,979 oz. (£68,438); copper, 23,655 tons (£1,660,178); tin, 3,197 tons (£343,669); coal, 1,037,944 tons (£403,767); gems and opals, £46,292; other minerals, £206,769.

Total Value of Production of other Minerals, 1913.


Public Revenue, 1913–14.


Public Expenditure, 1913–14.


Government Savings Bank, 1913–14.

176,961 depositors had £9,350,999 to credit in the Government Savings Bank on 30th June, 1914—an average of £52 16s. 10d. per head.


Eleven banks held assets to the amount of £22,845,949 in 1913.


There were in 1913 1,838 factories in Queensland employing 42,363 hands. The value of the plant and machinery was £5,877,387, and the value of the land and premises £3,923,584. Value of output, £23,688,789.


There are eighty-five public hospitals in Queensland, besides numerous private ones.

Shipping of the State, 1913.

2,247,434 tons entered.
2,251,503 tons cleared.


Timber Sawn for 1913.

Softwoods, 98,620,299 superficial feet, valued at the mill, £778,084; cedar, 882,092 superficial feet, valued at the mill, £15,964; hardwoods, 57,131,224 superficial feet, valued at the mill, £510,967; mouldings, &c., £61,872; 1,101,271 sleepers, £92,906. In addition, at least an equal quantity was used for bridges, wharves, fencing, &c. Total value of output of sawmills only, £1,459,793. The 247 sawmills employed 4,621 hands.

The Meat Industry.

In 1913 there were fourteen meatworks (exclusive of seven bacon factories), which employed 4,225 hands during the season. Total value of all meat products (including bacon and hams), £8,576,754.

Steamer Fares to Brisbane

(From America, Canada, South Africa, and India.)

Union Steamship Company of New Zealand, Limited.

From San Francisco to Brisbane (Single):—

First Saloon
Second Saloon
Third Class

From Chicago to Brisbane (Single):—

First Saloon
Second Saloon
Third Class

From New York to Brisbane (Single):—

First Saloon
Second Saloon
Third Class

The above fares are subject to alteration without notice.

Canadian-Australian Royal Mail Line.

From Vancouver to Brisbane (Single):—

First Saloon
Second Saloon
Third Class


From Chicago to Brisbane (Single):—

First Saloon
Second Saloon
Third Class

From New York to Brisbane (Single):—

First Saloon
Second Saloon
Third Class

From St. Louis to Brisbane (Single):—

First Saloon
Second Saloon
Third Class

From Montreal to Brisbane (Single):—

First Saloon
Second Saloon
Third Class

All above rates are subject to alteration without notice.

Children (Canadian steamer).—Under 12 and over 5 years, half rate; under 3 years and over 2 years, quarter rate; one child, 2 years, free; others, quarter rate.

Baggage.—First Class passengers allowed 40 cubic feet, or 350 lb. free each adult; Second Class passengers allowed 20 cubic feet, or 175 lb. free each adult; Third Class passengers allowed 20 cubic feet or 175 lb. free each adult. On coastal steamer (First Class), 40 cubic feet; (steerage), 20 cubic feet. Excess baggage charged at the rate of 2s. 6d. (60 cents) per cubic foot Vancouver to Sydney; and 10s. ($2.40) per ton of 40 cubic feet Sydney to Brisbane.

Oceanic Steamship Company.

From Boston to Brisbane (Single):—

First Saloon
Second Saloon
Third Class


From San Francisco to Brisbane (Single):—

First Saloon
Second Saloon
Third Class

From Chicago to Brisbane (Single):—

First Saloon
Second Saloon
Third Class

From New York to Brisbane (Single):—

First Saloon
Second Saloon
Third Class

From Vancouver to Brisbane (Single):—

First Saloon
Second Saloon
Third Class

From St. Louis to Brisbane (Single):—

First Saloon
Second Saloon
Third Class

From Montreal to Brisbane (Single):—

First Saloon
Second Saloon
Third Class

Family Concessions.—Families consisting of parents and children only (equal to three adult fares), 10 per cent. off single rates; (equal to four adult fares or over), 15 per cent. off single rates; one child, under 2 years of age, free if no separate berth required; children, 2 years and under 6 years of age, quarter fare; children, 6 years and under 12 years of age, half fare.

Men only carried in Third Class from San Francisco to Brisbane.

Passengers can travel by train between Sydney and Brisbane. A reduction of 15s. ($3.60) will be made on the above First Saloon rates for a first-class railway ticket from Sydney to Brisbane.


Luggage Allowance on Oceanic Steamers.—First-class, 350 lb., or 40 cubic feet; second and third classes, 175 lb., or 20 cubic feet. Excess baggage, 1-1/2d. (3 cents) per lb., or 1s. 6d. (36 cents) per cubic foot.

Aberdeen Line

From Capetown to Brisbane:—

Saloon (Single) From £32 upwards
Third Class (Single) From £11 11s.

White Star Line

From Capetown to Brisbane (all one class):— Single fares from £17 15s.

The Blue Funnel Line

From Capetown to Brisbane:—Fares (Single), saloon only, £32.

P. and O. Branch Service

From Capetown to Brisbane:—Fares (Single):— Third Class only, £11 11s.

P. and O. Line

From Bombay and Calcutta to Brisbane (Single):—

First Saloon
(Rupees 627)
Second Saloon
(Rupees 512)

From Colombo to Brisbane (Single):—

First Saloon
(Rupees 578)
Second Saloon
(Rupees 479)

B.I.S.N. Company, Limited

From Calcutta to Brisbane (Single):—

First Class
Rupees 473
Second Class
Rupees 289

(Allow rate of exchange 1s. 4d. for each rupee.)

Passengers maintain themselves awaiting train or steamer at Sydney.

Note.—All the above fares include the cost of travelling from Sydney to Brisbane by one of the Queensland-bound coastal steamers.


Some Successful Queensland Farmers.

During a recent tour through Queensland the Compiler was enabled to obtain the practical experiences of a large number of new and old settlers on the fertile areas in this land of great possibilities and substantial realities. The cases cited here will serve to illustrate what the men on the land in the districts visited are doing to develop the agricultural resources of the country. Despite that the new settlers were faced with many difficulties at the outset, they, by indomitable pluck, determination, and perseverance, succeeded in conquering the dense scrubs and mountain fastnesses, and converting them into wealth-producing agricultural homesteads. Many of these settlers started with only a few pounds in their pocket, but they had what money cannot buy—stout hearts, courage, and energy. To-day quite a number of these have turned the corner of adversity into the highway of success, and are reaping the fruits of their labours.

A Successful Mixed Farmer.

In the Springsure district (Central Queensland) Mr. M. T. Bourke is one of the most successful dairymen and mixed farmers. His dairy herd consists of pure-bred Shorthorns and pedigreed bulls. On an average he milks 88 cows once daily during the year, and these are fed on natural pastures. Last year he obtained 19,094 gallons of milk, and 9,339 lb. of cream produced 2,649 lb. of commercial butter. In April, 1913, 1,039 lb. of cream sent to one of the Rockhampton factories returned over 576 lb. of commercial butter. His year’s transactions in pigs realised £91 12s.; turkeys, £27 3s.; fowls, £2 10s. 8d.; eggs (317 dozen), £16; fat bullocks, 400 at £7 per head; horses (artillery and draught), £626 10s. Several of the horses brought from £26 to £28 per head.

What the Daniels Family are Doing.

The Daniels family, which numbers no less than eight distinct branches, are also very successful mixed farmers in the Gindie district (Central Queensland). Their opera39tions comprise wheat-growing, dairying, sheep-breeding, &c. In 1913 they had about 250 acres under wheat.

Mr. T. C. Daniels gives the following particulars in regard to the cultivation and harvesting of wheat:—“The first ploughing,” he says, “will cost 15s. per acre, but afterwards it will only be 5s. for the same area. Other expenditure includes: Seed wheat, about 8s. per acre; cultivating after first ploughing, 2s. 6d. per acre; harvesting with reaper and binder, 5s. per acre; carting and stooking, 5s. per acre; total expenditure, £1 5s. 6d. per acre. The cost of cutting a ton of chaff is about £1 5s., and bags are 8d. each. His crop averaged 30 cwt. to the acre, and he received £6 10s. per ton for his wheaten chaff on the rails at Gindie Station.”

Started with £100.

In the course of an interview, Mr. J. Edminstone, of Craigend Farm, Belmont Pocket, near Rockhampton (Central Queensland), gave some information which should be invaluable to intending settlers in Queensland. Mr. Edminstone is, at the present time, one of the most prosperous dairymen in the State.

“A labouring man,” Mr. Edminstone said, “could easily earn about £200 a year at farming in Queensland. I have made that myself. I had experience on a farm in the old country, but that is not absolutely necessary.

“I consider farming is the best thing for new settlers to turn their attention to in Queensland.

“I would recommend a man to take up dairy farming. Cows can be bought for about £4 to £7 each. Then you can buy good dairy land for about £1 per acre. You have long terms, about twenty years, to pay for your land, and the payments are not equal to a good rent in the old country. When a man has got his land he can grow plenty of feed for his cattle for the few months of the winter, when they have to be fed on account of the pastures being dry. During the rest of the year his cattle find their food in the natural grasses of his pastures.

“A man could easily make a good start here with about £150. That money would be used for paying the first 40 instalment on his land purchase, buying a few cows, and putting up his house. Of course, a pioneer doesn’t spend much on his house at first, until he has made some money.

“I began with £100 about fifteen years ago. I have paid for my land some time since, and I reckon that at the present time I am worth about £2,000 in land and stock.”

Mr. Edminstone milks, as a rule, 90 cows during the year, and each of these earn, on an average, 20s. per month. The highest return from one cow was 27s. per month. The cows are fed on the natural grasses only. In January last 105 grade Ayrshires, Shorthorns, and Jerseys earned £121; February—115 cows, £111; March—105 cows, £101; April—100 cows, £104; May—90 cows, £66; June—75 cows, £55; July—60 cows, £58. Mr. Edminstone has, according to his books, been receiving similar satisfactory returns from his milking herd for many years past. Pig raising and general farming also claims a great deal of his attention, and the annual returns from these sources are highly satisfactory.

New Settlers’ Experiences.

Mr. C. W. L. Bryde, who has taken up a selection in the parish of Dambulla, near Lake Barrine, Atherton, North Queensland, about two years ago, is satisfied that his new home has been pitched in “the garden of Australia.” He was born in Liverpool, England, and, adopting the sea as a profession, reached the position of chief mate. Several severe trips between Newcastle and Valparaiso with coal for the Chilian Government cooled off his ardour for the sea, and, faced with nervous breakdown, he was attracted to North Queensland. He took up his selection, and threw himself with enthusiasm into his new employment. Mr. Bryde says that the soil is extraordinarily rich, and it is quite clear that the district has a great future. Permanent creeks abound everywhere, and on his holding there are seven streams carrying crystal water. Chokos, pumpkins, and piemelons, the seeds of which were dropped, grew wild, and the scrubs contain scores of passion-fruit vines. At present the timber does not pay to market, though it is only eight miles from Kulara, on the Tolga-Johnstone line; but if the railway from this point to Mobo, via Lake Barrine, 41 were constructed, cedar patches and other timbers, such as red and white beech, kauri, and silky oak, would be made available. Mr. Bryde has seen the Richmond River, and he considers that the land in his neighbourhood is superior. But he states that it is of no use for any one to go in for land there unless he is willing to rough it.

A Victorian (Mr. Herbert C. West), who settled at Eurobin Park, Jandowae, in the Dalby district (Southern Queensland), about two years ago, is also satisfied with his experiences in Queensland. Writing to the Department of Lands, he said:—“We have just had a delightful rainfall, and my lucerne, maize, and other green crops are looking well. This is a splendid district, and I am more than satisfied with my adopted country.”

Had a Stout Heart, Strong Pair of Hands, and Plenty of Pluck and Determination.

Mr. J. McLellan, of Miriam Vale, in the Gladstone district (Central Queensland), stated that he started as an agriculturist sixteen years ago with a stout heart, a strong pair of hands, plenty of pluck and determination, and 6s. per day while he was working on the railway line. His frugality enabled him to save money out of his wages to buy a couple of head of cattle at a time. In his spare moments he cleared his land, and got it ready for its first crop. After a little time he devoted the whole of his exertions to his farm, with the result that he soon became independent of outside employment. That he has become a successful man is abundantly proved by the fact that he is now enjoying a trip to Scotland. As a dairyman and general farmer, Mr. McLellan can hold his own with any one in the State.

Successful Efforts from Small Beginnings.

In the Barmoya Scrub, Rockhampton district (Central Queensland), a good percentage of the recent settlers had very small beginnings, but now they are fairly well off. Mr. J. Kersey (a carpenter) had a horse and cart and £7; Mr. A. T. Vaisey (formerly an employee in a New 42 Zealand flax mill) had £75; Mr. F. W. A. Broszat (a bricklayer), £250; Mr. Reuben Johnson (a shift boss on Mount Morgan Mine), £100. All are well satisfied with their lot. The German settlers, of whom there are a large number, frankly admit that they are contented, and say that one and all have splendid opportunities to become prosperous, but they must be prepared to work hard to attain this object.

Mr. R. Johnson is one of the most prosperous settlers in this district. He was one of the first to settle in the district about ten years ago, and he has had no reason to regret it. He milks on an average 42 cows of the grade Jersey strain daily, and each beast returns him about 15s. per month regularly. The herd includes a pure-bred Jersey bull and cow. There are 130 acres under Rhodes grass and 7 acres under maize and pumpkins. Mr. Johnson has done wonders in the short time that he has been in the district, and his efforts should prove a strong incentive to others to do likewise.

Started as a Farm Labourer.

In the Bushley district, near Rockhampton (Central Queensland), Mr. E. Holland has a splendid farm of about 3,000 acres on Sandy Creek. He states that he started farming with little or no money. Soon after his arrival from England he found employment as a farm labourer, and accepted cattle as payment for his work. A year or so later he took up a 160-acre block at a rental of 2s. 6d. per acre, and then started dairying. As years went by he acquired further areas, and increased his operations to such an extent that he is now one of the most successful settlers in Central Queensland. His dairy herd is made up of grade Shorthorns and a pedigreed Shorthorn bull, and totals 500. On an average 80 cows are milked once a day during the year. The young steers are fattened up and sold to the butchers when about twelve months old. Last year (1913) he sold thirty-six of these at £3 10s. per head. Horses (light draughts and saddle) are also bred. He also finds time for raising Berkshire and Yorkshire pigs. There are 35 acres under cultivation—4 acres lucerne and43 31 acres rotation crops—wheat, oats, rye, panicum, &c. Mr. Holland is also a maker of Cheshire cheese of splendid flavour, but his operations in this respect are only on a small scale.

Had a Horse and Saddle and 3s. 6d.

Mr. J. T. Alexander, of Glenlyon Farm, Dalma, near Rockhampton (Central Queensland), arrived in Queensland from New South Wales in 1887, with a horse and saddle and 3s. 6d. in his pocket. At first he engaged in droving, then was a stockman on a station, and later manager of several cattle runs. Seven years ago he purchased 3,000 acres of the Glenlyon Estate, which consisted of open forest country. Then he turned his attention to the breeding of dairy and beef cattle and Border-Leicester sheep. He is getting £5 per head for 2-year-old steers, £3 for 12-month-old steers, and £4 15s. for 3-year-old heifers. The area under cultivation totals 14 acres—barley 4 acres, lucerne 2 acres, maize 2 acres, panicum 4 acres, sweet potatoes 2 acres. He has 150 head of beef cattle, and a small dairy herd of grade Jerseys.

Fruit-grower Starts with £5.

After paying for his freehold of 21 acres, Mr. A. Neale, of Parkhurst, North Rockhampton (Central Queensland), had only about £5 in cash, three horses, and a few agricultural implements. By dint of hard work he cleared his land of the forest, planted it with fruit trees, and in a couple of years he gathered his first crops. Later he erected his present home. To-day he is in a comfortable position, due entirely to fruit-growing. In all 5 acres are under fruits of different kinds. Citrus fruits, which number 300 trees, are most generally grown. Grapes, peaches, papaws, loquats, plums, and mangoes are also cultivated. In 1913 citrus fruits returned £250, grapes £130, and other crops, £30. He milks a few cows of the Shorthorn-Hereford cross for his own wants, and pigs are bred for a like purpose. Poultry and vegetables are annually raised for market. Mr. Neale is a strong advocate of dry farming.


Had only a Few Shillings left after Paying the First Year’s Rent.

Quite a number of the new settlers in the Woodend and Bushley Scrubs, in the Rockhampton district (Central Queensland), started in a small way, and are now in very comfortable circumstances. The Lehfeldt Brothers were formerly employed as labourers at the Mount Morgan Mine. In 1895 they selected 160 acres, and after paying the first year’s rent (£5 15s.) had only a few shillings left. When they had finished fencing the land and clearing portion of it, they arranged to supply the Mount Morgan Mine with firewood. By this means they made sufficient money to acquire a further 160 acres for £100 cash, and effect more substantial improvements on their holdings. Farming was begun in real earnest in 1906, and since then success has attended their efforts. Last year the Messrs. Lehfeldt took up another block of 160 acres at a rental of 20s. per acre. They have 328 acres under cultivation—20 acres lucerne, 90 acres maize, 170 acres Rhodes grass, 40 acres paspalum, 5 acres panicum, 3 acres English potatoes. Last year (1913) they averaged 110 bushels of maize to the acre from a 10-acre plot, and annexed the championship for Central Queensland. Patches of sugarcane and cotton are also grown. The dairy herd comprises 20 grade Ayrshires and a pure-bred Ayrshire bull. It is their intention to increase their operations in dairying at an early date. Pigs are being profitably raised, likewise light draught and saddle horses. The Messrs. Lehfeldt have one of the best conducted farms in the State.

Mining Engineer—Now a Successful Fruit-grower, &c.

Mr. J. T. Coates, of Harveston, Rockhampton (Central Queensland), was formerly a mining engineer before he took up 327 acres on the bank of the Fitzroy River. He has 10 acres under fruits—1,100 papaws, 150 citrus (including oranges, limes, lemons, cumquots), 500 grape vines, 50 custard apples, 20 mangoes, also figs, bananas, apples, pears, peaches, quinces, persimmons, pineapples, granadillas, &c. There are also 30 acres under lucerne, 11 acres of Japanese millet, and 5 acres of sweet potatoes. White Leghorns and Black Orpingtons of pure strains are45 largely raised, the former by the thousands. Mr. Coates also pays much attention to dairying, and his herd of grade Shorthorns give good returns monthly. Although his fruit trees only started to bear last year his returns in this direction amounted to £150. From poultry and eggs he received £150, dairying £101, chaff £180, and miscellaneous £35. The total receipts from all sources were £616. Last year Mr. Coates paid away over £400 in wages.

Inexperience no Obstacle to Success.

Among the new settlers in the Stanwell district (Central Queensland) are quite a number who started with limited capital, and no previous experience in farming. Mr. T. P. Connor was a miner, and had £500. Not only is he dairying, growing crops, and raising pigs, but he is also breeding beef cattle and horses with much success. Messrs. J. Thomas (stockman) and J. Todman (miner) started with £250, and are now doing well out of general farming, dairying, pig-raising, &c. Portion of the farm is irrigated, the water being lifted by a pump from Neerkol Creek, and conveyed in galvanised iron piping to the cultivation areas. They estimate the cost to irrigate an acre at 8s., exclusive of their own labour. Mr. W. H. Teakel (a Victorian farmer) started with £400, and says that he is doing better than he did in Victoria. Every year he is getting good crops of maize, lucerne, wheat, pumpkins, potatoes, &c. He has a small herd of grade Ayrshires, and a few pigs.

The Plunkett family have been farming for three years, and are getting splendid returns from their farming operations. They have a fairly large area under maize, lucerne, potatoes, &c., milk 15 grade Ayrshires daily, and breed horses and pigs for market. Mr. Plunkett paid £1,400 for the farm of 411 acres as a going concern for his sons.

Had no Previous Agricultural Experience.

Mr. W. J. Barber selected 640 acres of dense vine scrub and brigalow country a few miles from Banana (Central Queensland) in 1913 at 10s. per acre. He came from Young (New South Wales), with £190, and had no previous experience of agricultural life. About 46 acres46 of the scrub have been cleared and planted with Rhodes grass and maize, the latter being sown with the aid of a hand planter. From 30 to 40 acres more scrub are being cleared, and will be put under cultivation when it is ready. The first year’s outlay on the farm amounted to about £190.

Made a Start with £150.

Mr. Peter Jensen started in the Banana district (Central Queensland) with £150 by taking up 880 acres, a little over a year ago, at 10s. per acre. The country comprises brigalow scrub and open downs. He has cleared 50 acres, and put in Rhodes grass and maize. A further 50 acres is to be cleared, and planted with Rhodes grass and maize. Mr. Jensen’s first crop of maize of 34 acres yielded 900 bushels.

On the High Road to Success.

Mr. Charles Roderick is one of the pioneers of the agricultural industry in the Banana district, Central Queensland. He has 1,280 acres of land, for which he paid 10s. per acre. In addition to raising crops, Mr. Roderick is engaging in dairying and pig raising. Last year he obtained 840 bushels of maize from 33 acres. This year he has 27 acres under maize, and 33 acres of Rhodes grass. Mr. Roderick was previously a publican.

Landed in the District with £200.

Mr. C. G. Young selected 136 acres at Deeford, in the Dawson Valley country, Central Queensland, in 1912. Previously he was a commercial traveller in Sydney. When he landed in the district he had £200. After clearing the dense vine scrub from his farm, he planted 24 acres with maize, Rhodes grass, and pumpkins. The price paid for the Crown land was 50s. per acre. Mr. Young estimates his first year’s expenditure at slightly over £100. Dairying and pig-raising on a small scale is carried on. This young farmer stated he was well satisfied with his prospects.


Tasmanian takes up a Farm with £600.

Mr. E. Stevens, of Deeford, in the Dawson Valley (Central Queensland), came from Tasmania nearly two years ago, with £600. His farm consists of 174 acres, of which 65 acres have been cleared of the dense scrub, and planted with maize and Rhodes grass. He intends to give dairying some of his attention at an early date. The first year’s operations involved an expenditure of about £185.

Miner Starts Farming with £50.

Mr. C. F. Holton, who was a miner by occupation, took up 160 acres at Grantleigh, in the Gogango district (Central Queensland), seven years ago. At the time he had only £50 in his pocket. For a couple of years he undertook to cut timber for the Mount Morgan Mine, and also worked on the selections of several of his neighbours. By this means he made sufficient money to enable him to start farming on his own account. To-day he is making a profit of over £100 annually by growing lucerne, maize, potatoes, &c. Last year he obtained from 65 to 70 bushels to the acre from his crop of maize, and his lucerne yields from five to six cuttings annually. Berkshire and Yorkshire pigs are bred on a small scale. Among other crops grown are Rhodes grass, millets, barley, cowpea, pumpkins, and grapes. In partnership with Mr. H. Gates, he has acquired a prickly-pear selection of 640 acres on the opposite side of the line. The pear, which is very thick, is being eradicated by burning. It takes two men a day to clear two acres. About 150 acres of this property is to be planted with wheat, oats, English potatoes, and fruits of various kinds.

Queensland—The Finest Agricultural Country in Australia.

Mr. Robert Laver, a Victorian farmer, together with his nine sons, took up 13,000 acres under the group system in the Gogango Scrub (Central Queensland) five years ago. They have now 3,000 acres cleared, and 500 acres under cultivation, 400 acres being under Rhodes grass. The other crops are:—Maize, 30 acres; lucerne, 50 acres; cowpea, 5 acres; pumpkins (planted in the same area with the maize), 30 acres. Citrus fruits and grapes are also48 grown on a small scale. Last year 10 acres of oats and 9 acres of wheat averaged 2 tons of hay to the acre. Herefords, crossed by a Devon-Shorthorn strain of bull, are bred for the butcher every year. The dairy herd is composed of grade Shorthorns and Ayrshires, crossed by an Illawarra bull. The return from 20 to 40 cows for the year was 5,649 lb. of commercial butter. The 60 cows milked daily earn about 15s. per head per month. All the milking is done by machine. Last year 100 tons of oaten, wheaten, and lucerne chaff were sold at £4 10s. per ton. The Laver family also devote much attention to pig raising. A few years ago they bred pure-bred Lincolns, and in 1912 fattened 27 merinos on an acre of rape. The land is of a rich chocolate nature, and is watered by Gogango Creek, several lagoons, and the Fitzroy River. Steps are to be taken at an early date to irrigate the farms by lifting the water from the river by means of a pump, and then adopting natural gravitation. The Laver family, who started with plenty of money, are in a position to carry on their operations on a large scale. They estimate the cost of clearing their scrub land at £3 per acre. They state that Queensland, particularly the Gogango Scrub portion of it, is the finest agricultural country in the Commonwealth. The climate, too, cannot be equalled.

A Well-known Grazier’s Opinion.

The testimony of Mr. John Moffat, of Camoola Park, a well-known grazier in the Longreach district (Central Queensland), is of more than ordinary interest. Mr. Moffat says:—

“There were never better opportunities than the present in Queensland for young men and women who have energy and ambition, and are not frightened of honest work. I came from Scotland when a baby with my parents (emigrants) during the fifties to Adelaide, South Australia. My father worked as a blacksmith, and afterwards as a carrier taking goods to the Victorian goldfields, and subsequently began farming in New South Wales. I had seven brothers and three sisters.

“I left home without a shilling, and took to shearing during the season, and did contract work at other times49 until I had enough money to select a half section (320 acres) in New South Wales. There I married, and in time increased my area sufficiently to carry on sheep-grazing and wheat-growing. In time I sold out to good advantage, and came to Queensland, where I am now a grazier. My brothers are all employers of labour. I have reared and educated three sons and two daughters. If I were a young man now with my usual health, I would not be afraid to start life again under similar circumstances and present conditions. I attribute my success to perseverance and ambition, and using the proceeds judiciously. Australia is a good field for any industrious man or woman who sets his or her mind to honest work and tries to give satisfaction, as there are employments to suit nearly all classes of labour, as also for a man of moderate means, to take up a small farm in a suitable locality, especially after getting some experience in one of the State Agricultural Colleges. I have been in the State now nearly twenty years, and consider it a very good field for emigrants.”

Started Cane-growing with £147.

Mr. Robert P. Sneesby started sugar-growing on the Maroochy River, North Coast Line (South Queensland), with only £147. Four years ago he arrived from the Clarence River (N.S.W.), where he was a dairyman and maize-grower. He took up 80 acres on the Maroochy River, for which he paid £8 per acre. This he cleared and cropped, and then sold for £1,800. Then he purchased his present holding of 153 acres of dense scrub, the price paid therefor being £4 5s. per acre. Other expenditure—House, 18 ft. x 24 ft., £30; plough, £4 10s.; harrows, £4 10s.; scuffler, £2 12s.; hoes, mattocks, spades, &c., £1 10s.; 2 horses, £50; harness, £8; slide for cane haulage, £1; total, £102 2s.

Estimate per acre for getting land ready for first crop—Brushing, felling, burning, and clearing scrub, £4; holeing with mattock, £1 17s. 6d.; plants, £1; planting, &c., £1; chipping (3), £3 15s.; total, £11 12s. 6d.

In 1912 he cut 215 tons of cane, and his crop of maize yielded 450 bushels. From 12 acres of cane last season (1913) he harvested 370 tons. The contract for cutting cane and haulage by punt across the river entailed an50 expenditure of 6s. 9d. per ton. Mr. Sneesby has also a dairy herd of twelve, consisting of grade Ayrshires and Shorthorns. Regularly every week he sends 13 gallons of cream to the Caboolture Butter Factory. A dairy and separator is also established on the farm. About 6 acres have been planted with bananas, 2 acres with pineapples, and 1 acre with citrons.

Another Successful Sugar-cane Grower.

One of the most successful growers in the Johnstone River district (North Queensland), is Mr. David Hunter, of Goondi. Prior to starting cane-growing eight years ago, he was overseer of labour for the Colonial Sugar Refining Company at Goondi. He started with very little capital, but the terms on which the Colonial Sugar Refining Company sold him land were so reasonable that he had no difficulty in not only meeting his engagements, but also making a profit out of his labours. Good cultivation and manuring with mill refuse were the reasons for his success. His first season’s crop in 1906 yielded 1,820 tons, the net profit therefrom, after paying all liabilities, being 3s. 4d. per ton. In 1907 he cut 1,910 tons, and realised a net profit of 8s. per ton; in 1908, 1,861 tons, net profit, 10s. 11d. per ton; in 1909, 2,134 tons, net profit 11s. 6d. per ton; in 1910, 92 acres yielded 2,832 tons, net profit 12s. 5d. per ton. His average yield per acre for six years was 28 tons. In addition to mill refuse, he used green and dry manures to fertilise his land. He paid his permanent field workers 30s. per week and found. Yields for 1911–12:—1911: 90 acres, 2,423 tons; 1912: 64 acres, 1,365 tons. The best yields per acre were 43 tons in 1910 and 40 tons in 1911.

Arrived with an Empty Pocket.

Mr. H. Denning, in responding to the toast of “The Pioneers,” at a banquet at Mount Tarampa, in the Lowood district (South Queensland) in 1913, said:—“It was now 35 years since he became a resident of the district. He arrived with an empty pocket, and on arrival found he was compelled to cut a road 1-1/2 miles through scrub to get to the boundary of his selection. He cleared 2 acres, and after six months harvested his first crop of maize and sweet potatoes. He hired a wagon, and took a load into a firm51 in Ipswich. For the maize he received 9d. per bushel, and the sweet potatoes realised sufficient to pay the hire for the wagon, leaving him nothing for his labour.” He added: “He had seen selectors compelled to walk 4 or 5 miles for water, and carry it to their holdings in kerosene tins. Numerous times he had seen children waiting for their father’s return with water so that they could quench their thirst. Those were the days,” concluded Mr. Denning, “when the settlers required ‘grit,’ and he could truthfully say that they had abundance of it.”

Arrived in Queensland with Sixpence—Now a Well-to-do Farmer.

One of the best known identities in the Clifton district (Darling Downs, South Queensland) is Mr. Maas H. Hinz, J.P., typical pioneer, and one whose industry and perseverance have done so much to push on that busy farming place, Clifton. Mr. M. H. Hinz was born in Holstein, Germany, in January, 1841. After leaving school he worked as a farm labourer. Left the Fatherland for Queensland on 28th May, 1864, by the ship “La Rochelle,” and landed in Brisbane on 6th September, the same year. On landing all he

Possessed was a Solitary Sixpence!

After residing two days in the depôt he secured a job with a farmer named Mr. R. Wilson, of Biley Creek, at 10s. a week. Subsequent to six months with Mr. Wilson, Mr. Hinz got another job on the construction work of the Ipswich-Toowoomba Railway line, and later on worked as a navvy on the Dalby and Warwick lines. In 1867, when wages were very low, he went across to the Burnett district, and took on shepherding on Coringa Station. He remained in that district until 1870, and then returned to the Toowoomba district, where he took up fencing and other contract work until 1872. The discovery of tin at Stanthorpe about this time attracted his attention, and he went there to try his fortune in the tin rush. On 30th December, the same year, he took up 760 acres on Back Plains, about 10 miles from Clifton. Three or four months after selecting he started working his land. For twelve months his life was a lonely one. In December, 1873, he52 married, and, to use his own words, “the taking up of a farm and the securing of a good wife I can safely say were the two best things I ever did in my life.” In 1875 he selected another 320 acres. When he secured the last block there were no less than thirty-two applicants. His luck was right in on that occasion. In 1877 he bought from a neighbour 160 acres; and in 1893, when the Clifton Estate was sold, he purchased 960 acres adjoining his own property. In 1900 he bought 160 acres from a man leaving the district, and shortly afterwards purchased another 760 acres of grazing land. It will thus be noticed that while working his farm land,

By Hard Work and Indomitable Perseverance,

he gradually increased his holdings. During the whole of the time he carried on mixed farming—dairying, maize and wheat growing, and sheep and horse breeding. Mr. Hinz is a magistrate of many years’ standing, and was a member of the divisional board for twelve years, once occupying the position of chairman. He was also chairman of the local cheese factory, school committee, School of Arts, and several other bodies.

Enjoying the Fruits of his Arduous Labours.

His life has been an active as well as useful one, and it is his privilege now to enjoy the fruits of his arduous labours and early settlement. Mr. Hinz toured the continent of Europe in 1900, and visited the Paris Exhibition, as also the earlier scenes of his youth. He has reared a family of eight children, five girls, and three boys. On January, 1911, on attaining the age of 70, he gave over the farm lands to his three sons, who are now working the property on the same lines as himself, while he and his wife and two daughters are living privately at Clifton. He and his good wife have worthily earned a rest, after putting in such good work in developing the district of Clifton.

Happy and Contented Russian Settlers.

Mr. A. Mendrin, of Wycarbah, Central Queensland, under date 27th July, 1914, writes as follows:—“In 1912 I visited a large number of districts, as I intended taking up some land for agricultural purposes. I finally decided on53 a place near Rockhampton known as Wycarbah Scrub, close to the Wycarbah Station, on the Queensland Central Railway. I decided to start a mixed farm; the climatic and other conditions being extremely favourable for the growing and cultivating of maize, cotton, potatoes, and various sorts of citrus fruits. At the present time I must say that I am highly satisfied with my land, so also with the terms and conditions offered me by the Government, and subject to which I received my land. As soon as I had settled down at Wycarbah, and had started felling and clearing my land, I received numerous inquiries from a number of my countrymen, who, knowing that I have a thorough theoretical and practical knowledge of agriculture in all its branches, requested me to assist them in choosing land for agricultural and pastoral purposes. To the majority of them I recommended the district where I had chosen my own farm. The others whom I had not time to conduct and go round with personally, I gave introductions to Mr. Harvey, of the Rockhampton Lands Office, where they were given every attention and courtesy, so that they did not feel in the least handicapped because of not knowing the language. I now bring some of the cases of these men before you.

Started with only 100 Roubles (£10.)

“Mr. Jacob Sank, in September, 1913, took over 160 acres of land at 22s. 6d. per acre, with 20 years in which to effect payment, in the district of Wycarbah, his whole capital at the time being some £10 = Rs. 100. At the present time he has about 15 acres cleared and mostly under crop, has built a house, possesses a horse, and intends buying a cow shortly; he has also various agricultural implements. All this is very much to Mr. Sank’s credit, as, having no money on hand, he frequently had to go outside to find work while his various crops were coming up in order to make a living. Mr. Sank also intends having a mixed agricultural farm.

Russian Naval Gunner’s Success as a Farmer.

“Mr. P. Hebenko, ex-torpedo-man on a battle cruiser, native of the Black Sea district of Russia, arrived in Australia towards the end of July, 1913. He took up 160 acres54 of land near my farm in September, 1913; it is good chocolate soil, and is under brigalow and light scrub. Shortly after having taken over his land, Mr. Hebenko got his wife and three children from Russia, and they arrived here in November, 1913; whereupon Mr. Hebenko promptly left for his farm. I last visited his farm in April, 1914. He had by that time cut down, cleared, and under crop 8 acres, 6 acres being under maize. He had also built a house, and possessed a horse and various agricultural implements. Having expended all his ready money, he then set off in search of work, which he obtained 9 miles from his home at 9s. per day, leaving his family on the farm well provided for by the various vegetables and fruits which were growing in the orchard. All his children visit an English school at Wycarbah Station, about 1-1/2 miles from his farm.

“Both the settlers referred to above have expressed themselves highly satisfied with everything, and especially with the fate that directed them to Australia.

“In addition to those mentioned above, the following also took land in the vicinity of Wycarbah:—Messrs. Bikovsky, Pagin, and Krasnih.

We Do Not Repent having Left our Native Land.

“In order to clearly show what a Russian’s opinion of Queensland is, I will now give a few extracts from a letter written by a Mr. Godalov, of Canungra, South Coast line, dated 24th February, 1911, and published in certain Russian newspapers:—’... and so I am to be congratulated; 160 acres of superb land, with a healthy beautiful climate, within 30 miles of the sea, at an elevation of 3,000 feet, and this for 32s. an acre and 20 years to pay it in. I consider it my duty to assure you that

We do not Repent ever having left our Native Land,

notwithstanding that my present social position is different to the one I occupied in Russia, and also notwithstanding the fact that the life here, too, is quite different to life in Russia; nevertheless, I have never yet thought that I came out here on a wild-goose chase (to say nothing of the children, who cry when we, jokingly, talk of returning to Russia), in spite of the fact that my actual income—at55 present—is smaller than it was in Russia, life here is in no case worse. The explanation makes this assertion obvious. I do not have to pay mad sums of money for the rent of my house, its heating, the educating and upbringing of my children, expensive warm clothing is unnecessary, there is no need for you to worry about to-morrow, and at last, but by no means leastly, for your own freedom and absolute liberty. All this gives a deep reason why Russians should emigrate to Australia....’

“As previously stated, the above are extracts from Mr. Godalov’s open letter, he is well-known by the farmers of his district. Other characteristic cases are those of Messrs. Danilchenko and Ilyin, in North Queensland.

“I satisfy myself with mentioning just these few cases, but, of course, there are a good many other similar cases amongst the Russian colony in Queensland. I have taken the above cases at random, and think that they clearly illustrate that a good, honest, and energetic Russian agriculturist cannot find a country with more favourable conditions than those offered him by Queensland for applying his knowledge and labour to.

“In view of my having received a large number of inquiries as to the shortest space of time in which profit can be obtained from land still to be cleared, I, in the interests of intending emigrants, would like to give the following facts, which are based on my own experiences:—

Mr. A. Mendrin’s Experiences.

“We will say, then, that you have gone through the formalities of obtaining your land (in Queensland they are not complicated). From the first day of your arrival on your farm you will start cutting down your trees (these are mostly soft), a normally healthy agricultural peasant should fell from 2 to 2-1/2 acres of brigalow scrub in a week. In this way in a month’s time you should have about ten acres of trees felled, provided you started this during the summer months. You will want, say 2-1/2 months, for the fallen timber to dry before you burn it. Having burnt it, you promptly start sowing maize between the stumps, and while this is taking root you continue felling or putting up56 your fence, as the case may be. It will take about 105 days for your maize to grow. You then pull the cobs, and prepare them for drying and threshing, which should take about two weeks, at the end of which time you will be in a position to realise your first crop. Virgin soil in the district I am speaking of (Wycarbah) will yield about 60 bushels of maize to the acre; that is, from 10 acres you will get 600 bushels; the average price is 3s. per bushel, or £90 for the 10 acres you have cleared. In this way seven months have gone by since the day on which you started work, and you have £90 in your pocket, less from £10 to £12 for various expenses, such as packing, delivery, &c. I would like to make it quite clear that I have taken only the average price of maize above. Lately this article has been quoted at Rockhampton at from 4s. to 4s. 3d. per bushel.

“Knowing how popular pig and poultry breeding and farming is amongst Russian peasantry, I can say, with conviction, that these two yield a very good source of income, as do all other branches of pastoral and agricultural enterprise, all of which I cannot give details of here in view of the space such information would take up.

“Finally, I consider it my bounden duty to assert that my two years of careful study of agricultural and other conditions of life in Queensland give me good foundation on which to consider this country as the

Most Convenient, Favourable, and Attractive Country

for the average Russian agricultural or other peasant to emigrate to.

“I have to express my thanks to the Lands Department for the kindness and attention shown by them in all cases when Russian subjects have approached them requesting advice and assistance.”

For fuller information in regard to the resources, modes of land selection, and general description of Queensland, see the booklet, entitled “Pocket Queensland.”

Compiled 31st December, 1914.

By Authority: Anthony J. Cumming, Government Printer, Brisbane.

Queensland Statistics, 1913.
Area of Queensland
429,120,000 acres
Imports (oversea only)
Exports (oversea only)
Number of Cattle
Number of Sheep
Miles of Railways opened
(Govt. and Private),
31st December, 1914
Miles of Lines under
Miles of Lines approved
Death Rate per 1,000
Healthy Climate.
Magnificent Scenery.
Liberal Land Laws.

Transcriber’s Notes:

Front and back covers of the brochure contain text and images, so have been transcribed.

Page 3: livihood changed to livelihood.

Page 9: rhubard changed to rhubarb.

Page 45: Plunket changed to Plunkett.